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Sample records for calorimeter trigger initial

  1. CMS Calorimeter Trigger Phase I upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klabbers, P.; Gorski, T.; Bachtis, M.; Compton, K.; Dasu, S.; Farmahini-Farahani, A.; Fobes, R.; Gregerson, A.; Grothe, M.; Ross, I.; Seemuth, D.; Schulte, M.; Smith, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for the Phase-1 upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) calorimeter trigger system composed of FPGAs and Multi-GBit/sec links that adhere to the μTCA crate Telecom standard. The upgrade calorimeter trigger will implement algorithms that create collections of isolated and non-isolated electromagnetic objects, isolated and non-isolated tau objects and jet objects. The algorithms are organized in several steps with progressive data reduction. These include a particle cluster finder that reconstructs overlapping clusters of 2x2 calorimeter towers and applies electron identification, a cluster overlap filter, particle isolation determination, jet reconstruction, particle separation and sorting.

  2. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  3. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  4. The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter high level triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchetti, F.; Blanco, F.; Figueredo, M.; Knospe, A. G.; Xaplanteris, L.

    2012-12-01

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector yields a huge sample of data from different sub-detectors. On-line data processing is applied to select and reduce the volume of the stored data. ALICE applies a multi-level hardware trigger scheme where fast detectors are used to feed a three-level (L0, L1, and L2) deep chain. The High-Level Trigger (HLT) is a fourth filtering stage sitting logically between the L2 trigger and the data acquisition event building. The EMCal detector comprises a large area electromagnetic calorimeter that extends the momentum measurement of photons and neutral mesons up to pT = 250 GeV/c, which improves the ALICE capability to perform jet reconstruction with measurement of the neutral energy component of jets. An online reconstruction and trigger chain has been developed within the HLT framework to sharpen the EMCal hardware triggers, by combining the central barrel tracking information with the shower reconstruction (clusters) in the calorimeter. In the present report the status and the functionality of the software components developed for the EMCal HLT online reconstruction and trigger chain will be discussed, as well as preliminary results from their commissioning performed during the 2011 LHC running period.

  5. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system.

  6. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, N.; Baird, S. A.; Biddulph, P.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Charlton, D.; Coughlan, J.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N.; Fensome, I. F.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Garvey, J.; Grayer, G.; Gregory, J.; Halsall, R.; Jimack, M. P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I. R.; Landon, M.; Oliver, J.; Robinson, D.; Shah, T. P.; Stephens, R.; Sumorok, K.

    1990-07-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-levl trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no dead time. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic shower, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecess or, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider.

  7. The upgrade of the ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shimpei

    2016-07-01

    The first-level calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) had operated successfully through the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Towards forthcoming LHC runs, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the beam energy and the luminosity. This paper reviews the ATLAS L1Calo trigger upgrade project that introduces new architectures for the liquid-argon calorimeter trigger readout and the L1Calo trigger processing system.

  8. The CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinthuprasith, Tutanon

    2017-01-01

    The phase-1 upgrades of the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger have been completed. The Level-1 trigger has been fully commissioned and it will be used by CMS to collect data starting from the 2016 data run. The new trigger has been designed to improve the performance at high luminosity and large number of simultaneous inelastic collisions per crossing (pile-up). For this purpose it uses a novel design, the Time Multiplexed Design, which enables the data from an event to be processed by a single trigger processor at full granularity over several bunch crossings. The TMT design is a modular design based on the uTCA standard. The architecture is flexible and the number of trigger processors can be expanded according to the physics needs of CMS. Intelligent, more complex, and innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of CMS: the upgraded trigger system implements pattern recognition and MVA (Boosted Decision Tree) regression techniques in the trigger processors for pT assignment, pile up subtraction, and isolation requirements for electrons, and taus. The performance of the TMT design and the latency measurements and the algorithm performance which has been measured using data is also presented here.

  9. First level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.W.; Talaga, R.L.; Burr, G.W.; Laird, R.J. ); Smith, W.; Lackey, J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of the first level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter. This processor accepts data from the 13,000 photomultipliers of the calorimeter which is topologically divided into 16 regions, and after regional preprocessing, performs logical and numerical operations which cross regional boundaries. Because the crossing period at the HERA collider is 96 ns, it is necessary that first-level trigger decisions be made in pipelined hardware. One microsecond is allowed for the processor to perform the required logical and numerical operations, during which time the data from ten crossings would be resident in the processor while being clocked through the pipelined hardware. The circuitry is implemented in 100K ECL, Advanced CMOS discrete devices, and programmable gate arrays, and operates in a VME environment. All tables and registers are written/read from VME, and all diagnostic codes are executed from VME. Preprocessed data flows into the processor at a rate of 5.2GB/s, and processed data flows from the processor to the Global First-Level Trigger at a rate of 700MB/s. The system allows for subsets of the logic to be configured by software and for various important variables to be histogrammed as they flow through the processor. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  10. CMS level-1 upgrade calorimeter trigger prototype development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klabbers, P.; Bachtis, M.; Brooke, J.; Cepeda Hermida, M.; Compton, K.; Dasu, S.; Farmahni-Farahani, A.; Fayer, S.; Fobes, R.; Frazier, R.; Ghabrous, C.; Gorski, T.; Gregerson, A.; Hall, G.; Hunt, C.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Lucas, C.; Lucas, R.; Magrans, M.; Newbold, D.; Oljavo, I.; Perugupalli, A.; Pioppi, M.; Rose, A.; Ross, I.; Sankey, D.; Schulte, M.; Seemuth, D.; Smith, W. H.; Tikalsky, J.; Tapper, A.; Williams, T.

    2013-02-01

    As the LHC increases luminosity and energy, it will become increasingly difficult to select interesting physics events and remain within the readout bandwidth limitations. An upgrade to the CMS Calorimeter Trigger implementing more complex algorithms is proposed. It utilizes AMC cards with Xilinx FPGAs running in microTCA crate with card interconnections via crate backplanes and optical links operating at up to 10 Gbps. Prototype cards with Virtex-6 and Virtex-7 FPGAs have been built and software frameworks for operation and monitoring developed. The physics goals, hardware architectures, and software will be described in this talk. More details can be found in a separate poster at this conference.

  11. Trigger readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkespiler, B.

    2017-09-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the 2019–2020 shut-down period, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to deliver digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5–10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the Back End using a custom serializer and optical converter and 5.12 Gb/s optical links. In order to verify the full functionality of the future Liquid Argon trigger system, a demonstrator set-up has been installed on the ATLAS detector and is operated in parallel to the regular ATLAS data taking during the LHC Run-2 in 2015 and 2016. Noise level and linearity on the energy measurement have been verified to be within our requirements. In addition, we have collected data from 13 TeV proton collisions during the LHC 2015 and 2016 runs, and have observed real pulses from the detector through the demonstrator system. The talk will give an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout and present the custom developed hardware including their role in real-time data processing and fast data transfer. This contribution will also report on the performance of the newly developed ASICs including their radiation

  12. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Monitoring and data reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimond, David; Hong, Tae; Carlson, Benjamin; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the monitoring and data reprocessing for the calorimeter-based hardware level-1 trigger system (L1Calo) for the ATLAS experiment. This trigger system was upgraded after the Run-1 data taking period (2009-2012) to prepare for Run-2 (2015-current), which allowed better control the event rates for algorithms based on jets and/or missing energy. Monitoring tools for the upgraded system is described. We also present a new offline tool to reprocess previous data samples with altered L1Calo settings, such as calibration constants and noise cuts. The samples are used to study the dependence of the event rates and signal efficiencies on the settings. The studies can help plan the appropriate L1Calo settings for upcoming data taking periods as well as for future runs.

  13. Missing Transverse Momentum Trigger Performance Studies for the ATLAS Calorimeter Trigger Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamas, Brianna; Parrish, Elliot; Lisi, Luc; Dudley, Christopher; Majewski, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is one of two general purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. In anticipation of discovering new physics, the detector will undergo numerous hardware upgrades including improvements to the Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger electronics. For the upgrade, one component of the Level-1 trigger system will be the global feature extractor, gFEX, which will house three field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Specifically, in order to improve the missing transverse energy (ETmiss)trigger, an adapted topological clustering algorithm is being investigated for implementation on the FPGAs for reconstruction of proton-proton interactions in the ATLAS detector. Using simulated data, this study analyzes the performance of the adapted algorithm in software.

  14. Upgraded Trigger Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters for Future LHC Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hong; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2015-02-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first- level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1. In order to retain the capability to trigger on low energy electrons and photons when the LHC is upgraded to higher luminosity, an improved LAr calorimeter trigger readout is proposed and being constructed. The new trigger readout system makes available the fine segmentation of the calorimeter at the L1 trigger with high precision in order to reduce the QCD jet background in electron, photon and tau triggers, and to improve jet and missing ET trigger performance. The new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board is designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new Digital Processing System. The reconstructed energies of trigger readout channels after digital filtering are transmitted to the L1 system, allowing the extraction of improved trigger signatures. This contribution presents the motivation for the upgrade, the concept for the new trigger readout and the expected performance of the new trigger, and describes the components being developed for the new system.

  15. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter upgrade program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers due to slow charged particles (typically protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The main activity of the Tile-Muon Trigger in the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program was to install and to activate the TileCal signal processor module for providing trigger inputs to the Level-1 Muon Trigger. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger, focusing on the new detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) that receives, digitizes and then provides the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap Sector-Logic Boards.

  16. The Calorimeter Trigger Processor Card: the next generation of high speed algorithmic data processing at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetek, A.; Blake, M.; Cepeda Hermida, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Fobes, R.; Gomber, B.; Gorski, T.; Guo, Z.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.; Woods, N.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Level-1 upgraded calorimeter trigger requires a powerful, flexible and compact processing card. The Calorimeter Trigger Processor Card (CTP7) uses the Virtex-7 FPGA as its primary data processor and is the first FPGA based processing card in CMS to employ the ZYNQ System-on-Chip (SoC) running embedded Linux to provide TCP/IP communication and board support functions. The CTP7 was built from the ground up to support AXI infrastructure to provide flexible and modular designs with minimal time from project conception to final implementation.

  17. Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    This article gives an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Readout. The design of custom developed hardware for fast real-time data processing and transfer are presented. Performance results from the prototype boards operated in the demonstrator system, first measurements of noise behavior and responses on the test pulses to the demonstrator system are shown.

  18. The upgrade of the PreProcessor system of the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, V.; Hanke, P.; Jongmanns, J.; Khomich, A.; Meier, K.; Schmitt, K.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Stamen, R.; Stock, P.; Wessels, M.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a pipelined system to identify high-pT objects and to build energy sums within a fixed latency of ~ 2 μs. It consists of a PreProcessor, which conditions and digitises analogue calorimeter signals, and two object-finding processors. The PreProcessor's tasks are implemented on a Multi-Chip Module, holding ADCs, time-adjustment and digital processing ASICs, and LVDS serialisers. A pin-compatible substitute, based on today's technology, like dual-channel ADCs and FPGAs, has been built to improve the BCID and pedestal subtraction algorithms. Test results with the first prototype are presented.

  19. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger: PreProcessor implementation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åsman, B.; Achenbach, R.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Anders, G.; Andrei, V.; Büscher, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barnett, B. M.; Bauss, B.; Bendtz, K.; Bohm, C.; Bracinik, J.; Brawn, I. P.; Brock, R.; Buttinger, W.; Caputo, R.; Caughron, S.; Cerrito, L.; Charlton, D. G.; Childers, J. T.; Curtis, C. J.; Daniells, A. C.; Davis, A. O.; Davygora, Y.; Dorn, M.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, J. P.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, K.; Ermoline, Y.; Föhlisch, F.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Fedorko, W.; Fleckner, J.; French, S. T.; Gee, C. N. P.; Gillman, A. R.; Goeringer, C.; Hülsing, T.; Hadley, D. R.; Hanke, P.; Hauser, R.; Heim, S.; Hellman, S.; Hickling, R. S.; Hidvégi, A.; Hillier, S. J.; Hofmann, J. I.; Hristova, I.; Ji, W.; Johansen, M.; Keller, M.; Khomich, A.; Kluge, E.-E.; Koll, J.; Laier, H.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lang, V. S.; Laurens, P.; Lepold, F.; Lilley, J. N.; Linnemann, J. T.; Müller, F.; Müller, T.; Mahboubi, K.; Martin, T. A.; Mass, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, C.; Middleton, R. P.; Moa, T.; Moritz, S.; Morris, J. D.; Mudd, R. D.; Narayan, R.; zur Nedden, M.; Neusiedl, A.; Newman, P. R.; Nikiforov, A.; Ohm, C. C.; Perera, V. J. O.; Pfeiffer, U.; Plucinski, P.; Poddar, S.; Prieur, D. P. F.; Qian, W.; Rieck, P.; Rizvi, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schäfer, U.; Scharf, V.; Schmitt, K.; Schröder, C.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simioni, E.; Snidero, G.; Staley, R. J.; Stamen, R.; Stock, P.; Stockton, M. C.; Tan, C. L. A.; Tapprogge, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, P. D.; Thomson, M.; True, P.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Weber, P.; Wessels, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Williams, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The PreProcessor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) receives about 7200 analogue signals from the electromagnetic and hadronic components of the calorimetric detector system. Lateral division results in cells which are pre-summed to so-called Trigger Towers of size 0.1 × 0.1 along azimuth (phi) and pseudorapidity (η). The received calorimeter signals represent deposits of transverse energy. The system consists of 124 individual PreProcessor modules that digitise the input signals for each LHC collision, and provide energy and timing information to the digital processors of the L1Calo system, which identify physics objects forming much of the basis for the full ATLAS first level trigger decision. This paper describes the architecture of the PreProcessor, its hardware realisation, functionality, and performance.

  20. Design and Implementation of the New D0 Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Anderson, J.; Bagby, L.; Ban, J.; Barberis, E.; Beale, S.; Benitez, J.; Biehl, J.; /Columbia U. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Delhi U. /Fermilab /Florida State U. /Indiana U. /Michigan State U. /Northeastern U. /Rice U. /Southern Methodist U. /University Coll., Dublin

    2007-09-01

    Increasing luminosity at the Fermilab Tevatron collider has led the D0 collaboration to make improvements to its detector beyond those already in place for Run IIa, which began in March 2001. One of the cornerstones of this Run IIb upgrade is a completely redesigned level-1 calorimeter trigger system. The new system employs novel architecture and algorithms to retain high efficiency for interesting events while substantially increasing rejection of background. We describe the design and implementation of the new level-1 calorimeter trigger hardware and discuss its performance during Run IIb data taking. In addition to strengthening the physics capabilities of D0, this trigger system will provide valuable insight into the operation of analogous devices to be used at LHC experiments.

  1. Electronics development for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter trigger and readout for future LHC running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Walter

    2017-02-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide 7 times greater instantaneous and 10 times greater total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energies of all cells will be available at the second trigger level operating at 1 MHz, in order to allow further mitigation of pile-up effects in energy reconstruction. Radiation tolerant, low-power front-end electronics optimized for high pile-up conditions are currently being developed, including pre-amplifier, ADC and serializer components in 65-180 nm technology. This contribution will give an overview of the future LAr readout electronics and present research results from the two upgrade programs.

  2. FPGA based implementation of hardware diagnostic layer for local trigger of BAC calorimeter for ZEUS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2004-07-01

    The paper describes design and construction of hardware diagnostics layer dedicated to the local trigger of the Backing Calorimeter (BAC). The BAC is a part of the ZEUS experiment in DESY, Hamburg. A general characteristic of the hardware of BAC trigger was presented. The design of hardware diagnostic and calibration sub-systems for BAC trigger bases on the continuous monitoring of consecutive electronic and photonic blocks. The monitoring process is performed via the specialized tests. The standardized diagnostic components were realized in the algorithmic and parameterized description in AHDL. There were presented the implementation results in ALTERA ACEX chips.

  3. High-pT hadronic trigger using electromagnetic calorimeter with the STAR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da, Hongyu; Cui, Xiangli; Xu, Yichun; Dong, Xin; Dunlop, James C.; Ruan, Lijuan; Tang, Zebo; Timmins, Anthony; Van Buren, Gene; Wang, Xiaolian; Xu, Zhangbu

    2013-01-01

    We derive a new method to improve the statistics of identified particles at high transverse momentum (pT) using online-triggered events by the STAR Barrel electro-magnetic-calorimeter (BEMC) detector. The BEMC is used to select charged hadrons (π± ,K±, and p (p bar)) via hadronic shower energy deposited in the BEMC. With this trigger, the statistics of the high pT particles are significantly enhanced (by a factor of up to ∼ 100 for STAR) with trigger efficiency up to 20%. In addition, weak-decay V0s (KS0 and Λ (Λ bar)) can be reconstructed by selecting the BEMC-trigger hadron as one of the decay daughters. We also show that the trigger efficiency can be obtained reliably in simulation and data-driven approaches, and final results from new method are compared with previous published results.

  4. Upgrade of the Trigger Readout System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, C. P.

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| =1.5 to |η| =4.9. The ATLAS LAr calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums to the Level-1 trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2018, an instantaneous luminosity of 2-3 ×1034cm-2s-1 is expected, far beyond the nominal one for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is proposed to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For these purposes, a new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) is being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new LAr digital processing system (LDPS). The LDPS applies a digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger channel. The refined trigger primitives are then transmitted to the Level-1 trigger system to extract improved trigger signatures.

  5. The trigger readout electronics for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12-bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  6. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Run-2 performance and Phase-1 upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Ben; Hong, Tae Min; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Run-2 performance and Phase-1 upgrade are presented for the hardware-based level-1 calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) for the ATLAS Experiment. This trigger has a latency of about 2.2 microseconds to make a decision to help ATLAS select about 100 kHz of the most interesting collisions from the nominal LHC rate of 40 MHz. We summarize the upgrade after Run-1 (2009-2012) and discuss its performance in Run-2 (2015-current). We also outline the on-going Phase-1 upgrade for the next run (2021-2024) and its expected performance.

  7. Upgrade of the PreProcessor system for the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a hardware-based pipelined system designed to identify high-PT objects in the ATLAS calorimeters within a fixed latency of 2.5 us. It consists of three subsystems: the PreProcessor which conditions and digitises analogue signals and two digital processors. The majority of the PreProcessor's tasks are performed on a dense Multi-Chip Module(MCM) consisting of FADCs, a time-adjustment and digital processing ASICs, and LVDS serialisers designed and implemented in ten year old technologies. An MCM substitute, based on today's components (dual channel FADCs and FPGA), is being developed to enhance the flexibility of the digital processing and to profit from state-of-the-art electronics. The development and first test results are presented.

  8. Climatic triggers for peatland initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Paul J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Valdes, Paul J.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Smith, Mark W.; Tarasov, Lev; Haywood, Alan M.; Bacon, Karen L.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are carbon-dense wetlands characterised by waterlogged, organic-rich soils. Modern-day peatlands have formed mainly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and despite covering only 3 % of the Earth's land surface are thought to store more than a third of all global soil carbon in the form of poorly decomposed plant detritus. Concern exists that this globally important carbon store may be vulnerable to near-future warming and changes in precipitation patterns, although the links between peatland development and climate are contested. The climatic and other environmental conditions that facilitate the initiation of peat are particularly poorly understood. We present the results of a novel, global study into the climate space of peat initiation since the LGM. We compiled a catalogue of radiocarbon dates of peat initiation from 942 sites that span a range of latitudes and biomes. We used the locations and ages of these peatlands to interrogate downscaled climate hindcasts at 500-yr intervals from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model, HadCM3. This powerful combination of modelling and observational data provides a globally-consistent, temporally-extensive estimate of the climate spaces of peat initiation. In particular, it allows us to identify local and regional climatic changes that may have acted as triggers for peat formation. Peatlands in mid- and high-latitudes of both hemispheres, particularly in maritime locations, developed shortly after local increases in the time integral of growing season temperatures, and were seemingly not influenced by rainfall regime. Peat initiation at such sites appears to have been stimulated by temperature-driven increases in plant productivity in cold, postglacial landscapes, and was not water limited. The exception is the large peatland complex of the Western Siberian Lowlands, which was not glaciated during the last glacial period, and which appears to have been prompted instead by a strong

  9. Precision closed bomb calorimeter for testing flame and gas producing initiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. R., Jr.; Taylor, A. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A calorimeter has been developed under this study to help meet the needs of accurate performance monitoring of electrically or mechanically actuated flame and gas producing devices, such as squib-type initiators. A ten cubic centimeter closed bomb (closed volume) calorimeter was designed to provide a standard pressure trace and to measure a nominal 50 calorie output, using the basic components of a Parr Model 1411 calorimeter. Two prototype bombs were fabricated, pressure tested to 2600 psi, and extensively evaluated.

  10. Status of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter Trigger system at the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Lee, I. S.; Unno, Y.; Cheon, B. G.

    2017-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan has been under the construction toward a physics run in 2018 with an ultimate target of 40 times higher instantaneous luminosity than the KEKB collider. The main physics motivation is to search for the New Physics from heavy quark/lepton flavor decays. In order to select an event of interest efficiently under much higher luminosity and beam background environment than the KEKB, we have upgraded the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECL) hardware trigger system. It would be realized by the improvement of ECL trigger logic based on two main triggers, the total energy and the number of clusters, with an FPGA-based flexible architecture and a high speed serial link for the data transfer. We report the current status of hardware, firmware, and software that has been achieved so far. The overall scheme of the system will be presented as well.

  11. Evidence for jets from a transverse-energy-triggered calorimeter experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Arenton, M.; Ditzler, R.; Fields, T.

    1982-07-01

    We have recently completed the first part of running for experiment E-609 at Fermilab. The E-609 hadron jet experiment uses a 132-segment 8-steradian full azimuth calorimeter with tower structure. Additional parts of the apparatus are described in the paper. A novel triggering system allowed us to take data with many different kinds of triggers simultaneously. We give a preliminary report on data obtained in 400 GeV pp collisions, concentrating on data from two triggers, both of which have no special geometrical requirement for the form of the transverse energy deposition. One of these was a global total E-transverse trigger; the other was a 2-high trigger, which required that 2 or more calorimeter segments (any 2) each give a signal larger than about 1.0 GeV/c. This report further concentrates on the data sample with total transverse energy above 11 GeV. We will present results concerning planarity distributions as well as theta-phi energy flow, for these events. For the globally triggered events in this kinematic region, only a few percent show clear di-jet structure, with clustering, co-planarity, and concentration of high-p/sub T/ fragments near the jet axes. For the 2-high events however, at this E-transverse, approximately 30 percent of the events show di-jet structure. The 2-high events constitute only about 15 percent of the global events, but contain virtually all the events which show this clear di-jet structure. Details of the analysis are presented, including studies of whether the features of the di-jet events can be explained by simple random fluctuations.

  12. Status of the Level 0 Trigger Processor of the NA62 Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaiuto, V.; de Simone, N.; Federici, L.; Sargeni, F.; Badoni, D.; Fucci, A.; Paoluzzi, G.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Santovetti, E.; Checcucci, B.; Papi, A.; Piccini, M.; Bizzarri, M.; Venditti, S.

    2014-06-01

    The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the ultra-rare decay K^+ rightarrow π^+νbarν, collecting about 100 events in two years of data taking with a signal to background ratio of 10:1. A hermetic photon veto system has been designed to efficiently reject the π0 background, one of the main background sources, and the 20-ton liquid krypton calorimeter is a fundamental component of such system in the angular acceptance region 1-10 mrad. In this paper, we present the design of the Level 0 trigger processor that is able to identify electromagnetic clusters in the calorimeter providing information on time, position and energy reconstruction for each cluster. In particular, it is composed of 36 readout boards (TEL62), organized in a three layer parallel system, 108 mezzanines and 215 high-performance FPGAs. The system has been designed to sustain an instantaneous hit rate of 40 MHz, to process data with a latency of about 100 μs, and to achieve a time resolution of 1.5 ns on the single cluster. Performance and functionality test results of a trigger slice, together with an updated status report of the whole level 0 trigger project, will be presented.

  13. The CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for the LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabi, A.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Davignon, O.; Romanteau, T.; Strebler, T.; Cepeda, M.; Sauvan, J. B.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Taylor, J.; Foudas, C.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Breeze, S.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Shtipliyski, A.; Tapper, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Forbes, R.; Gorski, T.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W.; Svetek, A.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.

    2017-01-01

    Results from the completed Phase 1 Upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger are presented. The upgrade was performed in two stages, with the first running in 2015 for proton and heavy ion collisions and the final stage for 2016 data taking. The Level-1 trigger has been fully commissioned and has been used by CMS to collect over 43 fb‑1 of data since the start of the Run II of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new trigger has been designed to improve the performance at high luminosity and large number of simultaneous inelastic collisions per crossing (pile-up). For this purpose it uses a novel design, the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT), which enables the data from an event to be processed by a single trigger processor at full granularity over several bunch crossings. The TMT design is a modular design based on the μTCA standard. The trigger processors are instrumented with Xilinx Virtex-7 690 FPGAs and 10 Gbps optical links. The TMT architecture is flexible and the number of trigger processors can be expanded according to the physics needs of CMS. Sophisticated and innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of the experiment. The system has been able to adapt to the outstanding performance of the LHC, which ran with an instantaneous luminosity well above design. The performance of the system for single physics objects are presented along with the optimizations foreseen to maintain the thresholds for the harsher conditions expected during the LHC Run II and Run III periods.

  14. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-I Trigger Readout Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Milic, A.

    2015-07-01

    The high luminosities of L > 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN produce an intense radiation environment that the detectors and their electronics must withstand. The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose apparatus constructed to explore the new particle physics regime opened by the LHC. Of the many decay particles observed by the ATLAS detector, the energy of the created electrons and photons is measured by a sampling calorimeter technique that uses Liquid Argon (LAr) as its active medium. The front end (FE) electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter located on the detector itself consists of a combined analog and digital processing system. In order to exploit the higher luminosity while keeping the same trigger bandwidth of 100 kHz, higher transverse granularity, higher resolution and longitudinal shower shape information will be provided from the LAr calorimeter to the Level-l trigger processors. New trigger readout electronics have been designed for this purpose, which will withstand the radiation dose levels expected for an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1} during the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), which is well above the original LHC design qualifications. (authors)

  15. A low-latency, low-overhead encoder for data transmission in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Le; Li, Xiaoting; Gong, Datao; Chen, Jinghong; Deng, Binwei; Fan, Qingjun; Feng, Yulang; Guo, Di; He, Huiqin; Hou, Suen; Huang, Guangming; Liu, Chonghan; Liu, Tiankuan; Sun, Xiangming; Tang, Yuxuan; Teng, Ping-Kun; Vosooghi, Bozorgmehr; Xiang, Annie C.; Ye, Jingbo; You, Yang; Zuo, Zhiheng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present the design and test results of an encoder integrated circuit for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade. The encoder implements a low-latency and low-overhead line code called LOCic. The encoder operates at 320 MHz with a latency of no greater than 21 ns. The overhead of the encoder is 14.3%. The encoder is an important block of the transmitter ASIC LOCx2, which is prototyped with a commercial 0.25 μm Silicon-on-Sapphire CMOS technology and packaged in a 100-pin QFN package.

  16. Performance of the Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont Dayot, N.

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12 bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. Results from the commissioning and performance measurements are reported.

  17. The digital data acquisition chain and the cosmic ray trigger system for the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuti, A.; Piemontese, L.; Calcaterra, A.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Burrows, P.N.; Cartwright, S.L.; Gonzales, S.; Lath, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Castro, A.; Galvagni, S.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L.; Wyss, J.; Alpat, B.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Dell'Orso, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Servoli, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Castaldi, R.; Cazzola, U.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Messn

    1989-08-01

    The entire data-acquisition chain, from the custom-made front-end electronics to the Fastbus readout and data-reduction module, for the digital readout of the SLD limited streamer tube Warm Iron Calorimeter and Muon Identifier is described. Also described is a Fastbus Cosmic Logic Unit being developed to achieve the capability of reading cosmic ray events, also during the inter-crossing time, for apparatus monitoring and calibration purposes. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  18. GLD Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Tohru

    2006-10-01

    The GLD calorimeter, which is under study to aim as the calorimeter of ILC detector with an idea of Particle Flow, is described and discussed. The calorimeter consists of ECAL and HCAL. Both calorimeters are composed of plastic scintillator as the active medium. Fine granularity is required to achieve Particle Flow, so a small scintillator tile technique is developed with wavelength shifting fiber of MPPC read out. The requirements and our solutions for them are discussed and presented.

  19. Initial stage in lightning initiated from tall objects and in rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Rakov, V. A.; Shindo, T.; Diendorfer, G.; Mair, M.; Heidler, F.; Zischank, W.; Uman, M. A.; Thottappillil, R.; Wang, D.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of the initial stage (IS) in object-initiated lightning derived from current measurements on the Gaisberg tower (100 m, Austria), the Peissenberg tower (160 m, Germany), and the Fukui chimney (200 m, Japan) and their counterparts in rocket-triggered lightning in Florida. All lightning events analyzed here effectively transported negative charge to ground. For rocket-triggered lightning the geometric mean (GM) values of the three overall characteristics of the initial stage, duration, charge transfer, and average current, are similar to their counterparts for the Gaisberg tower flashes and the Peissenberg tower flashes, while the Fukui chimney flashes are characterized by a shorter GM IS duration and a larger average current. The GM IS charge transfer for the Fukui chimney flashes is similar to that in the other three data sets. The GM values of the action integral differ considerably among the four data sets, with the Fukui action integral being the largest. The observed differences in the IS duration between the Fukui data set and all other data considered here are probably related to the differences in the lower current limits, while the differences in the action integral cannot be explained by the instrumental effects only. There appear to be two types of initial stage in upward lightning. The first type exhibits pulsations (ringing) during the initial portion of the IS, and the second type does not. The occurrence of these types of IS appears to depend on geographical location. The characteristics of pulses superimposed on the initial continuous current (ICC pulses) in object-initiated (Gaisberg, Peissenberg, and Fukui) lightning are similar within a factor of 2 but differ more significantly from their counterparts in rocket-triggered lightning. Specifically, the ICC pulses in object-initiated lightning exhibit larger peaks, shorter risetimes, and shorter half-peak widths than do the ICC pulses in rocket-triggered lightning.

  20. Debris-flow initiation experiments using diverse hydrologic triggers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Iverson, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    Controlled debris-flow initiation experiments focused on three hydrologic conditions that can trigger slope failure: localized ground-water inflow; prolonged moderate-intensity rainfall; and high-intensity rainfall. Detailed monitoring of slope hydrology and deformation provided exceptionally complete data on conditions preceding and accompanying slope failure and debris-flow mobilization. Ground-water inflow and high-intensity sprinkling led to abrupt, complete failure whereas moderate-intensity sprinkling led to retrogressive, block-by-block failure. Failure during ground-water inflow and during moderate-intensity sprinkling occurred with a rising water table and positive pore pressures. Failure during high-intensity sprinkling occurred without widespread positive pore pressures. In all three cases, pore pressures in most locations increased dramatically (within 2-3 seconds) during failure. In some places, pressures in unsaturated materials rapidly 'flashed' from zero to elevated positive values. Transiently elevated pore pressures and partially liquefied soil enhanced debris-flow mobilization.

  1. MAC calorimeters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry.

  2. Calorimeter-Based Triggers at the ATLAS Detector for Searches for Supersymmetry in Zero-Lepton Final States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Alexander

    Electrospinning is now recognized as an efficient technique to produce polymer fibers with diameters ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of microns from polymer solutions or melts using an applied electric field. A conventional electrospinning setup can only produce randomized fibrous mats. Researchers have developed modified electrospinning setups so as to collect macroscopically aligned fibers and have shown that aligned fibers are also oriented at the molecular level. However, the mechanism of molecular orientation is still under investigation. This dissertation is focused on understanding the driving forces for molecular orientation in electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers. PVDF was chosen for this study because a large beta phase content can be formed by electrospinning and this beta phase of PVDF is very sensitive to an electric field. A customized collector is first developed here consisting of an Al foil covered cardboard with a rectangular air gap in the center. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that fibers in the gap are macroscopically aligned and those off the gap are randomly oriented. Polarized Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra demonstrate that fibers in the gap are aligned at the molecular level with the polymer backbones oriented along the fiber axis. However, quantitative analysis of molecular orientation from polarized FTIR data is only reasonable when the effect of fibrous mat thickness is also considered. Single fiber selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns not only confirm polarized FTIR results but also indicate that the molecular orientation is initially formed after the polymer jet is emitted from the Taylor cone and elongated by the whipping process while travelling towards the collector, and is then enhanced by the air gap. To further determine the mechanism of molecular orientation in the two steps (initial fiber formation followed by deposition on the gap), the effects of applied voltage

  3. Jet Trigger in the H1 Experiment at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Dubak, Ana

    2007-04-23

    A novel calorimeter trigger at the first level is developed to complement existing LAr trigger in the H1 experiment at HERA. It searches for localised energy depositions in the calorimeter, thus avoiding summing up noise distributed over large parts of the calorimeter. This will improve the efficiency of triggering on low energy depositions in the calorimeter.

  4. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  5. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  6. Initiation of spreading depression by synaptic and network hyperactivity: Insights into trigger mechanisms of migraine aura.

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, Lyudmila V

    2017-01-01

    Background Cortical spreading depression (SD) is thought to underlie migraine aura but mechanisms of triggering SD in the structurally normal, well-nourished cortex of migraine patients remain unknown. Synaptic and network dysfunctions appear to underlie episodic neurological disorders, including migraine. The narrative review summarizes old and recent experimental evidence for triggering SD by synaptic/network mechanisms and discusses the relevance of the data to migraine pathogenesis. Our hypothesis is that under some conditions synaptic/network hyperactivity may reliably ignite SD, and this mechanism may underlie triggering migraine aura in patients. Findings High-frequency tetanic stimulation of the cortex reliably triggers SD in synaptically connected regions; SD is a reliable cortical response to acute hyperexcitability (epileptic seizures), though chronic epilepsy prevents triggering SD; in the hyperexcitable cortex, SD may be triggered by sensory stimulation; compromised glutamatergic transmission plays the critical role in triggering SD. Conclusion SD may be triggered by dynamic network instability produced by dysfunction of calcium-dependent glutamate release. Synaptic drive from subcortical sensory processing structures (brainstem and/or thalamocortical networks) is able to evoke depolarization of hyperexcitable cortical neurons sufficient to initiate the regenerative SD process. Studying SD initiation by synaptic/network hyperexcitability may provide insights into basic mechanisms underlying SD generation in migraine brain.

  7. The HPS electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Balossino, I.; Baltzell, N.; Battaglieri, M.; ...

    2017-02-22

    The Heavy Photon Search experiment (HPS) is searching for a new gauge boson, the so-called "heavy photon". Through its kinetic mixing with the Standard Model photon, this particle could decay into an electron-positron pair. It would then be detectable as a narrow peak in the invariant mass spectrum of such pairs, or, depending on its lifetime, by a decay downstream of the production target. The HPS experiment is installed in Hall-B of Jefferson Lab. This article presents the design and performance of one of the two detectors of the experiment, the electromagnetic calorimeter, during the runs performed in 2015-2016. The calorimeter's main purpose is to provide a fast trigger and reduce the copious background from electromagnetic processes through matching with a tracking detector. Finally, the detector is a homogeneous calorimeter, made of 442 lead-tungsten (PbWOmore » $$_4$$) scintillating crystals, each read-out by an avalanche photodiode coupled to a custom trans-impedance amplifier.« less

  8. The HPS electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balossino, I.; Baltzell, N.; Battaglieri, M.; Bondì, M.; Buchanan, E.; Calvo, D.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; D'Angelo, A.; Napoli, M. De; Vita, R. De; Dupré, R.; Egiyan, H.; Ehrhart, M.; Filippi, A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Girod, F.-X.; Guidal, M.; Holtrop, M.; Iurasov, V.; Kubarovsky, V.; Livingston, K.; McCarty, K.; McCormick, J.; McKinnon, B.; Osipenko, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Randazzo, N.; Rauly, E.; Raydo, B.; Rindel, E.; Rizzo, A.; Rosier, P.; Sipala, V.; Stepanyan, S.; Szumila-Vance, H.; Weinstein, L. B.

    2017-05-01

    The Heavy Photon Search experiment (HPS) is searching for a new gauge boson, the so-called ;heavy photon.; Through its kinetic mixing with the Standard Model photon, this particle could decay into an electron-positron pair. It would then be detectable as a narrow peak in the invariant mass spectrum of such pairs, or, depending on its lifetime, by a decay downstream of the production target. The HPS experiment is installed in Hall-B of Jefferson Lab. This article presents the design and performance of one of the two detectors of the experiment, the electromagnetic calorimeter, during the runs performed in 2015-2016. The calorimeter's main purpose is to provide a fast trigger and reduce the copious background from electromagnetic processes through matching with a tracking detector. The detector is a homogeneous calorimeter, made of 442 lead-tungstate (PbWO4) scintillating crystals, each read out by an avalanche photodiode coupled to a custom trans-impedance amplifier.

  9. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Tile Calorimeter System, ATLAS

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase-II) where the peak luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm-2s-1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2024. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, configuration and detector control. For the off-detector electronics a pre-processor (sROD) is being developed, which takes care of the initial trigger processing while temporarily storing the main data flow in pipeline and derandomizer memories. One demonstrator prototype module with the new calorimeter module electronics, but still compatible with the present system, is planned to be inserted in ATLAS this year.

  10. Characterization of initial current pulses in negative rocket-triggered lightning with sensitive magnetic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Gaopeng; Zhang, Hongbo; Jiang, Rubin; Fan, Yanfeng; Qie, Xiushu; Liu, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhuling; Wang, Zhichao; Tian, Ye; Liu, Kun

    2016-09-01

    We report the new measurement of initial current pulses in rocket-triggered lightning with a broadband magnetic sensor at 78 m distance. The high sensitivity of our sensor makes it possible to detect weak ripple deflections (as low as 0.4 A) that are not readily resolved in the typical measurements of channel-base current in rocket-triggered lightning experiments. The discernible magnetic pulses within 1 ms after the inception of a sustained upward positive leader from the triggering wire can be classified into impulsive pulses and ripple pulses according to the discernibility of separation between individual pulses. The time scale (usually >20 µs) of ripple pulses is substantially longer than the leading impulsive pulses (with time scales typically <10 µs), and the amplitude is significantly reduced, whereas there is no considerable difference in the interpulse pulse. Along with our previous finding on the burst of magnetic pulses during the initial continuous current in rocket-triggered lightning, the new measurements suggest that the stepwise propagation might be a persistent feature for the upward positive leader in rocket-triggered lightning, and the stepping of positive leader early in triggered lightning could be characterized with the observation of ripple pulses. The precedence of impulsive magnetic pulse measured at 78 m range relative to the arrival of corresponding current pulse at the channel base indicates that the ionization wave launched by individual stepping of positive leader propagates downward along the triggering wire at a mean velocity of 1.23 × 108 m/s to 2.25 × 108 m/s.

  11. Cone calorimeter evaluation of wood products

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2004-01-01

    The Forest Products Laboratory uses the cone calorimeter for the initial evaluation of the flammability of untreated and fire retardant treated wood products. The results of various studies are reviewed using a model presented at the 12th Annual BBC Conference on Flame Retardancy. The model uses data from the cone calorimeter to provide measures of fire growth...

  12. Stochastic initiation and termination of calcium-mediated triggered activity in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhen; Qu, Zhilin; Karma, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes normally initiate action potentials in response to a current stimulus that depolarizes the membrane above an excitation threshold. Aberrant excitation can also occur due to spontaneous calcium (Ca2+) release (SCR) from intracellular stores after the end of a preceding action potential. SCR drives the Na+/Ca2+ exchange current inducing a “delayed afterdepolarization” that can in turn trigger an action potential if the excitation threshold is reached. This “triggered activity” is known to cause arrhythmias, but how it is initiated and terminated is not understood. Using computer simulations of a ventricular myocyte model, we show that initiation and termination are inherently random events. We determine the probability of those events from statistical measurements of the number of beats before initiation and before termination, respectively, which follow geometric distributions. Moreover, we elucidate the origin of randomness by a statistical analysis of SCR events, which do not follow a Poisson process observed in other eukaryotic cells. Due to synchronization of Ca2+ releases during the action potential upstroke, waiting times of SCR events after the upstroke are narrowly distributed, whereas SCR amplitudes follow a broad normal distribution with a width determined by fluctuations in the number of independent Ca2+ wave foci. This distribution enables us to compute the probabilities of initiation and termination of bursts of triggered activity that are maintained by a positive feedback between the action potential upstroke and SCR. Our results establish a theoretical framework for interpreting complex and varied manifestations of triggered activity relevant to cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:28049836

  13. Description and performance of the FOCUS (E831) hadron calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chung, Y. S.; Gianini, G.; Gourlay, S. A.; Gray, K.; Hansen, S.; Lee, K. B.; Liguori, G.; Malvezzi, S.; Marchesotti, M.; Merlo, M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Sala, A.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1999-02-01

    An iron-scintillator tile calorimeter with tower readout geometry was constructed for the photoproduction experiment FOCUS (E831) at Fermilab. This experiment ran in the 1996-1997 Fermilab-fixed target program using a wide band photon beam with an average energy of 170 GeV. The hadron calorimeter was used in an online trigger. A description of this tile sampling calorimeter is given and its performance described.

  14. Initial pulse of Siberian Traps sills as the trigger of the end-Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Burgess, S D; Muirhead, J D; Bowring, S A

    2017-07-31

    Mass extinction events are short-lived and characterized by catastrophic biosphere collapse and subsequent reorganization. Their abrupt nature necessitates a similarly short-lived trigger, and large igneous province magmatism is often implicated. However, large igneous provinces are long-lived compared to mass extinctions. Therefore, if large igneous provinces are an effective trigger, a subinterval of magmatism must be responsible for driving deleterious environmental effects. The onset of Earth's most severe extinction, the end-Permian, coincided with an abrupt change in the emplacement style of the contemporaneous Siberian Traps large igneous province, from dominantly flood lavas to sill intrusions. Here we identify the initial emplacement pulse of laterally extensive sills as the critical deadly interval. Heat from these sills exposed untapped volatile-fertile sediments to contact metamorphism, likely liberating the massive greenhouse gas volumes needed to drive extinction. These observations suggest that large igneous provinces characterized by sill complexes are more likely to trigger catastrophic global environmental change than their flood basalt- and/or dike-dominated counterparts.Although the mass end-Permian extinction is linked to large igneous provinces, its trigger remains unclear. Here, the authors propose that the abrupt change from flood lavas to sills resulted in the heating of sediments and led to the release of large-scale greenhouse gases to drive the end-Permian extinction.

  15. Comparative analysis of the initial stage in two artificially-triggered lightning flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Qie, X.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Y.; Feng, G.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, G.

    2009-02-01

    The initial discharge stages of two flashes during the Shandong Artificially Triggering Lightning Experiment (SHATLE) are analyzed based on the synchronous data of the current and close electromagnetic field. For a lightning flash, named 0503, the wire was connected, not electrically, but via a 5 m length of nylon, with the lightning rod; while for another, named 0602, the wire was connected with the rod directly. Results show that the discharge processes of the initial stage (IS) in flash 0503 are quite different from that of the usual classical-triggered flash 0602 and altitude-triggered flashes. A large pulse with a current of about 720 A resulted from the breakdown of the 5 m air gap during flash 0503, and the corresponding electric field at 60 m from the lightning rod was 0.38 kV/m. The upward positive leaders (UPLs) propagated continuously from the tip of the rocket after this breakdown. The geometric mean (GM) of the UPL peak current was 23.0 A. Vaporization of the wire occurred during the initial continuous current (ICC) stage and the largest current pulse was about 400 A. Compared with triggered flash 0503, the discharge processes of IS in flash 0602 were simple, only two large pulses similar to each other occurred before dart leader/return stroke sequences. The peak current of the first pulse was 2.1 kA and its corresponding electric field and magnetic field at a distance of 60 m from the lightning rod were 0.98 kV/m and 7.03 μT, respectively. During the second pulse, the wire disintegrated. The current decreased to the background level at the moment of the wire disintegration. The current of the second pulse in triggered flash 0602 was 2.8 kA, and the corresponding electric field and magnetic field at 60 m from the lightning rod were 1.22 kV/m and 9.01 μT, respectively.

  16. Observations of the initial stage of a rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Zhang, Yijun; Lu, Weitao; Zheng, Dong; Xu, Liangtao; Huang, Zhigang

    2017-05-01

    Observations have been obtained of the initial stage of a rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning flash with a high-resolution broadband VHF interferometer. The discharge produced 54 precursor current pulses (PCPs) over 883 ms during the rocket's ascent. The interferometer observations show that the PCPs were produced by breakdown at the ascending tip of the rocket, and that individual PCPs were produced by weak upward positive breakdown over meters-scale distances, followed by more energetic, fast downward negative breakdown over several tens of meters distance. The average propagation speeds were 5 × 106 m s-1 and 3 × 107 m s-1, respectively. The sustained upward positive leader (UPL) was initiated by a rapid, repetitive burst of 14 precursor pulses. Upon initiation, the VHF radiation abruptly became continuous with time. Significantly, breakdown during the UPL appeared to extend the discharge in a similar manner to that of the precursor pulses.

  17. sPHENIX Calorimeter Design and Jet Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, John S.

    2016-12-01

    The PHENIX collaboration is planning a detector upgrade, sPHENIX, which consists of large acceptance calorimetry and tracking detectors built around the superconducting solenoid recently shipped to Brookhaven from the decommissioned BaBar experiment at SLAC. The sPHENIX calorimeter system includes three radial layers of sampling calorimeters, a tungsten-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter, and two longitudinally segmented sampling hadron calorimeters that are made of scintillator tiles and steel plates. Together, they provide hermetic coverage in | η | < 1 for calorimetry based jet measurements as well as minimal bias jet trigger capability, which coupled with high resolution tracking, enable an extremely rich jet physics program at RHIC.

  18. The CLAS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    M. Amarian; Geram Asryan; Kevin Beard; Will Brooks; Volker Burkert; Tom Carstens; Alan Coleman; Raphael Demirchyan; Yuri Efremenko; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Herb Funsten; Vladimir Gavrilov; Kevin L. Giovanetti; R.M. Marshall; Berhard Mecking; R.C. Minehart; H. Mkrtchan; Mavrik Ohandjanyan; Youri Sharabian; L.C. Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; W.A. Stephens; T.Y. Tung; Carl Zorn

    2001-05-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8deg < (theta) < 45deg) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi-0 and eta decays and detect neutrons, This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  19. INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

    2014-04-01

    It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each

  20. Performance and advantages of a soft-core based parallel architecture for energy peak detection in the calorimeter Level 0 trigger for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Barbanera, M.; Bizzarri, M.; Bonaiuto, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Checcucci, B.; De Simone, N.; Fantechi, R.; Federici, L.; Fucci, A.; Lupi, M.; Paoluzzi, G.; Papi, A.; Piccini, M.; Ryjov, V.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Sargeni, F.; Venditti, S.

    2017-03-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS has started its data-taking. Its aim is to measure the branching ratio of the ultra-rare decay K+ → π+ν ν̅ . In this context, rejecting the background is a crucial topic. One of the main background to the measurement is represented by the K+ → π+π0 decay. In the 1-8.5 mrad decay region this background is rejected by the calorimetric trigger processor (Cal-L0). In this work we present the performance of a soft-core based parallel architecture built on FPGAs for the energy peak reconstruction as an alternative to an implementation completely founded on VHDL language.

  1. Ground-level observation of a terrestrial gamma ray flash initiated by a triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, B. M.; Uman, M. A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Jordan, D. M.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Caicedo, J. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Wilkes, R. A.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Gamerota, W. R.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Moore, R. C.; Rassoul, H. K.; Cummer, S. A.; Grove, J. E.; Nag, A.; Betten, D. P.; Bozarth, A.

    2016-06-01

    We report on a terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF) that occurred on 15 August 2014 coincident with an altitude-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in North Central Florida. The TGF was observed by a ground-level network of gamma ray, close electric field, distant magnetic field, Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), optical, and radar measurements. Simultaneous gamma ray and LMA data indicate that the upward positive leader of the triggered lightning flash induced relativistic runaway electron avalanches when the leader tip was at about 3.5 km altitude, resulting in the observed TGF. Channel luminosity and electric field data show that there was an initial continuous current (ICC) pulse in the lightning channel to ground during the time of the TGF. Modeling of the observed ICC pulse electric fields measured at close range (100-200 m) indicates that the ICC pulse current had both a slow and fast component (full widths at half maximum of 235 μs and 59 μs) and that the fast component was more or less coincident with the TGF, suggesting a physical association between the relativistic runaway electron avalanches and the ICC pulse observed at ground. Our ICC pulse model reproduces moderately well the measured close electric fields at the ICLRT as well as three independent magnetic field measurements made about 250 km away. Radar and LMA data suggest that there was negative charge near the region in which the TGF was initiated.

  2. Upward negative leaders in positive triggered lightning: Stepping and branching in the initial stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yunjiao; Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Liu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Fan, Yanfeng; Wu, Xueke

    2017-07-01

    By conducting comprehensive observation on the rarely triggered positive lightning flashes, two cases of upward negative leaders were quantitatively investigated with simultaneous data of current, optical, and electromagnetic field changes at fine time resolution. The impulsive channel current associated with the initial leader stepping involved pulse interval, peak, charge of 19.1 μs, 122.3 Å, 465.9 μC, and 20.3 μs, 58.4 Å, 267.2 μC, for the two cases, respectively. The negative charge of an individual step was nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the positive leader step in triggered lightning. The upward negative stepped leader branches shortly after initiation, and consequently, the stepping-caused current pulses became multipeaked, wider, and more frequent in waveforms. The main leader tip propagated at an average speed of 2.10 × 105 m/s, while its partial speed fluctuated a lot as was significantly influenced by the behaviors of subbranches development.

  3. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/..sqrt..E was achieved.

  4. Characterization of the initial stage of negative rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Rakov, V. A.; Uman, M. A.; Fernandez, M. I.; Rambo, K. J.; Schnetzer, G. H.; Fisher, R. J.

    1999-02-01

    We performed a statistical study on the initial stage (IS) of negative rocket-triggered lightning using 37 channel-base current recordings obtained during the summer of 1994 at Fort McClellan, Alabama, and during the summers of 1996 and 1997 at Camp Blanding, Florida. The IS can be viewed as composed of an upward positive leader (UPL) followed by an initial continuous current ( ICC ). The IS has a geometric mean (GM) duration of 279 ms and lowers a GM charge of 27 C to the ground. The average IS current in an individual lightning discharge varies from a minimum of 27 A to a maximum of 316 A with a GM value of 96 A for the entire sample of 37 discharges. We examined the current variation at the beginning of the IS in 24 flashes. In 22 out of 24 cases this initial current variation (ICV) includes a current drop, probably associated with the disintegration of the copper triggering wire and the subsequent current reestablishment. The GM time interval between the onset of the initial stage and the abrupt decrease in current is 8.6 ms, and the GM current level just prior to the current decrease is 312 A, a value about 3 times the GM value of average current for the whole IS, 96 A. Before this abrupt current decrease, a GM charge of 0.8 C has been lowered to ground with a corresponding GM action integral of 110 A2 s. The abrupt current decrease takes typically several hundred microseconds and is followed, immediately or after a time interval up to several hundred microseconds, by a pulse with a typical peak of about 1 kA and a typical risetime of less than 100 μs. The ICC usually includes impulsive processes that resemble the M processes observed during the continuing currents that follow return strokes in both natural and triggered lightning. We present statistics for the following parameters of current pulses superimposed on the ICC: magnitude, risetime, half-peak width, duration, charge transferred, preceding continuous current level, interpulse interval, and time

  5. Plate tectonics on the Earth triggered by plume-induced subduction initiation.

    PubMed

    Gerya, T V; Stern, R J; Baes, M; Sobolev, S V; Whattam, S A

    2015-11-12

    Scientific theories of how subduction and plate tectonics began on Earth--and what the tectonic structure of Earth was before this--remain enigmatic and contentious. Understanding viable scenarios for the onset of subduction and plate tectonics is hampered by the fact that subduction initiation processes must have been markedly different before the onset of global plate tectonics because most present-day subduction initiation mechanisms require acting plate forces and existing zones of lithospheric weakness, which are both consequences of plate tectonics. However, plume-induced subduction initiation could have started the first subduction zone without the help of plate tectonics. Here, we test this mechanism using high-resolution three-dimensional numerical thermomechanical modelling. We demonstrate that three key physical factors combine to trigger self-sustained subduction: (1) a strong, negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere; (2) focused magmatic weakening and thinning of lithosphere above the plume; and (3) lubrication of the slab interface by hydrated crust. We also show that plume-induced subduction could only have been feasible in the hotter early Earth for old oceanic plates. In contrast, younger plates favoured episodic lithospheric drips rather than self-sustained subduction and global plate tectonics.

  6. Apoptotic cells trigger a membrane-initiated pathway to increase ABCA1

    PubMed Central

    Fond, Aaron M.; Lee, Chang Sup; Schulman, Ira G.; Kiss, Robert S.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages clear millions of apoptotic cells daily and, during this process, take up large quantities of cholesterol. The membrane transporter ABCA1 is a key player in cholesterol efflux from macrophages and has been shown via human genetic studies to provide protection against cardiovascular disease. How the apoptotic cell clearance process is linked to macrophage ABCA1 expression is not known. Here, we identified a plasma membrane–initiated signaling pathway that drives a rapid upregulation of ABCA1 mRNA and protein. This pathway involves the phagocytic receptor brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), which recognizes phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells, and the intracellular signaling intermediates engulfment cell motility 1 (ELMO1) and Rac1, as ABCA1 induction was attenuated in primary macrophages from mice lacking these molecules. Moreover, this apoptotic cell–initiated pathway functioned independently of the liver X receptor (LXR) sterol–sensing machinery that is known to regulate ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux. When placed on a high-fat diet, mice lacking BAI1 had increased numbers of apoptotic cells in their aortic roots, which correlated with altered lipid profiles. In contrast, macrophages from engineered mice with transgenic BAI1 overexpression showed greater ABCA1 induction in response to apoptotic cells compared with those from control animals. Collectively, these data identify a membrane-initiated pathway that is triggered by apoptotic cells to enhance ABCA1 within engulfing phagocytes and with functional consequences in vivo. PMID:26075824

  7. Self-triggered assistive stimulus training improves step initiation in persons with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies demonstrated that hesitation-prone persons with Parkinson’s disease (PDs) acutely improve step initiation using a novel self-triggered stimulus that enhances lateral weight shift prior to step onset. PDs showed reduced anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) durations, earlier step onsets, and faster 1st step speed immediately following stimulus exposure. Objective This study investigated the effects of long-term stimulus exposure. Methods Two groups of hesitation-prone subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) participated in a 6-week step-initiation training program involving one of two stimulus conditions: 1) Drop. The stance-side support surface was lowered quickly (1.5 cm); 2) Vibration. A short vibration (100 ms) was applied beneath the stance-side support surface. Stimuli were self-triggered by a 5% reduction in vertical force under the stance foot during the APA. Testing was at baseline, immediately post-training, and 6 weeks post-training. Measurements included timing and magnitude of ground reaction forces, and step speed and length. Results Both groups improved their APA force modulation after training. Contrary to previous results, neither group showed reduced APA durations or earlier step onset times. The vibration group showed 55% increase in step speed and a 39% increase in step length which were retained 6 weeks post-training. The drop group showed no stepping-performance improvements. Conclusions The acute sensitivity to the quickness-enhancing effects of stimulus exposure demonstrated in previous studies was supplanted by improved force modulation following prolonged stimulus exposure. The results suggest a potential approach to reduce the severity of start hesitation in PDs, but further study is needed to understand the relationship between short- and long-term effects of stimulus exposure. PMID:23363975

  8. Performance of CDF calorimeter simulation for Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    C. Currat

    2002-09-19

    The upgraded CDF II detector has collected first data during the initial operation of the Tevatron accelerator in Run II. The simulation of the CDF electromagnetic and hadronic central and upgraded plug (forward) calorimeter is based on the Gflash calorimeter parameterization package used within the GEANT based detector simulation of the Run II CDF detector. We present the results of tuning the central and plug calorimeter response to test beam data.

  9. The Geometric Characteristics and Initiation Mechanisms of the Earthquake- Triggered Daguangbao Landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. J.; Tsao, C. C.; Yang, C. M.; Wu, W. J.; Lee, C. T.; Lin, M. L.; Zhang, W. F.; Pei, X. J.; Wang, G. H.; Huang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, catastrophic landslides are getting considerable attentions not only from natural hazard but also from geo-material science. In the past century, the Daguangbao (DGB) landslide which triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake is one of the largest earthquake- triggered landslides. Our main goal is to characterize the geometry of DGB landslide to better determine the initiation mechanisms. Based on the remote sensing images analysis and field investigation, we proposed an atypical wedge model of DGB landslide compose of a folded strata and a zigzag stepping-out joint system, which outcropped at the south and north of the landslide site, respectively. The intersection line of wedge is curved, counterclockwise rotated and daylighted, which fit the pre- and post- position of the mining tent with 1.9 km displacements. The volume of sliding mass was evaluated to 10.51×108 m3 by the atypical wedge model. The identified slip zone of DGB landslide consists of the breccia and gouge layers in the dolomite strata. The rotary-shear tests were performed with the intact dolomite rocks near the slip zone and the gouges in the slip zone to determine the strength of slip surface. The peak and the steady-state friction coefficient of the tested dry dolomite discontinuities, wet gouges are 0.52~0.96, 0.73~0.86 and 0.1~0.57, 0.16~0.63, respectively. Although the result of static wedge stability analysis shows that the slope is quite stable (F.S. = 4), but the result of pseudo-static wedge stability analysis with seismic coefficient will trigger the gigantic wedge by the Wenchuan earthquake. Moreover, the friction coefficient of the tested gouges after long slip displacements as shear velocity exceeds 1.3 m/s will lower than 0.25 (=tan(14°); the intersection line plunged 14°). Therefore, the gigantic wedge can be accelerated by the inertial force and keep moving rapidly with long run-out. According to the calculations of simple one dimensional particle motion model, DGB landslide

  10. X-ray calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    X-ray calorimeter instruments for astrophysics have seen rapid development since they were invented in 1984. The prime instrument on all currently planned X-ray spectroscopic observatories is based on calorimeter technology. This relatively simple detection concept that senses the energy of an incident photon by measuring the temperature rise of an absorber material at very low temperatures can form the basis of a very high-performance, non-dispersive spectrometer. State-of-theart calorimeter instruments have resolving powers of over 3000, large simultaneous bandpasses, and near unit efficiency. This coupled with the intrinsic imaging capability of a pixilated X-ray calorimeter array, allows true spectral-spatial instruments to be constructed. This chapter briefly reviews the detection scheme, the state of the art in X-ray calorimeter instruments and the future outlook for this technology.

  11. Optically triggering spatiotemporally confined GPCR activity in a cell and programming neurite initiation and extension

    PubMed Central

    Karunarathne, W. K. Ajith; Giri, Lopamudra; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Gautam, N.

    2013-01-01

    G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) activity gradients evoke important cell behavior but there is a dearth of methods to induce such asymmetric signaling in a cell. Here we achieved reversible, rapidly switchable patterns of spatiotemporally restricted GPCR activity in a single cell. We recruited properties of nonrhodopsin opsins—rapid deactivation, distinct spectral tuning, and resistance to bleaching—to activate native Gi, Gq, or Gs signaling in selected regions of a cell. Optical inputs were designed to spatiotemporally control levels of second messengers, IP3, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate, and cAMP in a cell. Spectrally selective imaging was accomplished to simultaneously monitor optically evoked molecular and cellular response dynamics. We show that localized optical activation of an opsin-based trigger can induce neurite initiation, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate increase, and actin remodeling. Serial optical inputs to neurite tips can refashion early neuron differentiation. Methods here can be widely applied to program GPCR-mediated cell behaviors. PMID:23479634

  12. Optically triggering spatiotemporally confined GPCR activity in a cell and programming neurite initiation and extension.

    PubMed

    Karunarathne, W K Ajith; Giri, Lopamudra; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Gautam, N

    2013-04-23

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activity gradients evoke important cell behavior but there is a dearth of methods to induce such asymmetric signaling in a cell. Here we achieved reversible, rapidly switchable patterns of spatiotemporally restricted GPCR activity in a single cell. We recruited properties of nonrhodopsin opsins--rapid deactivation, distinct spectral tuning, and resistance to bleaching--to activate native Gi, Gq, or Gs signaling in selected regions of a cell. Optical inputs were designed to spatiotemporally control levels of second messengers, IP3, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate, and cAMP in a cell. Spectrally selective imaging was accomplished to simultaneously monitor optically evoked molecular and cellular response dynamics. We show that localized optical activation of an opsin-based trigger can induce neurite initiation, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate increase, and actin remodeling. Serial optical inputs to neurite tips can refashion early neuron differentiation. Methods here can be widely applied to program GPCR-mediated cell behaviors.

  13. Non-infectious environmental antigens as a trigger for the initiation of an autoimmune skin disease.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye; Culton, Donna A; Jeong, Joseph S; Trupiano, Nicole; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Diaz, Luis A

    2016-09-01

    Pemphigus represents a group of organ specific autoimmune blistering disorders of the skin mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies with well-defined antigenic targets. While most of these diseases are sporadic, endemic forms of disease do exist. The endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus (also known as fogo selvagem, FS) exhibits epidemiological features that suggest exposure to hematophagous insect bites are a possible precipitating factor of this autoimmune disease, and provides a unique opportunity to study how environmental factors contribute to autoimmune disease development. FS patients and healthy individuals from endemic regions show an autoreactive IgM response that starts in early childhood and becomes restricted to IgG4 autoantibodies in FS patients. In searching for triggering environmental antigens, we have found that IgG4 and IgE autoantibodies from FS patients cross-react with a salivary antigen from sand flies. The presence of these cross-reactive antibodies and antibody genetic analysis confirming that these antibodies evolve from the same naïve B cells provides compelling evidence that this non-infectious environmental antigen could be the initial target of the autoantibody response in FS. Consequently, FS serves as an ideal model to study the impact of environmental antigens in the development of autoimmune disease.

  14. The PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kistenev, E.; White, S.; Belikov, S.; Kochetkov, V.

    1993-12-31

    The main features of the Phenix EM calorimeter are presented. This a Pb/scintillator calorimeter with ``shish-kebab`` fiber readout, designed for low energy electron and photon measurements. Prototype calorimeters have been built with longitudinal segmentation, {approximately} 100 psec time of flight resolution and 8% energy resolution at 1GeV/c. The laser based monitoring system which has been incorporated into large scale prototypes is described. The dependence of light yield on fiber choice and scintillator surface preparation has been studied.

  15. CCP. Calorimeter Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, J.; Levi, G.

    1998-10-01

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unit via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.

  16. Calorimeter Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, Jean R.; Levi, Gerald

    1998-11-03

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unit via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.

  17. sPHENIX Calorimeter Design and Jet Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty J. S.

    2016-09-27

    The PHENIX collaboration is planning a detector upgrade, sPHENIX, which consists of large acceptance calorimetry and tracking detectors built around the superconducting solenoid recently shipped to Brookhaven from the decommissioned BaBar experiment at SLAC. The sPHENIX calorimeter system includes three radial layers of samplingcalorimeters, a tungsten-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter, and two longitudinally segmented samplinghadron calorimeters that are made of scintillator tiles and steel plates. Together, they provide hermetic coverage in n < 1 for calorimetry based jet measurements as well as minimal bias jet trigger capability, which coupled with high resolution tracking, enable an extremely rich jet physics program at RHIC.

  18. CDF calorimeter and its upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The CDF calorimeter systems are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on the calibration and the performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter. Several physics analyses where the calorimetry plays an important role are discussed. The present gas calorimeter will be upgraded in accord with the collider upgrade. The new system is a scintillator-based calorimeter with optical fiber readout. A status of the CDF calorimeter upgrade project is also described.

  19. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter at LHC in Run 1 and planned upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyanov, O.

    2014-10-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider, a key detector for the measurements of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are digitized before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. The data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking and the evolution of the detector status are explained in the presentation. The energy and the time reconstruction performance of the digitized signals is presented and the noise behaviour and its improvement during the detector consolidation in maintenance periods are shown. A set of calibration systems allow monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter channels responses via signal sources that act at every stage of the signal path, from scintillation light to digitized signal. These partially overlapping systems are described in detail, their individual performance is discussed as well as the comparative results from measurements of the evolution of the calorimeter response with time during the full LHC data-taking period. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals will be directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. For the off-detector electronics a special pre-processor board is being developed, which will take care of the initial trigger processing, while the main data are temporarily stored in the pipeline and de-randomiser memories.

  20. The signals to trigger the initiation of ovule enlargement are from the pollen tubes: The direct evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Qu, Li-Jia

    2017-09-01

    In angiosperms, initiation of ovule enlargement represents the start of seed development, the molecular mechanism of which is not yet elucidated. It was previously reported that pollen tube contents, rather than double fertilization, can trigger ovule enlargement. However, it remains unclear whether the signal(s) to trigger the initiation of ovule enlargement are from the sperm cells or from the pollen tubes. Recently, we identified a mutant drop1- drop2-, which produces pollen tubes with no sperm cells. Taking advantage of this special genetic material, we conducted pollination assays, and found that the ovules pollinated with drop1- drop2- pollen could initiate the enlargement and exhibited significant enlarged sizes at 36 h after pollination in comparison with those unpollinated ovules. However, the sizes of the ovules pollinated with drop1- drop2- pollen are significantly smaller than those of the ovules pollinated with wild-type pollen. These results demonstrate that the pollen tube, rather than the sperm cells, release the signal to trigger the initiation of ovule enlargement, and that double fertilization is required for further enlargement of the seeds. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchetti, F.; ALICE Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The ALICE Experiment (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) aims to study the properties of quark-gluon matter using Pb-Pb collisions at a center of mass energy (per nucleon pair) of squaresNN = 5.5 TeV with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The EMCal consists in a large area electromagnetic calorimeter able to extend the measured momentum range of photons and electrons by over an order of magnitude. In addition, the EMCal will enhance the capability of the overall ALICE setup to perform better jet reconstruction by measurement of the neutral energy component of jets, photons and neutral pions. The EMCal will also produce a fast high-pT trigger: the anticipated minimum bias average Pb-Pb interaction rate is very high (around 8 kHz), thus a fast high-pT trigger will provide an enhancement in high pT events in central collisions. The EMCal covers a geometrical region from -0.7<=η<=0.7 (in pseudo-rapidity η) and 120° in the azimuthal angle phi. In particular, the phi-coverage has been chosen to allow the detection of γ-jet events in coincidence with the other ALICE complementary calorimeter, the PHOS. The EMCal is a modular sampling calorimeter: it can measure showers up to 20 radiation lengths. Each module is composed by 4 towers of a Pb-scintllator sandwich (shashlik). The shape of the basic module is tapered to allow a projective geometry of the final assembly with respect to the interaction point. An assembly of 12×24 modules is called a super-module. The complete EMCal is a high granularity detector containing 11 super modules for a total of 12.672 towers. An independent optical readout of each tower is provided using wavelength shifting fibers coupled to an APD (Avalanche Photo Diod). The APD readout was chosen to allow the operation in the high B-field environment created by the ALICE solenoidal magnet. The gain of the APD is monitored using a LED activated scintillator installed on into each module.

  2. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; /UC, Irvine /AGH-UST, Cracow /Birmingham U. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Rutherford /Montreal U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Birmingham U. /Copenhagen U. /Copenhagen U. /Brookhaven /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Montreal U. /SLAC /CERN /Michigan State U. /Chile U., Catolica /City Coll., N.Y. /Oxford U. /La Plata U. /McGill U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /CERN /Rutherford /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Birmingham U. /Montreal U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Liverpool U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Geneva U. /Birmingham U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /AGH-UST, Cracow /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Michigan State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /CERN /Montreal U. /Stockholm U. /Arizona U. /Regina U. /Regina U. /Rutherford /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /City Coll., N.Y. /University Coll. London /Humboldt U., Berlin /Queen Mary, U. of London /Argonne /LPSC, Grenoble /Arizona U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Antonio Narino U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Chile U., Catolica /Indiana U. /Manchester U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Rutherford /City Coll., N.Y. /Stockholm U. /La Plata U. /Antonio Narino U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Antonio Narino U. /Pavia U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Pennsylvania U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Chile U., Catolica /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Rutherford /Barcelona, IFAE /Nevis Labs, Columbia U. /CERN /Antonio Narino U. /McGill U. /Rutherford /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /Rutherford /Chile U., Catolica /Brookhaven /Oregon U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /McGill U. /Antonio Narino U. /Antonio Narino U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Sydney U. /Rutherford /McGill U. /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Moscow State U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Birmingham U. /Geneva U. /Oregon U. /Barcelona, IFAE /University Coll. London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Birmingham U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Oregon U. /La Plata U. /Geneva U. /Chile U., Catolica /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Regina U. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Oxford U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /UC, Irvine /UC, Irvine /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rutherford /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /CERN /Geneva U. /Copenhagen U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Stockholm U. /University Coll. London

    2011-12-08

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  3. Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types.

  4. Effect of initial conditions and of intra-event rainfall intensity variability on shallow landslide triggering return period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, David Johnny; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of shallow landslide hazard is important for appropriate planning of mitigation measures. Generally, return period of slope instability is assumed as a quantitative metric to map landslide triggering hazard on a catchment. The most commonly applied approach to estimate such return period consists in coupling a physically-based landslide triggering model (hydrological and slope stability) with rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Among the drawbacks of such an approach, the following assumptions may be mentioned: (1) prefixed initial conditions, with no regard to their probability of occurrence, and (2) constant intensity-hyetographs. In our work we propose the use of a Monte Carlo simulation approach in order to investigate the effects of the two above mentioned assumptions. The approach is based on coupling a physically based hydrological and slope stability model with a stochastic rainfall time series generator. By this methodology a long series of synthetic rainfall data can be generated and given as input to a landslide triggering physically based model, in order to compute the return period of landslide triggering as the mean inter-arrival time of a factor of safety less than one. In particular, we couple the Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses model for hourly rainfall generation and the TRIGRS v.2 unsaturated model for the computation of transient response to individual rainfall events. Initial conditions are computed by a water table recession model that links initial conditions at a given event to the final response at the preceding event, thus taking into account variable inter-arrival time between storms. One-thousand years of synthetic hourly rainfall are generated to estimate return periods up to 100 years. Applications are first carried out to map landslide triggering hazard in the Loco catchment, located in highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy. Then a set of additional simulations are performed

  5. Lightning initiation mechanism based on the development of relativistic runaway electron avalanches triggered by background cosmic radiation: Numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, L. P. Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2011-05-15

    The mechanism of lightning initiation due to electric field enhancement by the polarization of a conducting channel produced by relativistic runaway electron avalanches triggered by background cosmic radiation has been simulated numerically. It is shown that the fields at which the start of a lightning leader is possible even in the absence of precipitations are locally realized for realistic thundercloud configurations and charges. The computational results agree with the in-situ observations of penetrating radiation enhancement in thunderclouds.

  6. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Henriques, A.

    2015-07-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics. (authors)

  7. The AMS-02 lead-scintillating fibres Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Basara, L.; Bigongiari, G.; Bosi, F.; Brun, P.; Cadoux, F.; Cervelli, F.; Chambert, V.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Coignet, G.; Cougoulat, G.; Di Falco, S.; Dubois, J. M.; Elles, S.; Falchini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Fougeron, D.; Fouque, N.; Galeotti, S.; Gallucci, G.; Gherarducci, F.; Girard, L.; Giuseppe, F.; Goy, C.; Hermel, R.; Incagli, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Journet, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Lepareur, V.; Li, Z. H.; Lieunard, B.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, Y. S.; Maestro, P.; Magazzù, C.; Maire, M.; Orsini, A.; Paniccia, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Peltier, F.; Piendibene, M.; Pilo, F.; Pochon, J.; Rambure, T.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Spinella, F.; Tang, X. W.; Tassan-Viol, J.; Tazzioli, A.; Vannini, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Zhuang, H. L.

    2013-06-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a fine grained lead-scintillating fibres sampling calorimeter that allows for a precise three-dimensional imaging of the longitudinal and lateral shower development. It provides a high (≥106) electron/hadron discrimination with the other AMS-02 detectors [1] and good energy resolution. The calorimeter also provides a standalone photon trigger capability to AMS-02. The mechanical assembly was realized to ensure minimum weight, still supporting the intrinsically heavy calorimeter during launch. ECAL light collection system and electronics are designed to measure electromagnetic particles over a wide energy range, from GeV up to TeV. A full-scale flight-like model was tested using electrons and proton beams with energies ranging from 6 to 250 GeV.

  8. Correlated Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and Radar Observations of the Initial Stages of Florida Triggered Lightning Discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Uman, M, A.; Jordan, D. M.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Rison, W.; Blakeslee, R.

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the geometrical and electrical characteristics of the initial stages of nine Florida triggered lightning discharges using a Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), a C-band SMART radar, and measured channel-base currents. We determine initial channel and subsequent branch lengths, average initial channel and branch propagation speeds, and channel-base current at the time of each branch initiation. The channel-base current is found to not change significantly when branching occurs, an unexpected result. The initial stage of Florida triggered lightning typically transitions from vertical to horizontal propagation at altitudes of 3-6 km, near the typical 0 C level of 4-5 km and several kilometers below the expected center of the negative cloud-charge region at 7-8 km. The data presented potentially provide information on thunderstorm electrical and hydrometeor structure and discharge propagation physics. LMA source locations were obtained from VHF sources of positive impulsive currents as small as 10 A, in contrast to expectations found in the literature.

  9. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Kim, K. C.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Wang, J. Z.; Wu, J.; Case, G.; Ellison, S. B.; Gould, R.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment is designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = 1 to 28 cosmic rays over the energy range of approximately 10 GeV - 100 TeV. ATIC is comprised of an eight-layer, 18 radiation length deep Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, downstream of a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target and an approximately 1 sq m finely segmented silicon charge detector. Interleaved with the graphite layers are three scintillator strip hodoscopes for pre-triggering and tracking. ATIC flew for the first time on a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) launched from McMurdo, Antarctica in January 2001. During its 16-day flight ATIC collected more than 30 million science events, along with housekeeping, calibration, and rate data. This presentation will describe the ATIC data processing, including calibration and efficiency corrections, and show results from analysis of this dataset. The next launch is planned for December 2002.

  10. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  11. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  12. Initial experience and clinical comparison of two image guidance methods for SBRT treatment: 4DCT versus respiratory-triggered imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Brian; Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema; Zhao, Hui; Huang, Y Jessica; Sarkar, Vikren; Szegedi, Martin; Kokeny, Kristine E; Anker, Christopher J; Shrieve, Dennis C; Salter, Bill J

    2011-01-31

    For Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) treatment of lung and liver, we quantified the differences between two image guidance methods: 4DCT and ExacTrac respiratory-triggered imaging. Five different patients with five liver lesions and one lung lesion for a total of 19 SBRT delivered fractions were studied. For the 4DCT method, a manual registration process was used between the 4DCT image sets from initial simulation and treatment day to determine the required daily image-guided corrections. We also used the ExacTrac respiratory-triggered imaging capability to verify the target positioning, and calculated the differences in image guidance shifts between these two methods. The mean (standard deviation) of the observed differences in image-guided shifts between 4DCT and ExacTrac respiratory-triggered image guidance was left/right (L/R) = 0.4 (2.0) mm, anterior/posterior (A/P) = 1.4 (1.7) mm, superior/inferior (S/I) = 2.2 (2.0) mm, with no difference larger than 5.0 mm in any given direction for any individual case. The largest error occurred in the S/I direction, with a mean of 2.2 mm for the six lesions. This seems reasonable, because respiratory motion and the resulting imaging uncertainties are most pronounced in this S/I direction. Image guidance shifts derived from ExacTrac triggered imaging at two extreme breathing phases (i.e., full exhale vs. full inhale), agreed well (less than 2.0 mm) with each other. In summary, two very promising image guidance methods of 4DCT and ExacTrac respiratory-triggered imaging were presented and the image guidance shifts were comparable for the patients evaluated in this study.

  13. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W.; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  14. Performance of the DELPHI small angle tile calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1996-06-01

    The DELPHI STIC detector is a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter with wave length shifting optical fibers used for light collection. The main goal of the calorimeter at LEP100 is to measure the luminosity with an accuracy better than 0.1%. The detector has been in operation since the 1994 LEP run. Presented here is the performance measured during the 1994--1995 LEP runs, with the emphasis on the achieved energy and space resolution, the long-term stability and the efficiency of the detector. The new bunchtrains mode of LEP requires a rather sophisticated trigger and timing scheme which is also presented. To control the trigger efficiency and stability of the calorimeter channels, a LED-based monitoring system has been developed.

  15. What are the required conditions to trigger the obduction/subduction initiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Philippe; Duretz, Thibault; Agard, Philippe; Soret, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    The initial stages allowing for the birth of obduction and/or subduction zones still remain enigmatic and highly debated. Although there is no doubt that initiation occurs on a preexisting lithospheric-scale thermal or mechanical discontinuity (e.g., ridge, supra-subduction zone or transform fault), no consensus has yet been reached on this subject. However, more and more data allowing to address this issue are available (coming from field analyses, metamorphic petrology and geochronology). In particular, metamorphic soles located at the base of ophiolitic nappes, which formed during the very first stages of initiation, yield increasingly precise P-T-t constraints. By confronting such data to thermo-mechanical models, it should be possible to identify which initial configuration allows for metamorphic sole formation and for the emplacement (or not) of an ophiolitic nappe of realistic dimensions. In this study we designed thermo-mechanical models encompassing three initial model configurations, for which P-T-t data from the Semail ophiolite of Oman are then used for the validation of model outputs. The first configuration encompasses an oceanic ridge type initial thermal perturbation (error function). The second configuration mimics the thermal perturbation caused by the arrival of a mantle plume at the base of the lithosphere (gaussian function). The third initial condition corresponds to a case where the obduction/subduction initiates along a transform fault delimitating lithospheres of contrasting thermal ages (step function). Our results show that obduction never initiates in ridge type models, excepted for particular conditions that are not compatible with the Oman case. They also indicate that the initial thermal anomaly has to be sharp but not necessary of large amplitude and that the strength of the lithosphere has to be high enough to ensure the establishment of thin and long ophiolitic nappe without buckling. Our results also highlight the key role of

  16. Observed triggering of tropical convection by a cold surge: Implications for MJO initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Kodera, K.; Chen, W.

    2012-04-01

    The extratropical influence is an important mechanism in the initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Based on analyses of several datasets, this study demonstrates that the MJO case initiated in late January 2008 was strengthened by a preceding cold surge over West Asia when the MJO was at its initiation phase. The cold surge-related northerlies propagated southward along the east coast of African continent. The associated convergence on its edge enhanced ascending motion in the tropical western Indian Ocean and led to the onset of deep convection to the north of Madagascar. This process helped to amplify the MJO convection rapidly as shown in the development of the moist static energy anomalies. In this way, the cold surge affected the behavior of the MJO and modified the timing of its initiation to some extent. These results support previous studies that the extratropical factors are important for the initiation of the MJO, and imply that the subtropical cold surges are more likely to strengthen and accelerate the buildup of deep MJO convection rather than to initiate it.

  17. Dynamic process analysis for the initiation and movement of the Donghekou landslide-debris flow triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jia-wen; Cui, Peng; Yang, Xing-guo

    2013-10-01

    The Donghekou landslide-debris flow was a remarkable geological disaster triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. The dynamic process of a rapid landslide-debris flow is very complicated and can be divided into two aspects: the slope dynamic response of the earthquake and the mass movement and accumulation process. A numerical method combined with a finite difference method (FDM) and discrete element method (DEM) for simulation of landslide-debris flow under seismic loading is presented. The FDM and DEM are coupled through the critical sliding surface, initiation time and velocity. The dynamic response of the slope is simulated by the finite difference method, and critical sliding surface is determined using the earthquake response spectrum method. The landslide initiation time and the velocity are determined by time-history analysis. The mass movement and accumulation process is simulated using the discrete element method. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum amplification coefficient of dynamic acceleration for the Donghekou slope is approximately 3.909, the initiation time of landslide is approximately 6.0 s, and the average initial velocity of the sliding mass is approximately 0.85 m/s. The failure of the slope is the result of elevation-orientated amplification effect and the sliding mass triggered with a small initial velocity. The numerical simulated result of the maximum sliding velocity is approximately 66.35 m/s, and the mass is disintegrated rapidly because of collision and free fall. The landslide velocity decreases when the flowing mass reaches a lower slope angle and gradually comes to a stop, and the total travel distance is approximately 2400 m.

  18. Radionuclide calorimeter system

    DOEpatents

    Donohoue, Thomas P.; Oertel, Christopher P.; Tyree, William H.; Valdez, Joe L.

    1991-11-26

    A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated.

  19. Radionuclide calorimeter system

    DOEpatents

    Donohoue, T.P.; Oertel, C.P.; Tyree, W.H.; Valdez, J.L.

    1991-11-26

    A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a Wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated. 7 figures.

  20. Secondary Emission Calorimeter (SEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. J.; Northrop, Richard; Frisch, Henry; Elagin, Andrey; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ramberg, Erik; Spiropulu, Maria; Apresyan, Artur; Xie, Si

    2014-06-25

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) the experimenters of University of Chicago and California Institute of Technology, who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2014-2015 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations. The experimenters propose using large-area micro-channel plates assembled without the usual bialkali photocathodes as the active element in sampling calorimeters, Modules without photocathodes can be economically assembled in a glove box and then pumped and sealed using the process to construct photomultipliers, This electromagnetic calorimeter is based on W and Pb absorber plates sandwiched with detectors. Measurements can be made with bare plates and absorber inside the vacuum vessel.

  1. ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter prototype test

    SciTech Connect

    Awes, Terry; /Oak Ridge

    2005-09-01

    This Memorandum of Understanding between the Test Beam collaborators and Fermilab is for the use of beam time at Fermilab during the Fall, 2005 Meson Test Beam Run. The experimenters plan to measure the energy, position, and time resolution of prototype modules of a large electromagnetic calorimeter proposed to be installed in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The ALICE experiment is one of the three large approved LHC experiments, with ALICE placing special emphasis on the LHC heavy-ion program. The large electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a US initiative that is endorsed by the ALICE collaboration and is currently in the early stages of review by the Nuclear Physics Division of the DOE. The installation in the test beam at FNAL and test beam measurements will be carried out by the US members of the ALICE collaboration (ALICE-USA). The overall design of the ALICE EMCal is heavily influenced by its location within the ALICE L3 magnet. The EMCal is to be located inside the large room temperature magnet within a cylindrical integration volume approximately l12cm deep, by 5.6m in length, sandwiched between the ALICE TPC space frame and the L3 magnet coils. The chosen technology is a layered Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter with a longitudinal pitch of 1.6mm Pb and 1.6mm scintillator. The full detector spans {eta} = -0.7 to {eta} = 0.7 with an azimuthal acceptance of {Delta}{phi} = 120{sup o}. The EMCal readout is of a ''Shish-Kabob'' type similar to the PHENIX Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter in which the scintillation light is collected via wavelength shifting fibers running through the Pb-scintillator tiles perpendicular to the front surface. The detector is segmented into {approx}14000 towers. The basic structural units of the calorimeter are supermodules, each subtending approximately {approx}20{sup o} in {Delta}{phi} and 0.7 units in {Delta}{eta}. Supermodules are assembled from individual modules. The modules are further segmented into 2 x 2

  2. DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

  3. Was Himalayan normal faulting triggered by initiation of the Ramgarh-Munsiari Thrust?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Delores M.; Pearson, Ofori N.

    2013-01-01

    The Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust is a major orogen-scale fault that extends for more than 1,500 km along strike in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. The fault can be traced along the Himalayan arc from Himachal Pradesh, India, in the west to eastern Bhutan. The fault is located within the Lesser Himalayan tectonostratigraphic zone, and it translated Paleoproterozoic Lesser Himalayan rocks more than 100 km toward the foreland. The Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust is always located in the proximal footwall of the Main Central thrust. Northern exposures (toward the hinterland) of the thrust sheet occur in the footwall of the Main Central thrust at the base of the high Himalaya, and southern exposures (toward the foreland) occur between the Main Boundary thrust and Greater Himalayan klippen. Although the metamorphic grade of rocks within the Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust sheet is not significantly different from that of Greater Himalayan rock in the hanging wall of the overlying Main Central thrust sheet, the tectonostratigraphic origin of the two different thrust sheets is markedly different. The Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust became active in early Miocene time and acted as the roof thrust for a duplex system within Lesser Himalayan rocks. The process of slip transfer from the Main Central thrust to the Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust in early Miocene time and subsequent development of the Lesser Himalayan duplex may have played a role in triggering normal faulting along the South Tibetan Detachment system.

  4. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  5. Induction heating for surface triggering styrene polymerization on titanium modified with ATRP initiator.

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, Bastien; Devillers, Sébastien; Minet, Isabelle; Delhalle, Joseph; Mekhalif, Zineb

    2011-02-15

    Titanium and its alloys present high interests for technological applications due to their high corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In combination with these remarkable characteristics, some Ti applications require specific surface properties that can be imparted with suitable surface functionalizations of the TiO(2) oxide layer. The present work aims to study the surface-initiated ATR polymerization of styrene on titanium substrates, using grafted 11-(2-bromoisobutyrate)-undecyl-1-phosphonic acid as initiator and to compare the impact of two different heating ways on the efficiency of this polymerization: induction vs. conventional heating. The ability of the initiator to bind titanium substrates and act as an initiator for ATRP of styrene is investigated: both heating conditions led to the polymerization of styrene on modified titanium substrates. However, induction heating appeared to be much more efficient than conventional heating, leading to the formation of a thicker, much denser polystyrene layer than conventional heating after only 1h of polymerization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy Photon Search Commissioning Run and Performance of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumila-Vance, Holly; Heavy Photon Search Collaboration Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment at Jefferson Lab will search for a possible new heavy vector boson that couples weakly to electric charge and can decay to e+e- pairs. HPS utilizes an Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal) for fast triggering and complementary energy information in the reconstruction of the e+e- invariant mass. The ECal is composed of 442 PbWO4 crystals readout through large area avalanche photo-diodes and digitized using flash ADCs. The initial testing and calibration of the ECal began in the fall of 2014 using a light monitoring system, cosmic muons, and 2 GeV beam electrons. Proper performance of the ECal is crucial for optimizing the trigger selection for potential Heavy Photon events and eliminating background from accidentals. This talk covers the design, calibration, and performance of the HPS ECal during the commissioning run.

  7. A hadronic tile calorimeter report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gianluigi; Gourlay, S.; Chung, Yeon Sei; Lee, Kyoung-Beom; Malvezzi, S.; Sala, A.; Arena, V.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Merlo, M.; Ratti, S.; Riccardi, C.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1998-02-01

    The design and first performances of a new hadronic calorimeter for the experiment Focus (E831) at Fermilab are presented. It is a sampling calorimeter, with 28 iron (passive) and scintillator (active) planes. The active planes are composed of tiles read out by WaveLength Shifter fibers spliced to clear fibers. This is the first tile calorimeter actually used (1997)in a running experiment.

  8. Steroids initiate a signaling cascade that triggers rapid sporulation in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Anjard, Christophe; Su, Yongxuan; Loomis, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Encapsulation of prespore cells of Dictyostelium discoideum is controlled by several intercellular signals to ensure appropriate timing during fruiting body formation. Acyl-CoA-binding protein, AcbA, is secreted by prespore cells and processed by the prestalk protease TagC to form the 34 amino acid peptide SDF-2 that triggers rapid encapsulation. AcbA is secreted when γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is released from prespore cells and binds to GrlE, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Analysis of SDF-2 production in mutant strains lacking Gα subunits and GPCRs, either as pure populations or when mixed with other mutant strains, uncovered the non-cell-autonomous roles of GrlA, Gα4 and Gα7. We found that Gα7 is essential for the response to GABA and is likely to be coupled to GrlE. GrlA-null and Gα4-null cells respond normally to GABA but fail to secrete it. We found that they are necessary for the response to a small hydrophobic molecule, SDF-3, which is released late in culmination. Pharmacological inhibition of steroidogenesis during development blocked the production of SDF-3. Moreover, the response to SDF-3 could be blocked by the steroid antagonist mifepristone, whereas hydrocortisone and other steroids mimicked the effects of SDF-3 when added in the nanomolar range. It appears that SDF-3 is a steroid that elicits rapid release of GABA by acting through the GPCR GrlA, coupled to G protein containing the Gα4 subunit. SDF-3 is at the head of the cascade that amplifies the signal for encapsulation to ensure the rapid, synchronous formation of spores. PMID:19176583

  9. Glucose accumulation can account for the initial water flux triggered by Na+/glucose cotransport.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marilène P; Bissonnette, Pierre; Deslandes, Louis-Martin; Wallendorff, Bernadette; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, several cotransport studies have led to the proposal of secondary active transport of water, challenging the dogma that all water transport is passive. The major observation leading to this interpretation was that a Na+ influx failed to reproduce the large and rapid cell swelling induced by Na+/solute cotransport. We have investigated this phenomenon by comparing a Na+/glucose (hSGLT1) induced water flux to water fluxes triggered either by a cationic inward current (using ROMK2 K+ channels) or by a glucose influx (using GLUT2, a passive glucose transporter). These proteins were overexpressed in Xenopus oocytes and assayed through volumetric measurements combined with double-electrode electrophysiology or radioactive uptake measurements. The osmotic gradients driving the observed water fluxes were estimated by comparison with the swelling induced by osmotic shocks of known amplitude. We found that, for equivalent cation or glucose uptakes, the combination of substrate accumulations observed with ROMK2 and GLUT2 are sufficient to provide the osmotic gradient necessary to account for a passive water flux through SGLT1. Despite the fact that the Na+/glucose stoichiometry of SGLT1 is 2:1, glucose accumulation accounts for two-thirds of the osmotic gradient responsible for the water flux observed at t = 30 s. It is concluded that the different accumulation processes for neutral versus charged solutes can quantitatively account for the fast water flux associated with Na+/glucose cotransport activation without having to propose the presence of secondary active water transport.

  10. Glucose Accumulation Can Account for the Initial Water Flux Triggered by Na+/Glucose Cotransport

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Marilène P.; Bissonnette, Pierre; Deslandes, Louis-Martin; Wallendorff, Bernadette; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, several cotransport studies have led to the proposal of secondary active transport of water, challenging the dogma that all water transport is passive. The major observation leading to this interpretation was that a Na+ influx failed to reproduce the large and rapid cell swelling induced by Na+/solute cotransport. We have investigated this phenomenon by comparing a Na+/glucose (hSGLT1) induced water flux to water fluxes triggered either by a cationic inward current (using ROMK2 K+ channels) or by a glucose influx (using GLUT2, a passive glucose transporter). These proteins were overexpressed in Xenopus oocytes and assayed through volumetric measurements combined with double-electrode electrophysiology or radioactive uptake measurements. The osmotic gradients driving the observed water fluxes were estimated by comparison with the swelling induced by osmotic shocks of known amplitude. We found that, for equivalent cation or glucose uptakes, the combination of substrate accumulations observed with ROMK2 and GLUT2 are sufficient to provide the osmotic gradient necessary to account for a passive water flux through SGLT1. Despite the fact that the Na+/glucose stoichiometry of SGLT1 is 2:1, glucose accumulation accounts for two-thirds of the osmotic gradient responsible for the water flux observed at t = 30 s. It is concluded that the different accumulation processes for neutral versus charged solutes can quantitatively account for the fast water flux associated with Na+/glucose cotransport activation without having to propose the presence of secondary active water transport. PMID:14695256

  11. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA grant NAGW-4577, "Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)". This grant covered a joint project between LSU and the University of Maryland for a Concept Study of a new type of fully active calorimeter to be used to measure the energy spectra of very high energy cosmic rays, particularly Hydrogen and Helium, to beyond 1014 eV. This very high energy region has been studied with emulsion chamber techniques, but never investigated with electronic calorimeters. Technology had advanced to the point that a fully active calorimeter based upon Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillating crystals appeared feasible for balloon flight (and eventually space) experiments.

  12. On the Challenge of Keeping ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Raw Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiskaridze, V. K.

    2012-08-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently taking data with proton-proton collisions. The TileCal read-out system was initially designed to reconstruct the data in real-time and to store for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. This approach implied discarding 80% of the raw data that correspond to noise or small signals. Practical experience operating in this scheme with increasing rate have led to several modifications and understanding that some kind of data compression is helpful during data processing and storing. An alternate approach is to use online reconstruction for Level 2 triggering only and to implement a data flow lossless compression scheme for further offiine analysis. A new version of the lossless compression algorithm is proposed which allows to both save the complete raw data and to feed the trigger with the reconstructed signal amplitude and time. It does not increase the data flow as compared to the existing approach and the size of the data fragments transmitted is more stable. We will describe the lossless compression algorithm as a possible upgrade of the Tile data acquisition and highlight some details of the implementation. We will report on its testing and validation and on the overall performance measured on high rate tests, calibration and √ {s} = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions runs.

  13. Recurrent Initiation: A Mechanism for Triggering p53 Pulses in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Eric; Mock, Caroline; Bhan, Irun; Loewer, Alexander; Lahav, Galit

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA damage initiates a series of p53 pulses. Although much is known about the interactions surrounding p53, little is known about which interactions contribute to p53’s dynamical behavior. The simplest explanation is that these pulses are oscillations intrinsic to the p53/Mdm2 negative feedback loop. Here we present evidence that this simple mechanism is insufficient to explain p53 pulses; we show that p53 pulses are externally driven by pulses in the upstream signaling kinases, ATM and Chk2, and that the negative feedback between p53 and ATM, via Wip1, is essential for maintaining the uniform shape of p53 pulses. We propose that p53 pulses result from repeated initiation by ATM which is re-activated by persistent DNA damage. Our study emphasizes the importance of collecting quantitative dynamic information at high temporal resolution for understanding the regulation of signaling pathways and opens new ways to manipulate p53 pulses to ask questions about their function in response to DNA damage. PMID:18471974

  14. On initial steps of chemical prebiotic evolution: Triggering autocatalytic reaction of oligomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsev, S. I.; Mezhevikin, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Searching for extraterrestrial life attracts more and more attention. However this searching hardly can be effective without sufficiently universal concept of life origin, which incidentally tackles a problem of origin of life on the Earth. A concept of initial stages of life origin is stated in the paper. The concept eliminates key difficulties in the problem of life origin, and allows experimental verification of it. According to the concept the predecessor of living beings has to be sufficiently simple to provide non-zero probability of self-assembling during short (in geological or cosmic scale) time. In addition the predecessor has to be capable of autocatalysis, and further complication (evolution). A possible scenario of initial stage of life origin, which can be realized both on other planets, and inside experimental facility is considered. In the scope of the scenario a theoretical model of multivariate oligomeric autocatalyst is presented. Results of computer simulation of two versions of oligomeric autocatalytic reactions are presented. It is shown that the contribution of monomer activation reaction is essential, and in some cases autocatalysis in polymerizing reaction can be achieved without catalyzing proper monomer binding reaction.

  15. Dynamic Remodeling of the Magnetosome Membrane Is Triggered by the Initiation of Biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Elias; Subramanian, Poorna; Li, Zhuo; Jensen, Grant J; Komeili, Arash

    2016-02-16

    Magnetotactic bacteria produce chains of membrane-bound organelles that direct the biomineralization of magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetosome compartments are a model for studying the biogenesis and subcellular organization of bacterial organelles. Previous studies have suggested that discrete gene products build and assemble magnetosomes in a stepwise fashion. Here, using an inducible system, we show that the stages of magnetosome formation are highly dynamic and interconnected. During de novo formation, magnetosomes first organize into discontinuous chain fragments that are subsequently connected by the bacterial actin-like protein MamK. We also find that magnetosome membranes are not uniform in size and can grow in a biomineralization-dependent manner. In the absence of biomineralization, magnetosome membranes stall at a diameter of ~50 nm. Those that have initiated biomineralization then expand to significantly larger sizes and accommodate mature magnetic particles. We speculate that such a biomineralization-dependent checkpoint for membrane growth establishes the appropriate conditions within the magnetosome to ensure successful nucleation and growth of magnetic particles. Magnetotactic bacteria make magnetic nanoparticles inside membrane-bound organelles called magnetosomes; however, it is unclear how the magnetosome membrane controls the biomineralization that occurs within this bacterial organelle. We placed magnetosome formation under inducible control in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 and used electron cryo-tomography to capture magnetosomes in their near-native state as they form de novo. An inducible system provided the key evidence that magnetosome membranes grow continuously unless they have not properly initiated biomineralization. Our finding that the size of a bacterial organelle impacts its biochemical function is a fundamental advance that impacts our perception of organelle formation and can inform future attempts aimed at creating

  16. Development of COTS ADC SEE Test System for the ATLAS LArCalorimeter Upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xue -Ye; Chen, Hu -Cheng; Chen, Kai; ...

    2014-12-01

    Radiation-tolerant, high speed, high density and low power commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are planned to be used in the upgrade to the Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter front end (FE) trigger readout electronics. Total ionization dose (TID) and single event effect (SEE) are two important radiation effects which need to be characterized on COTS ADCs. In our initial TID test, Texas Instruments (TI) ADS5272 was identified to be the top performer after screening a total 17 COTS ADCs from different manufacturers with dynamic range and sampling rate meeting the requirements of the FE electronics. Another interesting feature of ADS5272more » is its 6.5 clock cycles latency, which is the shortest among the 17 candidates. Based on the TID performance, we have designed a SEE evaluation system for ADS5272, which allows us to further assess its radiation tolerance. In this paper, we present a detailed design of ADS5272 SEE evaluation system and show the effectiveness of this system while evaluating ADS5272 SEE characteristics in multiple irradiation tests. According to TID and SEE test results, ADS5272 was chosen to be implemented in the full-size LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) demonstrator, which will be installed on ATLAS calorimeter during the 2014 Long Shutdown 1 (LS1).« less

  17. Development of COTS ADC SEE Test System for the ATLAS LArCalorimeter Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xue -Ye; Chen, Hu -Cheng; Chen, Kai; Mead, Joseph; Liu, Shu -Bin; An, Qi

    2014-12-01

    Radiation-tolerant, high speed, high density and low power commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are planned to be used in the upgrade to the Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter front end (FE) trigger readout electronics. Total ionization dose (TID) and single event effect (SEE) are two important radiation effects which need to be characterized on COTS ADCs. In our initial TID test, Texas Instruments (TI) ADS5272 was identified to be the top performer after screening a total 17 COTS ADCs from different manufacturers with dynamic range and sampling rate meeting the requirements of the FE electronics. Another interesting feature of ADS5272 is its 6.5 clock cycles latency, which is the shortest among the 17 candidates. Based on the TID performance, we have designed a SEE evaluation system for ADS5272, which allows us to further assess its radiation tolerance. In this paper, we present a detailed design of ADS5272 SEE evaluation system and show the effectiveness of this system while evaluating ADS5272 SEE characteristics in multiple irradiation tests. According to TID and SEE test results, ADS5272 was chosen to be implemented in the full-size LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) demonstrator, which will be installed on ATLAS calorimeter during the 2014 Long Shutdown 1 (LS1).

  18. Electromagnetic calorimeter for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle-ECL; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Garmash, Yu; Goh, Y. M.; Kim, S. H.; Krokovny, P.; Kuzmin, A.; Lee, I. S.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Nakamura, I.; Shebalin, V.; Shwartz, B.; Unno, Y.; Usov, Yu; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobjev, V.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.

    2015-02-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the BELLE II detector for experiments at Super B-factory SuperKEKB is briefly described. The project of the calorimeter upgrade to meet severe background conditions expected at the upgraded KEK B factory is presented.

  19. PP1 initiates the dephosphorylation of MASTL, triggering mitotic exit and bistability in human cells.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Samuel; Fey, Dirk; McCloy, Rachael A; Parker, Benjamin L; Mitchell, Nicholas J; Payne, Richard J; Daly, Roger J; James, David E; Caldon, C Elizabeth; Watkins, D Neil; Croucher, David R; Burgess, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Entry into mitosis is driven by the phosphorylation of thousands of substrates, under the master control of Cdk1. During entry into mitosis, Cdk1, in collaboration with MASTL kinase, represses the activity of the major mitotic protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thereby ensuring mitotic substrates remain phosphorylated. For cells to complete and exit mitosis, these phosphorylation events must be removed, and hence, phosphatase activity must be reactivated. This reactivation of phosphatase activity presumably requires the inhibition of MASTL; however, it is not currently understood what deactivates MASTL and how this is achieved. In this study, we identified that PP1 is associated with, and capable of partially dephosphorylating and deactivating, MASTL during mitotic exit. Using mathematical modelling, we were able to confirm that deactivation of MASTL is essential for mitotic exit. Furthermore, small decreases in Cdk1 activity during metaphase are sufficient to initiate the reactivation of PP1, which in turn partially deactivates MASTL to release inhibition of PP2A and, hence, create a feedback loop. This feedback loop drives complete deactivation of MASTL, ensuring a strong switch-like activation of phosphatase activity during mitotic exit. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. PP1 initiates the dephosphorylation of MASTL, triggering mitotic exit and bistability in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Samuel; Fey, Dirk; McCloy, Rachael A.; Parker, Benjamin L.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.; Payne, Richard J.; Daly, Roger J.; James, David E.; Caldon, C. Elizabeth; Watkins, D. Neil; Croucher, David R.; Burgess, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Entry into mitosis is driven by the phosphorylation of thousands of substrates, under the master control of Cdk1. During entry into mitosis, Cdk1, in collaboration with MASTL kinase, represses the activity of the major mitotic protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thereby ensuring mitotic substrates remain phosphorylated. For cells to complete and exit mitosis, these phosphorylation events must be removed, and hence, phosphatase activity must be reactivated. This reactivation of phosphatase activity presumably requires the inhibition of MASTL; however, it is not currently understood what deactivates MASTL and how this is achieved. In this study, we identified that PP1 is associated with, and capable of partially dephosphorylating and deactivating, MASTL during mitotic exit. Using mathematical modelling, we were able to confirm that deactivation of MASTL is essential for mitotic exit. Furthermore, small decreases in Cdk1 activity during metaphase are sufficient to initiate the reactivation of PP1, which in turn partially deactivates MASTL to release inhibition of PP2A and, hence, create a feedback loop. This feedback loop drives complete deactivation of MASTL, ensuring a strong switch-like activation of phosphatase activity during mitotic exit. PMID:26872783

  1. Bile acids initiate cholestatic liver injury by triggering a hepatocyte-specific inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonglin; Soroka, Carol J.; Wang, Juxian; Mennone, Albert; Wang, Yucheng; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Jain, Dhanpat; Boyer, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms of bile acid–induced (BA-induced) liver injury in cholestasis are controversial, limiting development of new therapies. We examined how BAs initiate liver injury using isolated liver cells from humans and mice and in-vivo mouse models. At pathophysiologic concentrations, BAs induced proinflammatory cytokine expression in mouse and human hepatocytes, but not in nonparenchymal cells or cholangiocytes. These hepatocyte-specific cytokines stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis. Inflammatory injury was mitigated in Ccl2–/– mice treated with BA or after bile duct ligation, where less hepatic infiltration of neutrophils was detected. Neutrophils in periportal areas of livers from cholestatic patients also correlated with elevations in their serum aminotransferases. This liver-specific inflammatory response required BA entry into hepatocytes via basolateral transporter Ntcp. Pathophysiologic levels of BAs induced markers of ER stress and mitochondrial damage in mouse hepatocytes. Chemokine induction by BAs was reduced in hepatocytes from Tlr9–/– mice, while liver injury was diminished both in conventional and hepatocyte-specific Tlr9–/– mice, confirming a role for Tlr9 in BA-induced liver injury. These findings reveal potentially novel mechanisms whereby BAs elicit a hepatocyte-specific cytokine-induced inflammatory liver injury that involves innate immunity and point to likely novel pathways for treating cholestatic liver disease. PMID:28289714

  2. Dynamic Remodeling of the Magnetosome Membrane Is Triggered by the Initiation of Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Elias; Subramanian, Poorna; Li, Zhuo; Jensen, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Magnetotactic bacteria produce chains of membrane-bound organelles that direct the biomineralization of magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetosome compartments are a model for studying the biogenesis and subcellular organization of bacterial organelles. Previous studies have suggested that discrete gene products build and assemble magnetosomes in a stepwise fashion. Here, using an inducible system, we show that the stages of magnetosome formation are highly dynamic and interconnected. During de novo formation, magnetosomes first organize into discontinuous chain fragments that are subsequently connected by the bacterial actin-like protein MamK. We also find that magnetosome membranes are not uniform in size and can grow in a biomineralization-dependent manner. In the absence of biomineralization, magnetosome membranes stall at a diameter of ~50 nm. Those that have initiated biomineralization then expand to significantly larger sizes and accommodate mature magnetic particles. We speculate that such a biomineralization-dependent checkpoint for membrane growth establishes the appropriate conditions within the magnetosome to ensure successful nucleation and growth of magnetic particles. PMID:26884433

  3. Down-regulation of the Lamin A/C in neuroblastoma triggers the expansion of tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Nardella, Marta; Guglielmi, Loredana; Musa, Carla; Iannetti, Ilaria; Maresca, Giovanna; Amendola, Donatella; Porru, Manuela; Carico, Elisabetta; Sessa, Giuseppe; Camerlingo, Rosalba; Dominici, Carlo; Megiorni, Francesca; Milan, Marika; Bearzi, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Leonetti, Carlo; Bucci, Barbara; Mercanti, Delio; Felsani, Armando; D'Agnano, Igea

    2015-10-20

    Tumor-initiating cells constitute a population within a tumor mass that shares properties with normal stem cells and is considered responsible for therapy failure in many cancers. We have previously demonstrated that knockdown of the nuclear envelope component Lamin A/C in human neuroblastoma cells inhibits retinoic acid-mediated differentiation and results in a more aggressive phenotype. In addition, Lamin A/C is often lost in advanced tumors and changes in the nuclear envelope composition occur during tumor progression. Based on our previous data and considering that Lamin A/C is expressed in differentiated tissues, we hypothesize that the lack of Lamin A/C could predispose cells toward a stem-like phenotype, thus influencing the development of tumor-initiating cells in neuroblastoma. This paper demonstrates that knockdown of Lamin A/C triggers the development of a tumor-initiating cell population with self-renewing features in human neuroblastoma cells. We also demonstrates that the development of TICs is due to an increased expression of MYCN gene and that in neuroblastoma exists an inverse relationship between LMNA and MYCN expression.

  4. Rainfall-triggered lahars at Volcán de Colima, Mexico: Surface hydro-repellency as initiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, L.; Borselli, L.; Varley, N.; Gavilanes-Ruiz, J. C.; Norini, G.; Sarocchi, D.; Caballero, L.; Cortes, A.

    2010-01-01

    Volcán de Colima is currently the most active volcano in Mexico. Since 1998 intermittent activity has been observed with vulcanian eruptions, lava flows and growing domes that have collapsed producing several block-and-ash flow deposits. During the period of heightened activity since 1998 at Volcán de Colima, pyroclastic flows from dome or column collapse have not reached long distances, most of the time less than 6 km from the crater. In contrast, rain-induced lahars were more frequent and have reached relatively long distances, up to 15 km, causing damage to infrastructure and affecting small villages. In 2007 two rain gauge stations were installed on the southern flank of the volcano registering events from June through to October, the period when rains are intense and lahars frequent. By comparing lahar frequency with rainfall intensity and the rainfall accumulated during the previous 3 days, lahars more frequently occur at the beginning of the rainfall season, with low rain accumulation (< 10 mm) and triggered by low rain intensities (< 20 mm/h). During the months with more rainfall (July and August) lahars are less frequent and higher peak intensities (up to 70 mm/h) are needed to trigger an event. In both cases, lahars were initiated as dilute, sediment-laden streamflows, which transformed with entrainment of additional sediment into hyperconcentrated and debris flows, with alternations between these two flow types. A hydro-repellency mechanism in highly vegetated areas (i.e. evergreen tree types with considerable amount of resins and waxes such as pines) with sandy soils can probably explain the high frequency of lahars at the beginning of the rain season during low rainfall events. Under hydrophobic conditions, infiltration is inhibited and runoff is facilitated at more highly peaked discharges that are more likely to initiate lahars.

  5. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  6. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; ...

    2015-10-02

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5×10–17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to matchmore » these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D; studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.« less

  7. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dane, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, Stefano; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pasciuto, D.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2015-10-02

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5×10–17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D; studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.

  8. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pasciuto, D.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5 ×10-17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.

  9. Initial design and results from an ion current collection diagnostic for the triggered plasma opening switch experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Seidel, David Bruce; Gilmore, Mark; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.

    2005-06-01

    Study of the triggered plasma opening switch (TPOS) characteristics is in progress via an ion current collection diagnostic (ICCD), in addition to offline apparatus. This initial ion current collection diagnostic has been designed, fabricated, and tested on the TPOS in order to explore the opening profile of the main switch. The initial ion current collection device utilizes five collectors which are positioned perpendicularly to the main switch stage in order to collect radially traveling ions. It has been shown through analytical prowess that this specific geometry can be treated as a planar case of the Child-Langmuir law with only a 6% deviation from the cylindrical case. Additionally, magnetostatic simulations with self consistent space charge emitting surfaces of the main switch using the Trak code are under way. It is hoped that the simulations will provide evidence in support of both the analytical derivations and experimental data. Finally, an improved design of the ICCD (containing 12 collectors in the axial direction) is presently being implemented.

  10. Pulmonary vein triggers play an important role in the initiation of atrial flutter: Initial results from the prospective randomized Atrial Fibrillation Ablation in Atrial Flutter (Triple A) trial.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ralph; Lauschke, Joerg; Tischer, Tina; Schneider, Cindy; Voss, Wolfgang; Moehlenkamp, Felix; Glass, Aenne; Diedrich, Doreen; Bänsch, Dietmar

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after ablation of a cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) is high. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that AFL and AF may be initiated by pulmonary vein triggers. This prospective randomized trial tested the efficacy of a standalone pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with AFL but without AF. Patients with AFL but without documented AF were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (1) antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD), (2) CTI ablation, or (3) circumferential PVI. The primary end-point was defined as any recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmia and the secondary end-point as recurrence of AFL. In case of tachyarrhythmia recurrence in the PVI group, a second PVI was performed to close gaps in the ablation lines. Of the 60 patients, 17 were randomized to AAD, 23 to CTI ablation, and 20 to PVI. During follow-up of 1.42 ± 0.83 years, 14 of 17 patients (82.4%) in the AAD group, 14 of 23 patients (60.9%) in the CTI group, and 2 of 20 patients (10%) in the PVI group reached the primary end-point (P <.001) after a mean of 1.4 PVI procedures per patient. AFL reoccurred in 9 patients (52.9.%) in the AAD group, in 2 patients (8.7%) in the CTI group, and after a single PVI in 3 patients (15%) in the PVI group (P = .003). After closure of gaps, 1 patient (5%) in the PVI group presented with recurrent AFL. Pulmonary vein triggers play an important role in AFL. PVI can prevent the recurrence of AFL, even without CTI ablation. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The CDF miniplug calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Lami, Stefano

    2002-06-28

    Two MiniPlug calorimeters, designed to measure the energy and lateral position of particles in the (forward) pseudorapidity region of 3.6 < |{nu}| < 5.2 of the CDF detector, have been recently installed as part of the Run II CDF upgrade at the Tevatron {bar p}p collider. They consist of lead/liquid scintillator read out by wavelength shifting fibers arranged in a pixel-type towerless geometry suitable for ''calorimetric tracking''. The design concept, the prototype performance and the final design of the MiniPlugs are here described. A recent cosmic ray test resulted in a light yield of approximately 100 pe/MIP, which exceeds our design requirements.

  12. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R. ); Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W. ); Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E. )

    1994-08-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1[degree]--7[degree]). The 7 [lambda] deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented.

  13. Double beta decay: Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brofferio, Chiara

    2008-11-01

    Calorimeters or, with a more specific definition, low temperature detectors, have been used by now for more than 15 years in Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, with excellent results: they compete with Ge diodes for the rank of detectors with the highest sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass, which is defined as a linear combination of the neutrino mass eigenvalues. After a brief introduction to the argument, with some notes on DBD and on bolometers, an update on the now closed experiment CUORICINO and on its successor, CUORE, is given. The fundamental role of background is then revealed and commented, introducing in this way the importance of the specific experiment now under construction, CUORE-0, that will precede CUORE to help optimizing the struggle against surface background. The possible future of this technique is then commented, quoting important R&D studies that are going on, for active shielding bolometers and for scintillating bolometers coupled with light detecting bolometers.

  14. Preliminary conceptual design about the CEPC calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haijun

    2016-11-01

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs factory was proposed in September 2013. The preliminary conceptual design report was completed in 2015.1 The CEPC detector design was using International Linear Collider Detector — ILD2 as an initial baseline. The CEPC calorimeters, including the high granularity electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and the hadron calorimeter (HCAL), are designed for precise energy measurements of electrons, photons, taus and hadronic jets. The basic resolution requirements for the ECAL and HCAL are about 16%E (GeV) and 50%E (GeV), respectively. To fully exploit the physics potential of the Higgs, W, Z and related Standard Model processes, the jet energy resolution is required to reach 3%-4%, or 30%/E (GeV) at energies below about 100 GeV. To achieve the required performance, a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) — oriented calorimetry system is being considered as the baseline design. The CEPC ECAL detector options include silicon-tungsten or scintillator-tungsten structures with analog readout, while the HCAL detector options have scintillator or gaseous detector as the active sensor and iron as the absorber. Some latest R&D studies about ECAL and HCAL within the CEPC working group is also presented.

  15. Preliminary Conceptual Design About the CEPC Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haijun

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs factory was proposed in September 2013. The preliminary conceptual design report was completed in 2015. The CEPC detector design was using International Linear Collider Detector — ILD as an initial baseline. The CEPC calorimeters, including the high granularity electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and the hadron calorimeter (HCAL), are designed for precise energy measurements of electrons, photons, taus and hadronic jets. The basic resolution requirements for the ECAL and HCAL are about 16%[√ E ] (GeV) and 50% [√ E] (GeV), respectively. To fully exploit the physics potential of the Higgs, W, Z and related Standard Model processes, the jet energy resolution is required to reach 3%-4%, or 30%/[√ E] (GeV) at energies below about 100 GeV. To achieve the required performance, a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) — oriented calorimetry system is being considered as the baseline design. The CEPC ECAL detector options include silicon-tungsten or scintillator-tungsten structures with analog readout, while the HCAL detector options have scintillator or gaseous detector as the active sensor and iron as the absorber. Some latest R&D studies about ECAL and HCAL within the CEPC working group is also presented.

  16. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for Hades Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, A.; Blume, C.; Czyžycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Lapidus, K.; Lisowski, E.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Svoboda, O.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-06-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement the dilepton spectrometer HADES currently operating at GSI Darmstadt, Germany. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 A GeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. The calorimeter will also improve the electron-hadron separation and will as well be used for the detection of photons from strange resonances in elementary and heavy ion reactions. Calorimeter modules constructed of lead glass Cherenkov counter, photomultiplier, HV divider and optical fiber are described in the detail. Two prototypes of novel front-end electronics based on TRB3 are presented. A dedicated LED based system being developed to monitor the stability of the calorimeter during beamtime is introduced as well.

  17. The SuperNEMO calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquet, Christine; SuperNEMO collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SuperNEMO double beta decay project is a modular tracker-calorimeter experiment that will reach a sensitivity to the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of ∼ 1026 years, corresponding to a Majorana neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. The main calorimeter is based on 440 Optical Modules made of large volume plastic scintillators (10L) coupled with large area photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R5912-Mod). They are assembled in walls surrounding the isotope foil and the tracking volume. One of the main challenges of the SuperNEMO detector development programme was to reach an energy resolution, better than 8%(FWHM) at 1 MeV. The other challenge was to satisfy the radiopurity requirements for all the calorimeter materials. The calorimeter design of the first SuperNEMO module is presented as well as its performances and the status of its construction under way in the Modane underground laboratory.

  18. High density fluoride glass calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Q.; Scheltzbaum, J.; Akgun, U.

    2014-04-01

    The unprecedented radiation levels in current Large Hadron Collider runs, and plans to even increase the luminosity creates a need for new detector technologies to be investigated. Quartz plates to replace the plastic scintillators in current LHC calorimeters have been proposed in recent reports. Quartz based Cherenkov calorimeters can solve the radiation damage problem, however light production and transfer have proven to be challenging. This report summarizes the results from a computational study on the performance of a high-density glass calorimeter. High-density, scintillating, fluoride glass, CHG3, was used as the active material. This glass has been developed specifically for hadron collider experiments, and is known for fast response time, in addition to high light yield. Here, the details of a Geant4 model for a sampling calorimeter prototype with 20 layers, and its hadronic as well as electromagnetic performances are reported.

  19. Aspirin Triggered-Lipoxin A4 Reduces the Adhesion of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Endothelial Cells Initiated by Preeclamptic Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Villa, AM; Norling, LV; Serhan, CN; Cordero, D; Rojas, M; Cadavid, A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Here, we evaluated the role of aspirin triggered-lipoxin A4 (ATL, 15-epi-LXA4) on the modulation of the adhesion of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to endothelial cells initiated by preeclamptic plasma. Materials and methods Plasma from preeclamptic, normotensive pregnant, and non-pregnant women were analysed for factors involved in regulating angiogenesis, inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma from preeclamptic women was added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and the adhesion of PMN (incubated with or without ATL) to cells was evaluated. Results Preeclampsia was associated with some augmented anti-angiogenic, oxidative and pro-inflammatory markers, as well as increasing human PMN-endothelial cell adhesion. This cell adhesion was reduced when human PMN were incubated with ATL prior to addition to endothelial monolayers. Discussions and Conclusions Our results are the starting point for further research on the efficacy and rational use of aspirin in preeclampsia. PMID:22974760

  20. Heterotypic endosomal fusion as an initial trigger for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2017-08-15

    Comprehensive imaging analyses of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) behaviour in mouse skeletal muscle was conducted. Quantum dot-based single molecule nanometry revealed that GLUT4 molecules in skeletal myofibres are governed by regulatory systems involving 'static retention' and 'stimulus-dependent liberation'. Vital imaging analyses and super-resolution microscopy-based morphometry demonstrated that insulin liberates the GLUT4 molecule from its static state by triggering acute heterotypic endomembrane fusion arising from the very small GLUT4-containing vesicles in skeletal myofibres. Prior exposure to exercise-mimetic stimuli potentiated this insulin-responsive endomembrane fusion event involving GLUT4-containing vesicles, suggesting that this endomembranous regulation process is a potential site related to the effects of exercise. Skeletal muscle is the major systemic glucose disposal site. Both insulin and exercise facilitate translocation of the glucose transporter glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) via distinct signalling pathways and exercise also enhances insulin sensitivity. However, the trafficking mechanisms controlling GLUT4 mobilization in skeletal muscle remain poorly understood as a resuly of technical limitations. In the present study, which employs various imaging techniques on isolated skeletal myofibres, we show that one of the initial triggers of insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation is heterotypic endomembrane fusion arising from very small static GLUT4-containing vesicles with a subset of transferrin receptor-containing endosomes. Importantly, pretreatment with exercise-mimetic stimuli potentiated the susceptibility to insulin responsiveness, as indicated by these acute endomembranous activities. We also found that AS160 exhibited stripe-like localization close to sarcomeric α-actinin and that insulin induced a reduction of the stripe-like localization accompanying changes in its detergent solubility. The results of the present study thus provide a

  1. Calorimeter Process Variable Archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, David; /Fermilab

    2002-01-14

    These steps were taken to maintain weekly archives: (1) Friday morning you stop the archiver and wait for it to finish writing data (the lock file will be removed from the directory); (2) move the current archive information to a PC via FTP; (3) remove all previous archive information in the previous directory; (4) move the current archive into the previous directory; (5) start a new archive; (6) burn a CDROM of the archive; and (7) copy the current archive to a specific directory. There are 2 ways to check if the Calorimeter Archiver is running, either through the WEB based front end or directly from a command line. Once the archiver is running it can be monitored from a WEB page. This only works with a browser launched from the online machine running the archiver. Each time the browser is reloaded there should be an update reported in the last write check field. You might have to wait a few minutes to see the update. Calorimetry currently takes readings every (300 sec.) 5 minutes. The second method to verify the archiver is running is to issue a command from a Linux cluster machine.

  2. SCA controller for the ATLAS calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gingrich, D.M.; Hewlett, J.C.; Holm, L.

    1997-12-31

    The front-end readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter will store data locally in analog pipeline memories at the LHC beam crossing frequency of 40 MHz. Switched capacitor array chips meeting the ATLAS readout requirements will be used. These new chips axe capable of simultaneous read and write operations, and allow random access to storage locations. To utilize these essential design features requires a substantial amount of fast control and address bookkeeping logic. We have designed a controller capable of operating the pipelines as analog random access memories and that satisfies the ATLAS readout requirements. The pipeline controller manages the data of 144 time samples and can operate at a mean trigger rate of about 75 kHz, when reading out five time samples per event. We are currently prototyping an integrated version of the controller implemented in a FPGA from Xilinx.

  3. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    DOE PAGES

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; ...

    2015-02-13

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerfulmore » $$\\mu/e$$ particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ~ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ~<1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal $$BaF_2$$ crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this study, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment.« less

  4. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Cheng, C.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Davydov, Yu.; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D.; Luca, A.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Murat, P.; Ongmonkolkul, P.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Stomaci, V.; Tassielli, G.

    2015-02-13

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerful $\\mu/e$ particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ~ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ~<1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal $BaF_2$ crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this study, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment.

  5. ATIC as a testbed for the ACCESS baseline calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Isbert, J.; Authement, J.; Coleman, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Granger, D.; Lockwood, R.; McMorris, A.; Mock, L.; Oubre, C.; Panasyuk, M.; Peck, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H. Jr.; Boberg, P. R.; Dion-Schwarz, C.; Kroeger, R.; Bashindzhagyan, G. B.; Khein, L.; Samsonov, G. A.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    1999-01-22

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment is designed to measure the spectrum of individual elements from H through Fe up to a total energy >10{sup 14} eV. To accomplish this goal, ATIC incorporates a Silicon matrix detector composed of more than 4,000 pixels to measure the incident particle charge in the presence of backscatter background, three plastic scintillator hodoscopes to provide an event trigger as well as a backup measurement of the particle charge and trajectory, a 3/4 interaction length carbon target and a fully active ionization calorimeter composed of 22 radiation lengths of Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals. This detector complement is very similar to the baseline calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station, ACCESS. The ATIC flights can be used to evaluate such a calorimeter in the cosmic ray 'beam.' ATIC integration is currently underway with a first flight expected during 1999. This talk will discuss ATIC as it applies to ACCESS.

  6. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  7. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Richard E.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  8. The segmentation of hadron calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He Sheng

    1987-05-01

    Optimization of the segmentation of large hadron calorimeters is important in order to obtain good resolution for jet physics at minimum construction cost for the next generation of high energy experiments. The principles of the segmentation of hadron calorimeters are discussed. As an example, the Monte Carlo optimization of the segmentation of the L3 hadron calorimeter barrel at CERN is described. Comparisons of results for the reconstructed jet shapes show that the optimum number ADC channels is about 20K for the readout of 450K wires of the proportional chambers. The matching between the sandwiched φ towers and Z towers is the dominant factor for angular resolution. Based on these Monte Carlo simulations, an optimized tower structure is obtained.

  9. Precision Timing Calorimeter for High Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; ...

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present studies on the performance and characterization of the time resolution of LYSO-based calorimeters. Results for an LYSO sampling calorimeter and an LYSO-tungsten Shashlik calorimeter are presented. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for the LYSO sampling calorimeter. Timing calorimetry is described as a tool for mitigating the effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen for the Large Hadron Collider.

  10. UV-Induced Triggering of a Biomechanical Initiation Switch Within Collagen Promotes Development of a Melanoma-Permissive Microenvironment in the Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    structure of ECM proteins may represent a mechanism to initiate triggering of a biomechanical switch that allows multiple cell types within the tissue...observed while little change in adhesion was observed to UVB irradiated collage type-I. These studies suggest that distinct cell types exhibit different...adhesive responses to UVA and UVB irradiated collagen type- I and -IV in vitro. Biomechanical switch -- Collagen structure -- Conformational change

  11. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2001-04-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs.

  12. OPAL silicon-tungsten calorimeter front end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Anderson, K.; Charalambous, A.; Cotta-Ramusino, A.; Dallavalle, M.; Evans, H.; Eyring, A.; Foucher, M.; Giacomelli, R.; Giles, A.

    1994-08-01

    A pair of small angle silicon-tungsten (Si-W) calorimeters has been built to measure the luminosity to a precision better than 0.1% in the OPAL experiment at the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider at CERN near Geneva. Each calorimeter contains 19 layers of tungsten (W) plates and silicon (Si) detectors, corresponding to a total of 22 radiation lengths, sampled by about 1 m(sup 2) of detectors divided into 304 x 64 independently read out channels. A complete electronics system has been developed, from the preamplifier up to the VME read out and control interface. It includes a fast trigger based on analogue sums. This paper describes how a large number of channels have been implemented in a dense environment, thanks to the use of ASIC's directly bonded on the detector.

  13. LHCb calorimeters high voltage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilitsky, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Perret, P.; Schopper, A.; Soldatov, M.; Yakimchuk, V.

    2007-02-01

    The calorimeter system in LHCb aims to identify electrons, photons and hadrons. All calorimeters are equipped with Hamamatsu photo tubes as devices for light to signal conversion. Eight thousand R7899-20 tubes are used for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and two hundred 64 channels multi-anode R7600-00-M64 for Scintillator-Pad/Preshower detectors. The calorimeter high voltage (HV) system is based on a Cockroft Walton (CW) voltage converter and a control board connected to the Experiment Control System (ECS) by serial bus. The base of each photomultiplier tube (PMT) is built with a high voltage converter and constructed on an individual printed circuit board, using compact surface mount components. The base is attached directly to the PMT. There are no HV cables in the system. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used on the control board as an interface between the ECS and the 200 control channels. The FPGA includes also additional functionalities allowing automated monitoring and ramp up of the high voltage values. This paper describes the HV system architecture, some technical details of the electronics implementation and summarizes the system performance. This safe and low power consumption HV electronic system for the photomultiplier tubes can be used for various biomedical apparatus too.

  14. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  15. COE1 Calorimeter Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter Angelo

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the operations of the COE1 calorimeter which is used to measure the thermal power generated by the radioactive decay of plutonium-bearing materials for the purposes of assaying the amount of plutonium within the material.

  16. Motivational Modulation of Self-Initiated and Externally Triggered Movement Speed Induced by Threat of Shock: Experimental Evidence for Paradoxical Kinesis in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Louise M.; Griffin, Harry J.; Angeli, Aikaterini; Torkamani, Mariam; Georgiev, Dejan; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Paradoxical kinesis has been observed in bradykinetic people with Parkinson’s disease. Paradoxical kinesis occurs in situations where an individual is strongly motivated or influenced by relevant external cues. Our aim was to induce paradoxical kinesis in the laboratory. We tested whether the motivation of avoiding a mild electric shock was sufficient to induce paradoxical kinesis in externally-triggered and self-initiated conditions in people with Parkinson’s disease tested on medication and in age-matched controls. Methods Participants completed a shock avoidance behavioural paradigm in which half of the trials could result in a mild electric shock if the participant did not move fast enough. Half of the trials of each type were self-initiated and half were externally-triggered. The criterion for avoiding shock was a maximum movement time, adjusted according to each participant’s performance on previous trials using a staircase tracking procedure. Results On trials with threat of shock, both patients with Parkinson’s disease and controls had faster movement times compared to no potential shock trials, in both self-initiated and externally-triggered conditions. The magnitude of improvement of movement time from no potential shock to potential shock trials was positively correlated with anxiety ratings. Conclusions When motivated to avoid mild electric shock, patients with Parkinson’s disease, similar to healthy controls, showed significant speeding of movement execution. This was observed in both self-initiated and externally-triggered versions of the task. Nevertheless, in the ET condition the improvement of reaction times induced by motivation to avoid shocks was greater for the PD patients than controls, highlighting the value of external cues for movement initiation in PD patients. The magnitude of improvement from the no potential shock to the potential shock trials was associated with the threat-induced anxiety. This demonstration of

  17. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shebalin, V. E. Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  18. Results on the spaghetti calorimeter projective prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencheikh, B.; Contin, A.; DeSalvo, R.; Hao, W.; Wang, Y. Y.; Lundin, M.; Mondardini, R.; Xu, C.; You, K.

    1992-12-01

    The performances of a projective lead/scintillating fibres ("spaghetti") calorimeter made out of rectangular cross-section (32 × 32 mm 2) straight modules alternated with tapering modules at 2.5° are described. Beam test results on energy resolution, constant term suppression, lineshape, uniformity of response, shower position resolution, and electron-pion discrimination are presented. The readout of the fibres in the straight modules, which are sensitive to most of the electromagnetic showers and to part of the hadronic showers, is kept separate from the readout of the fibres of the wedged sections, which are sensitive only to hadronic showers. The lead-to-fibre volume ratio is kept at about 4 to 1 in order to obtain an equal-amplitude response from electrons and hadrons (usually called "compensation"). The origin of the energy resolution constant term has been better understood. This allowed the reduction of the constant term to 0.5%, down from 1.2% measured in older prototypes. The probability of faking abnormally large signals because of channelling effects is also discussed. The position resolution has been measured to range from 0.5 to 1 mm depending on the hit position of the particle. A comparison with the larger hexagonal module design is also made. The efficiency of a hardware thresholding of the wedges' signal as a level one trigger pion veto is discussed along with off-line electron/pion discrimination performances. Since the wedges start at 26 X0 from the calorimeter front face they should show no signal for electromagnetic showers. It was found that electromagnetic showers of 50 GeV generate wedge signals of a maximum of a few tens of MeV. It was also found that the discriminating power is angle dependent, mainly because at small particle-to-fibre angles (≤ 1°) some electrons can penetrate the calorimeter through channeling, thus exciting a signal in the wedges. At slightly higher tilt angle it is possible to use a lower wedge threshold without

  19. Detection of gamma quanta due to {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} decays by a modular electromagnetic calorimeter with a neutral trigger under a 40-GeV {pi}{sup -} beam

    SciTech Connect

    Barkov, B.P.; Katinov, Y.V.; Lisin, V.I.

    1994-11-01

    We have previously generated a YAC contig of the SMA region on chromosome 5q13 and initiated construction of a corresponding cosmid contig from these YAC clones and a chromosome 5 cosmid library. In order to screen for candidate genes from this area, a cosmid containing CATT1, a microsatellite marker, in linkage disequilibrium with SMA was used to screen a fetal brain library. The largest cDNA clone (2.2 Kb) isolated from this library, GA1, was mapped back to the original cosmid and then characterized. Screening of a spinal cord library with the GA1 cDNA identified a 700 bp clone. Hybridization to a zoo blot revealed cross-species conservation in pig, sheep, goat and horse. Sequencing of GA1 identified 2221 bp with no long open reading frame or poly A tail. Analysis of this sequence with `grail` showed a small potential coding region of 75 bp coding for 25 amino acids. A database search for homologous sequence using `blast` did not show any significant matches. Furthermore, no introns were identified in genomic subclones when compared to the cDNA sequence by using PCR and various combinations of GA1 sequence-derived primers. Experiments with RT-PCR on DNase-treated total mRNA from adult brain, fibroblasts and liver identified the anticipated GA1 product from fibroblast mRNA only. RACE extension of the cDNA clone revealed that we were dealing with the full-length transcript. Subsequent fine mapping with various combinations of GA1 PCR primers to PAC clones in this region identified 1 copy of a novel 300 bp sequence that has undergone a microduplication yielding several copies of this sequence in a 300 Kb segment of the SMA critical region. PCR-based mutational analysis has not revealed any alteration peculiar to SMA chromosomes. A search for polymorphisms with the GA1 sequence to use in SMA linkage analysis was also conducted.

  20. Use of laboratory tests to guide initiation of autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell collection by apheresis: results from the multicenter hematopoietic progenitor cell collection by Apheresis Laboratory Trigger Survey.

    PubMed

    Makar, Robert S; Padmanabhan, Anand; Kim, Haewon C; Anderson, Christina; Sugrue, Michele W; Linenberger, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Limited literature describes the value of laboratory "triggers" to guide collection of peripheral blood (PB) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) by apheresis [HPC(A)]. We used a web-based survey to determine which parameters are used to initiate autologous HPC(A) collection in adult and pediatric patients and to identify common practice patterns. Members of the AABB Cellular Therapy Product Collection and Clinical Practices Subsection and the American Society for Apheresis HPC Donor Subcommittee drafted and developed relevant survey questions. A web link to the survey was distributed by electronic newsletter or email. Responses from 67 programs that perform autologous HPC(A) collections, including academic medical centers (n = 46), blood centers (n = 10), community hospitals (n = 5), and a variety of other medical institutions (n = 6), were analyzed. Ninety-three percent (62/67) of programs used a laboratory parameter to initiate HPC(A) collection. In both adult (40/54, 74%) and pediatric (29/38, 76%) patients, the PB CD34+ cell count was the most common parameter used to initiate HPC(A) collection. The median PB CD34+ trigger value was 10/μL for both patient populations. Among centers routinely using the PB CD34+ cell count to initiate apheresis, 51% (22/43) first sent the test before the patient presented for collection. Although more than 90% of centers used a laboratory test to trigger apheresis in cytokine-mobilized (44/48) or chemomobilized patients (50/53), only 57% (30/53) used a laboratory trigger if the patient was mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor plus plerixafor. Forty-two percent (21/50) of programs that routinely measured the PB CD34+ count before collection and discontinued further HPC(A) collection based on product CD34+ cell yield also stopped if the PB CD34+ value before apheresis was considered too low to proceed. Most programs use the PB CD34+ cell count to trigger autologous HPC(A) collection. Some centers also use this

  1. A Syndecan-4 Hair Trigger Initiates Wound Healing through Caveolin- and RhoG-Regulated Integrin Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Mark D.; Williamson, Rosalind C.; Nunan, Robert D.; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Byron, Adam; Morgan, Mark R.; Martin, Paul; Humphries, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cell migration during wound healing requires adhesion receptor turnover to enable the formation and disassembly of cell-extracellular matrix contacts. Although recent advances have improved our understanding of integrin trafficking pathways, it is not known how extracellular ligand engagement controls receptor dynamics. Using atomic force microscopy, we have measured cell avidity for fibronectin and defined a mechanism for the outside-in regulation of α5β1-integrin. Surprisingly, adhesive strength was attenuated by the syndecan-4-binding domain of fibronectin due to a rapid triggering of α5β1-integrin endocytosis. Association of syndecan-4 with PKCα was found to trigger RhoG activation and subsequent dynamin- and caveolin-dependent integrin uptake. Like disruption of syndecan-4 or caveolin, gene disruption of RhoG in mice was found to retard closure of dermal wounds due to a migration defect of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes of RhoG null mice. Thus, this syndecan-4-regulated integrin endocytic pathway appears to play a key role in tissue repair. PMID:21982645

  2. A syndecan-4 hair trigger initiates wound healing through caveolin- and RhoG-regulated integrin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bass, Mark D; Williamson, Rosalind C; Nunan, Robert D; Humphries, Jonathan D; Byron, Adam; Morgan, Mark R; Martin, Paul; Humphries, Martin J

    2011-10-18

    Cell migration during wound healing requires adhesion receptor turnover to enable the formation and disassembly of cell-extracellular matrix contacts. Although recent advances have improved our understanding of integrin trafficking pathways, it is not known how extracellular ligand engagement controls receptor dynamics. Using atomic force microscopy, we have measured cell avidity for fibronectin and defined a mechanism for the outside-in regulation of α(5)β(1)-integrin. Surprisingly, adhesive strength was attenuated by the syndecan-4-binding domain of fibronectin due to a rapid triggering of α(5)β(1)-integrin endocytosis. Association of syndecan-4 with PKCα was found to trigger RhoG activation and subsequent dynamin- and caveolin-dependent integrin uptake. Like disruption of syndecan-4 or caveolin, gene disruption of RhoG in mice was found to retard closure of dermal wounds due to a migration defect of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes of RhoG null mice. Thus, this syndecan-4-regulated integrin endocytic pathway appears to play a key role in tissue repair.

  3. Programming for responsiveness to environmental antigens that trigger allergic respiratory disease in adulthood is initiated during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Holt, P G

    1998-06-01

    Allergy to airborne environmental antigens (allergens) is a major cause of asthma in children and adults. This review argues that the development of allergen-specific immunologic memory of the type that predisposes to allergy development is the end result of a T-cell selection process operative during infancy, which is triggered via encounters between the immature immune system and incoming airborne allergens from the environment. In normal individuals this process leads to the development of allergen-specific T-memory cells that secure the T helper (Th)-1 pattern of cytokines, which actively suppress the growth of their allergy-inducing Th-2 cytokine-secreting counterparts. However, these protective allergen-reactive Th-1 memory cells fail to develop in some individuals, permitting the subsequent proliferation of allergen-specific Th-2 cells that can trigger allergic reactions. Recent evidence suggests that genetic predisposition to allergy may be due in part to hyperactivity of control mechanisms operative in utero and which normally protect the fetoplacental unit against the toxic effect of Th-1 cytokines.

  4. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, P.; Chlad, L.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Korcyl, G.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Linev, S.; Lisowski, E.; Neiser, A.; Ott, O.; Otte, O.; Pethukov, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Svoboda, O.; Thomas, A.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  5. Compensation effects in hadron calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.; Brau, J.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Goodman, M.; Wilson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The pros and cons of utilizing a fissionable material such as /sup 238/U to compensate for the nuclear binding energy losses in a hadron calorimeter are discussed. Fissionable material can return some lost energy to the particle cascade in terms of low-energy neutrons and gamma rays, but electromagnetic sampling inefficiencies (often called transition effects) and the detection medium which tries to convert this energy to a useable signal are just as important. 12 references.

  6. An elevated temperature titration calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Zanonato, P.L.; Choppin, G.R. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-06-01

    A variable-temperature (313 K to 353 K) titration calorimeter of high sensitivity has been constructed. The purpose of the calorimeter is to study temperature effects on the enthalpies of complex formation and of other reactions of metal cations such as hydrolysis and precipitation. Operation of the calorimetric system, including that final calculation of the heat released during titration, is automatic via computer control. Calibration tests of the calorimeter using 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol gave -(46.0 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(46.2 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} for the enthalpy of protonation, at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. For titrations of 2-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol, enthalpy of protonation values of -(28.4 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(29.3 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} were obtained at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Electromagnetic Calorimeter studies for the GEp(5) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayerbe Gayoso, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    The GEp(5) experiment, part of the SBS collaboration, will be the fourth measurement of the GEp /GMp ratio using the proton recoil polarization technique. The current data suggests that the GEp /GMp ratio obtained with this technique, might cross zero near Q2 ~ 10 GeV2 , now reachable with the CEBAF upgrade to 12 GeV energy beam. This measurement technique requires a precise measurement of the energy and angles of the scattered electron in coincidence with the recoil proton. The electron's measured energy and crude position will be used in the trigger, while the offline position measurement will be used in kinematic cuts to separate the elastic process from the background. A lead-glass calorimeter, which was used in the previous experiments, is not optimal for the planned experiment due to the rapid radiation damage in the experiment's running conditions. A sampling calorimeter, made of lead and plastic scintillators, is under consideration. Results from a test beam and Monte Carlo simulations of this kind of calorimeter will be presented. Supported from a NSF grant, PHY-1066374.

  8. Prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition for cardiac CT angiography in routine clinical practice: initial results.

    PubMed

    Kröpil, Patric; Rojas, Carlos A; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Lanzman, Rotem S; Miese, Falk R; Scherer, Axel; Kalra, Mannudeep; Abbara, Suhny

    2012-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the mode of application, image quality (IQ), and radiation exposure resulting from introduction of a prospectively electrocardiogram-triggered high-pitch cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) acquisition mode into routine clinical practice. A total of 42 prospectively triggered cardiac CTAs were conducted on 34 patients (11 female, 23 male; mean age 56 ± 15 y) using a high-pitch mode (pitch 3.4) on a dual-source CT. In 8 of these patients with higher heart rates or occasional premature ventricular contractions, 2 immediately subsequent CTAs were performed ("double flash protocol"). Subjective IQ was assessed for coronary arteries using a 4-point scale (1=unevaluable to 4=excellent). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured in 9 locations. CT Dose Index and dose-length product were obtained, and the patients' effective dose was calculated. Mean effective doses were 2.6 ± 1.4 mSv (range: 1.1 to 6.4) for the entire cardiac examination and 1.4 ± 0.7 mSv (0.4 to 3.1) for individual high-pitch cardiac CTA. z-coverage ranged from 9.9 cm in a native coronary CTA to 31.4 cm in a bypass graft case. The overall subjective IQ was good to excellent (mean score: 3.5), with 1.5% unevaluable coronary segments. The "double flash protocol" resulted in a fully diagnostic CT study in all cases just after taking both scans into consideration. The mean CNR of all locations was 19.7 ± 2.6. Prospectively electrocardiograph-triggered high-pitch-mode cardiac CTA is a feasible and promising technique in clinical routine, allowing for evaluation of coronaries at good-to-excellent IQ and providing high CNR and minimal radiation doses. The "double flash protocol" might become a more robust tool in patients with elevated heart rates or premature ventricular contractions.

  9. Secondary Emission Calorimeter Sensor Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, David R.; Onel, Yasar

    2012-12-01

    In a Secondary Emission electron(SEe) detector module, Secondary Emission electrons (SEe) are generated from an SE surface/cathode, when charged hadronic or electromagnetic particles, particularly shower particles, penetrate an SE sampling module placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W etc) in calorimeters. The SE cathode is a thin (10-50 nm thick) film (simple metal-oxides, or other higher yield materials) on the surface of a metal plate, which serves as the entrance “window” to a compact vacuum vessel (metal or metal-ceramic); this SE film cathode is analogous to a photocathode, and the SEe are similar to p.e., which are then amplified by dynodes, also is in a PMT. SE sensor modules can make use of electrochemically etched/machined or laser-cut metal mesh dynode sheets, as large as ~30 cm square, to amplify the Secondary Emission Electrons (SEe), much like those that compact metal mesh or mesh dynode PMT's use to amplify p.e.'s. The construction requirements easier than a PMT, since the entire final assembly can be done in air; there are no critical controlled thin film depositions, cesiation or other oxygen-excluded processes or other required vacuum activation, and consequently bake-out can be a refractory temperatures; the module is sealed by normal vacuum techniques (welding or brazing or other high temperature joinings), with a simple final heated vacuum pump-out and tip-off. The modules envisioned are compact, high gain, high speed, exceptionally radiation damage resistant, rugged, and cost effective, and can be fabricated in arbitrary tileable shapes. The SE sensor module anodes can be segmented transversely to sizes appropriate to reconstruct electromagnetic cores with high precision. The GEANT4 and existing calorimeter data estimated calorimeter response performance is between 35-50 Secondary Emission electrons per GeV, in a 1 cm thick Cu absorber calorimeter, with a gain per SEe > 105 per SEe, and an e/pi<1.2. The calorimeter pulse width is

  10. Mechanical Design of the DAMPE BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yiming; Wu, Jian; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chen, Dengyi; Chang, Jin

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer, DAMPE, is a new designed satellite developed for the CASs new Innovation 2020 program. As the main component of DAMPE, the new designed BGO calorimeter consists of 308 BGO Crystals coupled with photomultiplier tube.The reliability and safety of the BGO Calorimeter structure play a very important role in the operation of whole detector. During the rocket launch, the calorimeter structure should be stable against vibration and environmental factors to ensure detector works in good conditions. In this article, we make the BGO calorimeter structure design, and then prove that it will work in the environments of rocket launch and flight.

  11. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter front-end electronics for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented in this paper.

  12. Design of a microwave calorimeter for the microwave tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M. )

    1988-10-07

    The initial design of a microwave calorimeter for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment is presented. The design is optimized to measure the refraction and absorption of millimeter rf microwaves as they traverse the toroidal plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Techniques utilized can be adapted for use in measuring high intensity pulsed output from a microwave device in an environment of ultra high vacuum, intense fields of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and intense magnetic fields. 16 refs.

  13. A single amino acid change in a geminiviral Rep protein differentiates between triggering a plant defence response and initiating viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingfei; Li, Chunyang; Shi, Yan; Ryabov, Eugene; Huang, Jing; Wu, Zirong; Fan, Zaifeng; Hong, Yiguo

    2008-10-01

    We have devised an in planta system for functional analysis of the replication-associated protein (Rep) of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV). Using this assay and PCR-based random mutagenesis, we have identified an ACMV Rep mutant that failed to trigger the hypersensitive response (HR), but had an enhanced ability to initiate DNA replication. The mutant Rep-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was localized to the nucleus. Sequence analysis showed that the mutated Rep gene had three nucleotide changes (A6-->T, T375-->G and G852-->A); only the A6-->T transversion resulted in an amino acid substitution (Arg to Ser), which is at the second residue in the 358 amino acid ACMV Rep protein. Our results indicate that a single amino acid can alter the differential ability of ACMV Rep to trigger the host-mediated HR defence mechanism and to initiate viral DNA replication. The implications of this finding are discussed in the context of plant-virus interactions.

  14. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter for high-luminosity LHC run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the Long Shutdown 3 that is planned for 2024 and 2025. All signals will be digitised and transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. Three different front-end options are presently being investigated for the upgrade and will be chosen after extensive test beam studies. A Hybrid Demonstrator module has been developed. The demonstrator is undergoing extensive testing and is planned for insertion in ATLAS.

  15. Initiating protease with modular domains interacts with β-glucan recognition protein to trigger innate immune response in insects.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Garcia, Brandon L; Kanost, Michael R

    2015-11-10

    The autoactivation of an initiating serine protease upon binding of pattern recognition proteins to pathogen surfaces is a crucial step in eliciting insect immune responses such as the activation of Toll and prophenoloxidase pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for autoactivation of the initiating protease remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the autoactivation of hemolymph protease 14 (HP14), an initiating protease in hemolymph of Manduca sexta, upon the binding of β-1,3-glucan by its recognition protein, βGRP2. Biochemical analysis using HP14 zymogen (proHP14), βGRP2, and the recombinant proteins as truncated forms showed that the amino-terminal modular low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LA) domains within HP14 are required for proHP14 autoactivation that is stimulated by its interaction with βGRP2. Consistent with this result, recombinant LA domains inhibit the activation of proHP14 and prophenoloxidase, likely by competing with the interaction between βGRP2 and LA domains within proHP14. Using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrated that immobilized LA domains directly interact with βGRP2 in a calcium-dependent manner and that high-affinity interaction requires the C-terminal glucanase-like domain of βGRP2. Importantly, the affinity of LA domains for βGRP2 increases nearly 100-fold in the presence of β-1,3-glucan. Taken together, these results present the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that LA domains of an insect modular protease and glucanase-like domains of a βGRP mediate their interaction, and that this binding is essential for the protease autoactivation. Thus, our study provides important insight into the molecular basis underlying the initiation of protease cascade in insect immune responses.

  16. Initiating protease with modular domains interacts with β-glucan recognition protein to trigger innate immune response in insects

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Garcia, Brandon L.; Kanost, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The autoactivation of an initiating serine protease upon binding of pattern recognition proteins to pathogen surfaces is a crucial step in eliciting insect immune responses such as the activation of Toll and prophenoloxidase pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for autoactivation of the initiating protease remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the autoactivation of hemolymph protease 14 (HP14), an initiating protease in hemolymph of Manduca sexta, upon the binding of β-1,3-glucan by its recognition protein, βGRP2. Biochemical analysis using HP14 zymogen (proHP14), βGRP2, and the recombinant proteins as truncated forms showed that the amino-terminal modular low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LA) domains within HP14 are required for proHP14 autoactivation that is stimulated by its interaction with βGRP2. Consistent with this result, recombinant LA domains inhibit the activation of proHP14 and prophenoloxidase, likely by competing with the interaction between βGRP2 and LA domains within proHP14. Using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrated that immobilized LA domains directly interact with βGRP2 in a calcium-dependent manner and that high-affinity interaction requires the C-terminal glucanase-like domain of βGRP2. Importantly, the affinity of LA domains for βGRP2 increases nearly 100-fold in the presence of β-1,3-glucan. Taken together, these results present the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that LA domains of an insect modular protease and glucanase-like domains of a βGRP mediate their interaction, and that this binding is essential for the protease autoactivation. Thus, our study provides important insight into the molecular basis underlying the initiation of protease cascade in insect immune responses. PMID:26504233

  17. ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter front end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, N. J.; Chen, L.; Gingrich, D. M.; Liu, S.; Chen, H.; Damazio, D.; Densing, F.; Duffin, S.; Farrell, J.; Kandasamy, S.; Kierstead, J.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Muller, T.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Ruggiero, R.; Takai, H.; Wolniewicz, K.; Ghazlane, H.; Hoummada, A.; Hervas, L.; Hott, T.; Wilkens, H. G.; Ban, J.; Boettcher, S.; Brooijmans, G.; Chi, C.-Y.; Caughron, S.; Cooke, M.; Copic, K.; Dannheim, D.; Gara, A.; Haas, A.; Katsanos, I.; Parsons, J. A.; Simion, S.; Sippach, W.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, N.; Eckstein, P.; Kobel, M.; Ladygin, E.; Auge, E.; Bernier, R.; Bouchel, M.; Bozzone, A.; Breton, D.; de la Taille, C.; Falleau, I.; Fournier, D.; Imbert, P.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Perus, A.; Richer, J. P.; Seguin Moreau, N.; Serin, L.; Tocut, V.; Veillet, J.-J.; Zerwas, D.; Colas, J.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; Massol, N.; Perrodo, P.; Perrot, G.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Escalier, M.; Hubaut, F.; Laforge, B.; LeDortz, O.; Schwemling, Ph; Collot, J.; Dzahini, D.; Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Martin, P.; Cwienk, W. D.; Fent, J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Citterio, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Tartarelli, F.; Bansal, V.; Boulahouache, C.; Cleland, W.; Liu, B.; McDonald, J.; Paolone, V.; Rabel, J.; Savinov, V.; Zuk, G.; Benslama, K.; Borgeaud, P.; de la Broïse, X.; Delagnes, E.; LeCoguie, A.; Mansoulié, B.; Pascual, J.; Teiger, J.; Dinkespiler, B.; Liu, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Ye, J.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Hansson, P.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Chu, M. L.; Lee, S.-C.; Su, D. S.; Teng, P. K.; Braun, H. M.

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. ATLAS includes a complex system of liquid argon calorimeters. This paper describes the architecture and implementation of the system of custom front end electronics developed for the readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters.

  18. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  19. The Development of a 3D Imaging Calorimeter of DAMPE for Cosmic Ray Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Hu, Yiming; Feng, Changqing; Liu, Shubin; Wang, Chi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wei, Yifeng; Huang, Guangshun

    2016-07-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) experiment began its on-orbit operations on December 17, 2015. The BGO Electromagnetic Calorimeter (BGO ECAL) of the DAMPE is a total absorption calorimeter that allows for a precise three-dimensional imaging of the shower shape. It provides a good energy resolution (<1%@200GeV) and high electron/hadron discrimination (>10^5). The calorimeter also provides a trigger capability to DAMPE. The BGO ECAL light collection system and electronics are designed to measure electromagnetic particles over a wide energy range, from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. An Engineering qualified model was built and tested using high energy electron and proton beams with energy ranging from 1 GeV to 250GeV. Some pre results will be introduced in this talk.

  20. Design, status and test of the Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Matteo; et al.

    2016-06-17

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a aluminum nucleus. The dynamic of such a process is well modeled by a two-body decay, resulting in a monoenergetic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.967 MeV). The calorimeter of this experiment plays an important role to provide excellent particle identification capabilities and an online trigger filter while aiding the track reconstruction capabilities. The baseline calorimeter configuration consists of two disks each made with about 700 undoped CsI crystals read out by two large area UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers. These crystals match the requirements for stability of response, high resolution and radiation hardness. In this paper we present the final calorimeter design.

  1. 5.8 X-ray Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray calorimeter instruments for astrophysics have seen rapid development since they were invented in 1984. The prime instrument on all currently planned X-ray spectroscopic observatories is based on calorimeter technology. This relatively simple detection concept that senses the energy of an incident photon by measuring the temperature rise of an absorber material at very low temperatures, can form the basis of a very high performance, non-dispersive spectrometer. State-of-the-art calorimeter instruments have resolving powers of over 3000, large simultaneous band-passes, and near unit efficiency. This coupled with the intrinsic imaging capability of a pixilated x-ray calorimeter array, allows true spectral-spatial instruments to be constructed. In this chapter I briefly review the detection scheme, the state-of-the-art in X-ray calorimeter instruments and the future outlook for this technology.

  2. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  3. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. EWS-FLI-1 expression triggers a Ewing's sarcoma initiation program in primary human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Riggi, Nicolò; Suvà, Mario-Luca; Suvà, Domizio; Cironi, Luisa; Provero, Paolo; Tercier, Stéphane; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Baumer, Karine; Kindler, Vincent; Stamenkovic, Ivan

    2008-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) express the EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene generated by the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12). Expression of the EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein in a permissive cellular environment is believed to play a key role in ESFT pathogenesis. However, EWS-FLI-1 induces growth arrest or apoptosis in differentiated primary cells, and the identity of permissive primary human cells that can support its expression and function has until now remained elusive. Here we show that expression of EWS-FLI-1 in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) is not only stably maintained without inhibiting proliferation but also induces a gene expression profile bearing striking similarity to that of ESFT, including genes that are among the highest ESFT discriminators. Expression of EWS-FLI-1 in hMSCs may recapitulate the initial steps of Ewing's sarcoma development, allowing identification of genes that play an important role early in its pathogenesis. Among relevant candidate transcripts induced by EWS-FLI-1 in hMSCs, we found the polycomb group gene EZH2, which we show to play a critical role in Ewing's sarcoma growth. These observations are consistent with our recent findings using mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells and provide compelling evidence that hMSCs are candidate cells of origin of ESFT.

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephe

    2013-04-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the central section (0 < |η| < 1.7) of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons decaying hadronically, and missing transverse energy. Because of its very good signal to noise ratio it is also useful for the identification and reconstruction of muons. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 4900 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser, and electronic charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of pp collisions acquired during 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance will be presented, including the absolute energy scale, time resolution, and associated stabilities. These results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter is performing well within the design requirements and is giving essential input to the physics results.

  6. Comparison testing of a mound calorimeter and a Savannah River Site calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    ReFalo, L.A.; Foster, L.A.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the paired comparison testing of a Savannah River Site (SRS) calorimeter and a Mound calorimeter. Prior to this test, no offsite testing had been performed on an SRS calorimeter. The testing was performed at the Plutonium Facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The SRS calorimeter was designed, fabricated and delivered to LANL. The Mound calorimeter chosen for comparison was similar in well dimensions and located in the same room as the SRS calorimeter. There were three series of tests performed. First, twenty radiometric standard measurements were completed using two different standards. The second series of tests were dedicated to heat distribution measurements and the third series focused on measuring typical process samples.

  7. Seismically Initiated Carbon Dioxide Gas Bubble Growth in Groundwater: A Mechanism for Co-seismic Borehole Water Level Rise and Remotely Triggered Secondary Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Jackson B.

    Visualization experiments, core-scale laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations were conducted to examine the transient effect of dilational seismic wave propagation on pore fluid pressure in aquifers hosting groundwater that is near saturation with respect to dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. Groundwater can become charged with dissolved CO2 through contact with gas-phase CO2 in the Earth's crust derived from magma degasing, metamorphism, and biogenic processes. The propagation of dilational seismic waves (e.g., Rayleigh and p-waves) causes oscillation of the mean normal confining stress and pore fluid pressure. When the amplitude of the pore fluid pressure oscillation is large enough to drive the pore fluid pressure below the bubble pressure, an aqueous-to-gas-phase transition can occur in the pore space, which causes a buildup of pore fluid pressure and reduces the inter-granular effective stress under confined conditions. In visualization experiments conducted in a Hele-Shaw cell representing a smooth-walled, vertically oriented fracture, millisecond-scale pressure perturbations triggered bubble nucleation and growth lasting tens of seconds, with resulting pore fluid overpressure proportional to the magnitude of the pressure perturbation. In a Berea sandstone core flooded with initially under-saturated aqueous CO2 under conditions representative of a confined aquifer, rapid reductions in confining stress triggered transient pore pressure rise up to 0.7 MPa (100 psi) overpressure on a timescale of ~10 hours. The rate of pore pressure buildup in the first 100 seconds was proportional to the saturation with respect to dissolved CO 2 at the pore pressure minimum. Sinusoidal confining stress oscillations on a Berea sandstone core produced excess pore fluid pressure after the oscillations were terminated. Confining stress oscillations in the 0.1-0.4 MPa (15-60 psi) amplitude range and 0.05-0.30 Hz frequency band increased the pore fluid pressure by 13-60 cm

  8. First results from the SLD silicon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, S. C.; Bugg, W. M.; Kroeger, R. S.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, S. L.; Brau, J. E.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Huber, J.; Hwang, H.

    1992-07-01

    The small-angle calorimeters of the SLD were successfully operated during the recent SLC engineering run. The Luminosity Monitor and Small-Angle Tagger (LMSAT) covers the angular region between 28 and 68 milliradians from the beam axis, while the Medium-Angle Silicon Calorimeter (MASC) covers the 68-190 milliradian region. Both are silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeters; the LMSAT employs 23 layers of 0.86 X(sub 0) sampling, while the MASC has 10 layers of 1.74 X(sub 0) sampling. We present results from the first run of the SLC with the SLD on beamline.

  9. First results from the SLD silicon calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Berridge, S.C.; Bugg, W.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Weidemann, A.W.; White, S.L.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Huber, J.; Hwang, H.; Park, H.; Pitts, K.T.; Zeitlin, C.J.; Gioumousis, A.; Haller, G.; Seward, P.

    1992-07-01

    The small-angle calorimeters of the SLD were successfully operated during the recent SLC engineering run. The Luminosity Monitor and Small-Angle Tagger (LMSAT) covers the angular region between 28 and 68 milliradians from the beam axis, while the Medium-Angle Silicon Calorimeter (MASC) covers the 68--190 milliradian region. Both are silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeters; the LMSAT employs 23 layers of 0.86 X{sub 0} sampling, while the MASC has 10 layers of 1.74 X{sub 0} sampling. We present results from the first run of the SLC with the SLD on beamline.

  10. Schmitt trigger multivibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zrubek, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Schmitt trigger multivibrator circuit, capable of astable, monostable or bistable operation, incorporates an input circuit in conjunction with a Schmitt trigger circuit. The circuits form two output signal levels, are useful in switching circuit applications, initiates oscillations, and forms highly unsymmetrical wave forms.

  11. The Soudan 2 honeycomb calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garcia, C.

    1990-12-01

    Soudan 2 is an 1100-ton honeycomb tracking calorimeter which is being constructed to search for nucleon decay. The detector consists of finely segmented iron instrumented with long drift tubes, and records three spatial coordinates and dE/dx for every gas crossing. Excellent event reconstruction capability, particle identification and muon sign and direction determination give superior rejection of the neutrino background to nucleon decay in many modes. The first 620 tons of Soudan 2 are now in steady operation, with completion planned for 1992. Detector performance has been studied using cosmic ray tracks and a charged test beam calibration. Results on detector performance and detector response are described in this paper. 2 refs. , 11 figs.

  12. Calorimeter probe for the DIII-D divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J. G.; Lasnier, C. J.; Whyte, D. G.; Stangeby, P. C.; Ulrickson, M. A.

    2003-03-01

    Heat flux measurements of the DIII-D divertor plate have been obtained with 6 mm spatial resolution using a calorimeter probe. These measurements complement the infrared camera system normally used for heat flux measurements on DIII-D but at higher-spatial resolution. The calorimeter probe is inserted into the tokamak from below to a position which is flush with the lower divertor plate tiles using the divertor materials experimental station (DiMES). The DiMES mechanism allows for retraction of the probe behind a gate valve and removal from the tokamak for modification or calibration. A 6 mm diameter insulated graphite cylinder for collecting energy is mounted within a standard DiMES sample. A 0.8 mm diameter thermocouple, installed 4 mm below the surface, provides a measurement of the temperature during and after the plasma exposure. The 80 ms time constant for the measurement is fast enough to determine heat flux changes during the 5 s plasma discharge and heat flux profiles have been obtained using both fixed strike points and slow strike point sweeps across the calorimeter. Special electronics and isolation is necessary as the sample is in direct electrical contact with the plasma. The calorimeter observes approximately 100 °C temperature rise over one tokamak discharge. The thermocouple signals are typically less than 1 mV and must be amplified near the vacuum feedthrough, passed through a low-pass filter to eliminate magnetic pickup, isolated, and sent to the data acquisition system approximately 8 m away. Initial measurements are included.

  13. ATLAS LAr calorimeter performance and LHC Run-2 commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spettel, Fabian; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS detector was built to study proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as the hadronic calorimetry in the endcap and forward regions. They have shown excellent performance during the first LHC data taking campaign, from 2010 to 2012, so-called Run 1, at a peak luminosity of 8 ×1033cm-2s-1. During the next run, peak luminosities of 1.5 ×1034cm-2s-1 and even higher are expected at a 25 ns bunch spacing. Such a high collision rate may have an impact on the quality of the energy reconstruction which is attempted to be maintained at a high level using a calibration procedure described in this contribution. It also poses major challenges to the first level of the trigger system which is constrained to a maximal rate of 100 kHz. For Run-3, scheduled to start in 2019, instantaneous luminosity as high as 3 ×1034cm-2s-1 are foreseen imposing an upgrade of the LAr trigger system to maintain its performance. A demonstrator containing prototypes of the upgraded trigger electronic architecture has been installed on one of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter readout front end crates to test it during the Run-2 campaign. The new architecture and its benefits for data taking will be discussed below as well as the results from first beam splash events.

  14. Dynamic triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  15. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, A.

    1997-07-01

    The progress on the design and construction of the BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter including its mechanical structure, the readout system, the mechanical and optical properties of the crystals, and the schedule for the final assembly and testing is summarized.

  16. Upgrading the ATLAS fast calorimeter simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubacek, Z.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full Geant4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software and can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. An improved parametrization is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and a neural network parametrization to optimise the amount of information to store in the ATLAS simulation infrastructure.

  17. CDF End Plug calorimeter Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, G.; de Barbaro, P.; Mishina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the status of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. In this project, the CDF calorimeters in the end plug and the forward regions will be replaced by a single scintillator based calorimeter. After an extensive R&D effort on the tile/fiber calorimetry, we have now advanced to a construction phase. We review the results of the R&D leading to the final design of the calorimeters and the development of tooling devised for this project. The quality control program of the production of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is described. A shower maximum detector for the measurement of the shower centroid and the shower profile of electrons, {gamma} and {pi}{sup 0} has been designed. Its performance requirements, R&D results and mechanical design are discussed.

  18. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  19. The performance of a gas electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzubov, V.; Denisov, S.; Erin, S.; Ferapontov, A.; Gilitsky, Yu.; Korablev, V.; Lobanov, M.; Rybin, A.; Solin, A.; Suzdalev, V.

    2004-06-01

    Characteristics of the gas ionisation electromagnetic (EM) calorimeters with 1.5 and 3 mm lead absorbers has been studied using 6- 30 GeV electron beams of the IHEP accelerator. The calorimeters were filled with heavy freon C 3F 8. The results of the electronics noise measurements are presented. The dependencies of the average signal and the energy resolution on the beam energy, gas pressure and high voltage are discussed.

  20. Accelerator Test of an Imaging Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Binns, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Kippen, R. M.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) utilizes a thin sampling calorimeter concept for direct measurements of high-energy cosmic rays. The ICA design uses arrays of small scintillating fibers to measure the energy and trajectory of the produced cascades. A test instrument has been developed to study the performance of this concept at accelerator energies and for comparison with simulations. Two test exposures have been completed using a CERN test beam. Some results from the accelerator tests are presented.

  1. Inner Calorimeter in Clas/dvcs Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyazov, Rustam

    2008-03-01

    The new Inner Calorimeter (IC) was developed specifically for dedicated CLAS/DVCS experiment.1 IC consists of 424 PbWO4 tapered crystals readout by avalanche photodiodes (APD) followed by low-noise preamplifiers. It is a high precision calorimeter with energy resolution better than 3% at 2-5 GeV and has an angle resolution of 3 to 4 mrad.

  2. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heelan, Louise; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design requirements and it has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results. In addition, the data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking are described and the outcome of the detector consolidation in the maintenance period is also presented.

  3. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  4. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-12-31

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most {sup 238}Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size.

  5. The Initiation of Epigenetic Silencing of Active Transposable Elements Is Triggered by RDR6 and 21-22 Nucleotide Small Interfering RNAs1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nuthikattu, Saivageethi; McCue, Andrea D.; Panda, Kaushik; Fultz, Dalen; DeFraia, Christopher; Thomas, Erica N.; Slotkin, R. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile fragments of DNA that are repressed in both plant and animal genomes through the epigenetic inheritance of repressed chromatin and expression states. The epigenetic silencing of TEs in plants is mediated by a process of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). Two pathways of RdDM have been identified: RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV)-RdDM, which has been shown to be responsible for the de novo initiation, corrective reestablishment, and epigenetic maintenance of TE and/or transgene silencing; and RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase6 (RDR6)-RdDM, which was recently identified as necessary for maintaining repression for a few TEs. We have further characterized RDR6-RdDM using a genome-wide search to identify TEs that generate RDR6-dependent small interfering RNAs. We have determined that TEs only produce RDR6-dependent small interfering RNAs when transcriptionally active, and we have experimentally identified two TE subfamilies as direct targets of RDR6-RdDM. We used these TEs to test the function of RDR6-RdDM in assays for the de novo initiation, corrective reestablishment, and maintenance of TE silencing. We found that RDR6-RdDM plays no role in maintaining TE silencing. Rather, we found that RDR6 and Pol IV are two independent entry points into RdDM and epigenetic silencing that perform distinct functions in the silencing of TEs: Pol IV-RdDM functions to maintain TE silencing and to initiate silencing in an RNA Polymerase II expression-independent manner, while RDR6-RdDM functions to recognize active Polymerase II-derived TE mRNA transcripts to both trigger and correctively reestablish TE methylation and epigenetic silencing. PMID:23542151

  6. CMS hadron calorimeter front-end upgrade for SLHC phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmore, Juliana; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    We present an upgrade plan for the CMS HCAL detector. The HCAL upgrade is required for the increased luminosity (3 * 10E34) of SLHC Phase I which is targeted for 2014. A key aspect of the HCAL upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at the L1 trigger. The increased segmentation is achieved by replacing the hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) with silicon PMTs (SIPMs). We plan to instrument each fiber of the calorimeter with an SIPM (103,000 total). We will then electrically sum outputs from selected SIPMs to form the longitudinal readout segments. In addition to having more longitudinal information, the upgrade plans include a new custom ADC with matched sensitivity and timing information. The increased data volume requires higher speed transmitters and the additional power dissipation for the readout electronics requires better thermal design, since much of the on-detector infrastructure (front-end electronics crates, cooling pipes, optical fiber plant, etc.) will remain the same. We will report on the preliminary designs for these upgraded systems, along with performance requirements and initial design studies.

  7. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of an actual segmented calorimeter: a study of calorimeter performance at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.; Goodman, M.S.; Sessoms, A.L.; Eisenstein, B.; Wright, S.C.; Kephart, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The calculated responses including energy resolution, angular resolution, and spatial energy deposition of a segmented iron and liquid-argon calorimeter to incident pions in the energy range of 10- to 250-GeV are presented. Experimental data for this calorimeter have been obtained in the 10- to 40- GeV energy range and these results compare favorably with the calculated data.

  9. Combined Electrocardiography- and Respiratory-Triggered CT of the Lung to Reduce Respiratory Misregistration Artifacts between Imaging Slabs in Free-Breathing Children: Initial Experience

    PubMed Central

    Allmendinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts degrade the image quality of lung CT in free-breathing children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory triggering on respiratory misregistration artifacts on lung CT in free-breathing children. Materials and Methods In total, 15 children (median age 19 months, range 6 months–8 years; 7 boys), who underwent free-breathing ECG-triggered lung CT with and without respiratory-triggering were included. A pressure-sensing belt of a respiratory gating system was used to obtain the respiratory signal. The degree of respiratory misregistration artifacts between imaging slabs was graded on a 4-point scale (1, excellent image quality) on coronal and sagittal images and compared between ECG-triggered lung CT studies with and without respiratory triggering. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Lung CT with combined ECG and respiratory triggering showed significantly less respiratory misregistration artifacts than lung CT with ECG triggering only (1.1 ± 0.4 vs. 2.2 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Conclusion Additional respiratory-triggering reduces respiratory misregistration artifacts on ECG-triggered lung CT in free-breathing children. PMID:28860904

  10. Combined Electrocardiography- and Respiratory-Triggered CT of the Lung to Reduce Respiratory Misregistration Artifacts between Imaging Slabs in Free-Breathing Children: Initial Experience.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Allmendinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts degrade the image quality of lung CT in free-breathing children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory triggering on respiratory misregistration artifacts on lung CT in free-breathing children. In total, 15 children (median age 19 months, range 6 months-8 years; 7 boys), who underwent free-breathing ECG-triggered lung CT with and without respiratory-triggering were included. A pressure-sensing belt of a respiratory gating system was used to obtain the respiratory signal. The degree of respiratory misregistration artifacts between imaging slabs was graded on a 4-point scale (1, excellent image quality) on coronal and sagittal images and compared between ECG-triggered lung CT studies with and without respiratory triggering. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Lung CT with combined ECG and respiratory triggering showed significantly less respiratory misregistration artifacts than lung CT with ECG triggering only (1.1 ± 0.4 vs. 2.2 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Additional respiratory-triggering reduces respiratory misregistration artifacts on ECG-triggered lung CT in free-breathing children.

  11. Initiation and runaway process of Tsaoling landslide, triggered by the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake, as studied by high-velocity friction experiments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Dong, J.; Lee, C.

    2013-12-01

    High-velocity friction experiments in the last two decades have demonstrated dramatic weakening of simulated faults at seismic slip rates on the order of 1 m/s (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Similar experiments revealed very low friction of landslide materials (0.05-0.2 in friction coefficient) that can cause catastrophic landslides with velocity exceeding even 10 m/s (e.g., Miyamoto et al. (2009) on the 1999 Tsaoling landslide in Taiwan; Yano et al. (2009) on the 1999 Jiufengershan landslide in Taiwan,; Ferri et al. (2010, 2011) on the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy; Kuo et al. (2011) on the 2009 Hsiaolin landslide in Taiwan). Those studies strongly suggest that there are common processes operative in fault zones and along slip surfaces of catastrophic landslides along bedding planes, fractures or joints. As for catastrophic landslides triggered by an earthquake, an important issue to be addressed is how a landslide initiates during seismic ground motion. Thus we have studied the initiation and runaway process of the Tsaoling landslide by idealizing the initial landslide movement during seismic ground motion as an oscillating accelerating/decelerating motion. Tsaoling landslide is the largest landslide among those triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake with its volume of about 130 Mm3. The landslide took place along very planar bedding planes of the porous Pliocene sedimentary rocks (mostly siltstone and sandstone), with a dip angle of 14 degree. A seismic record at a station about 500 m away from the landslide and a witness of a survivor who slid on top of the landslide mass indicate that the average speed of the landslide reached 20~40 m/s. A simple analysis of sliding block indicates that the kinetic friction has to be 0.05~0.15 to produce such a high-velocity. Moreover, Tang et al. (2009, Eng. Geol.) analyzed landslide motion with the discrete element method and showed that the landslide mass must have slid nearly as an intact mass, without much

  12. Upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter for an upgraded LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jacob; CMS Hcal Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CMS barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (Hcal) upgrading the current photo-sensors are hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) to meet the demands of the upgraded luminosity of the LHC. A key aspect of the Hcal upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at L1 trigger. The increased segmentation can be achieved by replacing the HPD's with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The upgraded electronics are required to operate in a harsh environment and are constrained by the existing infrastructure. The proposed solutions span from chip level to system level. They include the development of a new ADC ASIC, the design and testing of higher speed transmitters to handle the increased data volume, the evaluation and use of circuits from other developments, evaluation of commercial FPGAs, better thermal design and improvements in the overall architecture.

  13. The CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade During Phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülmez, E.

    2014-06-01

    The CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter is being upgraded during phase 1. The upgrade includes the replacement of the current PMTs with the 4-anode ones and the readout electronics. Stray muons hitting the PMT windows produce Cherenkov light causing erroneous signals. These signals are detrimental to the triggering and physic results, since such signals mimic very high energy events. The new 4-anode PMTs are selected because of their thin windows to reduce the Cherenkov light production. Additional anodes also provide information to eliminate such signals. These new PMTs have been tested extensively to understand their characteristics and to develop the algorithms to eliminate the unwanted signals. Eventually, the current read out will be replaced with two-channel readout electronics for each PMT. The overall expected improvement on the physics results will also be discussed.

  14. Relative Gain Monitoring of the GlueX Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Anassontzis, Efstratios G.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Voulgaris, G.; Kappos, E.; Beattie, T.; Krueger, S.; Lolos, G. J.; Papandreou, Z.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Frye, John M.; Leckey, John P.; Shepherd, Matt; Bogart, T.; Smith, Elton S.

    2014-02-01

    The relative gain of the photodetectors for the GlueX Barrel and Forward calorimeters will be monitored using modular LED driver systems. The BCAL system consists of a global controller that feeds power, bias voltage and trigger signals to 96 local controllers situated at the ends of the 48 BCAL modules, which drive 40 LEDs associated with the 40 light guides at the end of each module. The FCAL system consists also of a global controller, a local controller for each acrylic quadrant covering the face of the FCAL, and ten 4-LED pulser boards per local controller connected in a star configuration along the edges of the acrylic panes. The respective systems are currently being installed on the detectors and their tested performance is presented herein.

  15. Data quality monitoring for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, G. D.; Marco, E. D.; Franzoni, G.; Gobbo, B.

    2008-07-01

    The detector performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter is monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as on local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities are organized into hierarchical structures based on the physics content. The information produced is accessible by client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications process the received quantities, according to pre-defined analyses, making the results immediately available, while also storing the results in a database, and in the form of static web pages, for subsequent studies. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS ECAL DQM applications and report about their use in real environments.

  16. Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Franzoni, G.; Ghezzi, A.; Gobbo, B.; CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Group

    2008-03-01

    One of the aims of the CMS design is to construct and operate a very high quality electromagnetic calorimeter. The detector performance will be monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as on local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities are organized into hierarchical structures based on the physics content. The information produced is delivered to client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications process the received quantities, according to pre-defined analyses, making the results immediately available, and store the results in a database, and in the form of static web pages, for subsequent studies. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS ECAL DQM applications and report about their use in a real environment.

  17. Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Ricca, Giuseppe; CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Group

    2007-10-01

    One of the CMS design objectives is to construct and operate a very high quality electromagnetic calorimeter. The detector performance will be monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as on local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities are organized into hierarchical structures based on the physics content. The information produced is delivered to client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications process the received quantities, according to pre-defined analyses, making the results immediately available, and store the results in a database, and in the form of static web pages, for subsequent studies. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS ECAL DQM applications and report about their use in a real environment.

  18. Towards equitable access to medicines for the rural poor: analyses of insurance claims reveal rural pharmacy initiative triggers price competition in Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI) designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI) private pharmacies located in the region. Methods We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Results Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70%) medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57%) medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13%) medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30%) medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74%) competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47%) decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26%) increasing in price. Conclusions The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the potential to

  19. The clock distribution system for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Upgrade Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, J.; Gong, D.; Guo, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, D.; Kierstead, J.; Li, X.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Xiang, A. C.; Xu, H.; Xu, T.; You, Y.; Ye, J.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype Liquid-argon Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB), called the LTDB Demonstrator, has been developed to demonstrate the functions of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I trigger electronics upgrade. Forty Analog-to-Digital converters and four FPGAs with embedded multi-gigabit-transceivers on each Demonstrator need high quality clocks. A clock distribution system based on commercial components has been developed for the Demonstrator. The design of the clock distribution system is presented. The performance of the clock distribution system has been evaluated. The components used in the clock distribution system have been qualified to meet radiation tolerance requirements of the Demonstrator.

  20. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeters for the magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Carlini, Roger D.; Tadevosyan, Vardan H.; Arrington, John Robert; Asaturyan, Arshak Razmik; Christy, Michael Eric; Dutta, Dipangkar; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard C.; Gaskell, David J.; Horn, Tanja; Jones, Mark K.; Keppel, Cynthia; Mack, David J.; Malace, Simona P.; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Seely, Charles Jason; Tvaskis, Vladas; Wood, Stephen A.; Zhamkochyan, Simon

    2013-08-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeters of the various magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab are presented. For the existing HMS and SOS spectrometers design considerations, relevant construction information, and comparisons of simulated and experimental results are included. The energy resolution of the HMS and SOS calorimeters is better than $\\sigma/E \\sim 6%/\\sqrt E $, and pion/electron ($\\pi/e$) separation of about 100:1 has been achieved in energy range 1 -- 5 GeV. Good agreement has been observed between the experimental and simulated energy resolutions, but simulations systematically exceed experimentally determined $\\pi^-$ suppression factors by close to a factor of two. For the SHMS spectrometer presently under construction details on the design and accompanying GEANT4 simulation efforts are given. The anticipated performance of the new calorimeter is predicted over the full momentum range of the SHMS. Good electron/hadron separation is anticipated by combining the energy deposited in an initial (preshower) calorimeter layer with the total energy deposited in the calorimeter.

  1. The calibration and monitoring system for the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    David, G.; Kistenev, E.; Stoll, S.

    1997-11-01

    A system for calibrating the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter modules with cosmic rays and monitoring the stability during operation is described. The system is based on a UV laser which delivers light to each module through a network of optical fibers and splutters and is monitored at various points with silicon and vacuum photodiodes. Results are given from a prototype system which used a nitrogen laser to set the initial phototube gains and to establish the energy calibration of calorimeter modules and monitor their stability. A description of the final system to be used in PHENIX based on a high power YAG laser, is also given.

  2. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodkov, A.

    2017-08-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC . TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. Three different front-end options are presently being investigated for the upgrade and a final solution will be chosen after extensive laboratory and test beam studies that are in progress. A hybrid demonstrator module was developed using the new electronics while conserving compatibility with the current system. The demonstrator undergoes extensive testing and will be installed in ATLAS during one of the next winter maintenance periods.

  3. A Laser-Based Calibration System, for the CDF Plug Upgrade Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauz, Diego

    A laser-based calibration and monitoring system for the plug upgrade calorimeter is described. A pulsed nitrogen ultraviolet laser excites all of the about 1000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in each plug calorimeter. The light is focused into a quartz fiber and routed first to a primary distributor (PD) and from there to 12 secondary distributors (COWs), which feed the individual PMTs. The system will be used as a debugging tool during calorimeter rigging and will help the wire source calibration system in initially equalizing the PMT gains. In addition, an LED imbedded in each COW can set a continuous DC level on each PMT, allowing for PMT burn-in and gain conditioning.

  4. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

  5. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  6. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

  7. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  8. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2016-07-12

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal’s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  9. Photodetectors for the CMS hadron calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, J. E.; CMS Hadron Calorimeter Readout Group

    1997-02-01

    Hadronic energy measurements in the central and end cap regions of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector will be made using sampling calorimeter techniques with plastic scintillator tiles as the sensitive layers. Plastic fibers doped with wavelength shifting fluors embedded in each tile are used to extract the scintillation light. Clear plastic wave guide fibers carry the shifted light to photodetectors located on the outer surface of the calorimeter structure. Environmental constraints and physics performance requirements for these photodetectors are presented. Candidate photodetector technologies are discussed, and the hybrid photomultiplier tube technology is identified as most promising.

  10. Central Calorimeter Thermal Gradient Module Connection Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-07

    Two 20 kW condensing and one 10 kW steady state cooling coils will be used to cool and condense gaseous argon in the Central Calorimeter (CC) Cryostat. Since this cool down (300K to 90K) will inevitably cause shrinkage in the modules contained inside the cryostat, the connections between the modules have to be designed to withstand the increase in forces and moments induced by this contraction. This paper presents finite element analysis (ANSYS{reg_sign}) results to aid in the design or modification of the Central Calorimeter module connections.

  11. The electronics for the AMS-02 calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervelli, F.; Di Falco, S.; Incagli, M.; Vannini, C.; Magazzù, C.; Pedreschi, E.; Piendibene, M.; Pilo, F.; Spinella, F.

    2007-03-01

    AMS-02 is an astroparticle experiment that will operate on board of the ISS for a period of about three years. The main scientific goals of the experiment are the search for antimatter and dark matter and the study of gamma rays. In AMS-02 the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) plays a key role for its high capability to measure e+, e- and gamma spectra and to discriminate electromagnetic showers from hadronic cascades [C. Adloff, et al., Performance of a 3D imaging electromagnetic calorimeter for the AMS02 space experiment, Proceedings of Calor 2004, Perugia, Italy. [1

  12. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Martínez, A.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented.

  13. Electromagnetic calorimeter for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The Heavy Photon Search Experiment (HPS) seeks to detect a hypothesised hidden sector boson, the A', predicted to be produced in dark matter decay or annihilation. Theories suggest that the A' couples weakly to electric charge through kinetic mixing, allowing it, as a result, to decay to Standard Matter (SM) lepton pair, which may explain the electron and positron excess recently observed in cosmic rays. Measuring the lepton pair decay of the A' could lead to indirect detection of dark matter. The HPS experiment is a fixed target experiment that will utilize the electron beam produced at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The detector set-up includes a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) and an Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal). The ECal will provide the trigger and detect e+e- pairs and its construction and testing forms the focus of this thesis. The ECal consists of 442 PbWO4- tapered crystals with a length 16cm and a 1.6x1.6cm2 cross-section, stacked into a rectangular array and are coupled to Large Area APDs and corresponding pre-amplifiers. Supplementary to the ECal is a Light Monitoring System (LMS) consisting of bi-coloured LEDs that will monitor changes in APD gain and crystal transparency due to radiation damage. Before construction of the ECal each of the components were required to be individually tested to determine a number of different characteristics. Irradiation tests were performed on PbWO4 ECal crystals and, as a comparison, one grown by a different manufacturer to determine their radiation hardness. A technique for annealing the radiation damage by optical bleaching, which involves injecting light of various wavelengths into the crystal, was tested using the blue LED from the LMS as a potential candidate. The light yield dependence on temperature was also measured for one of the PbWO4 crystal types. Each APD was individually tested to determine if they functioned correctly and

  14. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials

    Treesearch

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  15. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molander, Simon

    2014-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Detector performances with respect to electronic noise and cell response are presented. In addition, an overview of the partially overlapping calibration systems is given.

  16. Steel specification for the Atlas calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.

    1998-02-10

    As part of a collaborative experimental High Energy Physics experiment at the LHC Facility, CERN Laboratory, Geneva Switzerland, a group of US institutions has accepted the responsibility for constructing a large portion of the calorimeter for this experiment. This device is referred to as the Tile Calorimeter. The Tile Calorimeter has three major elements, a large center section (Barrel), and two end sections (Extended Barrel). The US group will be responsible for the construction of one of these extended barrel sections. All of the components that are required to construct this device will be fabricated in the US over a period of three years commencing in 1998. Another similar element and the barrel element will be constructed in both eastern and western Europe by parallel groups. The extended barrel is a cylindrical device approximately 8.5 meters (28 ft.) OD x 4.5 meters (14 ft.) ID, made up of 64 wedges. Each of these wedges (see Attachment 1) is constructed by bolting submodules to a strongback girder. Each submodule is constructed of a series of sheets that are welded and glued together. This document summarizes the characteristics and specifications of these steel sheets. The Tile Calorimeter is the return path for the magnet flux of the ATLAS internal superconducting 2T solenoid, therefore its steel magnetic properties are important.

  17. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.; Sleeman, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Brau, J.; Ludgate, G.A.; Oram, C.J.; Cook, V.; Johnson, J.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses.

  18. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Mark S.

    2009-12-17

    A selection of ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter commissioning studies is presented. It includes a coherent noise study, a measurement of the quality of the ionization pulse shape prediction, and energy and time reconstruction analyses with cosmic and single beam signals.

  19. Performance of the GEM electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Ma

    1993-06-25

    The GEM EM calorimeter is optimized for the best energy, position, angular resolution and jet rejection. The detailed simulation results are presented. In the barrel with LKr, an energy resolution of about 6%/{radical}{direct_sum}0.4%, pointing resolution of 40mrad/{radical}E + 0.5mrad, and jet rejection of a factor of 5 are expected.

  20. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Redness in your cut or hand Swelling or warmth in your cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  1. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M.; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M.; CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds.

  2. π0 Reconstruction using the Muon Piston Calorimeter Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Dhruv; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Muon-Piston Calorimeter Extension (MPC-EX) is a new detector in the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider that was installed for the recent Run 15 of the experiment. In polarized p+p and polarized p+A collisions, an important measurement is the yield and momentum distribution of direct photons. Unaffected by the strong force, direct photons traverse the dense medium in the collision zone mostly unchanged, thereby providing information about the initial stages of the collision. However, there is a huge background of photons from other sources, primarily π0 which decay into two photons. The opening angle between the decay photons becomes smaller with higher energies of the original π0. For energies greater than ~20 GeV, the Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) cannot distinguish the two decay photons from a single photon, as their showers merge. The MPC-EX, an 8-layer tungsten and silicon sensor sandwich in front of the MPC, can measure and image the shower development, and help distinguish between direct photons and π0 decay photons up to higher energies than the MPC alone. We will describe the MPC-EX detector and its readout, and present the calibration procedures applied to the data in order to obtain the π0 spectrum. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  3. A Measurement of the $e/\\pi$ Ratio Difference between Short (250-$\\mu$s) and Long (2.2 microseconds) Integration Times with the D0 Uranium Liquid Argon Central Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Bo

    1992-01-01

    The difference of the ratios of the high energy electron and pion responses ($e/\\pi$) in the DO Uranium-liquid Argon central calorimeter is measured using the DO calorimeter trigger readout (shon integration time: 250 ns ) and precision readout (long integration time: 2.2$\\mu$s). This measurement found a 5% difference in the e/$\\pi$ ratio between short and long integration times, with estimated uncertainty of 2.3%.

  4. A measurement of the e/π ratio difference between short (250 ns) and long (2.2 μs) integration times with the D0 uranium-liquid argon central calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Bo

    1992-01-01

    The difference of the ratios of the high energy electron and pion responses(e/π) in the DO Uranium-liquid Argon central calorimeter is measured using the DO calorimeter trigger readout (short integration time: 250 ns) and precision readout (long integration time: 2.2 μs). This measurement found a 5% difference in the e/π ratio between short and long integration times, with estimated uncertainty of 2.3%.

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strizenec, P.

    2014-09-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid Argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a parallel plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at 88.5 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, around 27 fb-1 of data have been collected at a unprecedented center of mass energies between 7 TeV and 8 TeV. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating with performances very close to the specification ones. After 2019, the instantaneous luminosity will reach 2-3 × 1034 cm-2s-1, well above the luminosity for which the calorimeter was designed. In order to preserve its triggering capabilities, the detector will be upgraded with a new fully digital trigger system with a refined granularity. In 2023, the instantaneous luminosity will ultimately reach 5-7 × 1034 cm-2s-1, requiring a complete replacement of the readout electronics. Moreover, with an increased particle flux, several phenomena (liquid argon boiling, space charge effects...) will affect the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal). A replacement with a new FCal with smaller LAr gaps or a new calorimeter module are considered. The performance of these new

  6. Triggering Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  7. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  8. Search for Very Short Bursts with the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Marisaldi, M.; Labanti, C.; Fuschino, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Galli, M.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Longo, F.; Moretti, E.; Boffelli, F.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Di Cocco, G.; Gianotti, F.; Caraveo, P.; Chen, A.; Fornari, F.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.

    2009-05-25

    In this paper the results of the first months of burst search on very short time scales with the Mini-Calorimeter (MCAL) on-board the AGILE mission are presented. MCAL is equipped with a flexible on-board trigger logic for autonomous GRB detection. In addition to standard trigger time windows, MCAL has been equipped with trigger capabilities on 16 ms, 1 ms and sub-millisecond time windows. Since June 2008 burst search on these short time scales has been enabled, resulting in an average rate of 4 triggers/orbit, compliant with telemetry budget. An on-ground rejection strategy is applied, allowing more sophisticated selection criteria than those allowed by the on-board trigger logic. Triggers due to instrumental effects or geophysical phenomena can be spotted due to their photon-by-photon pattern; what remains after this cleaning is an almost unexplored territory and could shed light on the origin of very short bursts. The trigger criteria, as well as the on-ground rejection strategy and the properties of the selected events will be described and discussed.

  9. Calibration of the CDF tile-fiber endplug calorimeters using moving radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, V.; Laasanen, A.; Pompos, A.; Wilson, M.

    1998-11-01

    The use of moving radioactive gamma sources to assess, calibrate and monitor scintillating tile calorimeters is discussed, and the techniques and equipment are described. The capabilities of the technique are illustrated using Cs{sup 137} sources with the CDF Endplug Upgrade EM and Hadron calorimeters at testbeams and at a cosmic ray test stand. Source measurements of all the tiles in testbeam modules which are exact replicas of the calorimeters, predict the relative responses of EM towers to 50 GeV positrons and muons, and of Hadron towers to 50 GeV pions, with RMS accuracies of 1.3{percent}, 1.8{percent} and 2.0{percent}, respectively. Source measurements will be used in lieu of testbeam measurements for the initial calibration of all towers in the final calorimeters. Source measurements of single tiles are reproducible to 0.4{percent} and will be used to monitor gain changes of the photomultiplier tubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Effect of dead material in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1995-10-01

    The existence of dead material in any practical calorimeter system is simply a fact of life. The task for the designer, then, is to understand the impact on the Physics in question, and strive to minimize it. The aim of this note is to use the ``Hanging File`` test data, which has fined grained individual readout of about 100 depth segments, to explore impact of dead material on the mean and r.m.s. of the hadronic distribution. The amount and location of the dead material is varied. It important to remember that the Hanging File data was calibrated, EM to HCAL compartment, so as to minimize the electron to pion energy dependence. In practical terms e/pie was made = 1.0 at an incident energy of about 100 GeV. Note that the PB(EM) + FE(HCAL) calorimeter was not a compensating device.

  11. Improving calorimeter resolution using temperature compensation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiga, Joseph; Purschke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The sPHENIX experiment is an upgrade of the existing PHENIX apparatus at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The new detector improves upon measurements of various physical processes, such as jets of particles created during heavy-ion collisions. Prototypes of various calorimeter components were tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF). This analysis tries to compensate the effects of temperature drifts in the silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Temperature data were used to calculate an appropriate compensation factor. This analysis will improve the achievable resolution and will also determine how accurately the temperature must be controlled in the final experiment. This will improve the performance of the calorimeters in the sPHENIX experiment. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  12. Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.

    1988-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h approx. 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Performance of the CDF miniplug calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gallinaro

    2003-04-09

    Two Miniplug calorimeters, designed to measure the energy and lateral position of particles in the forward pseudorapidity region of 3.6 < |{eta}| < 5.1, have been installed as part of the CDF upgraded detector for Run II at the Tevatron. Proton-antiproton beams are colliding at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. One year after installation, Miniplug detector performance and first results are presented.

  14. A no-load RF calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  15. Troubleshooting guide for Mound calorimeter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Breakall, K.L.; Duff, M.F.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1988-06-29

    This report is to be used as a tool for troubleshooting Mound calorimeter systems. It describes in simple language the equilibration, prediction, and servo-control modes of operation. A problem-cause-action table provides suggestions and, in some cases, directs personnel to one of six troubleshooting flow charts included in the report. Using the flow charts, laboratory personnel should be able to rcognize and troubleshoot most problems that occur. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Carminati, L.

    2005-10-12

    The construction of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed and commissioning is in progress. After a brief description of the detector layout, readout electronics and calibration, a review of the present status of the integration and the detector qualification is reported. Finally a selection of performance results obtained during several test beams will be presented with particular attention to linearity, uniformity, position reconstruction and {gamma}/{pi}0 separation.

  17. Calibrating the Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnik, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    The Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) is a subsystem of the PHENIX detector. The MPC, an electromagnetic calorimeter, is effective at measuring the energy of photons and electrons produced from collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The MPC outputs a voltage signal that we then convert into an energy reading. One common way to calibrate electromagnetic calorimeters is to use photons from π^0 decays. Since many of the photons that enter the detector are the result of natural pion decay, we can pair up the photons and create π^0 candidates. We then plot their masses tower by tower and with the correct cuts a mass peak will appear close to the position predicted by the simulation PISA of the PHENIX detector. Then, we relate the mass peaks from the measured data to mass peaks from simulated data to adjust the gains. Once the MPC is calibrated we can use it to study Au+Au collisions. Previously, the detector has been used to study spin physics using data collected from p+p collisions, and cold nuclear matter effects using d+Au collisions. These new calibrations will allow us to measure new global variables such as transverse energy in both the forward and backward kinematic regions, 3.1< |η| < 3.9.

  18. Fiber and Crystals Dual Readout Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele; Franchino, Silvia; Lee, Sehwook

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main uctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO4 crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realizing a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties of homogeneous media for the technique. Guidelines for additional developments on crystals will be also given. Finally we discuss the construction techniques that we have used to assemble our prototypes and give an overview of the ones that could be industrialized for the construction of a full hermetic calorimeter.

  19. Fiber and crystals dual readout calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele; Franchino, Silvia; Lee, Sehwook

    2016-11-01

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main fluctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO4 crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realizing a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties of homogeneous media for the technique. Guidelines for additional developments on crystals will be also given. Finally we discuss the construction techniques that we have used to assemble our prototypes and give an overview of the ones that could be industrialized for the construction of a full hermetic calorimeter.

  20. Fast Shower Simulation in the ATLAS Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Barberio, E.; Boudreau, J.; Butler, B.; Cheung, S.L.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Di Simone, A.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Gallas, M.V.; Glazov, A.; Marshall, Z.; Mueller, J.; Placakyte, R.; Rimoldi, A.; Savard, P.; Tsulaia, V.; Waugh, A.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterization is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to {approx} 1 GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper.

  1. FPGA-based 10-Gbit Ethernet Data Acquisition Interface for the Upgraded Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohs, J. Philipp; Atlas Liquid Argon calorimeter Group

    2014-06-01

    A stepwise upgrade of the LHC is foreseen starting now until the year 2023 to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to five times of its design value. It implies a challenge for the ATLAS experiment coping with the expected event pile-up, especially for the Level-1 calorimeter trigger system. In order to keep the trigger rates within the limited bandwidth new algorithms have to be applied which in turn requires an upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter trigger readout electronics. Towards this upgrade, the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter group develops a high-speed data acquisition interface in ATCA standard using commercial hardware instead of complex and expensive in-house developments where possible. This paper gives an overview of the general concepts of the DAQ interface, the engaged technologies and the current status of the development efforts for an FPGA based fast data link with a standard 10 Gbps Ethernet protocol which may also be useful for DAQ systems of other high energy physics experiments.

  2. Can a PB / SCIFI Calorimeter Survive the SSC?

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Hertzog; S. A. Hughes; P. E. Reimer; R. L. Tayloe; K. F. Johnson; S. Majewski; C. Zorn; M. Zorn

    1990-03-01

    A scintillating fiber based electromagnetic calorimeter module built from radiation-hard materials has been tested in a beam capable of delivering both low and high currents of monoenergetic electrons. Energy resolution and light output measurements were made following high-dose exposures. The procedure was repeated until the resolution of the detector decreased from an initial value of 6.9%/sqrt E to 14.0%/sqrt E and the pulse height dropped by a factor of 11. After four weeks, the detector was retested. Partial recovery was observed in the light output which returned to approximately 52% of its original value. The resolution recovered to a value of 8.8%/sqrt E. The tests are described.

  3. Can a Pb/SCIFI calorimeter survive the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzog, D.W.; Hughes, S.A.; Reimer, P.E.; Tayloe, R.L. ); Johnson, K.F. ); Majewski, S.; Zorn, C.; Zorn, M. )

    1990-01-01

    A scintillating fiber based electromagnetic calorimeter module built from radiation-hard materials has been tested in a beam capable of delivering both low and high currents of monoenergetic electrons. Energy resolution and light output measurements were made following high-dose exposures. The procedure was repeated until the resolution of the detector decreased from an initial value of 6.9%{radical}E to 14.0%{radical}E and the pulse height dropped by a factor of 11. After four weeks, the detector was retested. Partial recovery was observed in the light output which returned to approximately 52% of its original value. The resolution recovered to a value of 8.8%{radical}E. The tests are described. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Design studies for the Phase II upgrade of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornheim, A.

    2017-03-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) aims to reach the unprecedented integrated luminosity of 3 ab‑1 with an instantaneous luminosity up to 5 × 1034 cm‑2 s‑1. This poses stringent requirements on the radiation resistance of detector components and on the latency of the trigger system. The barrel region of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter will be able to retain the current lead tungstate crystals and avalanche photo diode detectors which will meet the performance requirements throughout the operational lifetime of the HL-LHC. The new front-end electronics and very front-end system required at high luminosities will be described.

  5. Sum and buffer amplifier for lead-glass barrel calorimeter in the TOPAZ detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ujiie, N.; Ikeda, M.; Inaba, S.

    1988-02-01

    Analog sum and buffer amplifiers have been developed to provide a fast trigger signal from the lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter in the TOPAZ detector for TRISTAN e/sup +/e/sup -/ collider experiments at KEK. The total kick-back noise from the 4300 channel gate signals of the LeCroy FASTBUS ADC 1885N has been suppressed to less than 40 mV (equivalent to a 0.4 GeV electron signal). The performances of the analog sum and buffer amplifiers that have been developed are described.

  6. Performances of the signal reconstruction in the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meoni, E.

    2013-08-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS. It is a key detector for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter using steel as an absorber and plastic scintillators as an active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The read-out system is designed to reconstruct the data in real time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The signal amplitude and phases for each channel are measured using Optimal Filtering algorithms both at online and offline level. We present the performances of these techniques on the data collected in the proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. We show in particular the measurements of low amplitudes, close to the pedestal value, using as probe high transverse momenta muons produced in the proton-proton collisions.

  7. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout electronics for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooijmans, G.

    2017-07-01

    The LHC high-luminosity upgrade in 2024-2026 requires the associated detectors to operate at luminosities about 5-7 times larger than assumed in their original design. The pile-up is expected to increase to up to 200 events per proton bunch-crossing. To be able to retain interesting physics events at electroweak energy scales, increased trigger rates are foreseen for the ATLAS detector. At the hardware selection stage acceptance rates of up to 1 MHz are planned, combined with longer latencies up to 40 micro-seconds in order to read out the necessary data from all detector channels. The current readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters does not provide sufficient buffering and bandwidth capabilities. For these reasons a replacement of the LAr front-end and off-detector readout systems is foreseen for all 182,500 readout channels, with the exception of the cold pre-amplifier and summing devices of the hadronic LAr Calorimeter. The new low-power electronics must be able to capture the triangular detector pulses of about 400-600 nano-seconds length with signal currents up to 10 mA and a dynamic range of 16 bits. Results from performance simulation of the calorimeter readout system for different options and results from first tests of the components are presented.

  8. The zero-degree calorimeter for the relativistic heavy-ion experiment WA80 at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, G. R.; Awes, T. C.; Baktash, C.; Cumby, R. P.; Ferguson, R. L.; Gabriel, T. A.; Gustafsson, H. A.; Gutbrod, H. H.; Johnson, J. W.; Lee, I. Y.; Obenshain, F. E.; Plasil, F.; Sorensen, S. P.

    1989-07-01

    Calibration and performance results are presented for a sampling calorimeter designed for use as a beam calorimeter at zero degrees in the relativistic heavy-ion experiment WA80 at CERN. This uranium-scintillator zero-degree calorimeter (ZDC) was found to have a linear response to heavy ions over the range 60-6400 GeV and an in-beam hadronic resolution ranging from {σ}/{E} = {0.013 + 0.33}/{√E} at low intensities to {σ}/{E} = {0.02 + 0.67}/{√E} at higher intensities. The {e}/{h} ratio of the electromagnetic section was measured to be 1.12 at 135 GeV. The ZDC operated reliably with incident beams of 3.2 TeV oxygen and 6.4 TeV sulfur at intensities of over 10 6 nuclei per spill. It provided a trigger both for minimum bias events and for violent central collisions.

  9. Test beam performance of the CDF plug upgrade hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    de Barbaro, P.; CDF Plug Upgrade Group

    1998-01-13

    We report on the performance of the CDF End Plug Hadron Calorimeter in a test beam. The sampling calorimeter is constructed using 2 inch iron absorber plates and scintillator planes with wavelength shifting fibers for readout. The linearity and energy resolution of the calorimeter response to pions, and the transverse uniformity of the response to muons and pions are presented. The parameter e/h, representing the ratio of the electromagnetic to hadronic response, is extracted from the data.

  10. Heat flow calorimeter. [measures output of Ni-Cd batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.; Johnston, W. V. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow calorimeter devices are used to measure heat liberated from or absorbed by an object. This device is capable of measuring the thermal output of sealed nickel-cadmium batteries or cells during charge-discharge cycles. An elongated metal heat conducting rod is coupled between the calorimeter vessel and a heat sink, thus providing the only heat exchange path from the calorimeter vessel itself.

  11. A hadron calorimeter with scintillators parallel to the beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Gorin, A.; Gurzhiev, A.; Dyshkant, A.; Evdokimov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Yu.; Kostritskii, A.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Podstavkov, V.; Polyakov, V.; Shtannikov, A.; Tereschenko, S.; Turchanovich, L.; Zaichenko, A.

    1997-02-01

    A hadron calorimeter in which scintillators are arranged nearly parallel to the incident particle direction and light is collected by optical fibres with WLS, has been built. The iron absorber plates are of the tapered shape to fit a barrel structure of the collider geometry. The performance of the calorimeter studied with hadron beam is presented as a function of tilt angle without and with electromagnetic calorimeter in front of the hadron one.

  12. A calorimeter for neutron flux measurement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chupp, T.E.

    1993-04-01

    A calorimeter for absolute neutron flux measurement has been built and tested. The calorimeter measures the heat produced in a 10{degrees}K thick LiPb target when neutrons are captured via the {sup 6}Li(n,{sup 3}H){sup 4}He reaction. The sensitivity achieved was 1.3x10{sup 6} n/s for a 1 hour measurement. Separate flux measurements with the calorimeter and a {sup 238}U fission chamber are in agreement and show that systematic errors are less than 3%. An improved calorimeter has been built which is sensitive to 10{sup 5} n/s for a 1 hour measurement.

  13. Calibrating the PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter Using Fits to ADC Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, James; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC), a homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter located in the forward and backward directions (3.1 < η < 3.9) is being used to measure transverse energy from RHIC Au+Au collisions obtained in 2010. While the detector has been partially calibrated using the reconstruction of neutral pions in an iterative procedure, the calibration constants for some areas of the detector are not converging. In order to improve the initial set of calibration constants, a parameterization of the energy distributions as a function of distance from the beamline (obtained using well calibrated towers) is used to provide initial values to problem towers in the iterative procedure. The work done to produce this parameterization and its effects on the calibration process will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1507841.

  14. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Olivier; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2015-02-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton (pp) collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η| < 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5 < |η| < 4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5 K. The 182,468 cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigger and timing boards. In the first three years of LHC operation, approximately 27 fb-1 of pp collision data were collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Throughout this period, the calorimeter consistently operated with performances very close to specifications, with high data-taking efficiency. This is in large part due to a sophisticated data monitoring procedure designed to quickly identify issues that would degrade the detector performance, to ensure that only the best quality data are used for physics analysis. After a description of the detector design, main characteristics and operation principles, this paper details the data quality assessment procedures developed during the 2011 and 2012 LHC data-taking periods, when more than 98% of the luminosity recorded by ATLAS had high quality LAr calorimeter data suitable for physics analysis.

  15. The Counting and Triggers Signals Formation System for Gamma-telescope GAMMA-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Chasovikov, E. N.; Galper, A. M.; Kheymits, M. D.; Murchenko, A. E.; Yurkin, Y. T.

    Gamma-telescope GAMMA-400 consists of anticoincidence system (polyvinylyltoluene BC-408 based top and lateral detector sections, the converter-tracker with thickness of ∼1 X0 (where X0 is radiation length), time-of-flight system (two sections composed of BC-408 detectors with 50 cm distance between), two calorimeters makes of CsI(Tl) crystals (position-sensitive and electromagnetic. Also it includes neutron detector, two BC-408 based scintillation detectors of the calorimeter, and four BC-408 based lateral detectors of the calorimeter. The total calorimeter thickness is 25 X0 or 1.2 λ0 for vertical incident particles registration and 54 X0 or 2.5 λ0 for laterally incident ones (where λ0 is nuclear interaction length). The counting and triggers signals formation system started the data acquisition and provides particle identification. It used 2 pulses types: fast (t≤10 ns) from BC-408 based scintillation detectors and slow (t≤10 ms) from inorganic ones. Also fast pulses (t∼10 ns) from inorganic calorimeters individual detectors amplitude discriminators are included to this system information processing. Only signals from each detectors system individual detecting units without any summation are used for particle identification. The relationship between γ-quanta and relativistic particles (electrons and protons) energy deposition in GAMMA-400 detectors are discussed. The onboard triggers and trigger markers formation algorithms are described jointly with particles identification methods.

  16. The CMS central hadron calorimeter DAQ system upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitbeck, A.; Hirschauer, J.

    2015-05-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeters will undergo a complete replacement of their data acquisition system electronics. The replacement is phased, with portions of the replacement starting in 2014 and continuing through LHC Long Shutdown 2 in 2018. The existing VME electronics will be replaced with a μTCA-based system. New on-detector QIE electronics cards will transmit data at 4.8 GHz to the new μHTR cards residing in μTCA crates in the CMS electronics cavern. The μTCA crates are controlled by the AMC13, which accepts system clock and trigger throttling control from the CMS global DAQ system. The AMC13 distributes the clock to the μHTR and reads out data buffers from the μHTR into the CMS data acquisition system. The AMC 13 also provides the clock for in-crate GLIBs which in turn distribute the clock to the on-detector front end electronics. We report on the design, development status, and schedule of the DAQ system upgrades.

  17. Front-end Electronics for the ALICE Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Aamodt, K.; Awes, Terry C; Enokizono, Akitomo; Silvermyr, David O; Zhang, Chun; Young, Glenn R; The, ALICE

    2010-05-01

    The ALICE calorimeters PHOS and EMCal are based on Avalanche Photo-Diode (APD) photosensors with Charge Sensitive Preamplifiers (CSP) for readout of the scintillating elements. The amplified signals are read out via 32-channel shaper/digitizer front-end electronics (FEE) with 14-bit effective dynamic range. The electronics is based on second order shapers with dual gain for each channel, getting digitized by ALTRO chips. Each APD channel is equipped with an individual 10-bit APD gain adjustment and 2 x 2 channel clusters generate a 100 ns shaped analog sums output (Fast OR) for the associated Trigger Region Units (TRU). The Fast OR signals are generated by first order shapers with a dynamic range of 12-bit given by the ADC in the TRU cards. Board controller firmware in the FPGA provides local monitoring and configuration of all parameters via the ALICE DCS system. The signal to noise ratio for MIP at 215 MeV is {approx}7 per channel with a noise level of 30 MeV at room temperature for a dynamic range of 80 GeV for PHOS, and the fast-OR RMS noise level is about 75 MeV for a dynamic range of 250 GeV for EMCal.

  18. [Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders]. [Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun.

  19. Compensatable muon collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Rajendran

    2015-02-17

    A method and system for reducing background noise in a particle collider, comprises identifying an interaction point among a plurality of particles within a particle collider associated with a detector element, defining a trigger start time for each of the pixels as the time taken for light to travel from the interaction point to the pixel and a trigger stop time as a selected time after the trigger start time, and collecting only detections that occur between the start trigger time and the stop trigger time in order to thereafter compensate the result from the particle collider to reduce unwanted background detection.

  20. Readout Electronics for BGO Calorimeter of DAMPE: Status during the First Half-year after Launching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Siyuan; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Deliang; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientic satellite which was successfully launched into a 500 Km sun-synchronous orbit, on December 17th, 2015, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center of China. The major scientific objective of DAMPE mission is indirect searching for dark matter by observing high energy primary cosmic rays, especially positrons/electrons and gamma rays with an energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. The BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) calorimeter, which is a critical sub-detector of DAMPE payload, was developed for measuring the energy of cosmic particles, distinguishing positrons/electrons and gamma rays from hadron background, and providing trigger information. It is composed of 308 BGO crystal logs, with the size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*60cm for each log to form a total absorption electromagnetic calorimeter. All the BGO logs are stacked in 14 layers, with each layer consisting of 22 BGO crystal logs and each log is viewed by two Hamamatsu R5610A PMTs (photomultiplier tubes), from both sides respectively. Each PMT incorporates a three dynode pick off to achieve a large dynamic range, which results in 616 PMTs and 1848 signal channels. The main function of readout electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE(Front End Electronics) modules, is to precisely measure the charge of PMT signals and providing "hit" signals. The hit signals are sent to the trigger module of PDPU (Payload Data Process Unit) to generate triggers for the payload. The calibration of the BGO calorimeter is composed of pedestal testing and electronic linear scale, which are executed frequently in the space after launching. The data of the testing is transmitted to ground station in the form of scientific data. The monitor status consists of temperature, current and status words of the FEE, which are measured and recorded every 16 seconds and packed in the engineering data, then transmitted to ground station. The status of the BGO calorimeter can be evaluated by the calibration

  1. T-1018 UCLA Spacordion Tungsten Powder Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Trentalange, Stephen; Tsai, Oleg; Igo, George; Huang, Huan; Pan, Yu Xi; Dunkelberger, Jay; Xu, Wen Qin; Soha, Aria; Heppelmann, Steven; Gagliardi, Carl; /Texas A-M

    2011-11-16

    The present experiments at the BNL-RHIC facility are evolving towards physics goals which require the detection of medium energy electromagnetic particles (photons, electrons, neutral pions, eta mesons, etc.), especially at forward angles. New detectors will place increasing demands on energy resolution, hadron rejection and two-photon resolution and will require large area, high performance electromagnetic calorimeters in a variety of geometries. In the immediate future, either RHIC or JLAB will propose a facility upgrade (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with physics goals such as electron-heavy ion collisions (or p-A collisions) with a wide range of calorimeter requirements. An R and D program based at Brookhaven National Laboratory has awarded the group funding of approximately $110,000 to develop new types of calorimeters for EIC experiments. The UCLA group is developing a method to manufacture very flexible and cost-effective, yet high quality calorimeters based on scintillating fibers and tungsten powder. The design and features of the calorimeter can be briefly stated as follows: an arbitrarily large number of small diameter fibers (< 0.5 mm) are assembled as a matrix and held rigidly in place by a set of precision screens inside an empty container. The container is then back-filled with tungsten powder, compacted on a vibrating table and infused with epoxy under vacuum. The container is then removed. The resulting sub-modules are extremely uniform and achieve roughly the density of pure Lead. The sub-modules are stacked together to achieve a final detector of the desired shape. There is no dead space between sub-modules and the fibers can be in an accordion geometry bent to prevent 'channeling' of the particles due to accidental alignment of their track with the module axis. This technology has the advantage of being modular and inexpensive to the point where the construction work may be divided among groups the size of typical university physics departments

  2. Proportional wire calorimeter for magnet pole tips

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, D; Ludlam, T; Renardy, J; Willis, W; Zurfluh, E

    1980-01-01

    A total absorption calorimeter is designed to have magnetic properties comparable to those of ordinary steel, and thus can be incorporated into the poles of a spectrometer magnet without compromising the field quality. A test device has been built which consists of an iron structure penetrated by a finegrain pattern of holes, each acting as a proportional tube such that 90% of the volume is occupied by iron. Measurements of the energy and space resolution of this device in a high energy beam will be presented.

  3. Performances of the AMS-02 Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Coignet, G.; Girard, L.; Goy, C.; Kossakowski, R.; Lees-Rosier, S.; Pochon, J.; Vialle, J. P.; Cervelli, F.; di Falco, S.; Galeotti, S.; Incagli, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Spinella, F.; Venanzoni, G.; Falchini, E.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Paoletti, R.; Pilo, F.; Turini, N.; Valle, G.; Bolmont, J.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Sapinski, M.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Lu, Y.; Yang, C.

    2004-07-01

    A 3D imaging electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) made of scintillating fibers embedded in lead has been developed for the AMS-02 experiment to be installed on the International Space Station. A full scale ECAL prototype, partially instrumented, was tested in July 2002 in a beam at CERN. Several million events were recorded using muon, electron, proton, and antiproton beams, from which the ECAL behavior was determined. Results on the measurement of the ECAL parameters and performances are presented : radiation length, linearity, energy and angular resolutions, e/p separation.

  4. The simulation of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossutti, F.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS Collaboration has developed a detailed simulation of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which has been fully integrated in the collaboration software framework CMSSW. The simulation is based on the Geant4 detector simulation toolkit for the modelling of the passage of particles through matter and magnetic field. The geometrical description of the detector is being re-implemented using the DetectorDescription language, combining an XML based description with the algorithmic definition of the position of the elements. The ECAL simulation software is fully operational and has been validated using real data from the ECAL test beam experiment that took place in summer 2006.

  5. Calorimeter measurements of low wattage items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, T.L.; Camp, K.L.; Hildner, S.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    The transition of DOE facilities from production to decontamination and decommissioning has led to more measurements of waste, scrap, and other less attractive materials. The difficulty that these materials pose for segmented gamma scanning and neutron counting has increased the use of calorimetric assay for very low wattage items (< 250 millwatts). We have measured well characterized {sup 238}Pu oxide ranging in wattage from 25 to 500 milliwatts in the calorimeters at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility and report the error and the precision of the measurements.

  6. Beam test of the SDC barrel EM calorimeter test module

    SciTech Connect

    Balka, L.; Guarino, V.; Hill, N.

    1994-05-01

    The SDC barrel electromagnetic calorimeter test module was exposed to beams of high energy pions and electrons in the MP9 test beam at Fermilab in the fall of 1991. Data were collected on resolution, light yield, signal timing and hermiticity. These data demonstrated that the design met the specifications for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter of the Solenoidal Detector collaboration (SDC).

  7. Ac loss calorimeter for three-phase cable

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; McMurry, D.E.; DeBlanc, B.G.

    1996-10-01

    A calorimeter for measuring ac losses in meter-long lengths of HTS superconducting power transmission line cables is described. The calorimeter, which is based on a temperature difference technique, has a precision of 1 mW and measures single, two-phase (coupling), and three-phase losses. The measurements show significant coupling losses between phases.

  8. Isothermal drop calorimeter provides measurements for alpha active, pyrophoric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, H.

    1969-01-01

    Isothermal drop calorimeter measures the heat content of intensely alpha active and pyrophoric materials in inert atmospheres. It consists of a furnace, calorimeter, and aluminum isothermal jacket contained within an inert-atmosphere glove box, which permits the use of unencapsulated materials without exposing personnel to alpha contamination.

  9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-10-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors.

  10. A readout driver for the ATLAS LAr-calorimeter at a High Luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielburg-Jeka, A.; Stärz, S.

    2011-01-01

    A new readout driver (ROD) is being developed as a central part of the signal processing of the ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeters for operation at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In the architecture of the upgraded readout system, the ROD modules will have several challenging tasks: receiving of up to 1.4 Tb/s of data per board from the detector front-end on multiple high-speed serial links, low-latency data processing, data buffering, and data transmission to the ATLAS trigger and DAQ systems. In order to evaluate the different components, prototype boards in ATCA format equipped with modern Xilinx and Altera FPGAs have been built. We will report on the measured performance of the SERDES devices, the parallel signal processing using DSP slices, the implementation of trigger interfaces, using e.g. multi-Gb Ethernet, as well as the development of the ATCA infrastructure on the very first ROD prototype modules.

  11. VHDL implementation of feature-extraction algorithm for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, E.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Tambave, G.; Löhner, H.; Panda Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    A simple, efficient, and robust feature-extraction algorithm, developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA spectrometer at FAIR, Darmstadt, is implemented in VHDL for a commercial 16 bit 100 MHz sampling ADC. The source-code is available as an open-source project and is adaptable for other projects and sampling ADCs. Best performance with different types of signal sources can be achieved through flexible parameter selection. The on-line data-processing in FPGA enables to construct an almost dead-time free data acquisition system which is successfully evaluated as a first step towards building a complete trigger-less readout chain. Prototype setups are studied to determine the dead-time of the implemented algorithm, the rate of false triggering, timing performance, and event correlations.

  12. A readout driver for the ATLAS LAr-calorimeter at a High Luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielburg-Jeka, A.; Stärz, S.

    2011-01-01

    A new readout driver (ROD) is being developed as a central part of the signal processing of the ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeters for operation at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In the architecture of the upgraded readout system, the ROD modules will have several challenging tasks: receiving of up to 1.4 Tb/s of data per board from the detector front-end on multiple high-speed serial links, low-latency data processing, data buffering, and data transmission to the ATLAS trigger and DAQ systems. In order to evaluate the different components, prototype boards in ATCA format equipped with modern Xilinx and Altera FPGAs have been built. We will report on the measured performance of the SERDES devices, the parallel signal processing using DSP slices, the implementation of trigger interfaces, using e.g. multi-Gb Ethernet, as well as the development of the ATCA infrastructure on the very first ROD prototype modules.

  13. Closed Gap Slug Calorimeter for Plasma Stream Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Gorbunov, Sergey; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Jones, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Slug calorimeters are used in sheer and stagnation mode to characterize heat flux levels for high enthalpy streams. The traditional design features a gap between slug and holder, which can be of concern in these convective heat flux environments. The challenge is to develop a calorimeter that closes the gap to gas flow, but largely maintains thermal insulation of the slug. The work presented herein introduces two new slug calorimeter designs featuring a closed gap. This is done using either aerogel as a filler or press fitting the slug with a disk. The designs were verified and compared to the baseline calorimeter design under radiative heat flux. Building on this, the calorimeters were exposed to convective heat flux in the arc-jet facilities. Results from the new designs and conclusions on the impact of the gap in convective heat flux will be shown.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF A LIQUID XENON CALORIMETER CRYOGENIC SYSTEM FOR THE MEG EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Hisamitsu, Y.; Iwamoto, T.; Mihara, S.; Mori, T.; Nishiguchi, H.; Otani, W.; Sawada, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Nishitani, T.

    2008-03-16

    The {mu}-particle rare decay physics experiment, the MU-E-GAMMA (MEG) experiment, will soon be operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Zurich. To achieve the extremely high sensitivity required to detect gamma rays, 800 L of liquid xenon is used as the medium in the calorimeter, viewed by 830 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) immersed in it. The required liquid xenon purity is of the order of ppb of water, and is obtained by using a cryogenic centrifugal pump and cold molecular sieves. The heat load of the calorimeter at 165 K is to be approximately 120 W, which is removed by a pulse-tube cryocooler developed at KEK and built by Iwatani Industrial Gas Corp., with a cooling power of about 200 W at 165 K. The cryogenic system is also equipped with a 1000-L dewar. This paper describes the results of an initial performance test of each cryogenic component.

  15. Cosmic ray calibration of the PbWO4 crystal electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Franzoni, G.

    2006-10-27

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the CERN LHC features a high precision PbWO4 crystal electromagnetic calorimeter. Each crystal is first precalibrated with a radioactive source and by means of optical measurements. After the assembly, each supermodule (1700 crystals) is exposed to comics rays.The comparison between intercalibration obtained from cosmic muons and electrons from test beam was performed at the end of 2004 for an initial set of 130 channels and showed that a precalibration with a statistical precision of 1 to 2% can be achieved within approximately one week. An important aspect of the comics muons analysis is that it is entirely based on the calorimeter data, without using any external tracking device.We will present the setup and results from the 2004 test as well as recent data recorded on many supermodule.

  16. Coordinated movements of eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF1, eIF1A, and eIF5 trigger phosphate release from eIF2 in response to start codon recognition by the ribosomal preinitiation complex.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Jagpreet S; Saini, Adesh K; Muñoz, Antonio M; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Lorsch, Jon R

    2013-02-22

    Accurate recognition of the start codon in an mRNA by the eukaryotic translation preinitiation complex (PIC) is essential for proper gene expression. The process is mediated by eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) in conjunction with the 40 S ribosomal subunit and (initiator) tRNA(i). Here, we provide evidence that the C-terminal tail (CTT) of eIF1A, which we previously implicated in start codon recognition, moves closer to the N-terminal domain of eIF5 when the PIC encounters an AUG codon. Importantly, this movement is coupled to dissociation of eIF1 from the PIC, a critical event in start codon recognition, and is dependent on the scanning enhancer elements in the eIF1A CTT. The data further indicate that eIF1 dissociation must be accompanied by the movement of the eIF1A CTT toward eIF5 in order to trigger release of phosphate from eIF2, which converts the latter to its GDP-bound state. Our results also suggest that release of eIF1 from the PIC and movement of the CTT of eIF1A are triggered by the same event, most likely accommodation of tRNA(i) in the P site of the 40 S subunit driven by base pairing between the start codon in the mRNA and the anticodon in tRNA(i). Finally, we show that the C-terminal domain of eIF5 is responsible for the factor's activity in antagonizing eIF1 binding to the PIC. Together, our data provide a more complete picture of the chain of molecular events that is triggered when the scanning PIC encounters an AUG start codon in the mRNA.

  17. A Merged Quadrupole-Calorimeter for CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard; Hauptman, John

    The luminosity 𝓛 of colliding beams in a storage ring such as CEPC depends strongly on l*, the half-length of the free space centered on the intersection point (IP). l* is also the length from the IP to the front edges of the two near-in quadrupoles that are focusing the counter-circulating beams to the IP spot. The detector length cannot, therefore, exceed 2l*. Since 𝓛 increases strongly with decreasing l*, there is incentive for reducing l*; but this requires the detector to be shorter than desirable. This paper proposes a method for integrating these adjacent quadrupoles into the particle detector to retain (admittedly degraded) active particle detection of those forward going particles that would otherwise be obscured by the quadrupole. A gently conical quadrupole shape is more natural for merging the quadrupole into the particle detector than is the analytically exact cylindrical shape. This is true whether or not the calorimeter is integrated. It will be the task of accelerator physicists to determine the extent to which deviation from the pure quadrupole field compromises (or improves) accelerator performance. Superficially, both the presence of strongest gradient close to the IP and largest aperture farther from the IP seem to be advantageous. A tentative design for this merged, quadrupole-calorimeter is given.

  18. A merged quadrupole-calorimeter for CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard; Hauptman, John

    2016-11-01

    The luminosity ℒ of colliding beams in a storage ring such as CEPC depends strongly on l∗, the half-length of the free space centered on the intersection point (IP). l∗ is also the length from the IP to the front edges of the two near-in quadrupoles that are focusing the counter-circulating beams to the IP spot. The detector length cannot, therefore, exceed 2l∗. Since ℒ increases strongly with decreasing l∗, there is incentive for reducing l∗; but this requires the detector to be shorter than desirable. This paper proposes a method for integrating these adjacent quadrupoles into the particle detector to retain (admittedly degraded) active particle detection of those forward going particles that would otherwise be obscured by the quadrupole. A gently conical quadrupole shape is more natural for merging the quadrupole into the particle detector than is the analytically exact cylindrical shape. This is true whether or not the calorimeter is integrated. It will be the task of accelerator physicists to determine the extent to which deviation from the pure quadrupole field compromises (or improves) accelerator performance. Superficially, both the presence of strongest gradient close to the IP and largest aperture farther from the IP seem to be advantageous. A tentative design for this merged, quadrupole-calorimeter is given.

  19. Firearm trigger assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  20. Research and development for a free-running readout system for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hils, Maximilian; Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm-2 s-1. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels and an improved ATLAS trigger system require a replacement of the Front-end (FE) and Back-end (BE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Results from research and development of individual components and their radiation qualification as well as the overall system design will be presented.

  1. High-sensitivity microfluidic calorimeters for biological and chemical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonhee; Fon, Warren; Axelrod, Blake W.; Roukes, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    High-sensitivity microfluidic calorimeters raise the prospect of achieving high-throughput biochemical measurements with minimal sample consumption. However, it has been challenging to realize microchip-based calorimeters possessing both high sensitivity and precise sample-manipulation capabilities. Here, we report chip-based microfluidic calorimeters capable of characterizing the heat of reaction of 3.5-nL samples with 4.2-nW resolution. Our approach, based on a combination of hard- and soft-polymer microfluidics, provides both exceptional thermal response and the physical strength necessary to construct high-sensitivity calorimeters that can be scaled to automated, highly multiplexed array architectures. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic valves and pumps are interfaced to parylene channels and reaction chambers to automate the injection of analyte at 1 nL and below. We attained excellent thermal resolution via on-chip vacuum encapsulation, which provides unprecedented thermal isolation of the minute microfluidic reaction chambers. We demonstrate performance of these calorimeters by resolving measurements of the heat of reaction of urea hydrolysis and the enthalpy of mixing of water with methanol. The device structure can be adapted easily to enable a wide variety of other standard calorimeter operations; one example, a flow calorimeter, is described. PMID:19706406

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on triggering and data acquisition for experiments at the Supercollider

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1989-04-01

    This meeting covered the following subjects: triggering requirements for SSC physics; CDF level 3 trigger; D0 trigger design; AMY trigger systems; Zeus calorimeter first level trigger; data acquisition for the Zeus Central Tracking Detector; trigger and data acquisition aspects for SSC tracking; data acquisition systems for the SSC; validating triggers in CDF level 3; optical data transmission at SSC; time measurement system at SSC; SSC/BCD data acquisition system; microprocessors and other processors for triggering and filtering at the SSC; data acquisition, event building, and on-line processing; LAA real-time benchmarks; object-oriented system building at SSC; and software and project management. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Method and system for improved resolution of a compensated calorimeter detector

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for a depleted uranium calorimeter detector used in high energy physics experiments. In a depleted uranium calorimeter detector, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined and the output response of the calorimeter detector is compensated so that the ratio of the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a lepton to the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a hadron of the same energy as the lepton is approximately equal to 1. In the present invention, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined as a function of time and the hadron content of the response of the calorimeter detector is inferred based upon the time structure of the energy pulse measured by the calorimeter detector. The energy measurement can be corrected based on the inference of the hadron content whereby the resolution of the calorimeter can be improved.

  4. Bromelain inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of MAPK regulated NF-kappa B against skin tumor-initiation triggering mitochondrial death pathway.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Prasad, Sahdeo; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-18

    Chemoprevention impels the pursuit for either single targeted or cocktail of multi-targeted agents. Bromelain, potential agent in this regard, is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and fruits of pineapple (Ananas cosmosus), endowed with anti-inflammatory, anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Herein, we report the anti tumor-initiating effects of bromelain in 2-stage mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Pre-treatment of bromelain resulted in reduction in cumulative number of tumors (CNT) and average number of tumors per mouse. Preventive effect was also comprehended in terms of reduction in tumor volume up to a tune of approximately 65%. Components of the cell signaling pathways, connecting proteins involved in cell death were targeted. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in Bcl-2. A marked inhibition in cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression and inactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) was recorded, as phosphorylation and consequent degradation of I kappa B alpha was blocked by bromelain. Also, bromelain treatment curtailed extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt activity. The basis of anti tumor-initiating activity of bromelain was revealed by its time dependent reduction in DNA nick formation and increase in percentage prevention. Thus, modulation of inappropriate cell signaling cascades driven by bromelain is a coherent approach in achieving chemoprevention.

  5. Optical System of the STAR Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachov, O. A.

    2000-04-01

    The STAR Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter(BEMC) is a sampling calorimeter and the core of structure consist of a lead-scintillator plate stack. The plastic scintillator in the form of Mega-tile with 40 optically isolated tiles in each layer. The tile/fiber system uses a wavelength shifting fiber to read out the signal of a tile and a optical clear fiber carry the light through the magnet structure to the electronic-PMT box. A discription of the Optical system of BEMC is presented along with a current status of the quality control program of the calorimeter production.

  6. Data Analysis for the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.

    1997-01-01

    The scintillating optical fiber calorimeter is a hybrid instrument with both active and passive components for measuring the proton and helium cosmic ray spectra from 0.2 to IO TeV kinetic energy. A thin emulsion/x-ray film chamber is situated between a cerenkov counter and an imaging calorimeter. Scintillating optical fibers sample the electromagnetic showers that develop in the calorimeter and identify the trajectory of cosmic rays that interact in SOFCAL. The emulsion/x-ray film data provide an in flight calibration for SOFCAL. The data reduction techniques used will be discussed and interim results of the analysis from a 20 hour balloon flight will be presented.

  7. New tools for the simulation and design of calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, W.J.

    1989-07-10

    Two new approaches to the simulation and design of large hermetic calorimeters are presented. Firstly, the Shower Library scheme used in the fast generation of showers in the Monte Carlo of the calorimeter for the D-Zero experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Secondly, a tool for the design future calorimeters is described, which can be integrated with a computer aided design system to give engineering designers an immediate idea of the relative physics capabilities of different geometries. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. D0 Silicon Upgrade: End Calorimeter Transfer Bridge Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.J.; /Fermilab

    1996-07-10

    During the assembly of major components into the D0 Detector, a transfer bridge was required to move the North-End Calorimeter from the clean room,over the cable bridge and onto the north sidewalk of the assembly hall. This experiment is now at the beginning stages of the next phase, namely the upgrade of this Detector for future physics research. A major piece of this upgrade is the installation of a solenoid magnet into the Central Calorimeter. In order to accomplish this, the South End Calorimeter has to be removed from the detector and the North End Calorimeter must be moved an additional 20-inch from its nominal open position (total 60-inch movement). The South End Calorimeter will be removed from the detector using the equipment designed for its installation. The calorimeter will be staged on the south sidewalk during the installation of the solenoid magnet and the central tracking systems. The North End Calorimeter is moved 60-inch to give more space between calorimeters during magnet, tracker and cable installation work. This movement will allow the calorimeter to remain coupled to the cryo system. However, this movement requires an extension be added to the center beam. This extension will support the rear wheels of the calorimeter and in the case of the end calorimeters, carry the majority of the weight. The extension is to be a modification of the transfer bridge. This modification, basically has T1 steel blocks added to one end and legs to the sidewalk supports at the other. The T1 steel blocks are notched to fit into the center beam porches and are welded to bridge rails. This design is the same as that for the installation bridge (3740.312-ME-273456), including the welds and weld procedures which are identical in both cases. Since load testing is impractical, the critical welds will be non-destructive tested by ultrasonic means. The laboratory, through the FESS Department, has a contract with M.Q.S. Inspection Inc. The results of this testing will be

  9. Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.

  10. Agile Mcal, the Mini-Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastia, Paolo; Poulsen, Jens Michael; Monzani, Franco; Radaelli, Paolo; Marchesi, Paolo; Labanti, Claudio; Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Bulgarelli, Andrea

    2006-04-01

    AGILE is a scientific mission dedicated to gamma-ray astrophysics in space, and the mini-calorimeter MCAL is one of four detector systems on the satellite. The MCAL instrument is sensitive in the energy range: 300 keV - 100 MeV. It has two main functions: one autonomous mode for detection of impulsive cosmic events and the other as “a slave” supporting the energy measurements of the pair-conversion tracker. The AGILE Small Mission is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and the INAF-IASF section at Bologna has the scientific responsibility for MCAL. LABEN develops the MCAL instrument with its detectors and electronics. This paper gives an overview of the detectors on AGILE, and then it gives details on the design of MCAL, and finally we report on the tests at instrument level.

  11. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K. J.; Wenzel, W. A.; Videau, H.

    1983-08-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5×10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique angles of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions.

  12. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  13. Implementation and Performance of the Signal Reconstruction in the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Alberto; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Group

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently taking data with proton-proton collisions. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front-end electronics allows to read-out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ∼30 MeV to ∼2 TeV. The read-out system is designed to reconstruct the data in real-time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The main component of the read-out system is the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which, using the Optimal Filtering technique, allows to compute for each channel the signal amplitude, phase and quality factor at the required high rate. A solid knowledge of the signal pulse-shapes and of the timing is fundamental to reach the required accuracy in energy reconstruction. Systematic studies to understand the pulse-shape have been carried out using both electronic calibration signals and data collected in the proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV. After a short overview of the TileCal system we will discuss the implementation of Optimal Filtering signal reconstruction highlighting the constraints imposed by the use of the DSP fixed point arithmetic. We will report also results on the validation of the implementation of the DSP signal reconstruction and on the overall signal reconstruction performance measured in calibration, single beam and collision events.

  14. The Forward Calorimeter of the GlueX Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Daniel; GlueX Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Forward Calorimeter (FCAL) of the GlueX experiment is a lead glass electromagnetic calorimeter currently being built in Hall D of Jefferson Lab. The GlueX experiment is a photoproduction experiment that will utilize coherent bremsstrahlung radiation to map out the light meson spectrum, including a search for hybrid mesons with exotic quantum numbers (JPC). The FCAL will detect photons between 1° and 10 .8° downstream from the target. The calorimeter is built out of 2800 elements, each of which consists of a lead glass block, an FEU 84-3 PMT, and a custom Cockcroft-Walton electronic base. In the Fall of 2011, a 25 element prototype detector was installed in Hall B of Jefferson Lab to measure the energy and timing resolution of the calorimeter using electrons between 100 and 250 MeV. The design and construction of FCAL and the results from the prototype test will be discussed.

  15. The BaBar cesium iodide electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.

    1994-12-01

    The BABAR Cesium Iodide Electromagnetic Calorimeter is currently in the technical design stage. The calorimeter consists of approximately 10,000 individual thallium-doped cesium iodide crystals arranged in a near-hermetic barrel and endcap structure. Taking previous cesium iodide calorimeters as a benchmark, we hope to build a system with roughly two times better energy resolution. This will be achieved by a combination of high quality crystal growing, precision mechanical processing of crystals and support structure, highly efficient light collection and low noise readout electronics. The calorimeter described here represents the current state of the design and we are undertaking an active period of optimization before this design is finalized. We discuss here the physics motivation, the current design and options for optimization.

  16. Calibration of a digital hadron calorimeter with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Bilki, Burak; Butler, John; Cundiff, Tim; Drake, Gary; Haberichter, William; Hazen, Eric; Hoff, Jim; Holm, Scott; Kreps, Andrew; May, Ed; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; /Fermilab /Iowa U. /Argonne /Boston U. /Argonne, PHY

    2008-02-01

    The calibration procedure of a finely granulated digital hadron calorimeter with Resistive Plate Chambers as the active elements is described. Results obtained with a stack of nine layers exposed to muons from the Fermilab test beam are presented.

  17. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance with Run 1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá Alberich, L.

    2016-07-01

    The performance of the central hadronic calorimeter, TileCal, in the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is studied using cosmic-ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the Run 1 of LHC (2010-2012). Results are presented for the precision of the absolute energy scale and timing, noise characterization, and time-stability of the detector. The results show that the Tile Calorimeter performance is within the design requirements of the detector.

  18. The electromagnetic calorimeter in JLab Real Compton Scattering Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Shahinyan; Eugene Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; K. Egiyan; V. Gorbenko; J. Hines; E. Hovhannisyan; Ch. Hyde; C.W. de Jager; A. Ketikyan; V. Mamyan; R. Michaels; A.M. Nathan; V. Nelyubin; I. Rachek; M. Roedelbrom; A. Petrosyan; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Popov; J. Segal; Yu. Shestakov; J. Templon; H. Voskanyan; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2007-04-16

    A hodoscope calorimeter comprising of 704 lead-glass blocks is described. The calorimeter was constructed for use in the JLab Real Compton Scattering experiment. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6\\%/$\\sqrt{E_\\gamma \\, [GeV]}$, respectively. Design features and performance parameters during the experiment are presented.

  19. Vibration isolation system for cryogenic phonon-scintillation calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Jo, H. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, I.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. J.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators are getting popular for rare event searches underground due to their advantages. However, the application of a pulse tube refrigerator introduces mechanical vibration that can translate into temperature fluctuation for calorimeters. The effect is significant in particular when the sensor is attached to a large absorber. A mechanical filter is installed to isolate the calorimeters from the vibration inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator while meeting thermal requirements.

  20. Building and testing a high school calorimeter at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesot, L.; Crane, R.; Engelen, M. A. G.; van Haren, A. M. A.; van Kleef, R. H. B.; Leenders, O. R.; Timmermans, C.

    2016-11-01

    We have designed, built and tested a crystal calorimeter in the context of CERN’s first beam line for schools competition. The results of the tests at CERN show that the light output of our calorimeter depends on the energy deposited by particles (electrons and muons) hitting the crystals. Our design can be reproduced by high schools around the world, as we have avoided the use of toxic chemicals.

  1. Current Status and Performance of the BESIII Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldbauer, Florian; BESIII Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The BESIII experiment is located at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) in China. Its electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) consists of 6240 CsI(TI) crystals, each read out by two Photodiodes (PD) at the end of the crystal. Changes in the response of the calorimeter due to radiation damage in the crystals or changes in the photo detector output are monitored with a light pulser system.

  2. TECHNICAL DESIGN REPORT FOR A NOSECONE CALORIMETER (NCC) FOR THE PHENIX EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    PHENIX EXPERIMENT; OBRIEN,E.; BOOSE, S.; CHIU, M.; JOHNSON, B.M.; KISTENEV, E.P.; LYNCH, D.; NOUICER, R.; PAK, R.; PISANI, R.; STOLL, S.P.; SUKHANOV, A.; WOODY, C.L.; LI, Z.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.

    2007-08-01

    A remarkable result has emerged from the first several years of data taking at RHIC--the high temperature and density phase of QCD matter created in heavy ion collisions at RHIC is best described as a near perfect fluid--the strongly interacting Quark-Gluon-Plasma (sQGP). This state is characterized by a small viscosity to entropy ratio, and a high density of color charges which induces huge energy losses of partons transversing the medium. The task for the future is to understand the characteristics of the sQGP, and perhaps more importantly--to gain some insight into how and why such a medium is created. The PHENIX detector has been one of the primary experimental tools at RHIC; in particular the electromagnetic calorimeter has been a critical component of many of the measurements leading to this discovery. The coverage of the present PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter is rather limited, covering half the azimuth and -0.35< {eta} <0.35 Further progress requires larger coverage of electromagnetic calorimetry, both to increase the rate for low cross section phenomena, and to cover a broader range of pseudorapidity to study the rapidity dependence of the medium. A pair of Nosecone Calorimeters (NCC) has been designed covering both positive and negative rapidity regions 1< |{eta}| <3 of the PHENIX detector. The NCC will make it possible to perform tomographic studies of the jet energy dependence of energy loss and medium response, by using direct photons as trigger particles over a large rapidity range. The technique of correlating trigger hadrons with low momentum hadrons has been powerfully exploited at RHIC to study the evolution of back to back jets [1, 2] and hence the response of the medium. The NCC will make it possible to do such studies using direct photons as the trigger particles. The direct photon in such ''photon-jet'' events tags the transverse momentum of outgoing parton which then fragments into lower energy particles. Together with the Forward Silicon

  3. Hadron detection with a dual-readout fiber calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Choi, S.; Ciapetti, G.; Ferrari, R.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Ha, S.; Hauptman, J.; Kim, H.; Lanza, A.; Li, F.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Park, J.; Scuri, F.; Sill, A.; Wigmans, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe measurements of the response functions of a fiber-based dual-readout calorimeter for pions, protons and multiparticle ;jets; with energies in the range from 20 to 180 GeV. The calorimeter uses lead as absorber material and has a total mass of 1350 kg. It is complemented by leakage counters made of scintillating plastic, with a total mass of 500 kg. The effects of these leakage counters on the calorimeter performance are studied as well. In a separate section, we investigate and compare different methods to measure the energy resolution of a calorimeter. Using only the signals provided by the calorimeter, we demonstrate that our dual-readout calorimeter, calibrated with electrons, is able to reconstruct the energy of proton and pion beam particles to within a few percent at all energies. The fractional widths of the signal distributions for these particles (σ / E) scale with the beam energy as 30% /√{ E }, without any additional contributing terms.

  4. Energy Calibration of the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Chamber (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. C.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T.; Roberts, F. E.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Takahashi, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL) detector is designed to make direct measures of the primary cosmic ray spectrum from -200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. The primary particles are resolved into groups according to their charge (p, He, CNO, Medium Z, Heavy Z) using both active and passive components integrated into the detector. The principal part of SOFCAL is a thin ionization calorimeter that measures the electromagnetic cascades that result from these energetic particles interacting in the detector. The calorimeter is divided into two sections: a thin passive emulsion/x-ray film calorimeter, and a fiber calorimeter that uses crossing layers of small scintillating optical fibers to sample the energy deposition of the cascades. The energy determination is made by fitting the fiber data to transition curves generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The fiber data must first be calibrated using the electron counts from the emulsion plates in the calorimeter for a small number of events. The technique and results of this calibration will be presented together with samples of the data from a balloon flight.

  5. An Imaging Calorimeter for Access-Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Adams, James H.; Binns, R. W.; Christl, M. J.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A mission concept study to define the "Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)" was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The ACCESS instrument complement contains a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter to measure tile spectrum of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei up to approximately 10(exp 15) eV to search for the limit of S/N shock wave acceleration, or evidence for other explanations of the spectra. Several calorimeter configurations have been studied, including the "baseline" totally active bismuth germanate instrument and sampling calorimeters utilizing various detectors. The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) concept comprises a carbon target and a calorimeter using a high atomic number absorber sampled approximately each radiation length (rl) by thin scintillating fiber (SCIFI) detectors. The main features and options of the ICA instrument configuration are described in this paper. Since direct calibration is not possible over most of the energy range, the best approach must be decided from simulations of calorimeter performance extrapolated from CERN calibrations at 0.375 TeV. This paper presents results from the ICA simulations study.

  6. A flexible FPGA based QDC and TDC for the HADES and the CBM calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, A.; Galatyuk, T.; Koenig, W.; Michel, J.; Pietraszko, J.; Skott, P.; Traxler, M.

    2017-02-01

    A Charge-to-Digital-Converter (QDC) and Time-to-Digital-Converter (TDC) based on a commercial FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) was developed to read out PMT signals of the planned HADES electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Darmstadt, Germany). The main idea is to convert the charge measurement of a detector signal into a time measurement, where the charge is encoded in the width of a digital pulse, while the arrival time information is encoded in the leading edge time of the pulse. The PaDiWa-AMPS prototype front-end board for the TRB3 (General Purpose Trigger and Readout Board—version 3) which implements this conversion method was developed and qualified. The already well established TRB3 platform provides the needed precise time measurements and serves as a data acquisition system. We present the read-out concept and the performance of the prototype boards in laboratory and also under beam conditions. First steps have been completed in order to adapt this concept to SiPM signals of the hadron calorimeter in the CBM experiment at the planned FAIR facility (Darmstadt).

  7. Design and test beam studies for the CASTOR calorimeter of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göttlicher, Peter; Cms-Castor Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    CASTOR is a calorimeter designed for the very forward region of the CMS experiment at the LHC: 5.2 < η < 6.6. The space inside a shielding, the radiation level (2-20 kGy) and the magnetic field (0.1-0.16 T) constrain the design. A sampling structure of tungsten and quartz plates together with a Cherenkov light readout by air filled light guides and fine mesh photomultipliers (PMT) handle this rough environment and allow a 10 λI deep calorimeter. The electronics has to deal with a high occupancy and a high dynamic range (104) to measure minimum ionizing particles and full beam energy (7 TeV) jets. The charge of the PMT's is digitized for every bunch crossing (25 ns) and sent as 1.6 Gbit/s streams via 78 optical links to the service cavern. There FGPA's calculate trigger bits, buffer the data and communicate with the CMS systems. A granularity of 224 channels allows to reconstruct shower profiles. Electrons, hadrons and muons have been measured in test beams. The optical response has been extracted to be ≈ 9 - 12 photoelectrons(ph.e.)/readout-unit for muons, ≈ 30 ph . e . / GeV for electrons and ≈ 13 ph . e . / GeV for high energetic pions.

  8. The Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanov, N.; Budagov, J.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Danè, E.; Davidov, Y.; Di Falco, S.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pedreschi, E.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Mu2e collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for coherent, neutrino-less conversion of negative muons into electrons in the field of an Aluminum nucleus, μ‑ + Al → e‑ +Al. Data collection start is planned for the end of 2021. The dynamics of such charged lepton flavour violating (CLFV) process is well modelled by a two-body decay, resulting in a mono-energetic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass. If no events are observed in three years of running, Mu2e will set an upper limit on the ratio between the conversion and the capture rates Rμe = μ‑ + A(Z,N) → e‑ + A(Z,N)/μ‑ + A(Z,N) → νμ‑ + A(Z‑1,N) of <= 6 × 10‑17 (@ 90% C.L.). This will improve the current limit of four order of magnitudes with respect to the previous best experiment. Mu2e complements and extends the current search for μ → e γ decay at MEG as well as the direct searches for new physics at the LHC . The observation of such CLFV process could be clear evidence for New Physics beyond the Standard Model. Given its sensitivity, Mu2e will be able to probe New Physics at a scale inaccessible to direct searches at either present or planned high energy colliders. To search for the muon conversion process, a very intense pulsed beam of negative muons (~ 1010 μ/sec) is stopped on an Aluminum target inside a very long solenoid where the detector is also located. The Mu2e detector is composed of a straw tube tracker and a CsI crystals electromagnetic calorimeter. An external veto for cosmic rays surrounds the detector solenoid. In 2016, Mu2e has passed the final approval stage from DOE and has started its construction phase. An overview of the physics motivations for Mu2e, the current status of the experiment and the required performances and design details of the calorimeter are presented.

  9. The Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Happacher, F.

    2017-09-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for coherent, neutrino-less conversion of negative muons into electrons in the field of an Aluminum nucleus, μ‑ + Al → e‑ +Al. Data collection start is planned for the end of 2021. The dynamics of such charged lepton flavour violating (CLFV) process is well modelled by a two-body decay, resulting in a mono-energetic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass. If no events are observed in three years of running, Mu2e will set an upper limit on the ratio between the conversion and the capture rates Rμ e = μ‑ + A(Z,N) → e‑ +A(Z,N)/μ‑ + A(Z,N) → νμ ‑ +A(Z‑1,N) of <= 6 × 10‑17 (@ 90% C.L.). This will improve the current limit of four order of magnitudes with respect to the previous best experiment. Mu2e complements and extends the current search for μ → e γ decay at MEG as well as the direct searches for new physics at the LHC . The observation of such CLFV process could be clear evidence for New Physics beyond the Standard Model. Given its sensitivity, Mu2e will be able to probe New Physics at a scale inaccessible to direct searches at either present or planned high energy colliders. To search for the muon conversion process, a very intense pulsed beam of negative muons (~ 1010 μ/ sec) is stopped on an Aluminum target inside a very long solenoid where the detector is also located. The Mu2e detector is composed of a straw tube tracker and a CsI crystals electromagnetic calorimeter. An external veto for cosmic rays surrounds the detector solenoid. In 2016, Mu2e has passed the final approval stage from DOE and has started its construction phase. An overview of the physics motivations for Mu2e, the current status of the experiment and the required performances and design details of the calorimeter are presented.

  10. GEANT SIMULATIONS OF PRESHOWER CALORIMETER FOR CLAS12 UPGRADE OF THE FORWARD ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlow, K.; Stepanyan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility uses the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to study the structure of the nucleon. An upgrade from a 6 GeV beam to a 12GeV beam is currently planned. With the beam energy upgrade, more high-energy pions will be created from the interaction of the beam and the target. Above 6GeV, the angle between the two-decay photons of high-energy pions becomes too small for the current electromagnetic calorimeter (EC) of CLAS to differentiate between two photon clusters and single photon events. Thus, a preshower calorimeter will be added in front of the EC to enable fi ner granularity and ensure better cluster separation for all CLAS experiments at higher energies. In order to optimize cost without compromising the calorimeter’s performance, three versions of the preshower, varying in number of scintillator and lead layers, were compared by their resolution and effi ciency. Using GSIM, a GEANT detector simulation program for CLAS, the passage of neutral pions and single photons through CLAS and the new preshower calorimeter (CLAS12 EC) was studied. The resolution of the CLAS12 EC was calculated from the Gaussian fi t of the sampling fraction, the energy CLAS12 EC detected over the Monte Carlo simulated energy. The single photon detection effi ciency was determined from the energy and position of the photon hits. The fractional energy resolution measured was ΔE/E = 0.0972 in the fi ve-module version, 0.111 in the four-module version, and 0.149 in the three-module version. Both the fi ve- and four-module versions had 99% single photon detection effi ciency above 0.5GeV while the 3 module version had 99% effi ciency above 1.5GeV. Based on these results, the suggested preshower confi guration is the four-module version containing twelve layers of scintillator and fi fteen layers of lead. This version provides a reasonable balance of resolution, effi ciency, and

  11. Study of radiation hardness of pure CsI crystals for Belle-II calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarintsev, A.; Boyarintseva, Y.; Gektin, A.; Shiran, N.; Shlyakhturov, V.; Taranyuk, V.; Timoshenko, N.; Bobrov, A.; Garmash, A.; Golkovski, M.; Kuzmin, A.; Matvienko, D.; Savrovski, P.; Shebalin, V.; Shwartz, B.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Zhilich, V.; Krumshtein, Z. V.; Nozdrin, A. A.; Olshevsky, A. G.

    2016-03-01

    A study of the radiation hardness of pure CsI crystals 30 cm long was performed with a uniformly absorbed dose of up to 14.3 krad. This study was initiated by the proposed upgrade of the end cap calorimeter of the Belle-II detector, using pure CsI crystals. A set of 14 crystals of truncated pyramid shape used in this study was produced at the Institute for Scintillation Materials NAS from 14 different ingots grown with variations of the growing technology. Interrelationship of crystal scintillation characteristics, radiation hardness and the growing technology was observed.

  12. HGCAL: a High-Granularity Calorimeter for the endcaps of CMS at HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnan, A.-M.

    2017-01-01

    Calorimetry at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) faces two enormous challenges, particularly in the forward direction: radiation tolerance and unprecedented in-time event pileup. To meet these challenges, the CMS experiment has decided to construct a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL), featuring a previously unrealized transverse and longitudinal segmentation, for both electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow-type calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance particle identification, energy resolution and pileup rejection. The majority of the HGCAL will be based on robust and cost-effective hexagonal silicon sensors with simeq 1 cm2 or 0.5 cm2 hexagonal cell size, with the final five interaction lengths of the hadronic compartment being based on highly segmented plastic scintillator with on-scintillator SiPM readout. We present an overview of the HGCAL project, including the motivation, engineering design, readout/trigger concept and simulated performance.

  13. Hadronic vector boson decay and the art of calorimeter calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Lobban, Olga Barbara

    2002-12-01

    Presented here are several studies involving the energy measurement of particles using calorimeters. The first study involves the effects of radiation damage on the response of a prototype calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. We found that the effects of radiation damage on the calorimeter·s response arc dose dependent and that most of the damage will occur in the first year of running at the Large Hadron Collider. Another study involved the assessment of the Energy Flow Method an algorithm which combines the information from the calorimeter system is combined with that from the tracking system in an attmpt to improve the energy resolution for jet measurements. Using the Energy Flow method an improvement of $\\sim30\\%$ is found but this impovement decreases at high energies when the hadronic calorimeter resolution dominates the quality of the jet energy measurements. Finally, we developed a new method to calibrate a longitudinally segnmented calorimeter. This method eliminates problems with the traditional method used for the calorimeters at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We applied this new method in the search for hadrunic decays of the $W$ and $Z$ bosons in a sample of dijet data taken during Tevatron Run IC. A signal of 9873±3950(sys) ±1130 events was found when the new calibration method was used. This corresponds to a cross section $\\sigma(p\\bar{p} \\to W,Z) \\cdot B(W,Z \\to jets) = 35.6 \\pm 14.2 ({\\rm sys}) \\pm 4.1 (\\rm{stat})$ nb.

  14. Triggering Reform at Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    An intriguing experiment is afoot in some of the nation's struggling public schools. New "Parent Trigger" laws passed in California and on the agenda in New York, Ohio, Colorado, and Chicago, allow parents of chronically failing schools to unseat the schools' leadership and staff. But the initiative has pitfalls. It's easy to mobilize…

  15. High Resolution, Non-Dispersive X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers on EBITs and Orbiting Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is the primary tool for performing atomic physics with Electron beam ion trap (EBITs). X-ray instruments have generally fallen into two general categories, 1) dispersive instruments with very high spectral resolving powers but limited spectral range, limited count rates, and require an entrance slit, generally, for EBITs, defined by the electron beam itself, and 2) non-dispersive solid-state detectors with much lower spectral resolving powers but that have a broad dynamic range, high count rate ability and do not require a slit. Both of these approaches have compromises that limit the type and efficiency of measurements that can be performed. In 1984 NASA initiated a program to produce a non-dispersive instrument with high spectral resolving power for x-ray astrophysics based on the cryogenic x-ray calorimeter. This program produced the XRS non-dispersive spectrometers on the Astro-E, Astro-E2 (Suzaku) orbiting observatories, the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory, and the planned XMS instrument on the International X-ray Observatory. Complimenting these spaceflight programs, a permanent high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer, the XRS/EBIT, was installed on the LLNL EBIT in 2000. This unique instrument was upgraded to a spectral resolving power of 1000 at 6 keV in 2003 and replaced by a nearly autonomous production-class spectrometer, the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), in 2007. The ECS spectrometer has a simultaneous bandpass from 0.07 to over 100 keV with a spectral resolving power of 1300 at 6 keV with unit quantum efficiency, and 1900 at 60 keV with a quantum efficiency of 30%. X-ray calorimeters are event based, single photon spectrometers with event time tagging to better than 10 us. We are currently developing a follow-on instrument based on a newer generation of x-ray calorimeters with a spectral resolving power of 3000 at 6 keV, and improved timing and measurement cadence. The unique capabilities of the x

  16. High Resolution, Non-Dispersive X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers on EBITs and Orbiting Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is the primary tool for performing atomic physics with Electron beam ion trap (EBITs). X-ray instruments have generally fallen into two general categories, 1) dispersive instruments with very high spectral resolving powers but limited spectral range, limited count rates, and require an entrance slit, generally, for EBITs, defined by the electron beam itself, and 2) non-dispersive solid-state detectors with much lower spectral resolving powers but that have a broad dynamic range, high count rate ability and do not require a slit. Both of these approaches have compromises that limit the type and efficiency of measurements that can be performed. In 1984 NASA initiated a program to produce a non-dispersive instrument with high spectral resolving power for x-ray astrophysics based on the cryogenic x-ray calorimeter. This program produced the XRS non-dispersive spectrometers on the Astro-E, Astro-E2 (Suzaku) orbiting observatories, the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory, and the planned XMS instrument on the International X-ray Observatory. Complimenting these spaceflight programs, a permanent high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer, the XRS/EBIT, was installed on the LLNL EBIT in 2000. This unique instrument was upgraded to a spectral resolving power of 1000 at 6 keV in 2003 and replaced by a nearly autonomous production-class spectrometer, the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), in 2007. The ECS spectrometer has a simultaneous bandpass from 0.07 to over 100 keV with a spectral resolving power of 1300 at 6 keV with unit quantum efficiency, and 1900 at 60 keV with a quantum efficiency of 30%. X-ray calorimeters are event based, single photon spectrometers with event time tagging to better than 10 us. We are currently developing a follow-on instrument based on a newer generation of x-ray calorimeters with a spectral resolving power of 3000 at 6 keV, and improved timing and measurement cadence. The unique capabilities of the x

  17. Characterization of Novel Calorimeters in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Brian D.; Parma, Edward J.; Peters, Curtis D.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, S. Michael

    2016-02-01

    A series of pulsed irradiation experiments have been performed in the central cavity of Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) to characterize the responses of a set of elemental calorimeter materials including Si, Zr, Sn, Ta, W, and Bi. Of particular interest was the perturbing effect of the calorimeter itself on the ambient radiation field - a potential concern in dosimetry applications. By placing the calorimeter package into a neutron-thermalizing lead/polyethylene (LP) bucket and irradiating both with and without a cadmium wrapper, it was demonstrated that prompt capture gammas generated inside the calorimeters can be a significant contributor to the measured dose in the active disc region. An MCNP model of the experimental setup was shown to replicate measured dose responses to within 10%. The internal (n,γ) contribution was found to constitute as much as 50% of the response inside the LP bucket and up to 20% inside the nominal (unmodified) cavity environment, with Ta and W exhibiting the largest enhancement due to their sizable (n,γ) cross sections. Capture reactions in non-disc components of the calorimeter were estimated to be responsible for up to a few percent of the measured response. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy.

  18. Simulations of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Watts, John; Howell, Leonard; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) will investigate the origin, composition and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays up to 10(exp 15) eV. These measurements will be made with a thin ionization calorimeter and a transition radiation detector. This paper reports studies of a thin sampling calorimeter concept for the ACCESS thin ionization calorimeter. For the past year, a Monte Carlo simulation study of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter (TSC) design has been conducted to predict the detector performance and to design the system for achieving the ACCESS scientific objectives. Simulation results show that the detector energy resolution function resembles a Gaussian distribution and the energy resolution of TSC is about 40%. In addition, simulations of the detector's response to an assumed broken power law cosmic ray spectra in the region where the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum occurs have been conducted and clearly show that a thin sampling calorimeter can provide sufficiently accurate estimates of the spectral parameters to meet the science requirements of ACCESS. n

  19. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an "inline" calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an "offline" calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a "cold test" on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the "inline" calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device's power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the "offline" calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the "cold tests," and the experiments show good agreement.

  20. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-15

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an “inline” calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an “offline” calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a “cold test” on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the “inline” calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device’s power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the “offline” calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the “cold tests,” and the experiments show good agreement.

  1. Geant4 simulations of the lead fluoride calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, A. A.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Dabagov, S. B.; Anastasi, A.; Venanzoni, G.; Strikhanov, M. N.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Bartolini, M.; Cantatore, G.; Cauz, D.; Corradi, G.; Di Sciascio, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Driutti, A.; Escalante, O.; Ferrari, C.; Fioretti, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gioiosa, A.; Hampai, D.; Iacovacci, M.; Karuza, M.; Liedl, A.; Lusiani, A.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Piacentino, G. M.; Raha, N.; Santi, L.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we simulate the charged particle interaction with complex structures, including the emission, with help of Geant4. We take into account Cherenkov radiation, transition radiation, bremsstrahlung, pair production and other accompanying processes. As an application we investigate the full size electromagnetic calorimeter for the muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab. A calorimeter module consists of a Delrin front panel for installation of the laser calibration system, 54 PbF2 Cherenkov crystals wrapped by black Tedlar paper, and silicon photo-multiplier sensors. We report here on results of a simulation of the radiation from positrons striking the calorimeter system. The Cherenkov radiation expansion when a positron moves down through the calorimeter at the arbitrary angle of incidence has been considered. Both spectral and angular distributions of Cherenkov optical photons in different parts of the calorimeter system was evaluated as well as the transition radiation and pre-shower distributions from both the Delrin panel and the Al vacuum chamber of the g-2 storage ring.

  2. Simulations of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Watts, John; Howell, Leonard; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) will investigate the origin, composition and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays up to 10(exp 15) eV. These measurements will be made with a thin ionization calorimeter and a transition radiation detector. This paper reports studies of a thin sampling calorimeter concept for the ACCESS thin ionization calorimeter. For the past year, a Monte Carlo simulation study of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter (TSC) design has been conducted to predict the detector performance and to design the system for achieving the ACCESS scientific objectives. Simulation results show that the detector energy resolution function resembles a Gaussian distribution and the energy resolution of TSC is about 40%. In addition, simulations of the detector's response to an assumed broken power law cosmic ray spectra in the region where the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum occurs have been conducted and clearly show that a thin sampling calorimeter can provide sufficiently accurate estimates of the spectral parameters to meet the science requirements of ACCESS. n

  3. ATLAS jet trigger update for the LHC run II

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider is the biggest and most powerful particle collider ever built. It produces up to 40 million proton-proton collisions per second at unprecedented energies to explore the fundamental laws and properties of Nature. The ATLAS experiment is one of the detectors that analyses and records these collisions. It generates dozens of GB/s of data that has to be reduced before it can be permanently stored, the event selection is made by the ATLAS trigger system, which reduces the data volume by a factor of 105. The trigger system has to be highly configurable in order to adapt to changing running conditions and maximize the physics output whilst keeping the output rate under control. A particularly interesting pattern generated during collisions consists of a collimated spray of particles, known as a hadronic jet. To retain the interesting jets and efficiently reject the overwhelming background, optimal jet energy resolution is needed. Therefore the Jet trigger software requires CPU-intensive reconstruction algorithms. In order to reduce the resources needed for the reconstruction step, a partial detector readout scheme was developed, which effectively suppresses the low activity regions of the calorimeter. In this paper we describe the overall ATLAS trigger software, and the jet trigger in particular, along with the improvements made on the system. We then focus on detailed studies of the algorithm timing and the performance impact of the full and partial calorimeter readout schemes. We conclude with an outlook of the jet trigger plans for the next LHC data-taking period. (authors)

  4. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  5. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  6. CALORIC: A readout chip for high granularity calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, L.; Bonnard, J.; Manen, S.; Gay, P.; Soumpholphakdy, X.

    2011-07-01

    A very-front-end electronics has been developed to fulfil requirements for the next generation of electromagnetic calorimeters. The compactness of this kind of detector and its large number of channels (up to several millions) impose a drastic limitation of the power consumption and a high level of integration. The electronic channel proposed is first of all composed of a low-noise Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) able to amplify the charge delivered by a silicon diode up to 10 pC. Next, a two-gain shaping, based on a Gated Integration (G.I.), is implemented to cover the 15 bits dynamic range required: a high gain shaper processes signals from 4 fC (charge corresponding to the MIP) up to 1 pC, and a low gain filter handles charges up to 10 pC. The G.I. performs also the analog memorization of the signal until it is digitalized. Hence, the analog-to-digital conversion is carried out through a low-power 12-bit cyclic ADC. If the signal overloads the high-gain channel dynamic range, a comparator selects the low-gain channel instead. Moreover, an auto-trigger channel has been implemented in order to select and store a valid event over the noise. The timing sequence of the channel is managed by a digital IP. It controls the G.I. switches, generates all needed clocks, drives the ADC and delivers the final result over 12 bits. The whole readout channel is power controlled, which permits to reduce the consumption according to the duty cycle of the beam collider. Simulations have been performed with Spectre simulator on the prototype chip designed with the 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology from Austriamicrosystems. Results show a non-linearity better than 0.1% for the high-gain channel, and a non-linearity limited to 1% for the low-gain channel. The Equivalent Noise Charge referred to the input of the channel is evaluated to 0.4 fC complying with the MIP/10 limit. With the timing sequence of the International Linear Collider, which presents a duty cycle of 1%, the power

  7. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter for the SELEX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M. Y. Balatz et al.

    2004-07-19

    A large-acceptance, highly segmented electromagnetic lead glass calorimeter for Experiment E781 (SELEX) at Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory was designed and built. This detector has been used to reconstruct photons and electrons with energies ranging from few GeV up to 500 GeV in the collisions of the 650 GeV {Sigma}{sup -} hyperons and {pi}{sup -} mesons with the target nucleons. The design, calibration and performance of the calorimeter are described. Energy resolution and position resolution are assessed using both calibration electron beams and {pi}{sup 0} mesons reconstructed in 650 GeV hadron-hadron interactions. The performance of the calorimeter in selecting resonant states that involve photons is demonstrated.

  8. Integrator Based Readout in Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Parra, Garoé; ATLAS Collaboration

    TileCal is the Barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC/CERN. To equalize the response of individual TileCal cells with a precision better than 1% and to monitor the response of each cell over time, a calibration and monitoring system based on a Cs137 radioactive source driven through the calorimeter volume by liquid flow has been implemented. This calibration system relies on a dedicated readout chain based on slow integrators that read currents from the TileCal photomultipliers integrating over milliseconds during the calibration runs. Moreover, during the LHC collisions the TileCal integrator based readout provides the signal coming from inelastic proton-proton collisions at low momentum transfer. This is used to monitor in ATLAS the instantaneous luminosity as well as the response of all calorimeter cells during data-taking.

  9. Calibration and monitoring systems of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumediene, D.

    2013-08-01

    The TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter with iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. The scintillation light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to about 10,000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Integrated to the calorimeter, there is a composite device that allows to monitor and/or equalize the signals at various stages of their formation. This device is based on signal generation from different sources: radioactive, LASER, charge injection and minimum bias events produced in proton-proton collisions. Recent performances of these systems are presented.

  10. EURECA: a European-Japanese micro-calorimeter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Piet A. J.; Anquita, Jose V.; Barcons, Xavier; Bastia, Paolo; Beyer, Joern; Briones, Fernando; Brockley Blatt, Chris; Bruijn, Marcel; Bussons, Javier; Camon, Augustin; Ceballos, M. Teresa; Drung, Dietmar; Enns, Christian; Fabrega, Lourdes; Fraser, George; Gatti, Flavio; Gottardi, Luciano; Hajdas, Wojtek; Helistö, Panu; Hepburn, Ian; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Hoevers, Henk; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kiviranta, Mikko; van der Kuur, Jan; Mchedlishvili, Aliko; Mitsuda, Kazu; Piro, Luigi; Sese, Javier; Yamasaki, Noriko; Whitford, Chris

    2006-06-01

    EURECA (EURopean-JapanEse Calorimeter Array) comprises a 5 x 5 pixel imaging TES-based micro-calorimeter array read-out by SQUID-based frequency-domain-multiplexed electronics and cooled down by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. A European-Japanese consortium designs, fabricates, and tests this prototype instrument with the aim to show within about 2 years technology readiness of a TES-based X-ray imaging micro-calorimeter array in anticipation of future X-ray astronomy missions, like XEUS (ESA), Constellation-X (NASA), NEXT (JAXA), DIOS (JAXA), ESTREMO (ASI), and NEW (Dutch-multinational). This paper describes the instrument concept, and shows the design of the various sub-units, like the TES detector array, LC-filters, SQUID-amplifiers, flux-locked-loop electronics, AC-bias sources, etc.

  11. Highly granular hadron calorimeter: software compensation and shower decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadeeva, M.; CALICE Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    The highly granular analogue hadron calorimeter was developed and constructed by the CALICE collaboration. The active layers of the calorimeter are assembled from scintillator tiles with individual readout by silicon photomultipliers and are interleaved with absorber plates. The response and resolution of the calorimeter equipped with steel absorber was intensively tested in single particle beams. The application of software compensation techniques developed for the scintillator-steel prototype allows for reduction of the stochastic term of the single particle resolution from 58%/ √E/GeV to 45%/ √E/GeV. The detailed study and decomposition of the longitudinal and radial profiles of hadron-induced showers in the energy range from 10 to 80 GeV are presented and compared to GEANT4 simulations.

  12. Simulation studies for design optimisation of a scintillator plate calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Proudfoot, J.; Job, P.K.; Trost, H.J. ); Handler, T. ); Gabriel, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Results on simulations studies relating to the optimisation of a sampling scintillator plate calorimeter for an SSC detector system are presented. These studies show that whereas a compensating sampling geometry can be obtained using a variety of configurations using either lead or depleted uranium as the principal absorber, no configuration based on a pure iron absorber is compensating. Unlike in a lead system, delayed energy release from long lived shower products produced in a uranium system pose a serious pile up problem. Therefore we advocate the use of lead as the principal absorber in this calorimeter. Work on optimisation of the mechanical structure is in progress and results are presented on issues such as structural support, tolerances and on the degradation in response due to other detector material within the volume of the calorimeter. 8 refs., 16 figs.

  13. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  14. A compact light readout system for longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Brizzolari, C.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2016-09-01

    The longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters is challenged by dead zones and non-uniformities introduced by the light collection and readout system. This limitation can be overcome by direct fiber-photosensor coupling, avoiding routing and bundling of the wavelength shifter fibers and embedding ultra-compact photosensors (SiPMs) in the bulk of the calorimeter. We present the first experimental test of this readout scheme performed at the CERN PS-T9 beamline in 2015 with negative particles in the 1-5 GeV energy range. In this paper, we demonstrate that the scheme does not compromise the energy resolution and linearity compared with standard light collection and readout systems. In addition, we study the performance of the calorimeter for partially contained charged hadrons to assess the e / π separation capability and the response of the photosensors to direct ionization.

  15. CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for Super-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilki, Burak; CMS HCAL Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    When the Large Hadron Collider approaches Super-LHC conditions above a luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1, the scintillator tiles of the CMS Hadron Endcap calorimeters will lose their efficiencies. As a radiation hard solution, the scintillator tiles are planned to be replaced by quartz plates. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4% gallium doped zinc oxide. We constructed a 20 layer calorimeter prototype with pTp coated plates of size 20 cm × 20 cm, and tested the hadronic and the electromagnetic capabilities at the CERN H2 beam-line. The beam tests revealed a substantial light collection increase with pTp or ZnO:Ga deposited quartz plates. Here we report on the current R&D for a viable endcap calorimeter solution for CMS with beam tests and radiation damage studies.

  16. Gram-scale cryogenic calorimeters for rare-event searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, R.; Rothe, J.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Gütlein, A.; Hauff, D.; Kluck, H.; Mancuso, M.; Oberauer, L.; Petricca, F.; Pröbst, F.; Schieck, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.

    2017-07-01

    The energy threshold of a cryogenic calorimeter can be lowered by reducing its size. This is of importance since the resulting increase in signal rate enables new approaches in rare-event searches, including the detection of MeV mass dark matter and coherent scattering of reactor or solar neutrinos. A scaling law for energy threshold vs detector size is given. We analyze the possibility of lowering the threshold of a gram-scale cryogenic calorimeter to the few eV regime. A prototype 0.5 g Al2 O3 device achieved an energy threshold of Eth=(19.7 ±0.9 ) eV , the lowest value reported for a macroscopic calorimeter.

  17. Effect of dead materials on calorimeter response and Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmaratna, W.G.D.; D0 Collaboration

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter system, cylindrical central calorimeter and two end calorimeters, is constructed with minimal cracks and dead regions in order to provide essentially hermetic coverage over the full solid angle. The effect of the existing few construction features which could perturb the uniformity of the calorimeter is studied in detail with beam tests. The results with the correction algorithms are presented. A comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation is made.

  18. Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression Analyses by RNA Sequencing Reveal Local High Nitrate-Triggered Lateral Root Initiation in Shoot-Borne Roots of Maize by Modulating Auxin-Related Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Li, Chunjian; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved a unique plasticity of their root system architecture to flexibly exploit heterogeneously distributed mineral elements from soil. Local high concentrations of nitrate trigger lateral root initiation in adult shoot-borne roots of maize (Zea mays) by increasing the frequency of early divisions of phloem pole pericycle cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that, within 12 h of local high nitrate induction, cell cycle activators (cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin B) were up-regulated, whereas repressors (Kip-related proteins) were down-regulated in the pericycle of shoot-borne roots. In parallel, a ubiquitin protein ligase S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1-cullin-F-box protein(S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2B)-related proteasome pathway participated in cell cycle control. The division of pericycle cells was preceded by increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid in the stele, resulting in DR5-red fluorescent protein-marked auxin response maxima at the phloem poles. Moreover, laser-capture microdissection-based gene expression analyses indicated that, at the same time, a significant local high nitrate induction of the monocot-specific PIN-FORMED9 gene in phloem pole cells modulated auxin efflux to pericycle cells. Time-dependent gene expression analysis further indicated that local high nitrate availability resulted in PIN-FORMED9-mediated auxin efflux and subsequent cell cycle activation, which culminated in the initiation of lateral root primordia. This study provides unique insights into how adult maize roots translate information on heterogeneous nutrient availability into targeted root developmental responses.

  19. Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression Analyses by RNA Sequencing Reveal Local High Nitrate-Triggered Lateral Root Initiation in Shoot-Borne Roots of Maize by Modulating Auxin-Related Cell Cycle Regulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng; Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Li, Chunjian; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a unique plasticity of their root system architecture to flexibly exploit heterogeneously distributed mineral elements from soil. Local high concentrations of nitrate trigger lateral root initiation in adult shoot-borne roots of maize (Zea mays) by increasing the frequency of early divisions of phloem pole pericycle cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that, within 12 h of local high nitrate induction, cell cycle activators (cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin B) were up-regulated, whereas repressors (Kip-related proteins) were down-regulated in the pericycle of shoot-borne roots. In parallel, a ubiquitin protein ligase S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1-cullin-F-box proteinS-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2B-related proteasome pathway participated in cell cycle control. The division of pericycle cells was preceded by increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid in the stele, resulting in DR5-red fluorescent protein-marked auxin response maxima at the phloem poles. Moreover, laser-capture microdissection-based gene expression analyses indicated that, at the same time, a significant local high nitrate induction of the monocot-specific PIN-FORMED9 gene in phloem pole cells modulated auxin efflux to pericycle cells. Time-dependent gene expression analysis further indicated that local high nitrate availability resulted in PIN-FORMED9-mediated auxin efflux and subsequent cell cycle activation, which culminated in the initiation of lateral root primordia. This study provides unique insights into how adult maize roots translate information on heterogeneous nutrient availability into targeted root developmental responses. PMID:26198256

  20. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Cameron Russell

    2015-03-11

    Many nuclear safeguards applications could benefit from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy achievable with metallic magnetic calorimeters. This dissertation covers the development of a system for these applications based on gamma-ray detectors developed at the University of Heidelberg. It demonstrates new calorimeters of this type, which achieved an energy resolution of 45.5 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV, roughly ten times better than current state of the art high purity germanium detectors. This is the best energy resolution achieved with a gamma-ray metallic magnetic calorimeter at this energy to date. In addition to demonstrating a new benchmark in energy resolution, an experimental system for measuring samples with metallic magnetic calorimeters was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system achieved an energy resolution of 91.3 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV under optimal conditions. Using this system it was possible to characterize the linearity of the response, the count-rate limitations, and the energy resolution as a function of temperature of the new calorimeter. With this characterization it was determined that it would be feasible to measure 242Pu in a mixed isotope plutonium sample. A measurement of a mixed isotope plutonium sample was performed over the course of 12 days with a single two-pixel metallic magnetic calorimeter. The relative concentration of 242Pu in comparison to other plutonium isotopes was determined by direct measurement to less than half a percent accuracy. This is comparable with the accuracy of the best-case scenario using traditional indirect methods. The ability to directly measure the relative concentration of 242Pu in a sample could enable more accurate accounting and detection of indications of undeclared activities in nuclear safeguards, a better constraint on source material in forensic samples containing plutonium, and improvements in verification in a future plutonium

  1. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy.

  2. Design and Prototyping of a High Granularity Scintillator Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Zutshi, Vishnu

    2016-03-27

    A novel approach for constructing fine-granularity scintillator calorimeters, based on the concept of an Integrated Readout Layer (IRL) was developed. The IRL consists of a printed circuit board inside the detector which supports the directly-coupled scintillator tiles, connects to the surface-mount SiPMs and carries the necessary front-end electronics and signal/bias traces. Prototype IRLs using this concept were designed, prototyped and successfully exposed to test beams. Concepts and implementations of an IRL carried out with funds associated with this contract promise to result in the next generation of scintillator calorimeters.

  3. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the future PANDA Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Rainer

    2006-10-27

    Experiments with a cooled antiproton beam at the future accelerator facility FAIR at GSI, Darmstadt, will be performed with the 4{pi} detector PANDA comprising a high resolution, compact and fast homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter to detect photons between 10MeV and 10GeV energy inside a superconducting solenoid (2T). The target calorimeter comprises more than 20,000 PbWO4 crystals of significantly enhanced quality read-out with large area avalanche photodiodes at an operating temperature of -25 degree sign C. The paper describes the quality of PWO-II and illustrates the future performance based on response measurements with high-energy photons.

  4. Radiation damage studies for the SDC electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazely, A. R.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R. L.; Khosravi, E. S.; Lim, Jit-Ning; Lyndon, C.; McMills, G.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W. J.; Courtney, J. C.; Tashakkori, R.; Vegara, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the results from a year long study aimed at radiation resistance and optical performance of scintillator tile with green wave shifter fiber readout. A careful investigation of several rad-hard plastic scintillators from Bicron and Kuraray, studies indicate that for a specific rad-hard Bicron scintillator, it is possible to build a tile/fiber EM calorimeter that can operate in the design luminosity of SSC. This calorimeter with excellent optical response would only have a light loss of about 5% after being exposed to 1 Mrad.

  5. Improvements in a calorimeter for high-power CW lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, G. E.; Simpson, P. A.; Smith, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for improving the measurement certainty with the BB series (Smith et al., 1972) of electrically calibrated calorimeters used in high-energy lasers is described. The technique is based on monitoring the energy which is backscattered from the meter and monitoring the overspill radiation impinging on the calorimeter at the entrance aperture. The design and performance of a second generation BB meter is discussed and compared to that of the original device in terms of number of electrical calibrations, the residual standard deviation of electrical calibration, the calibration constant for laser energy, the correcting factor for systematics, inaccuracy, imprecision, and uncertainty.

  6. Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noonan, D.

    2017-02-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is upgrading the photo-detection and readout system of the forward hadronic calorimeter. The phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward calorimeter requires the replacement of the current photomultiplier tubes, as well as the installation of a new front-end readout system. The new photomultiplier tubes contain a thinner window as well as multi-anode readout. The front-end electronics will use the QIE10 ASIC which combines signal digitization with timing information. The major components of the upgrade as well as the current status are described in this paper.

  7. Field test of the bulk-assay calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Keddar, A.

    1982-10-01

    The Bulk-Assay Calorimeter described in ANL-NDA-9/ISPO-14 was field tested at the Belgonucleaire mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant at Dessel, Belgium, May 13-19, 1982. This instrument was developed under ISPO Tasks A-9 and A-47 at Argonne National Laboratory and was supplied to the IAEA through the U.S support program. Five containers of plutonium-oxide feed stock used in the manufacture of mixed-oxide LMFBR-type fuel were assayed during the test. Electrical measurements to verify the calibration of the calorimeter were also made.

  8. The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Instrument Performance (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. J.; Benson, C. M.; Berry, F. A.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J. S.; Munroe, R. B.; Parnell, T. A.; Takahashi, Y.; Watts, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    SOFCAL is a balloon-borne instrument designed to measure the P-He cosmic ray spectra from about 200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. SOFCAL uses a thin lead and scintillating-fiber ionization calorimeter to measure the cascades produced by cosmic rays interacting in the hybrid detector system. Above the fiber calorimeter is an emulsion chamber that provides the interaction target, primary particle identification and in-flight energy calibration for the scintillating fiber data. The energy measurement technique and its calibration are described, and the present results from the analysis of a 1 day balloon flight will be presented.

  9. Modelling of a holographic interferometry based calorimeter for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigzadeh, A. M.; Vaziri, M. R. Rashidian; Ziaie, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this research work, a model for predicting the behaviour of holographic interferometry based calorimeters for radiation dosimetry is introduced. Using this technique for radiation dosimetry via measuring the variations of refractive index due to energy deposition of radiation has several considerable advantages such as extreme sensitivity and ability of working without normally used temperature sensors that disturb the radiation field. We have shown that the results of our model are in good agreement with the experiments performed by other researchers under the same conditions. This model also reveals that these types of calorimeters have the additional and considerable merits of transforming the dose distribution to a set of discernible interference fringes.

  10. Improvements in a calorimeter for high-power CW lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, G. E.; Simpson, P. A.; Smith, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for improving the measurement certainty with the BB series (Smith et al., 1972) of electrically calibrated calorimeters used in high-energy lasers is described. The technique is based on monitoring the energy which is backscattered from the meter and monitoring the overspill radiation impinging on the calorimeter at the entrance aperture. The design and performance of a second generation BB meter is discussed and compared to that of the original device in terms of number of electrical calibrations, the residual standard deviation of electrical calibration, the calibration constant for laser energy, the correcting factor for systematics, inaccuracy, imprecision, and uncertainty.

  11. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

  12. A purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, P. N.; Kotov, K. Yu.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Snopkov, R. G.; Rogozin, A. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter. A new method is suggested based on the usage of a short pulse of a gas discharge as a source of ultraviolet radiation for the photoproduction of electrons in a drift cell of the monitor. This paper describes the design of the monitor, the results of experiments with gaseous and liquid krypton, as well as the experience of using the developed device in the process of krypton purification for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter.

  13. Eureca - A European-japanese Micro-calorimeter Array Under Development For Ixo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Korte, Piet; Anquita, J.; Barcons, X.; Bastia, P.; Beyer, J.; Briones, F.; Bruijn, M.; Bussons, J.; Camón, A.; Carrera, F.; Ceballos, M.; Colasanti, L.; Dirks, B.; Drung, D.; Fabrega, L.; Gatti, F.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Gottardi, L.; Hajdas, W.; Helistö, P.; den Herder, J.; Hoevers, H.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kiviranta, M.; van der Kuur, J.; Macculi, C.; Mchedlischvili, A.; Mitsuda, K.; Paltani, S.; Parra-Borderías, M.; Piro, L.; Rohlfs, R.; Sese, J.; Takei, Y.; Torrioli, G.; Yamasaki, N.

    2009-01-01

    The EURECA (EURopean-JapanEse Calorimeter Array) project aims to demonstrate the science performance and technological readiness of an imaging X-ray spectrometer based on a micro-calorimeter array for application in future X-ray astronomy missions, like IXO, XENIA, and DIOS. Since the recent merger of the ESA XEUS and NASA Constellation-X studies into a joint ESA/NASA/JAXA study of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) collaboration between GSFC and NIST (U.S.), SRON and INAF (Europe), and ISAS (Japan) has been established. The prototype instrument consists of a 5 x 5 pixel array of TES-based micro-calorimeters read out by by two SQUID-amplifier channels using frequency-domain-multiplexing (FDM). The SQUID-amplifiers are linearized by digital base-band feedback. The detector array is cooled in a cryogen-free cryostat consisting of a pulse tube cooler and a two stage ADR. A European-Japanese consortium designs, fabricates, and tests this prototype instrument. This paper describes the instrument concept, and shows the design and status of the various sub-units, like the TES detector array, LC-filters, SQUID-amplifiers, AC-bias sources, digital electronics, etc. Initial tests of the system at the PTB beam line of the BESSY synchrotron showed stable performance and an X-ray energy resolution of 1.58 eV at 250 eV and 2.5 eV @ 5.9 keV for the read-out of one TES-pixel only. Next step is deployment of FDM to read-out the full array. Full performance demonstration is expected mid 2009.

  14. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Dealing With Asthma Triggers KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Asthma Triggers ... or the flu weather conditions exercise continue Managing Asthma Asthma can't be cured but it can ...

  15. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  16. L1 track finding for a time multiplexed trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieri, D.; Brooke, J.; Grimes, M.; Newbold, D.; Harder, K.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Tomalin, I.; Vichoudis, P.; Reid, I.; Iles, G.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Pesaresi, M.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.

    2016-07-01

    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches will cross each other every 25 ns, producing an average of 140 pp-collisions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a L1 hardware trigger able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5 μs. The future L1 trigger will make use also of data coming from the silicon tracker to control the trigger rate. The architecture that will be used in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One interesting proposal makes use of the Time Multiplexed Trigger concept, already implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger for the Phase I trigger upgrade. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough Transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp-collision data. Results show a very good tracking efficiency. The algorithm will be demonstrated in hardware in the coming months using the MP7, which is a μTCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s.

  17. Electromagnetic calorimeter for the HADES@FAIR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, O.; Blume, C.; Czyžycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Lisowski, E.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-05-01

    An electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement the dilepton spectrometer HADES currently operating on the beam of the SIS18 heavy-ion synchrotron at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany. The ECAL will allow the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions in the energy range of 2-10 AGeV with the beam of the future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. The calorimeter will also improve the electron-hadron separation of the spectrometer, and will be used for the detection of photons from strange resonances in elementary and heavy ion reactions as well. The calorimeter will consist of 978 modules divided into 6 sectors, and it will cover forward angles of 16° < Θ < 45° and almost full azimuthal angle. Each module consists of a lead glass Cherenkov counter, photomultiplier, HV divider and an optical fiber. A dedicated LED based system being developed to monitor the stability of the calorimeter is discussed. Various prototypes of front-end electronics are presented and the achieved energy and time resolution determined using pulses from a pulse generator and a real detector signal induced by LED pulses and cosmic muons is shown as well.

  18. Temperature and humidity control in indirect calorimeter chambers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A three-chamber, indirect calorimeter has been a part of the Environmental Laboratory at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) for over 25 yr. Corrosion of the animal chambers and unreliable temperature control forced either major repairs or complete replacement. There is a strong demand for...

  19. Upgrade of hadron endcap calorimeters CMS at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, P. D.; Zaroubin, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We present the survey of the main tasks in upgrading the hadron endcap (HE) calorimeters of the CMS experiment at LHC. The results of the HE upgrade during the LHC Long Shutdown (2013-2014) and plans for upgrade during LHC Extended Year End Technical Stop (December 2016-May 2017) are discussed.

  20. Three-dimensional event visualization for the ATLAS calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade Filho, Luciano M.; de Seixas, José Manoel; Vitillo, Roberto Agostino; Martin, Brian Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The ATLAS detector was commissioned with cosmic rays. For such commissioning, a number of software tools has been developed to support data analysis. Among ATLAS sub-detectors, commissioning the calorimeter system demanded a considerable effort due to its segmentation into seven detection layers, which produce more than a hundred thousand readout channels. Tasks like performance evaluation of the calorimeter, calibration and handling noisy or dead channels benefit a lot from cosmic muon track visualization, which facilitates the identification of the activated cells in the calorimeter. The coherence of the reconstructed data can be visually checked and potential problems can be detected in a easier way. This work presents a 3D visualization tool for the ATLAS calorimeter system, the CaloGeoView. The tool was built using ROOT Framework, which provides a smooth integration with analyses currently performed by the ATLAS community. The CaloGeoView structure and some applications with reconstructed data are presented. Due to its 3D graphical interface, the CaloGeoView has been providing a simple and intuitive way to analyze results of event reconstruction.

  1. Balloon test project: Cosmic Ray Antimatter Calorimeter (CRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, J. C.; Dhenain, G.; Goret, P.; Jorand, J.; Masse, P.; Mestreau, P.; Petrou, N.; Robin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cosmic ray observations from balloon flights are discussed. The cosmic ray antimatter calorimeter (CRAC) experiment attempts to measure the flux of antimatter in the 200-600 Mev/m energy range and the isotopes of light elements between 600 and 1,000 Mev/m.

  2. Development of shashlik electromagnetic calorimeter prototype for SoLID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, D.; Han, D.; Zou, Z.; Li, Y.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.

    2017-03-01

    A shashlik electromagnetic calorimeter will be produced in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory for Solenoidal large Intensity Device (SoLID) to measure the energy deposition of electrons and hadrons, and to provide particle identification after the energy of the accelerator was upgraded to 12 GeV. Tsinghua University is the member of Hall A collaboration in charge of development and production of the large shashlik electromagnetic calorimeter of SoLID. One module of that calorimeter is composed by 194 layers. Each layer consists of a 1.5 mm thick plastic scintillator put on top of a 0.5 mm thick lead plate. Scintillation light is read out by wave-length shifter fibers penetrating through the calorimeter modules longitudinally along the direction of flight of the impact particle. This paper describes the design and construction of that module, as well as a few optimization studies meant to improve its performance. A detailed Geant4 simulation also shows that an energy resolution of 5%/√ E (GeV) and a good containment for electromagnetic showers can be achieved, as well as some basic electron identification. A prototype of that module will be tested soon with an electron beam at JLab.

  3. Noise in a Calorimeter Readout System Using Periodic Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2009-02-26

    Fourier transform analysis of the calorimeter noise problem gives quantitative results on (a) the time-height correlation, (b) the effect of background on optimal shaping and on the ENC, (c) sampling frequency requirements, and (d) the relation between sampling frequency and the required quantization error.

  4. Cryogenic Design of the D0 Liquid Argon Collider Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Krempetz, K.J.; Luther, R.D.; Wands, R.H.; Weber, K.J.; /Fermilab

    1987-11-04

    The superconducting Tevatron was added to Fermilab's 400 Gev Proton Accelerator, the main ring, in 1983. An antiproton source was added in 1985, and the system became a p-pbar, 1 Tev/I Tev, collider in 1987. A CoIIider Detector surrounding one of the points of the accelerator p-pbar beam crossings can measure virtually all the energy of the colliding interaction (Fig. I.) The measurement of all the energy is called hermetic calorimetry. Although there are other liquid argon calorimeters and other hermetic coIIider detectors, the D-Zero (named for the accelerator beam crossing location) liquid argon collider calorimeters will be the first of their kind (Fig. 2). The cryogenic aspects of the liquid argon calorimeter portion of the D-Zero detector are described here. The liquid argon serves as the particle detector ionizing media in a repetitive cell structure (Fig. 3) of argon, signal board, argon, and Uranium or copper absorber plate, with a superimposed electric field. Local signal board pads indicate location and the electric charge collected is proportional to the ionization and the ratio of the argon to plate absorption lengths. This arrangement provides a dense, intrinsically calibrated, drift-free calorimeter.

  5. Ignitability analysis using the cone calorimeter and lift apparatus

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger

    1996-01-01

    The irradiance plotted as function of time to ignition for wood materials tested in the Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354) differs signiticantly from that tested in the Lateral Ignition and Flame spread Test (LIFT) apparatus (ASTM E1321). This difference in piloted ignitabilty is primarily due to the difference in forced convective cooling of the specimen tested in both...

  6. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Cone calorimeter testing of vegetation--an update

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; David R. Weise; Kurt Mackes; Alison C. Dibble

    2002-01-01

    As part of efforts to address fire problems in the wildland-urban interface, the cone calorimeter is being used to measure the relative flammability of different plant species. In the first two studies, we tested plants used to landscape homes in California and an assortment of plants found in Colorado. Using the effective heat of combustion and the peak heat release...

  8. The Status of GLAST CsI Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Chekhtman, A.

    2003-09-18

    GLAST is a gamma-ray observatory for celestial sources in the energy range from 20 MeV to 300 GeV. This is NASA project with launch anticipated in 2006. The principal instrument of the GLAST mission is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), consisting of an Anti Coincidence Detector (ACD), a silicon-strip detector Tracker (TKR) and a hodoscopic CsI Calorimeter (CAL). It consists of 16 identical modules arranged in a 4 x 4 array. Each module has horizontal dimensions 38 x 38 cm{sup 2} and active thickness 8.5 radiation length. It contains 96 CsI (Tl) crystals arranged in 8 layers with 12 crystals per layer. The scintillation light is measured by PIN photodiodes mounted on both ends of each crystal. The sum of signals at the two ends of the crystal provides the energy measurement. The difference in these signals provides the position measurement along the crystal. The calorimeter was designed to meet the goals of good energy resolution (better than 10% for photon energies 100 MeV-100 GeV), position resolution of {approx} 1 mm for photon energies > 1 GeV, and a rejection factor of > 100 for charged cosmic rays, under limitations on calorimeter weight (95 kg per module) and power consumption (6 W per module). The Monte Carlo simulation and prototype beam test results confirm that proposed design meets the requirements. Calorimeter production is planned to start in 2003.

  9. CsI Calorimeter for a Compton-Pair Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Eric J.

    We propose to build and test a hodoscopic CsI(Tl) scintillating-crystal calorimeter for a medium-energy γ-ray Compton and pair telescope. The design and technical approach for this calorimeter relies deeply on heritage from the Fermi LAT CsI Calorimeter, but it dramatically improves the low-energy performance of that design by reading out the scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), making the technology developed for Fermi applicable in the Compton regime. While such a hodoscopic calorimeter is useful for an entire class of medium-energy γ-ray telescope designs, we propose to build it explicitly to support beam tests and balloon flight of the Proto-ComPair telescope, the development and construction of which was funded in a four-year APRA program beginning in 2015 ("ComPair: Steps to a Medium Energy γ-ray Mission" with PI J. McEnery of GSFC). That award did not include funding for its CsI calorimeter subsystem, and this proposal is intended to cover that gap. ComPair is a MIDEX-class instrument concept to perform a high-sensitivity survey of the γ-ray sky from 0.5 MeV to 500 MeV. ComPair is designed to provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity relative to previous instruments in this energy range (predominantly INTEGRAL/SPI and Compton COMPTEL), with the same transformative sensitivity increase – and corresponding scientific return– that the Fermi Large Area Telescope provided relative to Compton EGRET. To enable transformative science over a broad range of MeV energies and with a wide field of view, ComPair is a combined Compton telescope and pair telescope employing a silicon-strip tracker (for Compton scattering and pair conversion and tracking) and a solid-state CdZnTe calorimeter (for Compton absorption) and CsI calorimeter (for pair calorimetry), surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence detector. Under the current proposal, we will complete the detailed design, assembly, and test of the CsI calorimeter for the risk

  10. Geometric alignment of the CMD-3 endcap electromagnetic calorimeter using events of two-quantum annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetshin, R. R.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    Since 2010 the electromagnetic endcap calorimeter based on BGO crystals is used in experiments as one of the systems of the CMD-3 detector. The spacial resolution is one of crucial parameters of the calorimeter. Inaccurate knowledge of the real calorimeter position can limit the resolution. In this work the alignment of the center of the calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the CMD-3 detector has been performed using events of two-quantum annihilation. The alignment technique that has been used to determine the position of the calorimeter is described. Finally, the improvement in spacial resolution of the calorimeter after applying the correction for the real calorimeter position is shown.

  11. A time-multiplexed track-trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G.; CMS TMTT Team

    2016-07-01

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2025. It includes an outer tracker based on special modules of two different types which will construct track stubs using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, to reject low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with data originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data outside the detector is under study, using several alternative approaches. One attractive possibility is to exploit a Time Multiplexed design similar to the one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The novel Time Multiplexed Trigger concept is explained, the potential benefits for processing future tracker data are described and a feasible design based on currently existing hardware is outlined.

  12. Theory and development of position-sensitive quantum calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa Feliciano, Enectali

    Quantum calorimeters are being developed as imaging spectrometers for future X-ray astrophysics observatories. Much of the science to be done by these instruments could benefit greatly from larger focal-plane coverage of the detector (without increasing pixel size). An order of magnitude more area will greatly increase the science throughput of these future instruments. One of the main deterrents to achieving this goal is the complexity of the readout schemes involved. We devised a way to increase the number of pixels from the current baseline designs by an order of magnitude without increasing the number of channels required for readout. The instrument is a high energy resolution, distributed-readout imaging spectrometer called a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST). A PoST is a quantum calorimeter consisting of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) on the ends of a long absorber to do one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. Comparing rise time and energy information, the position of the event in the PoST is determined. Energy is inferred from the sum of the two pulses. We develop a generalized theoretical formalism for distributed-readout calorimeters and apply it to our devices. We derive the noise theory and calculate the theoretical energy resolution of a PoST. Our calculations show that a 7-pixel PoST with 6˜keV saturation energy can achieve 2.3˜eV resolution, making this a competitive design for future quantum calorimeter instruments. For this thesis we fabricated 7- and 15-pixel PoSTs using Mo/Au TESs and gold absorbers, and moved from concept drawings on scraps of napkins to a 32 eV at 1.5 keV energy resolution 7-pixel PoST calorimeter.

  13. Development of an ADC radiation tolerance characterization system for the upgrade of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Hu-Cheng; Chen, Kai; ...

    2017-02-01

    ATLAS LAr calorimeter will undergo its Phase-I upgrade during the long shutdown (LS2) in 2018, and a new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) will be designed and installed. Several commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) multi-channel high-speed ADCs have been selected as possible backups of the radiation tolerant ADC ASICs for the LTDB. Here, to evaluate the radiation tolerance of these backup commercial ADCs, we developed an ADC radiation tolerance characterization system, which includes the ADC boards, data acquisition (DAQ) board, signal generator, external power supplies and a host computer. The ADC board is custom designed for different ADCs, with ADC drivers and clockmore » distribution circuits integrated on board. The Xilinx ZC706 FPGA development board is used as a DAQ board. The data from the ADC are routed to the FPGA through the FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card) connector, de-serialized and monitored by the FPGA, and then transmitted to the host computer through the Gigabit Ethernet. A software program has been developed with Python, and all the commands are sent to the DAQ board through Gigabit Ethernet by this program. Two ADC boards have been designed for the ADC, ADS52J90 from Texas Instruments and AD9249 from Analog Devices respectively. TID tests for both ADCs have been performed at BNL, and an SEE test for the ADS52J90 has been performed at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Test results have been analyzed and presented. The test results demonstrate that this test system is very versatile, and works well for the radiation tolerance characterization of commercial multi-channel high-speed ADCs for the upgrade of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter. It is applicable to other collider physics experiments where radiation tolerance is required as well.« less

  14. Development of an ADC radiation tolerance characterization system for the upgrade of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Hu-Cheng; Chen, Kai; Kierstead, James; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Jin, Ge

    2017-02-01

    ATLAS LAr calorimeter will undergo its Phase-I upgrade during the long shutdown (LS2) in 2018, and a new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) will be designed and installed. Several commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) multi-channel high-speed ADCs have been selected as possible backups of the radiation tolerant ADC ASICs for the LTDB. To evaluate the radiation tolerance of these backup commercial ADCs, we developed an ADC radiation tolerance characterization system, which includes the ADC boards, data acquisition (DAQ) board, signal generator, external power supplies and a host computer. The ADC board is custom designed for different ADCs, with ADC drivers and clock distribution circuits integrated on board. The Xilinx ZC706 FPGA development board is used as a DAQ board. The data from the ADC are routed to the FPGA through the FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card) connector, de-serialized and monitored by the FPGA, and then transmitted to the host computer through the Gigabit Ethernet. A software program has been developed with Python, and all the commands are sent to the DAQ board through Gigabit Ethernet by this program. Two ADC boards have been designed for the ADC, ADS52J90 from Texas Instruments and AD9249 from Analog Devices respectively. TID tests for both ADCs have been performed at BNL, and an SEE test for the ADS52J90 has been performed at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Test results have been analyzed and presented. The test results demonstrate that this test system is very versatile, and works well for the radiation tolerance characterization of commercial multi-channel high-speed ADCs for the upgrade of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter. It is applicable to other collider physics experiments where radiation tolerance is required as well. Supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DE-SC001270)

  15. Onboard calibration circuit for the DAMPE BGO calorimeter front-end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Liang; Feng, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Jun-Bin; Wang, Qi; Ma, Si-Yuan; Shen, Zhong-Tao; Jiang, Di; Gao, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yun-Long; Guo, Jian-Hua; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-05-01

    DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientific satellite which is mainly aimed at indirectly searching for dark matter in space. One critical sub-detector of the DAMPE payload is the BGO (bismuth germanium oxide) calorimeter, which contains 1848 PMT (photomultiplier tube) dynodes and 16 FEE (Front-End Electronics) boards. VA160 and VATA160, two 32-channel low power ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits), are adopted as the key components on the FEEs to perform charge measurement for the PMT signals. In order to monitor the parameter drift which may be caused by temperature variation, aging, or other environmental factors, an onboard calibration circuit is designed for the VA160 and VATA160 ASICs. It is mainly composed of a 12-bit DAC (Digital to Analog Converter), an operational amplifier and an analog switch. Test results showed that a dynamic range of 0-30 pC with a precision of 5 fC (Root Meam Square, RMS) was achieved, which covers the VA160’s input range. It can be used to compensate for the temperature drift and test the trigger function of the FEEs. The calibration circuit has been implemented for the front-end electronics of the BGO Calorimeter and verified by all the environmental tests for both Qualification Model and Flight Model of DAMPE. The DAMPE satellite was launched at the end of 2015 and the calibration circuit will operate periodically in space. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA04040202-4), and National Basic Research Program (973 Program) of China (2010CB833002) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11273070)

  16. Design and Operation of a Calorimeter for Advanced Multilayer Insulation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Van Dresar, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A calorimeter has been constructed to accurately measure insulation performance with a nominal 90K outer boundary and a 20K inner boundary. Unique features of this design include use of mechanical cryocoolers instead of cryogens and measurement of the heat load with a calibrated heat conduction rod. The calorimeter is operational and has completed its first test series. The initial test series was designed to look for differences in performance between a single layer of aluminum foil and a sheet of double aluminized Mylar (DAM). Although it has been speculated that the aluminum foil would perform better, since the aluminum coating on the Mylar might not be thick enough to stop the transmission of long wave length infrared radiation, our testing showed a higher heat load for the aluminum foil than the DAM. The aluminum foil showed a heat load of 132 mW at an 87 K outer temperature and 152 mW at a 107K outer temperature, whereas the DAM showed a heat load of 66 mW at an 88 K outer temperature and 81 mW at 108 K.

  17. Design and Operation of a Calorimeter for Advanced Multilayer Insulation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David; Johnson, Wesley; Dresar, Neil Van

    2016-01-01

    A calorimeter has been constructed to accurately measure insulation performance with a nominal 90K cold outer boundary and a 20K inner boundary. Unique features of this design include use of mechanical cryocoolers instead cryogens and measurement of the heat load with a calibrated rod to serve as a conduction path. The calorimeter is operational and has completed its first test series. The initial test series was designed to look for differences in performance between a single layer of aluminum foil and a sheet of double aluminized mylar (DAM). Although it has been speculated that the aluminum foil would perform better, since the mylar coating might not thick enough to stop the transmission of long wave length infrared radiation, our testing showed a higher heat load for the aluminum foil than the DAM. The aluminum foil showed a heat load of 132 mW at an 87 K outer temperature and 152 mW at a 107K outer temperature. Whereas the DAM showed a heat load of 66 mW at an 88 K outer temperature and 81 mW at 108 K.

  18. Components Qualification for a Possible use in the Mu2e Calorimeter Waveform Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Morescalchi, L.; Pedreschi, E.; Pezzullo, G.; Spinella, F.

    2017-03-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the charged flavor violating conversion of a muon into an electron in the Coulomb field of a nucleus. The detector consists of a straw tube tracker and a CSI crystal electromagnetic calorimeter, both housed in a superconducting solenoid. Both the front-end and the digital electronics, located inside the cryostat, will be operated in vacuum under a 1 T magnetic field, having to sustain the high flux of neutrons and ionizing particles coming from the muons stopping target. These harsh experimental conditions make the design of the calorimeter waveform digitizer quite challenging. All the selected commercial devices must be tested individually and qualified for radiation hardness and operation in high magnetic field. At the moment the expected particles flux and spectra at the digitizers location are not completely simulated and we are using initial rough estimates to select the components for the first prototype. We are gaining experience in the qualification procedures using the selected components but the choice will be frozen only when dose and neutron flux simulations will be completed. The experimental results of the first qualification campaign are presented.

  19. Design of a dual chamber heat conduction calorimeter for ultrasonic beam measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hang See

    1997-12-01

    The recent emergence of medical ultrasound dosimetry in terms of Thermal and Mechanical Indices gives rise to the need for a device that is capable of measuring ultrasonic output power quickly and accurately. In the research project described in this dissertation, a dual chamber heat conduction calorimeter (HCC) is designed, built, and tested for the purpose of measuring ultrasonic output power of clinical diagnostic ultrasound devices. The HCC is composed of two identical water filled Aluminum wells housed in two separated compartments of an insulated box. The two compartments form the measuring and reference chambers of the calorimeter. The wells are sealed with plastic membranes that constitute the entrance window for the ultrasound. The bottom of each well is stuffed with a 4cm layer of 0.5cm thick rubber pads. These pads serve as a sonic-to-heat energy exchanger. A small resistive heater is embedded in both rubber pads for calibration purposes. Heat is measured with a series of Seebeck effect thermoelectric devices (thermopiles) sandwiched between the well and the heat sink surrounding the wells. The output voltage signal from the thermopiles is amplified, digitized, then analyzed and displayed in term of Thermal Index with a PC-based system. An optimum measurement technique is derived from an electric circuit model that is representative of the HCC. The performance and sensitivity of the HCC is tested and measured, initially with the embedded resistive heaters, then with an experimental transducer, and lastly with transducers from clinical ultrasound scanners.

  20. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, D.R.; Peng, Z.; Hill, D.P.; Aiken, C.

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo; Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification, triggered pain is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia but no study to date has been designed to address this issue directly. In this study, we set out to determine, in patients with trigeminal neuralgia, how frequently triggers are present, which manoeuvres activate them and where cutaneous and mucosal trigger zones are located. Methods Clinical characteristics focusing on trigger factors were collected from 140 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, in a cross-sectional study design. Results Provocation of paroxysmal pain by various trigger manoeuvres was reported by 136 of the 140 patients. The most frequent manoeuvres were gentle touching of the face (79%) and talking (54%). Trigger zones were predominantly reported in the perioral and nasal region. Conclusion This study confirms that in trigeminal neuralgia, paroxysmal pain is associated with triggers in virtually all patients and supports the use of triggers as an essential diagnostic feature of trigeminal neuralgia.

  2. Stay away from asthma triggers

    MedlinePlus

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  3. A TRD Trigger for the tevatron collider experiment at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Utes, M.; Johnson, M.; Martin, M.

    1991-11-01

    A VME-based module for use as an input to the D0 Detector Level 1.5 Trigger is described. Its main function will be the confirmation of electron candidates flagged by the First Level Calorimeter Trigger using digitized data from the Transition Radiation Detector. Features of the board include the use of fast FIFOs to store incoming track coordinates, dual ported SRAM lookup tables for addressing integrated charge data and forming scalars, multiplier/accumulators for speed of calculation, and a single synchronous finite state machine to control all board operations. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Design of a trigger and data acquisition system for a detector at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Briggs, D.; Haller, G.; Hoeflich, J.; Innes, W.

    1993-11-01

    This paper proposes a design of a trigger and data acquisition system for a detector at the PEP-II B Factory. The system is asynchronous, data-driven, and scalable. Design goals include orthogonal tracking and calorimetric triggers, minimal dead time, graceful degradation, high efficiency, and useful performance in the face of backgrounds so high as to overwhelm reconstruction. Also described are instrumentation of the Drift Chamber, based on 8-bit FADCs, and of the Calorimeter, based on a new custom integrated circuit, the Charge Amplifier with Range Encoding (CARE), and 10-bit ADCs. This design employs commercial embedded CPUs in VME and VXI crates.

  5. The sROD module for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A.; Fiorini, L.; Hernández, Y.; Higón, E.; Mellado, B.; March, L.; Moreno, P.; Reed, R.; Solans, C.; Valero, A.; Valls, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The main upgrade of the LHC to increase the instantaneous luminosity is scheduled for 2022. The High Luminosity LHC, also called upgrade Phase-II, will imply a complete redesign of the read-out electronics in TileCal. In the new read-out architecture, the front-end electronics aims to transmit full digitized information to the back-end system in the counting rooms. Thus, the back-end system will also provide digital calibrated information with enhanced precision and granularity to the first level trigger to improve the trigger efficiencies. The demonstrator project is envisaged to qualify this new proposed architecture. A reduced part of the detector, 1/256 of the total, will be equipped with the new electronics during 2014 to evaluate the proposed architecture in real conditions. The upgraded Read-Out Driver (sROD) will be the core element of the back-end electronics in Phase-II. The sROD module is designed on a double mid-size AMC format and will operate under an AdvancedTCA framework. The module includes two Xilinx Series 7 Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for data receiving and processing, as well as the implementation of embedded systems. Related to optical connectors, the sROD uses 4 QSFPs to receive and transmit data from the front-end electronics and 1 Avago MiniPOD to send preprocessed data to the first level trigger system. An SFP module maintains the compatibility with the existing hardware. A complete description of the sROD module for the demonstrator including the main functionalities, circuit design and the control software and firmware will be presented.

  6. Triggering on B-jets at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Amerio, Silvia; Casarsa, Massimo; Cortiana, Giorgio; Donini, Julien; Lucchesi, Donatella; Pagan Griso, Simone; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a trigger algorithm able to select online events enriched of b-jets. This feature is of central interest in order to extend the physics reach for standard model and minimal super symmetric model Higgs decaying into a pair of b-quarks. The algorithm fully exploits the recently upgraded CDFII tracking system and Level 2 CALorimeter cluster finder. These upgrades are necessary to cope with Tevatron increasing luminosity and provide new and refined trigger primitives that are the key elements of our algorithm together with the already existing silicon vertex trigger. A b-hadron can travel some millimeters before decaying and the trigger algorithm exploits this characteristic by searching for tracks displaced with respect to the primary vertex and matched to energetic jets of particles. We discuss the study and the optimization of the algorithm, its technical implementation as well as its performance. The new trigger provides an efficient selection for Higgs decaying into a pair of b-quarks and runs up to high luminosity with an acceptable occupancy of the available bandwidth.

  7. Noise dependence with pile-up in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Pile-up noise studies in the ATLAS TileCal calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Araque, J.P.

    2015-07-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, TileCal, is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, positioned between the electromagnetic calorimeter and the muon chambers. It comprises alternating layers of steel (as absorber material) and plastic (as active material), known as tiles. Between 2009 and 2012, the LHC has performed better than expected producing proton-proton collisions at a very high rate. These conditions are really challenging when dealing with the energy measurements in the calorimeter since not only the energy from an interesting event will be measured but a component coming from other collisions, which are difficult to distinguish from the interesting one, will also be present. This component is referred to as pile-up noise. Studies carried out to better understand how pile-up affects calorimeter noise under different circumstances are described. (author)

  8. Verification of Electromagnetic Calorimeter Concept for the HADES spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, O.; Blume, C.; Czyžycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Linev, S.; Lisowski, E.; Ott, P.; Otte, P.; Petukhov; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rodríguez-Ramos, P.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Skott, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Steffen, O.; Thomas, A.; Tlustý, P.; Traxler, M.

    2015-04-01

    The HADES spectrometer currently operating on the beam of SIS18 accelerator in GSI will be moved to a new position in the CBM cave of the future FAIR complex. Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 A GeVon the beam of the new accelerator SIS100. Calorimeter will be based on 978 massive lead glass modules read out by photomultipliers and a novel front-end electronics. Secondary gamma beam with energies ranging from 81 MeV up to 1399 MeV from MAMI-C Mainz facility was used to verify selected technical solutions. Relative energy resolution was measured using modules with three different types of photomultipliers. Two types of developed front-end electronics as well as energy leakage between neighbouring modules under parallel and declined gamma beams were studied in detail.

  9. Micro-differential scanning calorimeter for liquid biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuyu; Yu, Shifeng; Siedler, Michael S.; Ihnat, Peter M.; Filoti, Dana I.; Lu, Ming; Zuo, Lei

    2016-10-20

    Here, we developed an ultrasensitive micro-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) for liquid protein sample characterization. Our design integrated vanadium oxide thermistors and flexible polymer substrates with microfluidics chambers to achieve a high sensitivity (6 V/W), low thermal conductivity (0.7 mW/K), high power resolutions (40 nW), and well-defined liquid volume (1 μl) calorimeter sensor in a compact and cost-effective way. Furthermore, we demonstrated the performance of the sensor with lysozyme unfolding. The measured transition temperature and enthalpy change were in accordance with the previous literature data. This micro-DSC could potentially raise the prospect of high-throughput biochemical measurement by parallel operation with miniaturized sample consumption.

  10. Micro-differential scanning calorimeter for liquid biological samples

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Shuyu; Yu, Shifeng; Siedler, Michael S.; ...

    2016-10-20

    Here, we developed an ultrasensitive micro-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) for liquid protein sample characterization. Our design integrated vanadium oxide thermistors and flexible polymer substrates with microfluidics chambers to achieve a high sensitivity (6 V/W), low thermal conductivity (0.7 mW/K), high power resolutions (40 nW), and well-defined liquid volume (1 μl) calorimeter sensor in a compact and cost-effective way. Furthermore, we demonstrated the performance of the sensor with lysozyme unfolding. The measured transition temperature and enthalpy change were in accordance with the previous literature data. This micro-DSC could potentially raise the prospect of high-throughput biochemical measurement by parallel operation with miniaturizedmore » sample consumption.« less

  11. Geometric calibration of the SND detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korol, A. A.; Melnikova, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of the software alignment procedure used to perform geometric calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the SND detector which is taking data at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider (BINP, Novosibirsk). This procedure is based on the mathematical model describing the relative calorimeter position. The parameter values are determined by minimizing a χ2 function using the difference between particle directions reconstructed in these two subdetectors for e+e- →e+e- scattering events. The results of the calibration applied to data and MC simulation fit the model well and give an improvement in particle reconstruction. They are used in data reconstruction and MC simulation.

  12. Identifying hadronic tau decays using calorimeter topological clusters at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trottier-McDonald, Michel

    The ATLAS experiment collects data on the world's highest energy proton-proton collisions. Its primary goals are to search for direct evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics, and to provide a final verdict on the existence of the Standard Model Higgs boson. A robust tau identification procedure is an important ingredient in the search for Standard Model and supersymmetric Higgs bosons. In this study, new tau identification variables based on calorimeter topological clusters are investigated. These variables complement existing calorimeter-based variables by bringing additional discriminating power against hadronic jets. They have a straightforward physics interpretation which allows them to be calculated at particle-level. Some of these new variables are shown to be robust against background noise from the underlying event and in-time pileup, two effects which negatively impact tau identification. Several of these new variables are now part of the official tau reconstruction software at ATLAS.

  13. Experience with a double-compensating beam calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Jarmie, N.; Brown, R.E.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Martinez, R.

    1982-01-01

    In an experiment to measure the D(t,..cap alpha..)n cross section at beam energies of 10 to 120 keV, we have developed a double-compensating beam calorimeter, based on a Swiss design to measure the partical beam intensity. A Faraday cup is not useful because of considerable charge exchange in the target gas at such low beam energies. We calibrated the calorimeter both with 10- and 3-MeV protons (comparing with a Faraday-cup measurement of the beam flux) and with the heat generated in a precision resistor. Both methods agree and give a calibration accurate to +- 0.08% over a range of 10 to 800 mW beam power. Beam powers as low as 5 mW may be used, but with less accuracy. The beam energy must be known in order to calculate the particle intensity. Some difficulties with and peculiarities of the device are discussed.

  14. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  15. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Jung, E.A.; Roche, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber. (FS)

  16. Silicon Photomultiplier Characterization for sPHENIX Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Meghan; Skoby, Michael; Aidala, Christine; Sphenix Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are preferable to photomultiplier tubes due to their small size, insensitivity to magnetic fields, low operating voltage, and capability of detecting single photons. The sPHENIX collaboration at RHIC will use SiPMs in their proposed electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The University of Michigan is assembling and implementing a test stand to characterize the dark count rate, temperature dependence, gain, and photon detection efficiency of SiPMs. To more accurately determine the dark count rate, we have constructed a light tight box to isolate the SiPM, which surrounds an electronics enclosure that protects the SiPM circuitry, and installed software to record the output signals. With this system, we will begin to collect data and optimize the system to test arrays of SiPMs instead of single devices as the proposed calorimeters will require testing approximately 115,000 SiPMs.

  17. Micro-differential scanning calorimeter for liquid biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuyu; Yu, Shifeng; Siedler, Michael S.; Ihnat, Peter M.; Filoti, Dana I.; Lu, Ming; Zuo, Lei

    2016-10-01

    We developed an ultrasensitive micro-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) for liquid protein sample characterization. This design integrated vanadium oxide thermistors and flexible polymer substrates with microfluidics chambers to achieve a high sensitivity (6 V/W), low thermal conductivity (0.7 mW/K), high power resolutions (40 nW), and well-defined liquid volume (1 μl) calorimeter sensor in a compact and cost-effective way. We further demonstrated the performance of the sensor with lysozyme unfolding. The measured transition temperature and enthalpy change were in accordance with the previous literature data. This micro-DSC could potentially raise the prospect of high-throughput biochemical measurement by parallel operation with miniaturized sample consumption.

  18. Scanning calorimeter for nanoliter-scale liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, E. A.; Efremov, M. Yu.; Kwan, A. T.; Lai, S.; Petrova, V.; Schiettekatte, F.; Warren, J. T.; Zhang, M.; Allen, L. H.

    2000-10-01

    We introduce a scanning calorimeter for use with a single solid or liquid sample with a volume down to a few nanoliters. Its use is demonstrated with the melting of 52 nL of indium, using heating rates from 100 to 1000 K/s. The heat of fusion was measured to within 5% of the bulk value, and the sensitivity of the measurement was ±7 μW. The heat of vaporization of water was measured in the scanning mode to be within ±23% of the bulk value by actively vaporizing water droplets from 2 to 100 nL in volume. Results within 25% were obtained for the heat of vaporization by using the calorimeter in a heat-conductive mode and measuring the passive evaporation of water. Temperature measurements over a period of 10 h had a standard deviation of 3 mK.

  19. Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Seth I.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    In preparation for Run 2 (2015) and Run 3 of the LHC (2019), the CMS hadron calorimeter has begun a series of ambitious upgrades. These include new photodetectors in addition to improved front-end and back-end readout electronics. In the hadron forward calorimeter, the existing photomultiplier tubes are being replaced with thinner window, multi-anode readout models, while in the central region, the hybrid photodiodes will be replaced with silicon photomultipliers. The front-end electronics will include high precision timing readout, and the back-end electronics will handle the increased data bandwidth. The barrel and endcap longitudinal segmentation will also be increased. This report will describe the motivation for the upgrade, its major components, and its current status.

  20. The iMPACT project tracker and calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Bisello, D.; Giubilato, P.; Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N.; Snoeys, W.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. While traditional X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) fails in providing 3D images with the precision required for hadrons treatment guidance, Proton Computer Tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, can. A pCT scanner consists of a tracker system, to track protons, and of a calorimeter, to measure their residual energy. In this paper we will present the iMPACT project, which foresees a novel proton tracking detector with higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. The tracker will be matched to a fast, highly segmented proton range calorimeter.

  1. Use of FPGA embedded processors for fast cluster reconstruction in the NA62 liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoni, D.; Bizzarri, M.; Bonaiuto, V.; Checcucci, B.; De Simone, N.; Federici, L.; Fucci, A.; Paoluzzi, G.; Papi, A.; Piccini, M.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Santovetti, E.; Sargeni, F.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS is the measurement of the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+→π+ ν bar nu with a 10% accuracy by collecting 100 events in two years of data taking. An efficient photon veto system is needed to reject the K+→π+ π0 background and a liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter will be used for this purpose in the 1-10 mrad angular region. The L0 trigger system for the calorimeter consists of a peak reconstruction algorithm implemented on FPGA by using a mixed parallel architecture based on soft core Altera NIOS II embedded processors together with custom VHDL modules. This solution allows an efficient and flexible reconstruction of the energy-deposition peak. The system will be totally composed of 36 TEL62 boards, 108 mezzanine cards and 215 high-performance FPGAs. We describe the design, current status and the results of the first performance tests.

  2. Development of an air flow thermal balance calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherfey, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    An air flow calorimeter, based on the idea of balancing an unknown rate of heat evolution with a known rate of heat evolution, was developed. Under restricted conditions, the prototype system is capable of measuring thermal wattages from 10 milliwatts to 1 watt, with an error no greater than 1 percent. Data were obtained which reveal system weaknesses and point to modifications which would effect significant improvements.

  3. Micro-Fabricated DC Comparison Calorimeter for RF Power Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Neji, Bilel; Xu, Jing; Titus, Albert H.; Meltzer, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Diode detection and bolometric detection have been widely used to measure radio frequency (RF) power. However, flow calorimeters, in particular micro-fabricated flow calorimeters, have been mostly unexplored as power meters. This paper presents the design, micro-fabrication and characterization of a flow calorimeter. This novel device is capable of measuring power from 100 μW to 200 mW. It has a 50-Ohm load that is heated by the RF source, and the heat is transferred to fluid in a microchannel. The temperature change in the fluid is measured by a thermistor that is connected in one leg of a Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage change of the bridge corresponds to the RF power applied to the load. The microfabricated device measures 25.4 mm × 50.8 mm, excluding the power supplies, microcontroller and fluid pump. Experiments demonstrate that the micro-fabricated sensor has a sensitivity up to 22 × 10−3 V/W. The typical resolution of this micro-calorimeter is on the order of 50 μW, and the best resolution is around 10 μW. The effective efficiency is 99.9% from 0–1 GHz and more than 97.5% at frequencies up to 4 GHz. The measured reflection coefficient of the 50-Ohm load and coplanar wave guide is less than −25 dB from 0–2 GHz and less than −16 dB at 2–4 GHz. PMID:25350509

  4. After-burning of nitropenta products in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H

    1999-06-18

    Explored here are the ''after-burning'' effects for explosions of Nitropenta (NP) charges in air. Detonation of the charge transforms the solid explosive ( C HNO 5 8412 , also known as PETN) into gaseous products that are rich in carbon and CO, which subsequently act as a fuel. When these hot ({approximately}3500 K) gases mix with air, rapid combustion (after-burning) takes place. The dynamics of this exothermic process was studied in ''pressure calorimeter'' experiments performed at EMI.

  5. Interactive monitoring system for backing calorimeter at ZEUS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Jezynski, Tomasz; Luszczak, Zbigniew; Zaczek, Michal

    2004-07-01

    This work describes a design and development of the Internet system for the data quality monitoring during the Backing Calorimeter (BAC) operation in the ZEUS experiment and for the archive data analysis. The development includes functional data base system application, data interaction processes and the web interface, built using PHP scripts and JAVA applets. The system implementation process, in ZEUS experiment, was described and its performance results were presented, based on the selected examples.

  6. The large-scale anisotropy with the PAMELA calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, A.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.; Bazilevskaya, G.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A.; Koldashov, S.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krut'kov, S.; Kvashnin, A.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A.; Menn, W.; Mergé, M.; Mikhailov, V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S.; Sarkar, R.; Simon, M.; Scotti, V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G.; Voronov, S.; Yurkin, Y.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2015-10-01

    The large-scale anisotropy (or the so-called star-diurnal wave) has been studied using the calorimeter of the space-born experiment PAMELA. The cosmic ray anisotropy has been obtained for the Southern and Northern hemispheres simultaneously in the equatorial coordinate system for the time period 2006-2014. The dipole amplitude and phase have been measured for energies 1-20 TeV n-1.

  7. On timing properties of LYSO-based calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Duarte, J.; Pena, C.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Trevor, J.; Xie, S.

    2015-04-23

    We present test beam studies and results on the timing performance and characterization of the time resolution of Lutetium–Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO)-based calorimeters. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for a particular design. Additionally, we discuss precision timing calorimetry as a tool for the mitigation of physics object performance degradation effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen at the Large Hadron Collider.

  8. Calibration and Characterization of the Small Sample Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A.; Perry, Katherine A.

    2012-08-13

    An early component of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) between the United States and the Republic of Korea is a test of gram scale electrochemical recycling of spent fuel which is to be performed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Included in this test is the development of Nondestructive Assay (NDA) technologies that would be applicable for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards of the electrochemical recycling process. Of upmost importance to safeguarding the fuel cycle associated with the electrochemical recycling process is the ability to safeguard the U/TRU ingots that will be produced in the process. For the gram scale test, the ingots that will be produced will have an expected thermal power of approximately 130 mW. To ascertain how well the calorimetric assay NDA technique can perform in assaying these ingots, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized and calibrated a small solid-state calorimeter called the Small Sample Calorimeter (SSC3) to perform these measurements at LANL. To calibrate and characterize the SSC3, a series of measurements were performed using certified {sup 238}Pu heat standards whose power output is traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electrical standards. The results of these measurements helped establish both the calibration of the calorimeter as well as the expected performance of the calorimeter in terms of its accuracy and precision as a function of thermal power of the item that is being measured. In this report, we will describe the measurements that were performed and provide a discussion of the results of these measurements.

  9. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the JLab real compton scattering experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. J.; Shahinyan, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Annand, J. R. M.; Chang, T.-H.; Chudakov, E.; Danagoulian, A.; Degtyarenko, P.; Egiyan, K.; Gilman, R.; Gorbenko, V.; Hines, J.; Hovhannisyan, E.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; de Jager, C. W.; Ketikyan, A.; Mamyan, V. H.; Michaels, R.; Nathan, A. M.; Nelyubin, V.; Rachek, I.; Roedelbrom, M.; Petrosyan, A.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Popov, V.; Segal, J.; Shestakov, Y.; Templon, J.; Voskanyan, H.

    2011-07-01

    A lead-glass hodoscope calorimeter that was constructed for use in the Jefferson Lab Real Compton Scattering experiment is described. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6%/ √{Eγ GeV}. Features of both the detector design and its performance in the high luminosity environment during the experiment are presented.

  10. The calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    DOE PAGES

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; ...

    2017-01-23

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab looks for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV) improving by 4 orders of magnitude the current experimental sensitivity for the muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom. A positive signal could not be explained in the framework of the current Standard Model of particle interactions and therefore would be a clear indication of new physics. In 3 years of data taking, Mu2e is expected to observe less than one background event mimicking the electron coming from muon conversion. Achieving such a level of background suppression requires a deep knowledge of the experimental apparatus: amore » straw tube tracker, measuring the electron momentum and time, a cosmic ray veto system rejecting most of cosmic ray background and a pure CsI crystal calorimeter, that will measure time of flight, energy and impact position of the converted electron. The calorimeter has to operate in a harsh radiation environment, in a 10-4 Torr vacuum and inside a 1 T magnetic field. The results of the first qualification tests of the calorimeter components are reported together with the energy and time performances expected from the simulation and measured in beam tests of a small scale prototype.« less

  11. Calibration of the Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of ATLAS at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumediene, Djamel; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. The TileCal provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by means of wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The TileCal readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read by two PMTs. A brief description of the individual calibration systems (Cs radioactive source, laser, charge injection, minimum bias) is provided. Their combination allows to calibrate each part of the data acquisition chain (optical part, photomultiplier, readout electronics) and to monitor its stability to better than 1%. The procedure for setting and preserving the electromagnetic energy scale during Run 1 data taking is discussed. The issues of linearity and stability of the response, as well as the timing adjustment are also shown.

  12. Hadronic Showers in a Highly Granular Imaging Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, A.; The Calice Collaboration

    The CALICE collaboration develops highly granular calorimeter prototypes to evaluate technologies for experiments at a future lepton collider. The analogue hadronic calorimeter prototype consists of steel absorber plates interleaved with 38 active plastic scintillator layers which are sub-divided into small tiles. In total 7608 tiles are read out individually via embedded Silicon Photomultipliers. The prototype is one of the first large scale applications of these novel and very promising miniature photodetectors. Since 2006, the calorimeter has been operated in combined test beam setups at DESY, CERN and FNAL. The high-resolution 3D image data with analogue energy information are used to study properties and composition of hadronic showers at a new level of detail. This helps to constrain hadronic shower models through comparisons with model calculations. The spatial shower development and the substructure of the showers, compared to a variety of different Geant 4 shower models including decompositions into individual shower components are presented. Aspects of the energy reconstruction of hadronic showers, such as Particle Flow, are discussed.

  13. The Design of a Calorimeter to Measure Concentrated Solar Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefkow, Elizabeth Anne Bennett

    A water-cooled, cavity calorimeter was designed to accurately measure concentrated solar thermal power produced by the University of Minnesota's solar simulator. The cavity is comprised of copper tubing bent into spiral and helical coils for the base and cylindrical walls, respectively. Insulation surrounds the cavity to reduce heat transfer to the ambient, and a water- cooled aperture cover is positioned at the open end of the cavity. The calorimeter measures the heat gain of water flowing through the system as radiant energy is passed through the aperture. Chilled water flows through the tubing, and the energy incident on the cavity surface is conducted through the wall and convected to the flowing water. The energy increase in the water can be observed by an increase in fluid temperature. A Monte Carlo ray tracing method is used to predict the incident flux distribution and corresponding power on the surfaces of the cavity. These values are used to estimate the thermal losses of the system, and it is found that they account for less that 1% of the total power passed through the aperture. The overall uncertainty of the calorimeter is found by summing the measured uncertainty and the estimated heat loss and is found to be +/-2.5% for 9.2 kW of power output and +/-3.4% for 3 kW.

  14. Longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters with SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Ferdinando, D. Di; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the INFN SCENTT R&D project is to develop the calorimeter technologies for the instrumentation of decay tunnels in conventional neutrino beams. This instrumentation is required to achieve a substantial improvement in the uncertainty on neutrino fluxes for the next generation cross section experiments. In particular, we are designing a positron tagger based on purely calorimetric techniques that is able to measure the rate and the spectrum of the positrons produced in the K+ →e+π0νe decay. The νe flux is inferred from the positron rate in the decay tunnel. Considering the large dimensions of the tagger, the most cost effective technology is based on small modules of Fe/Scintillator shashlik calorimeters, with adequate segmentation and energy resolution to efficiently tag the positrons over the charged pion background. This contribution presents preliminary results obtained with two shashlik calorimeter prototypes readout with an array of Silicon PhotoMultipliers and tested at the CERN PS-T9 beamline.

  15. Development of Radhard VLSI electronics for SSC calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.W.; Nodulman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A new program of development of integrated electronics for liquid argon calorimeters in the SSC detector environment is being started at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory and Vanderbilt University together with an industrial participants are expected to collaborate in this work. Interaction rates, segmentation, and the radiation environment dictate that front-end electronics of SSC calorimeters must be implemented in the form of highly integrated, radhard, analog, low noise, VLSI custom monolithic devices. Important considerations are power dissipation, choice of functions integrated on the front-end chips, and cabling requirements. An extensive level of expertise in radhard electronics exists within the industrial community, and a primary objective of this work is to bring that expertise to bear on the problems of SSC detector design. Radiation hardness measurements and requirements as well as calorimeter design will be primarily the responsibility of Argonne scientists and our Brookhaven and Vanderbilt colleagues. Radhard VLSI design and fabrication will be primarily the industrial participant's responsibility. The rapid-cycling synchrotron at Argonne will be used for radiation damage studies involving response to neutrons and charged particles, while damage from gammas will be investigated at Brookhaven. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The backward end-cap for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozza, L.; Maas, F. E.; Noll, O.; Rodriguez Pineiro, D.; Valente, R.

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will cover a broad experimental programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. As a multipurpose detector, the PANDA spectrometer needs to ensure almost 4π coverage of the scattering solid angle, full and accurate multiple-particle event reconstruction and very good particle identification capabilities. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be a key item for many of these aspects. Particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs have to be measured with a relative resolution of 1% ⊕ 2%/√E/GeV . It will be a homogeneous calorimeter made of PbWO4 crystals and will be operated at -25°C, in order to improve the scintillation light yield. With the exception of the very forward section, the light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The current pulses from the APDs will be integrated, amplified and shaped by ASIC chips which were developed for this purpose. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). In this contribution, a status report on the development of the BWEC is presented.

  17. Applying fast calorimetry on a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Liljenfeldt, Henrik

    2015-04-15

    Recently at Los Alamos National Laboratory, sophisticated prediction algorithms have been considered for the use of calorimetry for treaty verification. These algorithms aim to predict the equilibrium temperature based on early data and therefore be able to shorten the measurement time while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithms have been implemented in MATLAB and applied on existing equilibrium measurements from a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter located at the Swedish nuclear fuel interim storage facility. The results show significant improvements in measurement time in the order of 15 to 50 compared to equilibrium measurements, but cannot predict the heat accurately in less time than the currently used temperature increase method can. This Is both due to uncertainties in the calibration of the method as well as identified design features of the calorimeter that limits the usefulness of equilibrium type measurements. The conclusions of these findings are discussed, and suggestions of both improvements of the current calorimeter as well as what to keep in mind in a new design are given.

  18. The calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Davydov, Y. I.; Di Falco, S.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Radicioni, T.; Ricci, M.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab looks for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV) improving by 4 orders of magnitude the current experimental sensitivity for the muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom. A positive signal could not be explained in the framework of the current Standard Model of particle interactions and therefore would be a clear indication of new physics. In 3 years of data taking, Mu2e is expected to observe less than one background event mimicking the electron coming from muon conversion. Achieving such a level of background suppression requires a deep knowledge of the experimental apparatus: a straw tube tracker, measuring the electron momentum and time, a cosmic ray veto system rejecting most of cosmic ray background and a pure CsI crystal calorimeter, that will measure time of flight, energy and impact position of the converted electron. The calorimeter has to operate in a harsh radiation environment, in a 10-4 Torr vacuum and inside a 1 T magnetic field. The results of the first qualification tests of the calorimeter components are reported together with the energy and time performances expected from the simulation and measured in beam tests of a small scale prototype.

  19. The Development of the CMS Zero Degree Calorimeters to Derive the Centrality of AA Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Jeffrey Scott

    2012-12-07

    The centrality of РЬРЬ collisions is derived using correlations from the zero degree calorimeter (ZDC) signal and pixel multiplicity at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment using data from the heavy ion run in 2010. The method to derive the centrality takes the two-dimensional correlation between the ZDC and pixels and linearizes it for sorting events. The initial method for deriving the centrality at CMS uses the energy deposit in the HF detector, and it is compared to the centrality derived Ьу the correlations in ZDC and pixel multiplicity. This comparison highlights the similarities between the results of both methods in central collisions, as expected, and deviations in the results in peripheral collisions. The ZDC signals in peripheral collisions are selected Ьу low pixel multiplicity to oЬtain а ZDC neutron spectrum, which is used to effectively gain match both sides of the ZDC

  20. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Toshio; Takahashi, Toru; Saito, Toshio; Takehisa, Masaaki; Miller, Arne

    1993-10-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use a 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found to be directly proportional to the beam current and the variation among three water calorimeters was less than ± 2 % in the range of 10 to 40 kGy. CTA, PMMA, RCD dosimeters were calibrated by irradiating the dosimeters and water calorimeters simultaneously. The water calorimeters was proved to be an useful tool at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95% confidence level) for X-ray measurement.

  1. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, J.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Jeitler, M.; Matsushita, T.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2016-02-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in MicroTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV.

  2. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  3. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  4. Determination of shower central position in laterally segmented lead-fluoride electromagnetic calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, M.; Ghedira, L.; Voutier, E.

    2016-07-01

    The spatial resolution of laterally segmented electromagnetic calorimeters, built of lead fluoride material, is studied on the basis of Monte-Carlo simulations. Parametrization of the relative resolution on the shower position is proposed and optimized in terms of the energy of incoming particles and the elementary size of the calorimeter blocks. A new fit algorithm method is proposed that improves spatial resolution at high energies (> 5 GeV), and provides guidance for the design optimization of electromagnetic calorimeters.

  5. A photon calorimeter using lead tungstate crystals for the CEBAF HAll A Compton polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    D. Neyret; T. Pussieux; T. Auger; M. Baylac; E. Burtin; C. Cavata; R. Chipaux; S. Escoffier; N. Falletto; J. Jardillier; S. Kerhoas; D. Lhuillier; F. Marie; C. Veyssiere; J. Ahrens; R. Beck; M. Lang

    2000-05-01

    A new Compton polarimeter is built on the CEBAF Hall A electron beam line. Performances of 10% resolution and 1% calibration are required for the photon calorimeter of this polarimeter. This calorimeter is built with lead tungstate scintillators coming from the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter R&D. Beam tests of this detector have been made using the tagged photon beam line at MAMI, Mainz, and a resolution of 1.76%+2.75%/v+0.41%/E has been measured.

  6. SUITABILITY OF A NEW CALORIMETER FOR EXOTIC MESON SEARCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Bookwalter, C.; Ostrovidov, A.; Eugenio, P.

    2007-01-01

    Exotic mesons, particles that have quantum numbers that are inaccessible to conventional quark-model mesons, are predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), but past experiments seeking to identify exotic candidates have produced controversial results. The HyCLAS experiment (E04005) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) proposes the use of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B to study the photoproduction of exotic mesons. However, the base detector package at CLAS is not ideal for observing and measuring neutral particles, particularly at forward angles. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment at TJNAF has commissioned a new calorimeter for detecting small-angle photons, but studies must be performed to determine its suitability for a meson spectroscopy experiment. The ηπ system has been under especial scrutiny in the community as a source for potential exotics, so the new calorimeter’s ability at reconstructing these resonances must be evaluated. To achieve this, the invariant mass of showers in the calorimeter are reconstructed. Also, two electroproduction reaction channels analogous to photoproduction channels of interest to HyCLAS are examined in DVCS data. It is found that, while not ideal, the new calorimeter will allow access to additional reaction channels, and its inclusion in HyCLAS is warranted. Results in basic shower reconstruction show that the calorimeter has good effi ciency in resolving π° decays, but its η reconstruction is not as strong. When examining ep → epπ°η, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ° system shows faint signals in the a0(980) region. In the ep → e n π+ η channel, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ+ system gave good signals in the a0(980) and a2(1320) regions, but statistics were poor. While more analyses are necessary to improve statistics and remove background, these preliminary results support the claim

  7. Hermiticity studies in SSC type calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, H.; Milliken, B.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Raja, R.

    1986-01-01

    We examine the effect of both dead material and missing material on the hermiticity of calorimetry for the type of detector proposed for the SSC. Using a simulation of the D0 detector based on the CERN Monte Carlo program Geant, we study the effects of cracks and cryostat dead material on missing E/sub T/. An improved version of the Isajet program that incorporates initial state Bremsstrahlung is used to investigate the contribution due to missing E/sub T/ from energy disappearing down the beam pipe.

  8. Tests of the D0 calorimeter response in 2--150 GeV beams

    SciTech Connect

    De, K. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-10-01

    At the heart of the D0 detector, which recently started its maiden data run at the Fermilab Tevatron p[bar p] collider, is a finely segmented hermetic large angle liquid argon calorimeter. We present here results from the latest test beam studies of the calorimeter in 1991. Modules from the central calorimeter, end calorimeter and the inter-cryostat detector were included in this run. New results on resolution, uniformity and linearity will be presented with electron and pion beams of various energies. Special emphasis will be placed on first results from the innovative technique of using scintillator sampling in the intermediate rapidity region to improve uniformity and hermeticity.

  9. Tests of the D0 calorimeter response in 2--150 GeV beams

    SciTech Connect

    De, K.; D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    At the heart of the D0 detector, which recently started its maiden data run at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider, is a finely segmented hermetic large angle liquid argon calorimeter. We present here results from the latest test beam studies of the calorimeter in 1991. Modules from the central calorimeter, end calorimeter and the inter-cryostat detector were included in this run. New results on resolution, uniformity and linearity will be presented with electron and pion beams of various energies. Special emphasis will be placed on first results from the innovative technique of using scintillator sampling in the intermediate rapidity region to improve uniformity and hermeticity.

  10. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  11. Calorimeter Preamplifier Hybrid Circuit Test Jig

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.; /Fermilab

    1999-04-19

    There are two ways in which the testing may be initiated, remotely or locally. If the remote operation is desired, an external TTL level signal must be provided to the test jig with the remotellocal switch on the side of the test jig switched to remote. A logic high will initiate the test. A logic low will terminate the test. In the event that an external signal is connected to the test jig while local operation occurs, the local control takes precedence over remote control. Once a DVT has been locked in the ZIF socket and the DIP switches are selected, the Push-to-Test button may be depressed. Momentarily depressing the button will initiate a test with a minimum 400 ms duration. At the same time a PBCLOCK and PBLATCH pulses will be initiated and the power rails +12V, +8V, and -6V will be ramped to full voltage. The time at which the power rails reach the full voltage is about 13 ms and it is synchronized with bypass capacitors placed on COMP input of U20 and U22 and on the output of U23 voltage regulators. The voltage rails are supplied to a {+-}10% window comparator. A red LED indicates the rail is below or above 10% of the design value. A green LED indicates the rail is within acceptable limits. For DDT with a 5 pF and 10 pF feed back capacitor, the +12V and +8V rails are current-regulated to 19rnA and 22 rnA respectively and the -6V rail is short-circuit protected within the regulator. For DUT with a 22 pF feed back capacitor the current regulation is the same as above except that the +8V rail is current regulated to 43 rnA. The power rails are supplied to the DUT via a 10 {Omega} resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is sensed by a differential amplifier AD620 and amplified by a gain of 10. An external BNC connection is provided from this point to allow for current measurements by the vendor. The current value for each rail is calculated by measuring the voltage value at this point and divided by (10*10{Omega}). The next stage inverts and amplifies

  12. Upgrade of the Laser calibration system for the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Atlas Tile Calorimeter System

    2016-07-01

    We present in this contribution the new system for Laser calibration of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal. The Laser system is a part of the three stage calibration apparatus designed to compute the calibration factors of the individual cells of TileCal. The Laser system is mainly used to correct for short term drifts of the readout of the individual cells. A sub-percent accuracy in the control of the calibration factors is required. To achieve this goal in the LHC Run2 conditions, a new Laser system was designed. The architecture of the system is described with details on the new optical line used to distribute Laser pulses in each individual detector module and on the new electronics used to drive the Laser, to read out optical monitors and to interface the system with the ATLAS readout, trigger and slow control. The LaserII system has been fully integrated into the framework used for measuring calibration factors and for monitoring data quality. First results on the Laser system performances studied are presented.

  13. The Mini-Calorimeter on-board AGILE: The first year in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marisaldi, M.; Labanti, C.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Argan, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Di Cocco, G.; Gianotti, F.; Tavani, M.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.

    2009-04-01

    AGILE, the Italian space mission dedicated to gamma-ray and hard-X astrophysics, was successfully launched on 23rd April 2007 and is currently fully operative. The Mini-Calorimeter (MCAL) on-board the AGILE satellite is a scintillation detector made of 20 kg of segmented CsI(Tl) scintillator with photodiode readout with a total geometrical area of 1400 cm2. MCAL can work both as a slave of the AGILE Silicon tracker and as an independent detector for gamma-ray bursts (GRB) detection in the 300 keV - 100 MeV energy range. Despite its limited thickness, due to weight constraints, MCAL has proven to successfully self-trigger GRBs at MeV energies providing photon-by-photon data with less than 2 μs time resolution and almost all-sky detection capabilities. The instrument design and characteristics, as well as the in-flight performance after one year of operation in space and the scientific results obtained so far are reviewed and discussed.

  14. (Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders). [State Univ. of New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun.

  15. Optical Spectra of Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered lightning flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered lightning flashes were obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.

  16. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  17. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  18. Gamma-telescopes Fermi/LAT and GAMMA-400 Trigger Systems Event Recognizing Methods Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Murchenko, A. E.; Chasovikov, E. N.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Kheymits, M. D.

    Usually instruments for high-energy γ-quanta registration consists of converter (where γ-quanta produced pairs) and calorimeter for particles energy measurements surrounded by anticoincidence shield used to events identification (whether incident particle was charged or neutral). The influence of pair formation by γ-quanta in shield and the backsplash (moved in the opposite direction particles created due high energy γ-rays interact with calorimeter) should be taken into account. It leads to decrease both effective area and registration efficiency at E>10 GeV. In the presented article the event recognizing methods used in Fermi/LAT trigger system is considered in comparison with the ones applied in counting and triggers signals formation system of gamma-telescope GAMMA-400. The GAMMA-400 (Gamma Astronomical Multifunctional Modular Apparatus) will be the new high-apogee space γ-observatory. The GAMMA-400 consist of converter-tracker based on silicon-strip coordinate detectors interleaved with tungsten foils, imaging calorimeter make of 2 layers of double (x, y) silicon strip coordinate detectors interleaved with planes of CsI(Tl) crystals and the electromagnetic calorimeter CC2 consists only of CsI(Tl) crystals. Several plastics detections systems used as anticoincidence shield, for particles energy and moving direction estimations. The main differences of GAMMA-400 constructions from Fermi/LAT one are using the time-of-flight system with base of 50 cm and double layer structure of plastic detectors provides more effective particles direction definition and backsplash rejection. Also two calorimeters in GAMMA-400 composed the total absorbtion spectrometer with total thickness ∼ 25 X0 or ∼1.2 λ0 for vertical incident particles registration and 54 X0 or 2.5 λ0 for laterally incident ones (where λ0 is nuclear interaction length). It provides energy resolution 1-2% for 10 GeV-3.0×103 GeV events while the Fermi/LAT energy resolution does not reach such a

  19. The D0 run II trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; /Michigan State U.

    2004-11-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron was upgraded for Run II. This upgrade included improvements to the trigger system in order to be able to handle the increased Tevatron luminosity and higher bunch crossing rates compared to Run I. The D0 Run II trigger is a highly exible system to select events to be written to tape from an initial interaction rate of about 2.5 MHz. This is done in a three-tier pipelined, buffered system. The first tier (level 1) processes fast detector pick-off signals in a hardware/firmware based system to reduce the event rate to about 1. 5kHz. The second tier (level 2) uses information from level 1 and forms simple Physics objects to reduce the rate to about 850 Hz. The third tier (level 3) uses full detector readout and event reconstruction on a filter farm to reduce the rate to 20-30 Hz. The D0 trigger menu contains a wide variety of triggers. While the emphasis is on triggering on generic lepton and jet final states, there are also trigger terms for specific final state signatures. In this document we describe the D0 trigger system as it was implemented and is currently operating in Run II.

  20. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, Jonathan

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47π muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of ~1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 ± 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections.

  1. Spark gaps synchronization using electrical trigger pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Ritu; Saroj, P.C.; Sharma, Archana; Roy, Vikas; Mittal, K.C.

    2014-07-01

    In pulse power systems, it is required to have synchronized triggering of two or more high voltage spark gaps capable of switching large currents, using electrical trigger pulses. This paper intends to study the synchronization of spark gaps using electrical trigger. The trigger generator consists of dc supply, IGBT switch and driver circuit which generates 8kV, 400ns (FWHM) pulses. The experiment was carried out using two 0.15uF/50kV energy storage capacitors charged to 12kV and discharged through stainless steel spark gaps of diameter 9 mm across 10 ohm non inductive load. The initial experiment shows that synchronization has been achieved with jitter of 50 to 100ns. Further studies carried out to reduce the jitter time by varying various electrical parameters will be presented. (author)

  2. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-1 Read-out Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Milic, A.

    2015-07-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters are designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, an upgrade of the read-out electronics is being launched to cope with luminosities of up to 3x10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, which are beyond the original design by a factor of 3. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the upgrade Phase-1 in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new LAr digital processing system (LDPS). The LDPS applies a digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger channel. The refined trigger primitives are then transmitted to the first level trigger system to extract improved trigger signatures. The read-out of the trigger signals will process 34000 so-called Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at a frequency of 40 MHz. The new LTDB on-detector electronics is designed to be radiation tolerant in order to be operated for the remaining live-time of the ATLAS detector up to a total luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. For the analog-to-digital conversion (12-bit ADC at 40 MSPS), the data serialization and the fast optical link (5.44 Gb/s) custom components have been developed. They have been qualified for the expected radiation environment of a total ionization dose of 1.3 kGy and a hadron fluence of 6 x 10{sup 13} h/cm{sup 2} with energies above

  3. Simulation of Energy Response of the ATIC Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batkov, K. E.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Case, G.; Christl, M.; Chang, J.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Granger, D.; hide

    2002-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure the cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from approx.50 GeV to near 100 TeV. It consists of a Si-matrix detector to determine the charge of a CR particle, a scintillator hodoscope for tracking, carbon interaction targets and a fully active BGO calorimeter. ATIC had its first flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 28/12/2000 to 13/01/2001. The ATIC flight collected approximately 25 million events. For reconstruction of primary spectra from spectra of energy deposits measured in the experiment, correlations between kinetic energy of a primary particle E(sub kin) and energy deposit in the calorimeter E(sub d) should be known. For this purpose, simulations of energy response of the calorimeter on energy spectra of different nuclei were done. The simulations were performed by GEANT-3.21 code with QGSM generator for nucleus - nucleus interactions. The incident flux was taken as isotropic in the ATIC aperture. Primary spectra power-law by momentum were used as inputs according to standard models of cosmic ray acceleration. These spectra become power-law by kinetic energy at E(sub kin) higher than approx.20Mc(sup 2), where M is primary nucleus mass. It should be noted that energy deposit spectra measured by ATIC illustrate similar behavior. Distributions of ratio E(sub kin)/E(sub d) are presented for different energy deposits and for a set of primaries. For power-law regions of energy spectra at E(sub d)> or equal to 20Mc(sup 2) the obtained mean value of E(sub kin)/E(sub d) increases from approx.2.4 for protons to approx.3.1 for iron, while rms/ decreases from 50% for protons to about 15% for iron. These values were obtained for the spectral index gamma=1.6

  4. Data acquisition system for the CALICE AHCAL calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasnicka, J.

    2017-03-01

    The data acquisition system (DAQ) for a highly granular analogue hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) for the future International Linear Collider is presented. The developed DAQ chain has several stages of aggregation and scales up to 8 million channels foreseen for the AHCAL detector design. The largest aggregation device, Link Data Aggregator, has 96 HDMI connectors, four Kintex7 FPGAs and a central Zynq System-On-Chip. Architecture and performance results are shown in detail. Experience from DESY testbeams with a small detector prototype consisting of 15 detector layers are shown.

  5. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    SciTech Connect

    Delogu, R. S. Pimazzoni, A.; Serianni, G.; Poggi, C.; Rossi, G.

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.

  6. Calorimeter and related calculations for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-02-01

    There are four topics to be covered in this paper. The first topic deals with the programs, the models, and the cross sections in the CALOR code package. Secondly, a discussion on compensating calorimetry as it applies to Fe/Si and U/Si calorimetry will be given. Thirdly, calculated results obtained on U/Si calorimeters using the CALOR system will be presented and discussed. Finally, the calculations that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out dealing with radiation damage at the proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multi-purpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 4{pi} muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February - May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run.

  8. Performance of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, G.; Ellison, S.; Gould, R.; Granger, D.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Price, B.; Stewart, M.; Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATIC instrument is a balloon-borne experiment capable of measuring cosmic ray elemental spectra from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from H to Fe with a fully active Bismuth Germanate calorimeter. Several Long Duration Balloon flights from McMurdo station, Antarctica are scheduled. The detector was tested with high energy electron, proton, and pion beams at CERN. We present results for 150 and 375 GeV protons, and 150 GeV pions and comparison with a GEANT Monte Carlo.

  9. Design and development of the SDC barrel electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ambats, I.; Balka, L.; Blair, R.

    1994-04-01

    In fulfillment of contract SSC92-W-17743, Argonne National Laboratory is required to closeout and document all work performed in the design and development of the central calorimeter for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) Detector at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). This report will summarize the work performed, and identify all documents (technical reports, memo`s, drawings, etc.) that resulted from that effort. The work under this contract was shared in collaboration with the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is the intent of this report to provide information that can be useful in the development of future detectors for high energy physics particle research.

  10. Determination of the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jia-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Lebanowski, Logan; Lin, Guey-Lin; Chen, Shaomin

    2016-08-01

    A physically motivated function was developed to accurately determine the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter and to overcome biases present in many commonly used methods. The function is the convolution of a detector resolution function with the sum of a delta function, which represents the complete absorption of energy, and a tail function, which describes the partial absorption of energy and depends on the detector materials and structures. Its performance was tested with the simulation of three typical cases. The accuracy of the extracted peak value, resolution, and peak area was improved by an order of magnitude on average, relative to the Crystal Ball function.

  11. Simulation of Energy Response of the ATIC Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batkov, K. E.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Case, G.; Christl, M.; Chang, J.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Granger, D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure the cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from approx.50 GeV to near 100 TeV. It consists of a Si-matrix detector to determine the charge of a CR particle, a scintillator hodoscope for tracking, carbon interaction targets and a fully active BGO calorimeter. ATIC had its first flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 28/12/2000 to 13/01/2001. The ATIC flight collected approximately 25 million events. For reconstruction of primary spectra from spectra of energy deposits measured in the experiment, correlations between kinetic energy of a primary particle E(sub kin) and energy deposit in the calorimeter E(sub d) should be known. For this purpose, simulations of energy response of the calorimeter on energy spectra of different nuclei were done. The simulations were performed by GEANT-3.21 code with QGSM generator for nucleus - nucleus interactions. The incident flux was taken as isotropic in the ATIC aperture. Primary spectra power-law by momentum were used as inputs according to standard models of cosmic ray acceleration. These spectra become power-law by kinetic energy at E(sub kin) higher than approx.20Mc(sup 2), where M is primary nucleus mass. It should be noted that energy deposit spectra measured by ATIC illustrate similar behavior. Distributions of ratio E(sub kin)/E(sub d) are presented for different energy deposits and for a set of primaries. For power-law regions of energy spectra at E(sub d)> or equal to 20Mc(sup 2) the obtained mean value of E(sub kin)/E(sub d) increases from approx.2.4 for protons to approx.3.1 for iron, while rms/ decreases from 50% for protons to about 15% for iron. These values were obtained for the spectral index gamma=1.6

  12. Measurement of Specific Heat Capacity Using Differential Scanning Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Daw

    2008-11-01

    This document describes the process used at the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) for measuring specific heat capacity using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The document is divided into four sections: Approach, in which the technique is described; Setup, in which the physical system is described; Procedure, in which the testing steps are listed and detailed; and Example Test, in which a typical test is outlined following the steps listed in the Procedure section. Example data, results, photos, and curves are provided throughout the document to assist other users of this system.

  13. Computed tomography coronary angiography with a consistent dose below 2 mSv using double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition in patients with atrial fibrillation: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Qin, Jing; He, Bai; Zhou, Yin; Yang, Jun-jie; Hou, Xiao-ling; Yang, Xiao-bo; Chen, Jiu-hong; Chen, Yun-dai

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and imaging quality of double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (double flash mode) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTCA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). 47 patients (11 women, 36 men; mean age 64.5 ± 12.1 years) were enrolled for CTCA examinations using a dual-source CT with 2 × 128 × 0.6 mm collimation, 0.28 s rotation time and a pitch of 3.4. Double flash mode was prospectively triggered first at 60 % and later at 30 % of the R-R interval within two cardiac cycles. Image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale (1 = excellent, 4 = non-assessable). From 672 coronary artery segments, 77.5 % (521/672) was rated as score of 1, 20.8 % (140/672) as score of 2, 1.2 % (8/672) as score of 3 and 0.4 % (3/672) was rated as 'non-assessable'. The average image quality score was 1.25 ± 0.38 on a per segment basis. Mean dose-length product for CTCA was 92.6 ± 28.2 mGy cm, the effective dose was 1.30 ± 0.39 mSv (0.64-1.97 mSv). In patients with AF, double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode could be a feasible and valuable scan mode for CTCA with a consistent dose below 2 mSv as well as diagnostic imaging quality.

  14. Predicting asthma control: the role of psychological triggers.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Bobb, Carol; Griffiths, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Asthma triggers have been linked to adverse health outcomes in asthma, but little is known about their association with asthma control. Because trigger avoidance is an integral part of successful asthma management, psychological triggers in particular may be associated with suboptimal asthma control, given the difficulty of controlling them. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived asthma triggers with self-report of asthma control impairment, symptoms, and spirometric lung function (forced expiratory volume in the 1st second, [FEV1]) in 179 adult primary care asthma patients. Perceived asthma triggers explained up to 42.5% of the variance in asthma control and symptoms, but not in FEV1 alone. Allergic triggers explained up to 12.1% of the asthma control and symptom variance, three nonallergic trigger types, air pollution/irritants, physical activity, and infection, explained up to 26.2% over and above allergic triggers, and psychological triggers up to 9.5% over and above all other triggers. Psychological triggers alone explained up to 33.9% of the variance and were the only trigger class that was consistently significant in all final multiple regression models predicting control and symptoms. Psychological triggers also predicted lower asthma control 3-6 months later, although controlling for initial asthma control eliminated this association. In free reports of individually relevant triggers, only psychological triggers were associated with suboptimal asthma control. Trigger factors are important predictors of self-reported asthma control and symptoms but not actual lung function. Particular attention should be directed to psychological triggers as indicators of patients' perceptions of suboptimal asthma control.

  15. Calorimeter measures high nuclear heating rates and their gradients across a reactor test hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burwell, D.; Coombe, J. R.; Mc Bride, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pedestal-type calorimeter measures gamma-ray heating rates from 0.5 to 7.0 watts per gram of aluminum. Nuclear heating rate is a function of cylinder temperature change, measured by four chromel-alumel thermocouples attached to the calorimeter, and known thermoconductivity of the tested material.

  16. Cone Calorimeter Analysis of FRT Intumescent and Untreated Foam Core Particleboards

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Ali Shalbafan; Johannes Welling; Charles Boardman

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of treatments of the surface layer of novel foam core particleboards were evaluated by means of Cone calorimeter tests. Foam core particleboards with variations of surface layer treatment, adhesives and surface layer thicknesses under similar processing conditions were used to produce the test specimen for the Cone calorimeter tests. Ignitability,...

  17. Studies of hadron-electron separators for the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ambats, I.; Bortz, D.; Connolly, A.

    1995-05-25

    Two possible upgrades, a shower maximum detector and a presampler, designed to improve the low energy electron/hadron separation capabilities of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter are described and test-beam results are reported. The presampler can also be used to correct for energy loss of particles traversing the dead material in front of the calorimeter.

  18. Twin solution calorimeter determines heats of formation of alloys at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, J. B., Jr.; Kleb, R.; Kleppa, O. J.

    1968-01-01

    Calvert-type, twin liquid metal solution calorimeter determines the heats of formation of transition metal alloys at high temperatures. The twin differential calorimeter measures the small heat effects generated over extended periods of time, has maximum operating temperature of 1073 degrees K and an automatic data recording system.

  19. Test and evaluation of an Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fellers, C.L.; Lemming, J.F.

    1981-06-30

    The Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter (BAC) was subjected to a series of tests, using plutonium-238 heat standards, to evaluate the performance of the calorimeter over its operating range. The results of these tests provide baseline information of the instrument performance under laboratory conditions.

  20. The CMS Level-1 electron and photon trigger: for Run II of LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, N.; Jessop, C.; Meng, F.; Marinelli, N.; Taroni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Davignon, O.; Romanteau, T.; Strebler, T.; Zabi, A.; Sauvan, J. B.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Taylor, J.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Shtipliyski, A.; Tapper, A.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Xia, F.

    2017-02-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) employs a sophisticated two-level online triggering system that has a rejection factor of up to 105. Since the beginning of Run II of LHC, the conditions that CMS operates in have become increasingly challenging. The centre-of-mass energy is now 13 TeV and the instantaneous luminosity currently peaks at 1.5 ×1034 cm‑2s‑1. In order to keep low physics thresholds and to trigger efficiently in such conditions, the CMS trigger system has been upgraded. A new trigger architecture, the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT) has been introduced which allows the full granularity of the calorimeters to be exploited at the first level of the online trigger. The new trigger has also benefited immensely from technological improvements in hardware. Sophisticated algorithms, developed to fully exploit the advantages provided by the new hardware architecture, have been implemented. The new trigger system started taking physics data in 2016 following a commissioning period in 2015, and since then has performed extremely well. The hardware and firmware developments, electron and photon algorithms together with their performance in challenging 2016 conditions is presented.

  1. Triggered Earthquakes Following Parkfield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    When the M5.0 Arvin earthquake struck approximately 30 hours after the 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, it seemed likely if not obvious that the latter had triggered the former. The odds of a M5.0 or greater event occurring by random chance in a given 2-day window is low, on the order of 2%. However, previously published results suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes are observed only following much larger mainshocks, typically M7 or above. Moreover, using a standard beta-statistic approach, one finds no pervasive regional increase of seismicity in the weeks following the Parkfield mainshock. (Neither were any moderate events observed at regional distances following the 1934 and 1966 Parkfield earthquakes.) Was Arvin a remotely triggered earthquake? To address this issue further I compare the seismicity rate changes following the Parkfield mainshock with those following 14 previous M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in central and southern California. I show that, on average, seismicity increased to a distance of at least 120 km following these events. For all but the M7.1 Hector Mine mainshock, this is well beyond the radius of what would be considered a traditional aftershock zone. Average seismicity rates also increase, albeit more weakly, to a distance of about 220 km. These results suggest that even moderate mainshocks in central and southern California do trigger seismicity at distances up to 220 km, supporting the inference that Arvin was indeed a remotely triggered earthquake. In general, only weak triggering is expected following moderate (M5.5-6.5) mainshocks. However, as illustrated by Arvin and, in retrospect, the 1986 M5.5 Oceanside earthquake, which struck just 5 days after the M5.9 North Palm Springs earthquake, triggered events can sometimes be large enough to generate public interest, and anxiety.

  2. Luminous pulses during triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, W. P.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Trueblood, J. J.; Eack, K. B.; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.; Hunyady, S. J.; Murray, W. C.

    2012-05-01

    A triggered lightning flash that transferred negative charge to ground in central New Mexico produced more than three levels of branching above the main channel to ground in a 1 km vertical field of view. A high-speed video recording shows that the main channel had about 50 brief luminous pulses, many of which were superimposed on a slowly changing persistent luminosity. In contrast, superposition was rare in the uppermost visible branches because luminous pulses first appeared on preexisting dark channels before merging into a luminous channel. This observation suggests that luminous pulses in triggered and natural lightning originate only on dark branches and that the complexity of the main channel to ground is the result of multiple mergers of dark branches with pulses into luminous branches without pulses. This suggestion is contrary to an earlier conclusion that there are two kinds of luminous pulses. We also observe behavior characteristic of electromagnetic waves on transmission lines: when a downward propagating luminous pulse reaches a junction with another initially dark branch, it travels both upward and downward along that branch. Upon reaching the ground the downward propagating wave produces a bright reflection which also splits at the junctions, producing luminosity for a short distance upward in one direction while propagating much farther upward along the path charged by the downward propagating wave. However, when a downward moving luminous pulse reaches a junction with an initially luminous branch, splitting is not evident, probably due to the greater conductivity of the luminous channel.

  3. Addendum 3 to CSAR 80-027, Use of calorimeter 109B for fissile material measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.

    1994-12-05

    This modification to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) calorimeter system involves removing current calorimeter No. 3 from the water bath and replacing it with a calorimeter that can accommodate larger diameter items (an oversize can). The inside diameters of both the sample and the reference cells will be increased to 5.835 inches at the top opening and to 5.22 inches at the bottom, the 8 inch high measurement zone. This Addendum 3 to Criticality Safety Analysis Report 80-027 examines criticality safety during the use of the modified calorimeter (Calorimeter 109B) with enlarged cell tube diameters to assure that an adequate margin of subcriticality is maintained for all normal and contingency conditions.

  4. Computer-interfaced low-temperature, high-pressure flow calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, P.; Zollweg, J. A.; Streett, W. B.

    1989-08-01

    A flow calorimeter suitable for the measurement of heats-of-mixing of liquefied gas binaries is described. The calorimeter may be operated at temperatures between 77 and 300 K and at pressures up to 15 MPa. Endothermic energy effects are measured with a precision of (1.5 J/mol±1.2% HM ). The apparatus incorporates flow meters that measure mass flow rates directly. A computer data-acquisition system facilitates rapid measurements, a single heat-of-mixing measurement requiring less than 20 min. The calorimeter was tested by measuring the heat-of-mixing for the nitrogen-argon system. The calorimeter is an improvement on previous low-temperature flow calorimeters in both accuracy and speed of measurement.

  5. Construction of a hadron calorimeter for Jefferson Lab Hall-A Super Bigbite Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamyan, Vahe

    2015-04-01

    A ``shashlik'' hadron calorimeter is being constructed for the new Super Bigbite Spectrometer in Jefferson Lab Hall-A. The calorimeter will be used in nucleon-coincidence form-factor experiments taking advantage of Jefferson Labs' 12 GeV upgrade. An adiabatic light guide has been developed for the calorimeter based on laser cut acrylic sheets. A prototype module has been built to measure time resolution of the calorimeter for cosmic ray muons as well as to validate the Geant4 simulation. Several innovations in the calorimeter design will be discussed, in particular the choice of the scintillator, wave length shifter and the construction process of the light. The results of prototype tests is compared with Geant4 simulation for cosmic ray muons and prediction of HCal time and special resolution for hadrons in the 2-10 GeV/c momentum range will be presented. SBS COLLABORATION.

  6. The CMS trigger system

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  7. Cygnus Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  8. The CMS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. 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H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Zorbilmez, C.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova PANEVA, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Sevilla, M. Franco; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  9. Trigger mechanism for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.R.

    1989-02-28

    A trigger mechanism is described for a blower-vacuum apparatus having a trigger mounted within a handle and a small engine comprising: a throttle; a ''L'' shaped lever having first and second legs mounted for rotation about an intermediate pivot within the handle when the trigger is depressed, interconnecting the trigger and the throttle, the second leg having first teeth defined therein, the lever further having idle, full throttle and stop positions; a normally raised latch means adapted to be rotated and axially depressed, the latch means having second teeth situated on a cam to engage the first teeth for holding the lever in an intermediate position between the idle and full throttle positions when the latch means is rotated. The latch means further are cam teeth into potential engagement with the lever teeth when the trigger is depressed, lever is biased to the stop position; and idle adjusting means means for intercepting the second leg for preventing the second leg from reaching the stop position when the latch means is raised.

  10. The occurrence of earthquake-triggered landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahramani, M.; Evans, S. G.; Natural Disaster Systems Research Group

    2011-12-01

    A database containing 136 landslide-triggering earthquakes worldwide, with magnitudes greater than the minimum observed threshold for causing landslides (M4.5), has been compiled for the period of 1998 -2009. Our data sources include a comprehensive review of the existing literature on earthquake-triggered landslides, and also a USGS-based earthquake catalog (PAGER-CAT) which contains information on earthquake-induced secondary events. Only 14 earthquakes out of 136 seismic events induced significant numbers of landslides (>250). We compared the number of landslide-triggering earthquakes with the total number of earthquakes with M ≥ 4.5 (n=68,734) during the same period of time. The result shows only 0.2 percent of earthquakes triggered landslides and only 4.5% of earthquakes of M > 6 resulted in the occurrence of earthquake-triggered landslides. In addition, we compiled a database of 37 large-scale landslides, involving initial failure volumes of greater than 20 Mm3 that occurred worldwide in the period of 1900 to 2010. The database contains large-scale earthquake-triggered (n=18) and non-earthquake-triggered landslides (n=19) (ETL and NETL respectively), i.e., ca. 50% of large-scale landslides were induced by seismic activity. Surprisingly, the volume-temporal frequency curves of ETL and NETL show almost identical slope and intercept. Thus for a given volume, the annual frequency of ETL is almost identical to NETL in the 110 year period. We found that, in contrast to previous studies, the volume of the largest landslide triggered by a given landslide-triggering earthquake is not found to be a function of earthquake magnitude. We calculated peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 18 large-scale ETLs at the site of each occurrence. PGA values in the range of 0.02 g to 0.35 g were obtained. We show that PGA values are well-correlated with the volume of landslides below a threshold of ca. 100 Mm3. Above this threshold, the relationship between PGA and ETL volume

  11. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K.

    2014-12-15

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  12. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Venkata Krishnan, R; Jogeswararao, G; Parthasarathy, R; Premalatha, S; Prabhakar Rao, J; Gunasekaran, G; Ananthasivan, K

    2014-12-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  13. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K.

    2014-12-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  14. Forward Physics with the CMS-CASTOR calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haevermaet, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The CASTOR calorimeter, located at 14.4 from the CMS interaction point, enhances the hermeticity of the CMS detector by extending the rapidity coverage to η< 6.6. After having described the CASTOR calorimeter, examples of the capabilities and physics program of this detector will be presented. The study of forward jets production will give access to the low x > 10-6 region where the gluon distribution increase is expected to saturate through the effects of nonlinear recombination terms in the DGLAP evolution equation. The study of events with a centrally produced dijet system and a forward jet will give access to parton dynamics beyond DGLAP and to the investigation of the BFKL or BFKL-like QCD evolution. The study of forward - central multiplicity correlations will enable to obtain a better understanding of the theoretically poorly constrained soft background that are the underlying events, defined as everything except the hard scattered components. The use of CASTOR as forward activity veto detectors is also of prime importance in the study of diffractive events, such as single diffractive W production, in order to obtain a more powerful rejection of the non-diffractive and inelastic diffractive backgrounds. )

  15. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    SciTech Connect

    Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S. )

    1989-09-13

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Results from an iron-proportional tube calorimeter prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.

    1998-02-03

    We have studied the energy resolution of a prototype gas tracking calorimeter in a test beam at Fermilab as part of the detector development program for the MINOS long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The calorimeter consisted of 25 layers of 1.5 inch thick steel plates interleaved with planes of aluminum proportional tubes. The tube cells are square, with 0.9 cm edges and open tops. Cathode strips were used for read out transverse to the wire cells. The tubes operated with a nonflammable gas mixture of 88% CO{sub 2}, 9.5% isobutane and 2.5% argon which gave an operating range of >500 V (limited by the electronics). We read out the wire signals on the tubes and in some configurations the cathode stripe as well. We studied positrons, pions and muons over a momentum range of 2.5-30 GeV/c and achieved energy resolutions of about 40%/{radical}E for EM and 71%/{radical}E for hadronic showers.

  17. Assess the neutrino mass with micro and macro calorimeter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachero, A.

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to oscillation experiments it is now an established fact that neutrinos are massive particles. Yet, the assessment of neutrinos absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in particle physics and cosmology as oscillation experiments are sensitive only to the squared mass differences of the three neutrino mass eigenstates. The mass hierarchy is not the only missing piece in the puzzle. Theories of neutrino mass generation call into play Majorana neutrinos and there are experimental observations pointing toward the existence of sterile neutrinos in addition to the three weakly interacting ones. Three experimental approaches are currently pursued: an indirect neutrino mass determination via cosmological observables, the search for neutrinoless double β-decay, and a direct measurement based on the kinematics of single β or electron capture decays. Bolometers and calorimeters are low temperature detectors used in many applications, such as astrophysics, fast spectroscopy and particle physics. In particular, sensitive calorimeters play an important role in the neutrino mass measurement and in the search for the neutrinoless double β-decay. There has been great technical progress on low temperature detectors since they were proposed for neutrino physics experiments in 1984. This general detector paradigm can be implemented in devices as small as a micrometer for sub eV radiation or as large as 1 kg for MeV scale particles. Today this technique offers the high energy resolution and scalability required for leading edges and competitive experiments addressing the still open questions in neutrino physics.

  18. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    SciTech Connect

    Sewall, N.R.

    1989-09-13

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 Series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Unix version of CALOR89 for calorimeter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, T. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Job, P.K.; Price, L.E. . High Energy Physics Div.); Gabriel, T.A. )

    1992-05-12

    CALOR89 is a system of coupled Monte Carlo particle transport computer codes which has been successfully employed for the estimation of calorimeter parameters in High Energy Physics. In the past CALOR89 has been running on various IBM machines and on CRAY X-MP at Lawrence Livermore Lab. These machines had non-unix operating systems. In this report we present a UNIX version of CALOR89, which is especially suited for the UNIX work stations. Moreover CALOR89 is also been supplemented with two new program packages which makes it more user friendly. CALPREP is a program for the preparation of the input files for CALOR89 in general geometry and ANALYZ is an analysis package to extract the final results from CALOR89 relevant to calorimeters. This report also provides two script files LCALOR and PCALOR. LCALOR runs CALOR89 sequences of programs and EGS4 for a given configuration sequentially on a single processor and PCALOR concurrently on a multiprocessor unix workstation.

  20. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.