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Sample records for calreticulin transacetylase catalyzed

  1. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lavi, Noa

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations) and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations) in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin) were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review. PMID:25386351

  2. Calreticulin and Arginylated Calreticulin Have Different Susceptibilities to Proteasomal Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Goitea, Victor E.; Hallak, Marta E.

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational arginylation has been suggested to target proteins for proteasomal degradation. The degradation mechanism for arginylated calreticulin (R-CRT) localized in the cytoplasm is unknown. To evaluate the effect of arginylation on CRT stability, we examined the metabolic fates and degradation mechanisms of cytoplasmic CRT and R-CRT in NIH 3T3 and CHO cells. Both CRT isoforms were found to be proteasomal substrates, but the half-life of R-CRT (2 h) was longer than that of cytoplasmic CRT (0.7 h). Arginylation was not required for proteasomal degradation of CRT, although R-CRT displays ubiquitin modification. A CRT mutant incapable of dimerization showed reduced metabolic stability of R-CRT, indicating that R-CRT dimerization may protect it from proteasomal degradation. Our findings, taken together, demonstrate a novel function of arginylation: increasing the half-life of CRT in cytoplasm. PMID:25969538

  3. Calreticulin: one protein, one gene, many functions.

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, M; Corbett, E F; Mesaeli, N; Nakamura, K; Opas, M

    1999-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a critical role in the synthesis and chaperoning of membrane-associated and secreted proteins. The membrane is also an important site of Ca(2+) storage and release. Calreticulin is a unique ER luminal resident protein. The protein affects many cellular functions, both in the ER lumen and outside of the ER environment. In the ER lumen, calreticulin performs two major functions: chaperoning and regulation of Ca(2+) homoeostasis. Calreticulin is a highly versatile lectin-like chaperone, and it participates during the synthesis of a variety of molecules, including ion channels, surface receptors, integrins and transporters. The protein also affects intracellular Ca(2+) homoeostasis by modulation of ER Ca(2+) storage and transport. Studies on the cell biology of calreticulin revealed that the ER membrane is a very dynamic intracellular compartment affecting many aspects of cell physiology. PMID:10567207

  4. Calreticulin modulates cell adhesiveness via regulation of vinculin expression

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Calreticulin is an ubiquitous and highly conserved high capacity Ca(2+)- binding protein that plays a major role in Ca2+ storage within the lumen of the ER. Here, using L fibroblast cell lines expressing different levels of calreticulin, we show that calreticulin plays a role in the control of cell adhesiveness via regulation of expression of vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein essential for cell-substratum and cell-cell attachments. Both vinculin protein and mRNA levels are increased in cells overexpressing calreticulin and are downregulated in cells expressing reduced level of calreticulin. Abundance of actin, talin, alpha 5 and beta 1 integrins, pp125 focal adhesion kinase, and alpha-catenin is not affected by the differential calreticulin expression. Overexpression of calreticulin increases both cell- substratum and cell-cell adhesiveness of L fibroblasts that, most surprisingly, establish vinculin-rich cell-cell junctions. Upregulation of calreticulin also affects adhesion-dependent phenomena such as cell motility (which decreases) and cell spreading (which increases). Downregulation of calreticulin brings about inverse effects. Cell adhesiveness is Ca2+ regulated. The level of calreticulin expression, however, has no effect on either the resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration or the magnitude of FGF-induced Ca2+ transients. Calreticulin, however, participates in Ca2+ homeostasis as its level of expression affects cell viability at low concentrations of extracellular Ca2+. Consequently, we infer that it is not the Ca2+ storage function of calreticulin that affects cell adhesiveness. Neither endogenous calreticulin nor overexpressed green fluorescent protein-calreticulin construct can be detected outside of the ER. Since all of the adhesion-related effects of differential calreticulin expression can be explained by its regulation of vinculin expression, we conclude that it is the ER-resident calreticulin that affects cellular adhesiveness. PMID:8991101

  5. Distinct clinical characteristics of myeloproliferative neoplasms with calreticulin mutations

    PubMed Central

    Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Krahling, Tunde; Balassa, Katalin; Halm, Gabriella; Bors, Andras; Koszarska, Magdalena; Batai, Arpad; Dolgos, Janos; Csomor, Judit; Egyed, Miklos; Sipos, Andrea; Remenyi, Peter; Tordai, Attila; Masszi, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Somatic insertions/deletions in the calreticulin gene have recently been discovered to be causative alterations in myeloproliferative neoplasms. A combination of qualitative and quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, fragment-sizing, high resolution melting and Sanger-sequencing was applied for the detection of three driver mutations (in Janus kinase 2, calreticulin and myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene genes) in 289 cases of essential thrombocythemia and 99 cases of primary myelofibrosis. In essential thrombocythemia, 154 (53%) Janus kinase 2 V617F, 96 (33%) calreticulin, 9 (3%) myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene gene mutation-positive and 30 triple-negative (11%) cases were identified, while in primary myelofibrosis 56 (57%) Janus kinase 2 V617F, 25 (25%) calreticulin, 7 (7%) myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene gene mutation-positive and 11 (11%) triple-negative cases were identified. Patients positive for the calreticulin mutation were younger and had higher platelet counts compared to Janus kinase 2 mutation-positive counterparts. Calreticulin mutation-positive patients with essential thrombocythemia showed a lower risk of developing venous thrombosis, but no difference in overall survival. Calreticulin mutation-positive patients with primary myelofibrosis had a better overall survival compared to that of the Janus kinase 2 mutation-positive (P=0.04) or triple-negative cases (P=0.01). Type 2 calreticulin mutation occurred more frequently in essential thrombocythemia than in primary myelofibrosis (P=0.049). In essential thrombocythemia, the calreticulin mutational load was higher than the Janus kinase 2 mutational load (P<0.001), and increased gradually in advanced stages. Calreticulin mutational load influenced blood counts even at the time point of diagnosis in essential thrombocythemia. We confirm that calreticulin mutation is associated with distinct clinical characteristics and explored relationships between mutation

  6. Calreticulin recognizes misfolded HLA-A2 heavy chains.

    PubMed

    Mancino, Laura; Rizvi, Syed Monem; Lapinski, Philip Edward; Raghavan, Malini

    2002-04-30

    Our studies investigated functional interactions between calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Using in vitro thermal aggregation assays, we established that calreticulin can inhibit heat-induced aggregation of soluble, peptide-deficient HLA-A2 purified from supernatants of insect cells. The presence of HLA-A2-specific peptides also inhibits heat-induced aggregation. Inhibition of heat-induced aggregation of peptide-deficient HLA-A2 by calreticulin correlates with a rescue of the HLA-A2 heavy chain from precipitation, by forming high-molecular-weight complexes with calreticulin. Complex formation between HLA-A2 heavy chains and calreticulin occurs at 50 degrees C but not 37 degrees C, suggesting polypeptide-based interactions between the HLA-A2 heavy chain and calreticulin. Once complexes are formed, the addition of peptide is not sufficient to trigger efficient assembly of heavy chain/beta2m/peptide complexes. Using a fluorescent peptide-based binding assay, we show that calreticulin does not enhance peptide binding by HLA-A2 at 37 degrees C. We also show that calreticulin itself is converted to oligomeric species on exposure to 37 degrees C or higher temperatures, and that oligomeric forms of calreticulin are active in inhibiting thermal aggregation of peptide-deficient HLA-A2. Taken together, these results suggest that calreticulin functions in the recognition of misfolded MHC class I heavy chains in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, in the absence of other endoplasmic reticulum components, calreticulin by itself does not enhance the assembly of misfolded MHC class I heavy chains with beta2m and peptides. PMID:11983893

  7. The Calreticulin gene and myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Aoibhinn; McMullin, Mary Frances

    2016-10-01

    The Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms include polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytopenia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Patients with these conditions were mainly thought to harbour JAK2V617F mutations or an Myeloproliferative leukaemia (MPL) substitution. In 2013, two revolutionary studies identified recurrent mutations in a gene that encodes the protein calreticulin (CALR). This mutation was detected in patients with PMF and ET with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but was absent in patients with PV. The CALR gene encodes the calreticulin protein, which is a multifactorial protein, mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum in chromosome 19 and regulates calcium homeostasis, chaperones and has also been implicated in multiple cellular processes including cell signalling, regulation of gene expression, cell adhesion, autoimmunity and apoptosis. Somatic 52 bp deletions and recurrent 52 bp insertion mutations in CALR were detected and all resulted in frameshift and clusters in exon 9 of the gene. This review will summarise the current knowledge on the CALR gene and mutation of the gene in pathological conditions and patient phenotypes.

  8. The Calreticulin gene and myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Aoibhinn; McMullin, Mary Frances

    2016-10-01

    The Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms include polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytopenia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Patients with these conditions were mainly thought to harbour JAK2V617F mutations or an Myeloproliferative leukaemia (MPL) substitution. In 2013, two revolutionary studies identified recurrent mutations in a gene that encodes the protein calreticulin (CALR). This mutation was detected in patients with PMF and ET with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but was absent in patients with PV. The CALR gene encodes the calreticulin protein, which is a multifactorial protein, mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum in chromosome 19 and regulates calcium homeostasis, chaperones and has also been implicated in multiple cellular processes including cell signalling, regulation of gene expression, cell adhesion, autoimmunity and apoptosis. Somatic 52 bp deletions and recurrent 52 bp insertion mutations in CALR were detected and all resulted in frameshift and clusters in exon 9 of the gene. This review will summarise the current knowledge on the CALR gene and mutation of the gene in pathological conditions and patient phenotypes. PMID:27354406

  9. Expression and purification of mammalian calreticulin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Andrin, C; Corbett, E F; Johnson, S; Dabrowska, M; Campbell, I D; Eggleton, P; Opas, M; Michalak, M

    2000-11-01

    Calreticulin is a 46-kDa Ca(2+)-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. The protein binds Ca(2+) with high capacity, affects intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, and functions as a lectin-like chaperone. In this study, we describe expression and purification procedures for the isolation of recombinant rabbit calreticulin. The calreticulin was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity by DEAE-Sepharose and Resource Q FPLC chromatography. The protein was not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of Pichia pastoris but instead it was secreted into the external media. The purification procedures reported here for recombinant calreticulin yield homogeneous preparations of the protein by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy analysis. Purified calreticulin was identified by its NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequences, by its Ca(2+) binding, and by its reactivity with anti-calreticulin antibodies. The protein contained one disulfide bond between (88)Cys and (120)Cys. CD spectral analysis and Ca(2+)-binding properties of the recombinant protein indicated that it was correctly folded. PMID:11049745

  10. lac operon induction in Escherichia coli: Systematic comparison of IPTG and TMG induction and influence of the transacetylase LacA.

    PubMed

    Marbach, Anja; Bettenbrock, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Most commonly used expression systems in bacteria are based on the Escherichia coli lac promoter. Furthermore, lac operon elements are used today in systems and synthetic biology. In the majority of the cases the gratuitous inducers IPTG or TMG are used. Here we report a systematic comparison of lac promoter induction by TMG and IPTG which focuses on the aspects inducer uptake, population heterogeneity and a potential influence of the transacetylase, LacA. We provide induction curves in E. coli LJ110 and in isogenic lacY and lacA mutant strains and we show that both inducers are substrates of the lactose permease at low inducer concentrations but can also enter cells independently of lactose permease if present at higher concentrations. Using a gfp reporter strain we compared TMG and IPTG induction at single cell level and showed that bimodal induction with IPTG occurred at approximately ten-fold lower concentrations than with TMG. Furthermore, we observed that lac operon induction is influenced by the transacetylase, LacA. By comparing two Plac-gfp reporter strains with and without a lacA deletion we could show that in the lacA(+) strain the fluorescence level decreased after few hours while the fluorescence further increased in the lacA(-) strain. The results indicate that through the activity of LacA the IPTG concentration can be reduced below an inducing threshold concentration-an influence that should be considered if low inducer amounts are used. PMID:22079752

  11. Calreticulin Exon 9 Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CALR) mutations were recently discovered in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We studied the frequency and type of CALR mutations and their hematological characteristics. Methods A total of 168 MPN patients (36 polycythemia vera [PV], 114 essential thrombocythemia [ET], and 18 primary myelofibrosis [PMF] cases) were included in the study. CALR mutation was analyzed by the direct sequencing method. Results CALR mutations were detected in 21.9% of ET and 16.7% of PMF patients, which accounted for 58.5% and 33.3% of ET and PMF patients without Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) or myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogenes (MPL) mutations, respectively. A total of five types of mutation were detected, among which, L367fs*46 (53.6%) and K385fs*47 (35.7%) were found to be the most common. ET patients with CALR mutation had lower leukocyte counts and ages compared with JAK2-mutated ET patients. Conclusion Genotyping for CALR could be a useful diagnostic tool for JAK2-or MPL-negative ET or PMF patients. CALR mutation may be a distinct disease group, with different hematological characteristics than that of JAK2-positive patients. PMID:25553276

  12. Calreticulin (CALR) mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    As a heterogeneous group of disease, myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have confused hematologists and hematopathologists with their protean clinical presentations and myriads of morphologies. A thought of classifying MPNs based on molecular alterations has gained popularity because there is increasing evidence that molecular or chromosomal alterations have a better correlation with clinical presentation, response to therapies, and prognosis than conventional morphological classification. This type of efforts has been facilitated by the advancement of molecular technologies. A significant number of gene mutations have been identified in MPNs with JAK2 and MPL being the major ones. However, a significant gap is present in that many cases of MPNs do not harbor any of these mutations. This gap is recently filled by the discovery of Calreticulin (CALR) mutation in MPNs without JAK2 or MPL mutation and since then, the clinical and molecular correlation in MPNs has become a hot research topic. There seems to be a fairly consistent correlation between CALR mutation and certain hematological parameters such as a high platelet count and a better prognosis in MPNs with CALR mutation. However, controversies are present regarding the risks of thrombosis, interactions of CALR with other gene mutation, the role of CALR in the pathogenesis, and the optimal treatment strategies. In addition, there are many questions remain to be answered, which all boiled down to the molecular mechanisms by which CALR causes or contributes to MPNs. Here, we summarized current published literatures on CALR mutations in MPNs with an emphasis on the clinical-molecular correlation. We also discussed the controversies and questions remain to be answered. PMID:27358884

  13. Calreticulin Is a Thermostable Protein with Distinct Structural Responses to Different Divalent Cation Environments*

    PubMed Central

    Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva J.; Gafni, Ari A.; Raghavan, Malini

    2011-01-01

    Calreticulin is a soluble calcium-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is also detected on the cell surface and in the cytosol. Calreticulin contains a single high affinity calcium-binding site within a globular domain and multiple low affinity sites within a C-terminal acidic region. We show that the secondary structure of calreticulin is remarkably thermostable at a given calcium concentration. Rather than corresponding to complete unfolding events, heat-induced structural transitions observed for calreticulin relate to tertiary structural changes that expose hydrophobic residues and reduce protein rigidity. The thermostability and the overall secondary structure content of calreticulin are impacted by the divalent cation environment, with the ER range of calcium concentrations enhancing stability, and calcium-depleting or high calcium environments reducing stability. Furthermore, magnesium competes with calcium for binding to calreticulin and reduces thermostability. The acidic domain of calreticulin is an important mediator of calcium-dependent changes in secondary structure content and thermostability. Together, these studies indicate interactions between the globular and acidic domains of calreticulin that are impacted by divalent cations. These interactions influence the structure and stability of calreticulin, and are likely to determine the multiple functional activities of calreticulin in different subcellular environments. PMID:21177861

  14. Comparison of Protein Acetyltransferase Action of CRTAase with the Prototypes of HAT

    PubMed Central

    Ponnan, Prija; Kumar, Ajit; Singh, Prabhjot; Gupta, Prachi; Joshi, Rini; Saso, Luciano; Prasad, Ashok K.; Rastogi, Ramesh C.; Parmar, Virinder S.; Raj, Hanumantharao G.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory is credited for the discovery of enzymatic acetylation of protein, a phenomenon unknown till we identified an enzyme termed acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (TAase), catalyzing the transfer of acetyl group from polyphenolic acetates to receptor proteins (RP). Later, TAase was identified as calreticulin (CR), an endoplasmic reticulum luminal protein. CR was termed calreticulin transacetylase (CRTAase). Our persistent study revealed that CR like other families of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) such as p300, Rtt109, PCAF, and ESA1, undergoes autoacetylation. The autoacetylated CR was characterized as a stable intermediate in CRTAase catalyzed protein acetylation, and similar was the case with ESA1. The autoacetylation of CR like that of HATs was found to enhance protein-protein interaction. CR like HAT-1, CBP, and p300 mediated the acylation of RP utilizing acetyl CoA and propionyl CoA as the substrates. The similarities between CRTAase and HATs in mediating protein acylation are highlighted in this review. PMID:24688408

  15. Transient, lectin-like association of calreticulin with folding intermediates of cellular and viral glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, J R; Ora, A; Van, P N; Helenius, A

    1995-01-01

    The soluble, calcium-binding protein calreticulin shares high sequence homology with calnexin, a transmembrane chaperone of glycoprotein folding. Our experiments demonstrated that calreticulin, like calnexin, associated transiently with numerous newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. The population of proteins that bound to calreticulin was partially overlapping with those that bound to calnexin. Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus was shown to associate with both calreticulin and calnexin. Using HA as a model substrate, it was found that both calreticulin- and calnexin-bound HA corresponded primarily to incompletely disulfide-bonded folding intermediates and conformationally trapped forms. Binding of all substrates was oligosaccharide-dependent and required the trimming of glucose residues from asparagine-linked core glycans by glucosidases I and II. In vitro, alpha-mannosidase digestion of calreticulin-bound HA indicated that calreticulin was specific for monoglucosylated glycans. Thus, calreticulin appeared to be a lectin with similar oligosaccharide specificity as its membrane-bound homologue, calnexin. Both are therefore likely to play an important role in glycoprotein maturation and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. Images PMID:8534914

  16. The evolutionary history of calreticulin and calnexin genes in green plants.

    PubMed

    Del Bem, Luiz Eduardo V

    2011-02-01

    Calreticulin and calnexin are Ca(2+)-binding chaperones localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes acting in glycoprotein folding quality control and Ca(2+) homeostasis. The evolutionary histories of calreticulin and calnexin gene families were inferred by comprehensive phylogenetic analyses using 18 completed genomes and ESTs covering the major green plants groups, from green algae to angiosperms. Calreticulin and calnexin possibly share a common origin, and both proteins are present along all green plants lineages. The calreticulin founder gene within green plants duplicated in early tracheophytes leading to two possible groups of orthologs with specialized functions, followed by lineage-specific gene duplications in spermatophytes. Calnexin founder gene in land plants was inherited from basal green algae during evolution in a very conservative copy number. A comprehensive classification in possible groups of orthologs and a catalog of calreticulin and calnexin genes from green plants are provided.

  17. Decoded Calreticulin-Deficient Embryonic Stem Cell Transcriptome Resolves Latent Cardiophenotype

    PubMed Central

    Faustino, Randolph S.; Chiriac, Anca; Niederlander, Nicolas J.; Nelson, Timothy J.; Behfar, Atta; Mishra, Prasanna K.; Macura, Slobodan; Michalak, Marek; Terzic, Andre; Perez-Terzic, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Genomic perturbations that challenge normal signaling at the pluripotent stage may trigger unforeseen ontogenic aberrancies. Anticipatory systems biology identification of transcriptome landscapes that underlie latent phenotypes would offer molecular diagnosis before the onset of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of calreticulin-deficient embryonic stem cell transcriptomes on molecular functions and physiological systems. Bioinformatic surveillance of calreticulin-null stem cells, a monogenic insult model, diagnosed a disruption in transcriptome dynamics, which re-prioritized essential cellular functions. Calreticulin-calibrated signaling axes were uncovered, and network-wide cartography of undifferentiated stem cell transcripts suggested cardiac manifestations. Calreticulin-deficient stem cell-derived cardiac cells verified disorganized sarcomerogenesis, mitochondrial paucity, and cytoarchitectural aberrations to validate calreticulin-dependent network forecasts. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology detected a ventricular septal defect, revealing organogenic manifestation of calreticulin deletion. Thus, bioinformatic deciphering of a primordial calreticulin-deficient transcriptome decoded at the pluripotent stem cell stage a reconfigured multifunctional molecular registry to anticipate predifferentiation susceptibility toward abnormal cardiophenotype. PMID:20506533

  18. Calreticulin mutation-specific immunostaining in myeloproliferative neoplasms: pathogenetic insight and diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    Vannucchi, A M; Rotunno, G; Bartalucci, N; Raugei, G; Carrai, V; Balliu, M; Mannarelli, C; Pacilli, A; Calabresi, L; Fjerza, R; Pieri, L; Bosi, A; Manfredini, R; Guglielmelli, P

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene calreticulin (CALR) occur in the majority of JAK2- and MPL-unmutated patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF); identifying CALR mutations contributes to the diagnostic pathway of ET and PMF. CALR mutations are heterogeneous spanning over the exon 9, but all result in a novel common protein C terminus. We developed a polyclonal antibody against a 17-amino-acid peptide derived from mutated calreticulin that was used for immunostaining of bone marrow biopsies. We show that this antibody specifically recognized patients harboring different types of CALR mutation with no staining in healthy controls and JAK2- or MPL-mutated ET and PMF. The labeling was mostly localized in megakaryocytes, whereas myeloid and erythroid cells showed faint staining, suggesting a preferential expression of calreticulin in megakaryocytes. Megakaryocytic-restricted expression of calreticulin was also demonstrated using an antibody against wild-type calreticulin and by measuring the levels of calreticulin RNA by gene expression analysis. Immunostaining using an antibody specific for mutated calreticulin may become a rapid, simple and cost-effective method for identifying CALR-mutated patients complementing molecular analysis; furthermore, the labeling pattern supports the preferential expansion of megakaryocytic cell lineage as a result of CALR mutation in an immature hematopoietic stem cell. PMID:24618731

  19. Regulation of calreticulin-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I interactions by ATP.

    PubMed

    Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva Joseph; Gagnon, Jessica K; Arora, Karunesh; Brooks, Charles L; Raghavan, Malini

    2015-10-13

    The MHC class I peptide loading complex (PLC) facilitates the assembly of MHC class I molecules with peptides, but factors that regulate the stability and dynamics of the assembly complex are largely uncharacterized. Based on initial findings that ATP, in addition to MHC class I-specific peptide, is able to induce MHC class I dissociation from the PLC, we investigated the interaction of ATP with the chaperone calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal, calcium-binding component of the PLC that is known to bind ATP. We combined computational and experimental measurements to identify residues within the globular domain of calreticulin, in proximity to the high-affinity calcium-binding site, that are important for high-affinity ATP binding and for ATPase activity. High-affinity calcium binding by calreticulin is required for optimal nucleotide binding, but both ATP and ADP destabilize enthalpy-driven high-affinity calcium binding to calreticulin. ATP also selectively destabilizes the interaction of calreticulin with cellular substrates, including MHC class I molecules. Calreticulin mutants that affect ATP or high-affinity calcium binding display prolonged associations with monoglucosylated forms of cellular MHC class I, delaying MHC class I dissociation from the PLC and their transit through the secretory pathway. These studies reveal central roles for ATP and calcium binding as regulators of calreticulin-substrate interactions and as key determinants of PLC dynamics.

  20. Calreticulin: non-endoplasmic reticulum functions in physiology and disease

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Leslie I.; Eggleton, Paul; Sweetwyne, Mariya T.; Van Duyn, Lauren B.; Greives, Matthew R.; Naylor, Sara-Megumi; Michalak, Marek; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), when localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has important functions in directing proper conformation of proteins and glycoproteins, as well as in homeostatic control of cytosolic and ER calcium levels. There is also steadily accumulating evidence for diverse roles for CRT localized outside the ER, including data suggesting important roles for CRT localized to the outer cell surface of a variety of cell types, in the cytosol, and in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Furthermore, the addition of exogenous CRT rescues numerous CRT-driven functions, such as adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, and immunoregulatory functions of CRT-null cells. Recent studies show that topically applied CRT has diverse and profound biological effects that enhance cutaneous wound healing in animal models. This evidence for extracellular bioactivities of CRT has provided new insights into this classically ER-resident protein, despite a lack of knowledge of how CRT exits from the ER to the cell surface or how it is released into the extracellular milieu. Nonetheless, it has become clear that CRT is a multicompartmental protein that regulates a wide array of cellular responses important in physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing, the immune response, fibrosis, and cancer.—Gold, L. I., Eggleton, P., Sweetwyne, M. T., Van Duyn, L. B., Greives, M. R., Naylor, S.-M., Michalak, M., Murphy-Ullrich, J. E. Calreticulin: non-endoplamic reticulum functions in physiology and disease. PMID:19940256

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a calreticulin cDNA from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xundong; Zhuo, Kan; Luo, Mei; Sun, Longhua; Liao, Jinling

    2011-06-01

    The cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a calreticulin from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is described herein. The full-length cDNA (Bx-crt-1) contained a 1200 bp open reading frame that could be translated to a 399 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced protein contained highly conserved regions of a calreticulin gene and had 66.2-70.1% amino acid sequence identity to other calreticulin sequences from nematodes. RNAi, RT-PCR amplification, and southern blot suggest that Bx-crt-1 may be important for the development of B. xylophilus. PMID:21371475

  2. Contrasting functions of calreticulin and calnexin in glycoprotein folding and ER quality control.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Maurizio; Eriksson, Klara Kristin; Calanca, Verena; Galli, Carmela; Cresswell, Peter; Michalak, Marek; Helenius, Ari

    2004-01-16

    Calreticulin and calnexin are homologous lectins that serve as molecular chaperones for glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells. Here we show that calreticulin depletion specifically accelerates the maturation of cellular and viral glycoproteins with a modest decrease in folding efficiency. Calnexin depletion prevents proper maturation of some proteins such as influenza hemagglutinin but does not interfere appreciably with the maturation of several others. A dramatic loss of stringency in the ER quality control with transport at the cell surface of misfolded glycoprotein conformers is only observed when substrate access to both calreticulin and calnexin is prevented. Although not fully interchangeable during assistance of glycoprotein folding, calreticulin and calnexin may work, independently, as efficient and crucial factors for retention in the ER of nonnative polypeptides. PMID:14731400

  3. Identification of calreticulin as a ligand of GABARAP by phage display screening of a peptide library.

    PubMed

    Mohrlüder, Jeannine; Stangler, Thomas; Hoffmann, Yvonne; Wiesehan, Katja; Mataruga, Anja; Willbold, Dieter

    2007-11-01

    4-Aminobutyrate type A (GABA(A)) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) is a ubiquitin-like modifier implicated in the intracellular trafficking of GABA(A) receptors, and belongs to a family of proteins involved in intracellular vesicular transport processes, such as autophagy and intra-Golgi transport. In this article, it is demonstrated that calreticulin is a high affinity ligand of GABARAP. Calreticulin, although best known for its functions as a Ca(2+) -dependent chaperone and a Ca(2+) -buffering protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, is also localized to the cytosol and exerts a variety of extra-endoplasmic reticulum functions. By phage display screening of a randomized peptide library, peptides that specifically bind GABARAP were identified. Their amino acid sequences allowed us to identify calreticulin as a potential GABARAP binding protein. GABARAP binding to calreticulin was confirmed by pull-down experiments with brain lysate and colocalization studies in N2a cells. Calreticulin and GABARAP interact with a dissociation constant K(d) = 64 nm and a mean lifetime of the complex of 20 min. Thus, the interaction between GABARAP and calreticulin is the strongest so far reported for each protein. PMID:17916189

  4. Calreticulin secures calcium-dependent nuclear pore competency required for cardiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Randolph S; Behfar, Atta; Groenendyk, Jody; Wyles, Saranya P; Niederlander, Nicolas; Reyes, Santiago; Puceat, Michel; Michalak, Marek; Terzic, Andre; Perez-Terzic, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Calreticulin deficiency causes myocardial developmental defects that culminate in an embryonic lethal phenotype. Recent studies have linked loss of this calcium binding chaperone to failure in myofibrillogenesis through an as yet undefined mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to identify cellular processes corrupted by calreticulin deficiency that precipitate dysregulation of cardiac myofibrillogenesis related to acquisition of cardiac phenotype. In an embryonic stem cell knockout model, calreticulin deficit (crt(-/-)) compromised nucleocytoplasmic transport of nuclear localization signal-dependent and independent pathways, disrupting nuclear import of the cardiac transcription factor MEF2C. The expression of nucleoporins and associated nuclear transport proteins in derived crt(-/-) cardiomyocytes revealed an abnormal nuclear pore complex (NPC) configuration. Altered protein content in crt(-/-) cells resulted in remodeled NPC architecture that caused decreased pore diameter and diminished probability of central channel occupancy versus wild type counterparts. Ionophore treatment of impaired calcium handling in crt(-/-) cells corrected nuclear pore microarchitecture and rescued nuclear import resulting in normalized myofibrillogenesis. Thus, calreticulin deficiency alters nuclear pore function and structure, impeding myofibrillogenesis in nascent cardiomyocytes through a calcium dependent mechanism. This essential role of calreticulin in nucleocytoplasmic communication competency ties its regulatory action with proficiency of cardiac myofibrillogenesis essential for proper cardiac development.

  5. Evidence that spinach leaves express calreticulin but not calsequestrin.

    PubMed Central

    Navazio, L; Baldan, B; Dainese, P; James, P; Damiani, E; Margreth, A; Mariani, P

    1995-01-01

    The presence of either calreticulin (CR) or calsequestrin (CS-like proteins in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves has been previously described. Here we report the purification from spinach leaves of two highly acidic (isoelectric point 5.2) Ca(2+)-binding proteins of 56 and 54 kD by means of DEAE-cellulose chromatography followed by phenyl-Sepharose chromatography in the presence of Zn(2+) (i.e., under experimental conditions that allowed the purification of CR from human liver). On the other hand, we failed to identify any protein sharing with animal CS the ability to bind to phenyl-Sepharose in the absence of Ca(2+). Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence, the 56- and 54-kD spinach Ca(2+)-binding proteins were identified as two distinct isoforms of CR. Therefore, we conclude that CR, and not CS, is expressed in spinach leaves. The 56-kD spinach CR isoform was found to be glycosylated, as judged by ligand blot techniques with concanavalin A and affinity chromatography with concanavalin A-Sepharose. Furthermore, the 56-kD CR was found to differ from rabbit liver CR in amino acid sequence, peptide mapping after partial digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, pH-dependent shift of electrophoretic mobility, and immunological cross-reactivity with an antiserum raised to spinach CR, indicating a low degree of structural homology with animal CRs. PMID:8552722

  6. Overexpression of calreticulin sensitizes SERCA2a to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Kageyama, Kan; Kondo, Takahito

    2005-04-22

    Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca(2+)-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a vital role in cardiac physiology and pathology. Oxidative stress is a main cause of myocardiac disorder in the ischemic heart, but the function of CRT under oxidative stress is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of overexpression of CRT on sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) 2a under oxidative stress was examined using myocardiac H9c2 cells transfected with the CRT gene. The in vitro activity of SERCA2a and uptake of (45)Ca(2+) into isolated microsomes were suppressed by H(2)O(2) in CRT-overexpressing cells compared with controls. Moreover, SERCA2a protein was degraded via a proteasome-dependent pathway following the formation of a complex with CRT under the stress with H(2)O(2). Thus, we conclude that overexpression of CRT enhances the inactivation and degradation of SERCA2a in the cells under oxidative stress, suggesting some pathophysiological functions of CRT in Ca(2+) homeostasis of myocardiac disease. PMID:15766574

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed. PMID:25758653

  8. Calreticulin Enhances Porcine Wound Repair by Diverse Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Nanney, Lillian B.; Woodrell, Christopher D.; Greives, Mathew R.; Cardwell, Nancy L.; Pollins, Alonda C.; Bancroft, Tara A.; Chesser, Adrianne; Michalak, Marek; Rahman, Mohammad; Siebert, John W.; Gold, Leslie I.

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular functions of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein calreticulin (CRT) are emerging. Here we show novel roles for exogenous CRT in both cutaneous wound healing and diverse processes associated with repair. Compared with platelet-derived growth factor-BB-treated controls, topical application of CRT to porcine excisional wounds enhanced the rate of wound re-epithelialization. In both normal and steroid-impaired pigs, CRT increased granulation tissue formation. Immunohistochemical analyses of the wounds 5 and 10 days after injury revealed marked up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β3 (a key regulator of wound healing), a threefold increase in macrophage influx, and an increase in the cellular proliferation of basal keratinocytes of the new epidermis and of cells of the neodermis. In vitro studies confirmed that CRT induced a greater than twofold increase in the cellular proliferation of primary human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and microvascular endothelial cells (with 100 pg/ml, 100 ng/ml, and 1.0 pg/ml, respectively). Moreover, using a scratch plate assay, CRT maximally induced the cellular migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts (with 10 pg/ml and 1 ng/ml, respectively). In addition, CRT induced concentration-dependent migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts macrophages, and monocytes in chamber assays. These in vitro bioactivities provide mechanistic support for the positive biological effects of CRT observed on both the epidermis and dermis of wounds in vivo, underscoring a significant role for CRT in the repair of cutaneous wounds. PMID:18753412

  9. An in vivo role for Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin in antiangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Molina, María C; Ferreira, Viviana; Valck, Carolina; Aguilar, Lorena; Orellana, Juana; Rojas, Alvaro; Ramirez, Galia; Billetta, Rosario; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Lemus, David; Ferreira, Arturo

    2005-04-01

    Angiogenesis leads to neovascularization from existing blood vessels. It is associated with tumor growth and metastasis and is regulated by pro- and antiangiogenic molecules, some of them currently under clinical trials for cancer treatment. During the last few years we have cloned, sequenced and expressed a Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin gene (TcCRT). Its product, TcCRT, a 45 kDa protein, is more than 50% identical to human CRT (HuCRT). TcCRT, present on the surface of trypomastigotes, binds both C1q and mannan binding lectin and inhibits the classical activation pathway of human complement. Since TcCRT is highly homologous to a functional antiangiogenic fragment from HuCRT (aa 120-180), recombinant (r) and native (n) TcCRT were tested in their antiangiogenic effects, in the chick embryonic chorioallantoid membrane (CAM) assay. Both proteins mediated highly significant antiangiogenic effects in the in vivo CAM assay. This effect was further substantiated in experiments showing that the plasmid construct pSecTag/TcCRT also displayed significant antiangiogenic properties, as compared to the empty vector. Most likely, the fact that antiangiogenic substances act preferentially on growing neoplasic tissues, but not on already established tumors, is due to their effects on emerging blood vessels. The results shown here indicate that TcCRT, like its human counterpart, has antiangiogenic properties. These properties may explain, at least partly, the reported antineoplasic effect of experimental T. cruzi infection.

  10. Overexpression of calreticulin sensitizes SERCA2a to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Kageyama, Kan; Kondo, Takahito

    2005-04-22

    Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca(2+)-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a vital role in cardiac physiology and pathology. Oxidative stress is a main cause of myocardiac disorder in the ischemic heart, but the function of CRT under oxidative stress is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of overexpression of CRT on sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) 2a under oxidative stress was examined using myocardiac H9c2 cells transfected with the CRT gene. The in vitro activity of SERCA2a and uptake of (45)Ca(2+) into isolated microsomes were suppressed by H(2)O(2) in CRT-overexpressing cells compared with controls. Moreover, SERCA2a protein was degraded via a proteasome-dependent pathway following the formation of a complex with CRT under the stress with H(2)O(2). Thus, we conclude that overexpression of CRT enhances the inactivation and degradation of SERCA2a in the cells under oxidative stress, suggesting some pathophysiological functions of CRT in Ca(2+) homeostasis of myocardiac disease.

  11. Immunological activity difference between native calreticulin monomers and oligomers.

    PubMed

    He, Mi-chun; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jian; Gong, Fang-yuan; Hong, Chao; Xia, Yun; Zhang, Li-juan; Bao, Wan-rong; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the greatly increased immunological activities of recombinant murine calreticulin (rCRT) are largely attributed to its self-oligomerization. Although native CRT (nCRT) can also oligomerize under stress conditions in vitro, whether this phenomenon could occur inside cells and the immunological activity difference between nCRT monomers and oligomers remained unclear. In this study, we illustrated the formation of CRT oligomers in tranfectant cells under "heat & low pH" (42°C/pH 6.5) condition. The mixture of nCRT oligomers and monomers (OnCRT) was obtained after 3 hr treatment of murine monomeric nCRT (MnCRT) under similar condition (42°C/pH 5.0) in vitro. The OnCRT thus obtained was better recognized by 2 monoclonal Abs from mice that had been immunized with oligomeric rCRT. Unlike MnCRT, OnCRT was able to elicit CRT-specific IgG production in mice. OnCRT also stimulated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to secrete significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40 than did MnCRT in vitro. We postulate that oligomerization of soluble CRT may occur under certain pathophysiological conditions (e.g. ultrahyperpyrexia) and the resultant oligomers may exhibit exaggerated immunostimulating activities, thereby affiliating the inflammatory responses in vivo.

  12. Calreticulin binds to gentamicin and reduces drug-induced ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Takatoshi; Wang, Qi; David, Larry L; Steyger, Peter S

    2011-12-01

    Aminoglycosides like gentamicin are among the most commonly used antibiotics in clinical practice and are essential for treating life-threatening tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, aminoglycosides are also nephrotoxic and ototoxic. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear how aminoglycosides induce cell death in auditory sensory epithelia and subsequent deafness. Aminoglycosides bind to various intracellular molecules, such as RNA and phosphoinositides. We hypothesized that aminoglycosides, based on their tissue-specific susceptibility, also bind to intracellular proteins that play a role in drug-induced ototoxicity. By conjugating an aminoglycoside, gentamicin, to agarose beads and conducting a gentamicin-agarose pull-down assay, we have isolated gentamicin-binding proteins (GBPs) from immortalized cells of mouse organ of Corti, HEI-OC1. Mass spectrometry identified calreticulin (CRT) as a GBP. Immunofluorescence revealed that CRT expression is concentrated in strial marginal cells and hair cell stereocilia, primary locations of drug uptake and cytotoxicity in the cochlea. In HEI-OC1 cells treated with gentamicin, reduction of CRT expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced intracellular drug levels. CRT-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells as well as CRT siRNA-transfected wild-type MEFs also had reduced cell viability after gentamicin treatment. A pull-down assay using deletion mutants of CRT determined that the carboxyl C-domain of CRT binds to gentamicin. HeLa cells transfected with CRT C-domain deletion mutant construct were more susceptible to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity compared with cells transfected with full-length CRT or other deletion mutants. Therefore, we conclude that CRT binding to gentamicin is protective against gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:21785162

  13. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Comparison of Three Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Sevin, Margaux; Ramla, Selim; Truffot, Aurélie; Verrier, Tiffany; Bouchot, Dominique; Courtois, Martine; Bas, Mathilde; Benali, Sonia; Bailly, François; Favre, Bernardine; Guy, Julien; Martin, Laurent; Maynadié, Marc; Carillo, Serge; Girodon, François

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) mutations have recently been reported in 70–84% of JAK2V617F-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), and this detection has become necessary to improve the diagnosis of MPN. In a large single-centre cohort of 298 patients suffering from Essential Thrombocythemia (ET), the JAK2V617F, CALR and MPL mutations were noted in 179 (60%), 56 (18.5%) and 13 (4.5%) respectively. For the detection of the CALR mutations, three methods were compared in parallel: high-resolution melting-curve analysis (HRM), product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing. The sensitivity for the HRM, product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing was 96.4%, 98.2% and 89.3% respectively, whereas the specificity was 96.3%, 100% and 100%. In our cohort, the product-sizing analysis was the most sensitive method and was the easiest to interpret, while the HRM was sometimes difficult to interpret. In contrast, when large series of samples were tested, HRM provided results more quickly than did the other methods, which required more time. Finally, the sequencing method, which is the reference method, had the lowest sensitivity but can be used to describe the type of mutation precisely. Altogether, our results suggest that in routine laboratory practice, product-sizing analysis is globally similar to HRM for the detection of CALR mutations, and that both may be used as first-line screening tests. If the results are positive, Sanger sequencing can be used to confirm the mutation and to determine its type. Product-sizing analysis provides sensitive and specific results, moreover, with the quantitative measurement of CALR, which might be useful to monitor specific treatments. PMID:26501981

  14. Structural Insight into the Role of Thrombospondin-1 Binding to Calreticulin in Calreticulin-Induced Focal Adhesion Disassembly†

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qi; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Song, Yuhua

    2010-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) binding to calreticulin (CRT) on the cell surface stimulates association of CRT with LDL receptor-related protein (LRP1) to signal focal adhesion disassembly and engagement of cellular activities. The structural basis for this phenomenon is unknown. We studied the binding thermodynamics of the TSP1–CRT complex and the conformational changes in CRT induced by binding to TSP1 with combined binding free energy analysis, molecular dynamics simulation, and anisotropic network model restrained molecular dynamics simulation. Results showed that mutations of Lys 24 and Lys 32 in TSP1 to Ala and of amino acids 24–26 and 32–34 in CRT to Ala significantly weakened the binding of TSP1 and CRT, which is consistent with experimental results. Upon validation of the calculated binding affinity changes of the TSP1–CRT complex by mutations in key residues in TSP1 and CRT with the experimental results, we performed conformational analyses to understand the role of TSP1 binding to CRT in the induction of conformational changes in CRT. Conformational analyses showed that TSP1 binding to CRT resulted in a more “open” conformation and a significant rotational change for the CRT N-domain with respect to the CRT P-domain, which could expose the potential binding site(s) in CRT for binding to LRP1 to signal focal adhesion disassembly. Results offer structural insight into the role of TSP1 binding to CRT in CRT-induced focal adhesion disassembly. PMID:20337411

  15. Transient dissociation of polyribosomes and concurrent recruitment of calreticulin and calmodulin transcripts in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilmann, I.; Shin, J.; Huang, J.; Perera, I. Y.; Davies, E.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of polyribosome abundance were studied in gravistimulated maize (Zea mays) stem pulvini. During the initial 15 min of gravistimulation, the amount of large polyribosomes transiently decreased. The transient decrease in polyribosome levels was accompanied by a transient decrease in polyribosome-associated mRNA. After 30 min of gravistimulation, the levels of polyribosomes and the amount of polyribosome-associated mRNA gradually increased over 24 h up to 3- to 4-fold of the initial value. Within 15 min of gravistimulation, total levels of transcripts coding for calreticulin and calmodulin were elevated 5-fold in maize pulvinus total RNA. Transcripts coding for calreticulin and calmodulin were recruited into polyribosomes within 15 min of gravistimulation. Over 4 h of gravistimulation, a gradual increase in the association of calreticulin and calmodulin transcripts with polyribosomes was seen predominantly in the lower one-half of the maize pulvinus; the association of transcripts for vacuolar invertase with polyribosomes did not change over this period. Our results suggest that within 15 min of gravistimulation, the translation of the majority of transcripts associated with polyribosomes decreased, resembling a general stress response. Recruitment of calreticulin and calmodulin transcripts into polyribosomes occurred predominantly in the lower pulvinus one-half during the first 4 h when the presentation time for gravistimulation in the maize pulvinus is not yet complete.

  16. Transient dissociation of polyribosomes and concurrent recruitment of calreticulin and calmodulin transcripts in gravistimulated maize pulvini.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, I; Shin, J; Huang, J; Perera, I Y; Davies, E

    2001-11-01

    The dynamics of polyribosome abundance were studied in gravistimulated maize (Zea mays) stem pulvini. During the initial 15 min of gravistimulation, the amount of large polyribosomes transiently decreased. The transient decrease in polyribosome levels was accompanied by a transient decrease in polyribosome-associated mRNA. After 30 min of gravistimulation, the levels of polyribosomes and the amount of polyribosome-associated mRNA gradually increased over 24 h up to 3- to 4-fold of the initial value. Within 15 min of gravistimulation, total levels of transcripts coding for calreticulin and calmodulin were elevated 5-fold in maize pulvinus total RNA. Transcripts coding for calreticulin and calmodulin were recruited into polyribosomes within 15 min of gravistimulation. Over 4 h of gravistimulation, a gradual increase in the association of calreticulin and calmodulin transcripts with polyribosomes was seen predominantly in the lower one-half of the maize pulvinus; the association of transcripts for vacuolar invertase with polyribosomes did not change over this period. Our results suggest that within 15 min of gravistimulation, the translation of the majority of transcripts associated with polyribosomes decreased, resembling a general stress response. Recruitment of calreticulin and calmodulin transcripts into polyribosomes occurred predominantly in the lower pulvinus one-half during the first 4 h when the presentation time for gravistimulation in the maize pulvinus is not yet complete. PMID:11706198

  17. The tobacco homolog of mammalian calreticulin is present in protein complexes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Denecke, J; Carlsson, L E; Vidal, S; Höglund, A S; Ek, B; van Zeijl, M J; Sinjorgo, K M; Palva, E T

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of protein sorting signals responsible for the retention of reticuloplasmins (RPLs), a group of soluble proteins that reside in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has revealed a structural similarity between mammalian and plant ER retention signals. We present evidence that the corresponding epitope is conserved in a vast family of soluble ER resident proteins. Microsequences of RPL60 and RPL90, two abundant members of this family, show high sequence similarity with mammalian calreticulin and endoplasmin. RPL60/calreticulin cofractionates and costains with the lumenal binding protein (BiP). Both proteins were detected in the nuclear envelope and the ER, and in mitotic cells in association with the spindle apparatus and the phragmoplast. Immunoprecipitation of proteins from in vivo-labeled cells demonstrated that RPL60/calreticulin is associated with other polypeptides in a stress- and ATP-dependent fashion. RPL60/calreticulin transcript levels increased rapidly in abundance during the proliferation of the secretory apparatus and the onset of hydrolase secretion in gibberellic acid-treated barley aleurone cells. This induction profile is identical to that of the well-characterized ER chaperones BiP and endoplasmin. However, expression patterns in response to different stress conditions as well as tissue-specific expression patterns indicate that these genes are differentially regulated and may not act in concert. PMID:7773014

  18. Pyruvate dehydrogenase/sub b/ phosphatase inhibition by NADH and dihydrolipoamide along with effects of and capacity for binding the phosphatase to the bovine kidney transacetylase-protein X subcomplex

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, T.E.; Rahmatullah, M.; Maher, J.

    1986-05-01

    NADH inhibits PDH/sub b/ phosphatase activity when /sup 32/P-PDH is associated with the intact complex but not when /sup 32/P-PDH is prepared free of other components of the complex. Addition of the transacetylase-protein X (E2-X) subcomplex both activated the phosphatase and restored NADH inhibition. Low levels of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase associated with the subcomplex might be required for NADH inhibition. Dihydrolipoamide gave inhibition of the phosphatase equivalent to NADH and the combination did not give additional inhibition suggesting a common mechanism. Pretreatment of phosphorylated complex and phosphatase with 2.0 mM dithiothreitol nearly eliminated inhibition of the phosphatase by NADH or dihydrolipoamide. Strong arsenite inhibition of phosphatase activity occurred only in the presence of NADH suggesting modification of thiols reduced by NADH can alter phosphatase activity. Only about 6 molecules of purified phosphatase could be activated by 1 molecule of E2-X subcomplex (initial velocities measured in 15s period). Since that corresponded to the number of protein X rather than E2 subunits, protein X may contribute to the Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent binding of the phosphatase. Since protein X also contains a lipoyl moiety, it may also contribute to NADH inhibition of the phosphatase.

  19. Calreticulin mutation burden--is it a stable clone in patients with essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis?

    PubMed

    Shuly, Yulia; Nagar, Meital; Ben-Asaf, Lior; Kneller, Abraham; Steinberg, David M; Amariglio, Ninette; Salomon, Ophira

    2015-12-01

    Calreticulin mutation represents the second most frequent mutation after JAK2 V617F in myeloproliferative disorder and is considered to be a driving mutation. Herein the mutation burden was evaluated in patients with essential thrombocythemia or myelofibrosis and found to increase by 5.7% over time unrelated to the time elapsed from the initial to the final positive test. The longer the course of the disease when first tested (range 0-30 years, mean 7.9 years) the lower mutation burden was observed. The mutated clone was larger in type II in comparison with type I mutation when first tested but the difference in mutation burden from the final to the first positive test was significantly higher in those with type I. Similarly, the difference in mutation burden was higher in patients with essential thrombocythemia reaching almost 8% in comparison to 1.3% in post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis. Thus a repeat calreticulin quantitative test is not warranted.

  20. Macrophages eat cancer cells using their own calreticulin as a guide: roles of TLR and Btk.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mingye; Chen, James Y; Weissman-Tsukamoto, Rachel; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Ho, Po Yi; McKenna, Kelly M; Cheshier, Samuel; Zhang, Michael; Guo, Nan; Gip, Phung; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-02-17

    Macrophage-mediated programmed cell removal (PrCR) is an important mechanism of eliminating diseased and damaged cells before programmed cell death. The induction of PrCR by eat-me signals on tumor cells is countered by don't-eat-me signals such as CD47, which binds macrophage signal-regulatory protein α to inhibit phagocytosis. Blockade of CD47 on tumor cells leads to phagocytosis by macrophages. Here we demonstrate that the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways in macrophages synergizes with blocking CD47 on tumor cells to enhance PrCR. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) mediates TLR signaling in macrophages. Calreticulin, previously shown to be an eat-me signal on cancer cells, is activated in macrophages for secretion and cell-surface exposure by TLR and Btk to target cancer cells for phagocytosis, even if the cancer cells themselves do not express calreticulin.

  1. Mutant calreticulin-expressing cells induce monocyte hyperreactivity through a paracrine mechanism.

    PubMed

    Garbati, Michael R; Welgan, Catherine A; Landefeld, Sally H; Newell, Laura F; Agarwal, Anupriya; Dunlap, Jennifer B; Chourasia, Tapan K; Lee, Hyunjung; Elferich, Johannes; Traer, Elie; Rattray, Rogan; Cascio, Michael J; Press, Richard D; Bagby, Grover C; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Druker, Brian J; Dao, Kim-Hien T

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) were recently identified in approximately 70-80% of patients with JAK2-V617F-negative essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis. All frameshift mutations generate a recurring novel C-terminus. Here we provide evidence that mutant calreticulin does not accumulate efficiently in cells and is abnormally enriched in the nucleus and extracellular space compared to wildtype calreticulin. The main determinant of these findings is the loss of the calcium-binding and KDEL domains. Expression of type I mutant CALR in Ba/F3 cells confers minimal IL-3-independent growth. Interestingly, expression of type I and type II mutant CALR in a nonhematopoietic cell line does not directly activate JAK/STAT signaling compared to wildtype CALR and JAK2-V617F expression. These results led us to investigate paracrine mechanisms of JAK/STAT activation. Here we show that conditioned media from cells expressing type I mutant CALR exaggerate cytokine production from normal monocytes with or without treatment with a toll-like receptor agonist. These effects are not dependent on the novel C-terminus. These studies offer novel insights into the mechanism of JAK/STAT activation in patients with JAK2-V617F-negative essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis.

  2. Comparative effect of human and Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ignacio Arias, J; Sepulveda, Caroll; Bravo, Patricia; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Maldonado, Ismael; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In orthopaedics, the use of factors that enhance granulation tissue formation and prevent or delay new bone regeneration is sometimes desirable. Calreticulin (CRT), a unique endoplasmic reticulum luminal Ca(2+) -binding chaperone widely distributed in eukaryotic cells, is involved in many cellular functions. Among them, CRT has an important influence in cutaneous wound healing and diverse processes associated with cutaneous repair, inhibition of angiogenesis, promotion of cell adhesion and antitumour effect. One of the molecules involved in several aspects of the host-parasite interplay is Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), which is highly homologous to human calreticulin (HuCRT). Here, recombinant (r)HuCRT and rTcCRT are compared on their abilities to affect fibroblast behaviour in a scratch plate assay, and wound healing in in vivo skin rat models. In molar terms, rTcCRT is three orders of magnitude more efficient than rHuCRT in increasing proliferation and migration of human fibroblasts in vitro. A similar effect was observed in vivo on rat skin wounds and inhibition of bone gap bridging in rabbit unicortical bone osteotomies.

  3. Contributions of the Lectin and Polypeptide Binding Sites of Calreticulin to Its Chaperone Functions in Vitro and in Cells.

    PubMed

    Lum, Ronnie; Ahmad, Samar; Hong, Seo Jung; Chapman, Daniel C; Kozlov, Guennadi; Williams, David B

    2016-09-01

    Calreticulin is a lectin chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum that interacts with newly synthesized glycoproteins by binding to Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharides as well as to the polypeptide chain. In vitro, the latter interaction potently suppresses the aggregation of various non-glycosylated proteins. Although the lectin-oligosaccharide association is well understood, the polypeptide-based interaction is more controversial because the binding site on calreticulin has not been identified, and its significance in the biogenesis of glycoproteins in cells remains unknown. In this study, we identified the polypeptide binding site responsible for the in vitro aggregation suppression function by mutating four candidate hydrophobic surface patches. Mutations in only one patch, P19K/I21E and Y22K/F84E, impaired the ability of calreticulin to suppress the thermally induced aggregation of non-glycosylated firefly luciferase. These mutants also failed to bind several hydrophobic peptides that act as substrate mimetics and compete in the luciferase aggregation suppression assay. To assess the relative contributions of the glycan-dependent and -independent interactions in living cells, we expressed lectin-deficient, polypeptide binding-deficient, and doubly deficient calreticulin constructs in calreticulin-negative cells and monitored the effects on the biogenesis of MHC class I molecules, the solubility of mutant forms of α1-antitrypsin, and interactions with newly synthesized glycoproteins. In all cases, we observed a profound impairment in calreticulin function when its lectin site was inactivated. Remarkably, inactivation of the polypeptide binding site had little impact. These findings indicate that the lectin-based mode of client interaction is the predominant contributor to the chaperone functions of calreticulin within the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27413183

  4. Calreticulin is a candidate for a calsequestrin-like function in Ca2(+)-storage compartments (calciosomes) of liver and brain.

    PubMed Central

    Treves, S; De Mattei, M; Landfredi, M; Villa, A; Green, N M; MacLennan, D H; Meldolesi, J; Pozzan, T

    1990-01-01

    In a search for the non-muscle equivalent of calsequestrin (the low-affinity high-capacity Ca2(+)-binding protein responsible for Ca2+ storage within the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum), acidic proteins were extracted from rat liver and brain microsomal preparations and purified by column chromatography. No calsequestrin was observed in these extracts, but the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the major Ca2(+)-binding protein of the liver microsomal fraction was determined and found to correspond to that of calreticulin. This protein was found to bind approx. 50 mol of Ca2+/mol of protein, with low affinity (average Kd approx. 1.0 mM). A monoclonal antibody, C6, raised against skeletal-muscle calsequestrin cross-reacted with calreticulin in SDS/PAGE immunoblots, but polyclonal antibodies reacted with native calreticulin only weakly, or not at all, after SDS denaturation. Immuno-gold decoration of liver ultrathin cryosections with affinity-purified antibodies against liver calreticulin revealed luminal labelling of vacuolar profiles indistinguishable from calciosomes, the subcellular structures previously identified by the use of anti-calsequestrin antibodies. We conclude that calreticulin is the Ca2(+)-binding protein segregated within the calciosome lumen, previously described as being calsequestrin-like. Because of its properties and intraluminal location, calreticulin might play a critical role in Ca2+ storage and release in non-muscle cells, similar to that played by calsequestrin in the muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2241926

  5. Calreticulin is a microbial-binding molecule with phagocytosis-enhancing capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Xu, Na; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-09-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved calcium-binding protein mainly involved in directing proper conformation of proteins and controlling calcium level. Accumulating data also show that CRT is emerging as an immune-relevant molecule. In this study, we demonstrated that the CRT gene from the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, named Bjcrt, consisted of a signal peptide, three domains (N-, P-, C-domains) and an ER retrieval signal sequence (KDEL), which appears to be the ancient form of vertebrate CRTs, and Bjcrt was expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with the most abundant expression in the notochord. We also demonstrated for the first time that the recombinant BjCRT (rBjCRT) was able to bind the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, both BjCRT as well as human recombinant calreticulin were able to promote the phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus by sea bass macrophages. These results indicate that CRT is a microbial-binding molecule and possesses an ability to enhance phagocytosis, a novel function assigned to CRT, reenforcing the notion that CRT is an immune-relevant molecule associated with host immune responses.

  6. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 follows a cooperative CRM1/calreticulin-mediated nuclear export pathway.

    PubMed

    Grespin, Matthew E; Bonamy, Ghislain M C; Roggero, Vincent R; Cameron, Nicole G; Adam, Lindsay E; Atchison, Andrew P; Fratto, Victoria M; Allison, Lizabeth A

    2008-09-12

    The thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 (TRalpha) exhibits a dual role as an activator or repressor of its target genes in response to thyroid hormone (T(3)). Previously, we have shown that TRalpha, formerly thought to reside solely in the nucleus bound to DNA, actually shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. An important aspect of the shuttling activity of TRalpha is its ability to exit the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex. TRalpha export is not sensitive to treatment with the CRM1-specific inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) in heterokaryon assays, suggesting a role for an export receptor other than CRM1. Here, we have used a combined approach of in vivo fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments, in vitro permeabilized cell nuclear export assays, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays to investigate the export pathway used by TRalpha. We show that, in addition to shuttling in heterokaryons, TRalpha shuttles rapidly in an unfused monokaryon system as well. Furthermore, our data show that TRalpha directly interacts with calreticulin, and point to the intriguing possibility that TRalpha follows a cooperative export pathway in which both calreticulin and CRM1 play a role in facilitating efficient translocation of TRalpha from the nucleus to cytoplasm. PMID:18641393

  7. Protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of several calreticulin posttranslational modifications.

    PubMed

    Cristina Castañeda-Patlán, M; Razo-Paredes, Roberto; Carrisoza-Gaytán, Rolando; González-Mariscal, Lorenza; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly versatile lectin-like chaperone that affects many cellular functions both inside and outside the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. We previously reported that calreticulin interacts with several protein kinase C isozymes both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular determinants involved in the association between these proteins and the biochemical significance of their interaction. Using full-length or CRT-domain constructs expressed as GST-fusion proteins, we found that protein kinase C binds to the CRT N domain in overlay and pull-down assays. Phosphorylation experiments showed that only this CRT domain is phosphorylated by the kinase. Lectin blot analysis demonstrated that CRT is modified by N-glycosylation, but this modification did not affect its interaction with protein kinase C. We also demonstrated that although both domains of protein kinase C theta can bind to CRT, it is the catalytic one that binds with higher affinity to CRT. Immunofluorescence studies showed that CRT and PKC co-localize mainly at the ER (estimated in 35%). Activation of protein kinase C induced caused transient changes in CRT localization, and unexpectedly, also induced changes in posttranslational modifications found in the protein: CRT N-glycosylation is abolished, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation and O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine modification are increased. Together, these findings suggest that protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of CRT function. PMID:19800981

  8. Calreticulin is a microbial-binding molecule with phagocytosis-enhancing capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Xu, Na; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-09-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved calcium-binding protein mainly involved in directing proper conformation of proteins and controlling calcium level. Accumulating data also show that CRT is emerging as an immune-relevant molecule. In this study, we demonstrated that the CRT gene from the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, named Bjcrt, consisted of a signal peptide, three domains (N-, P-, C-domains) and an ER retrieval signal sequence (KDEL), which appears to be the ancient form of vertebrate CRTs, and Bjcrt was expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with the most abundant expression in the notochord. We also demonstrated for the first time that the recombinant BjCRT (rBjCRT) was able to bind the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, both BjCRT as well as human recombinant calreticulin were able to promote the phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus by sea bass macrophages. These results indicate that CRT is a microbial-binding molecule and possesses an ability to enhance phagocytosis, a novel function assigned to CRT, reenforcing the notion that CRT is an immune-relevant molecule associated with host immune responses. PMID:23791863

  9. Thyroid Hormone Receptor α1 Follows a Cooperative CRM1/Calreticulin-mediated Nuclear Export Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Grespin, Matthew E.; Bonamy, Ghislain M. C.; Roggero, Vincent R.; Cameron, Nicole G.; Adam, Lindsay E.; Atchison, Andrew P.; Fratto, Victoria M.; Allison, Lizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα) exhibits a dual role as an activator or repressor of its target genes in response to thyroid hormone (T3). Previously, we have shown that TRα, formerly thought to reside solely in the nucleus bound to DNA, actually shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. An important aspect of the shuttling activity of TRα is its ability to exit the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex. TRα export is not sensitive to treatment with the CRM1-specific inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) in heterokaryon assays, suggesting a role for an export receptor other than CRM1. Here, we have used a combined approach of in vivo fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments, in vitro permeabilized cell nuclear export assays, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays to investigate the export pathway used by TRα. We show that, in addition to shuttling in heterokaryons, TRα shuttles rapidly in an unfused monokaryon system as well. Furthermore, our data show that TRα directly interacts with calreticulin, and point to the intriguing possibility that TRα follows a cooperative export pathway in which both calreticulin and CRM1 play a role in facilitating efficient translocation of TRα from the nucleus to cytoplasm. PMID:18641393

  10. Unfolding the complexities of ER chaperones in health and disease: report on the 11th international calreticulin workshop.

    PubMed

    Gold, Leslie; Williams, David; Groenendyk, Jody; Michalak, Marek; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-11-01

    The 11th International Calreticulin workshop was held May 15-18, 2015 at New York University School of Medicine-Langone Medical Center, New York. The meeting highlighted many of the new discoveries in the past 2 years involving the important role of molecular chaperones in physiological and pathological processes. Crucial to the understanding of these disease processes was the role of chaperones in maintaining quality control of protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, the importance of Ca(2) regulation acting through its action in stress-related diseases, and the trafficking of glycoproteins to the cell surface. Central to maintaining healthy cell physiology is the correct ER-associated protein degradation of specific misfolded proteins. Information on different mechanisms involved in the degradation of misfolded proteins was revealed. This was a landmark meeting for the chaperone field in terms of new insights into their roles in physiology. These insights included the unfolded protein response, innate/adaptive immunity, tissue repair, the functions of calreticulin/chaperones from the cell surface, and extracellular environment. Diseases included neurodegenerative disorders, prion disease, autoimmunity, fibrosis-related disease, the host immune response to cancer, and hematologic diseases associated with calreticulin mutations. The 12th calreticulin workshop is planned for the spring of 2017 in Delphi, Greece. PMID:26395641

  11. Calreticulin-independent regulation of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by the KVGFFKR alphaIIb-cytoplasmic motif.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Dermot; Larkin, Deirdre; Devocelle, Marc; Fitzgerald, Desmond J; Moran, Niamh

    2004-02-01

    The platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 alters conformation in response to platelet activation and ligand binding, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not known. We previously showed that a lipid modified peptide, corresponding to the membrane proximal 989KVGFFKR995 portion of the alphaIIb cytoplasmic tail, independently activates platelet alphaIIbbeta3. Calreticulin (CRT) is a potential integrin regulatory protein based on its interaction with the highly conserved alpha-integrin sequence KxGFFKR. We therefore examined the possible interaction of calreticulin and alphaIIbbeta3 in human platelets. We demonstrate that calreticulin in platelets is localised to the granulomere. In contrast, the known integrin-binding protein talin accumulates at the periphery of spreading platelets and colocalises with alphaIIbbeta3 during the process of adhesion. An interaction between calreticulin and alphaIIbbeta3 could not be demonstrated using co-immunoprecipitation techniques under various platelet activation states, even in the presence of covalent chemical crosslinkers. Thus, calreticulin does not functionally interact with the major integrin in human platelets. In order to identify proteins that interact with the integrin KVGFFKR motif we then used a peptide 'pull-down' assay from platelet lysates with biotinylated peptides and demonstrate that only the alphaIIb and beta3 subunits selectively and individually interact with this sequence. This interaction is divalent cation-dependent, has high-affinity, and occurs both with purified alphaIIbbeta3 complex and with electroeluted alpha and beta subunits. Thus, our data show that the conserved integrin KVGFFKR domain interacts primarily with the alpha and beta cytoplasmic tails and not with CRT in human platelets. PMID:14985176

  12. Folding of thyroglobulin in the calnexin/calreticulin pathway and its alteration by loss of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Di Jeso, Bruno; Ulianich, Luca; Pacifico, Francesco; Leonardi, Antonio; Vito, Pasquale; Consiglio, Eduardo; Formisano, Silvestro; Arvan, Peter

    2003-01-01

    During its initial folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), newly synthesized thyroglobulin (Tg) is known to interact with calnexin and other ER molecular chaperones, but its interaction with calreticulin has not been examined previously. In the present study, we have investigated the interactions of endogenous Tg with calreticulin and with several other ER chaperones. We find that, in FRTL-5 and PC-Cl3 cells, calnexin and calreticulin interact with newly synthesized Tg in a carbohydrate-dependent manner, with largely overlapping kinetics that are concomitant with the maturation of Tg intrachain disulphide bonds, preceding Tg dimerization and exit from the ER. Calreticulin co-precipitates more newly synthesized Tg than does calnexin; however, using two different experimental approaches, calnexin and calreticulin were found in ternary complexes with Tg, making this the first endogenous protein reported in ternary complexes with calnexin and calreticulin in the ER of live cells. Depletion of Ca(2+) from the ER elicited by thapsigargin (a specific inhibitor of ER Ca(2+)-ATPases) results in retention of Tg in this organelle. Interestingly, thapsigargin treatment induces the premature exit of Tg from the calnexin/calreticulin cycle, while stabilizing and prolonging interactions of Tg with BiP (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein) and GRP94 (glucose-regulated protein 94), two chaperones whose binding is not carbohydrate-dependent. Our results suggest that calnexin and calreticulin, acting in ternary complexes with a large glycoprotein substrate such as Tg, might be engaged in the folding of distinct domains, and indicate that lumenal Ca(2+) strongly influences the folding of exportable glycoproteins, in part by regulating the balance of substrate binding to different molecular chaperone systems within the ER. PMID:12401114

  13. Postpartum haemorrhage in a woman with essential thrombocythemia carrying calreticulin mutation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Villani, Michela; Colaizzo, Donatella; Tiscia, Giovanni L; Chinni, Elena; Bodenizza, Carl'Antonio; Cascavilla, Nicola; Grandone, Elvira

    2016-09-01

    Coagulation disorder associated with essential thrombocythemia may exacerbate the prothrombotic state physiologically occurring during pregnancy. We report a case of a severe postpartum haemorrhage in a 35-year-old woman previously diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia and carrying the somatic calreticulin mutation. She was referred to our Thrombosis and Haemostasis Unit for pregnancy management. A treatment with low-dose aspirin was prescribed until the labour started, as the platelets count raised above 1000 × 10/l. At the time of bleeding, no residual placenta was detected at the revision of the uterine cavity.Although the postpartum is a high-risk period for thrombotic events, we have to carefully evaluate in women with essential thrombocythemia the likelihood of developing a hemorrhagic complication.

  14. Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin: an endoplasmic reticulum protein expressed by trophozoites into experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses.

    PubMed

    González, Enrique; de Leon, Maria del Carmen García; Meza, Isaura; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio; Silva-Olivares, Angelica; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; Morán, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Limón, Angelica; Rojas, Liliana; Hernández, Eric G; Cerritos, René; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2011-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin (EhCRT) is remarkably immunogenic in humans (90-100% of invasive amoebiasis patients). Nevertheless, the study of calreticulin in this protozoan is still in its early stages. The exact location, biological functions, and its role in pathogenesis are yet to be fully understood. The aim of the present work is to determine the location of EhCRT in virulent trophozoites in vivo and the expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses (ALA) in hamsters. Antibodies against recombinant EhCRT were used for the immunolocalization of EhCRT in trophozoites through confocal microscopy; immunohistochemical assays were also performed on tissue sections of ALAs at different times after intrahepatic inoculation. The expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of ALA was estimated through both in situ RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confocal assays of virulent trophozoites showed a distribution of EhCRT in the cytoplasmic vesicles of different sizes. Apparently, EhCRT is not exported into the hepatic tissue. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated an over-expression of the Ehcrt gene at 30 min after trophozoite inoculation, reaching a peak at 1-2 h; thereafter, the expression fell sharply to its original levels. These results demonstrate for the first time in an in vivo model of ALA, the expression of Ehcrt gene in E. histolytica trophozoites and add evidence that support CRT as a resident protein of the ER in E. histolytica species. The in vivo experiments suggest that CRT may play an important role during the early stages of the host-parasite relationship, when the parasite is adapting to a new environment, although the protein seems to be constitutively synthesized. Moreover, trophozoites apparently do not export EhCRT into the hepatic tissue in ALA.

  15. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  16. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of wheat calreticulin (CRT) gene involved in drought-stressed responses.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Yun; Xu, Chong-Yi; Jing, Rui-Lian; Li, Run-Zhi; Mao, Xin-Guo; Wang, Ji-Ping; Chang, Xiao-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed Ca(2+)-binding protein in multicellular eukaryotes. CRT plays a crucial role in many cellular processes including Ca(2+) storage and release, protein synthesis, and molecular chaperone activity. To elucidate the function of CRTs in plant responses against drought, a main abiotic stress limiting cereal crop production worldwide, a full-length cDNA encoding calreticulin protein namely TaCRT was isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The deduced amino acid sequence of TaCRT shares high homology with other plant CRTs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that TaCRT cDNA clone encodes a wheat CRT3 isoform. Southern analysis suggests that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaCRT. Subcellular locations of TaCRT were the cytoplasm and nucleus, evidenced by transient expression of GFP fused with TaCRT in onion epidermal cells. Enhanced accumulation of TaCRT transcript was observed in wheat seedlings in response to PEG-induced drought stress. To investigate further whether TaCRT is involved in the drought-stress response, transgenic plants were constructed. Compared to the wild-type and GFP-expressing plants, TaCRT-overexpressing tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants grew better and exhibited less wilt under the drought stress. Moreover, TaCRT-overexpressing plants exhibited enhanced drought resistance to water deficit, as shown by their capacity to maintain higher WUE (water use efficiency), WRA (water retention ability), RWC (relative water content), and lower MDR (membrane damaging ratio) (P < or = 0.01) under water-stress conditions. In conclusion, a cDNA clone encoding wheat CRT was successfully isolated and the results suggest that TaCRT is involved in the plant response to drought stress, indicating a potential in the transgenic improvements of plant water-stress.

  18. Expression of the high capacity calcium-binding domain of calreticulin increases bioavailable calcium stores in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Sarah E.; Tsou, Pei-Lan; Robertson, Dominique; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of cytosolic calcium levels in both plants and animals is achieved by a system of Ca2+-transport and storage pathways that include Ca2+ buffering proteins in the lumen of intracellular compartments. To date, most research has focused on the role of transporters in regulating cytosolic calcium. We used a reverse genetics approach to modulate calcium stores in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Our goals were two-fold: to use the low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ binding characteristics of the C-domain of calreticulin to selectively increase Ca2+ storage in the endoplasmic reticulum, and to determine if those alterations affected plant physiological responses to stress. The C-domain of calreticulin is a highly acidic region that binds 20-50 moles of Ca2+ per mole of protein and has been shown to be the major site of Ca2+ storage within the endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells. A 377-bp fragment encoding the C-domain and ER retention signal from the maize calreticulin gene was fused to a gene for the green fluorescent protein and expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of a heat shock promoter. Following induction on normal medium, the C-domain transformants showed delayed loss of chlorophyll after transfer to calcium depleted medium when compared to seedlings transformed with green fluorescent protein alone. Total calcium measurements showed a 9-35% increase for induced C-domain transformants compared to controls. The data suggest that ectopic expression of the calreticulin C-domain increases Ca2+ stores, and that this Ca2+ reserve can be used by the plant in times of stress.

  19. Calreticulin contributes to C1q-dependent recruitment of microglia in the leech Hirudo medicinalis following a CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Bocquet-Garcon, Annelise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Vancamp, Christelle; Drago, Francesco; Franck, Julien; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Background The medicinal leech is considered as a complementary and appropriate model to study immune functions in the central nervous system (CNS). In a context in which an injured leech’s CNS can naturally restore normal synaptic connections, the accumulation of microglia (immune cells of the CNS that are exclusively resident in leeches) has been shown to be essential at the lesion to engage the axonal sprouting. HmC1q (Hm for Hirudo medicinalis) possesses chemotactic properties that are important in the microglial cell recruitment by recognizing at least a C1q binding protein (HmC1qBP alias gC1qR). Material/Methods Recombinant forms of C1q were used in affinity purification and in vitro chemotaxis assays. Anti-calreticulin antibodies were used to neutralize C1q-mediated chemotaxis and locate the production of calreticulin in leech CNS. Results A newly characterized leech calreticulin (HmCalR) has been shown to interact with C1q and participate to the HmC1q-dependent microglia accumulation. HmCalR, which has been detected in only some microglial cells, is consequently a second binding protein for HmC1q, allowing the chemoattraction of resident microglia in the nerve repair process. Conclusions These data give new insight into calreticulin/C1q interaction in an immune function of neuroprotection, suggesting another molecular target to use in investigation of microglia reactivity in a model of CNS injury. PMID:24747831

  20. Proteomic identification of calcium-binding chaperone calreticulin as a potential mediator for the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of fruit-derived glycoside amygdalin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Tse, Hung Fat; Rong, Jianhui

    2015-02-01

    Amygdalin is a fruit-derived glycoside with the potential for treating neurodegenerative diseases. This study was designed to identify the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of amygdalin. We initially demonstrated that amygdalin enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuritogenesis and attenuated 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. To define protein targets for amygdalin, we selected a total of 11 mostly regulated protein spots from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. We verified the effect of amygdalin on six representative proteins (i.e., calreticulin, Hsp90β, Grp94, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3ζ/δ and Rab GDI-α) for biological relevance to neuronal survival and differentiation. Calcium-binding chaperone calreticulin is of special interest for its activities to promote folding, oligomeric assembly and quality control of proteins that modulate cell survival and differentiation. We transiently knocked down calreticulin expression by specific siRNA and studied its effect on the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of amygdalin. We found that amygdalin failed to enhance NGF-induced neuritogenesis in calreticulin-siRNA transfected cells. On the other hand, amygdalin rescued 6-OHDA-induced loss of calreticulin expression. We also found that amygdalin increased the intracellular calcium concentration possibly via inducing calreticulin. Collectively, our results demonstrated the role of calreticulin in mediating the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of amygdalin. PMID:25465157

  1. Soluble tyrosinase is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation substrate retained in the ER by calreticulin and BiP/GRP78 and not calnexin.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Costin I; Paduraru, Crina; Dwek, Raymond A; Petrescu, Stefana M

    2005-04-01

    Tyrosinase is a type I membrane protein regulating the pigmentation process in humans. Mutations of the human tyrosinase gene cause the tyrosinase negative type I oculocutaneous albinism (OCAI). Some OCAI mutations were shown to delete the transmembrane domain or to affect its hydrophobic properties, resulting in soluble tyrosinase mutants that are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To understand the specific mechanisms involved in the ER retention of soluble tyrosinase, we have constructed a tyrosinase mutant truncated at its C-terminal end and investigated its maturation process. The mutant is retained in the ER, and it is degraded through the proteasomal pathway. We determined that the mannose trimming is required for an efficient degradation process. Moreover, this soluble ER-associated degradation substrate is stopped at the ER quality control checkpoint with no requirements for an ER-Golgi recycling pathway. Co-immmunoprecipitation experiments showed that soluble tyrosinase interacts with calreticulin and BiP/GRP78 (and not calnexin) during its ER transit. Expression of soluble tyrosinase in calreticulin-deficient cells resulted in the export of soluble tyrosinase of the ER, indicating the calreticulin role in ER retention. Taken together, these data show that OCAI soluble tyrosinase is an ER-associated degradation substrate that, unlike other albino tyrosinases, associates with calreticulin and BiP/GRP78. The lack of specificity for calnexin interaction reveals a novel role for calreticulin in OCAI albinism.

  2. Calnexin and calreticulin bind to enzymically active tissue-type plasminogen activator during biosynthesis and are not required for folding to the native conformation.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, S; Bulleid, N J

    1997-01-01

    The roles of the endoplasmic-reticulum lectins calnexin and calreticulin in the folding of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) have been investigated using an in vitro translation system that reconstitutes these processes as they would occur in the intact cell. Using co-immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized tPA with antibodies to calnexin and calreticulin, it was demonstrated that the interaction of tPA with both lectins was dependent upon tPA glycosylation and glucosidase trimming. When tPA was synthesized in the presence of semi-permeabilized cells under conditions preventing complex formation with calnexin and calreticulin, the translation product had a specific plasminogenolytic activity identical with that when synthesized under conditions permitting interactions with both lectins. Furthermore, complexes of tPA bound to calnexin and calreticulin were shown to be enzymically active. These results demonstrate that calnexin and calreticulin can form a stable interaction with correctly folded tPA; however, such interactions are not required for the synthesis of enzymically active tPA. PMID:9359841

  3. Soluble tyrosinase is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation substrate retained in the ER by calreticulin and BiP/GRP78 and not calnexin.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Costin I; Paduraru, Crina; Dwek, Raymond A; Petrescu, Stefana M

    2005-04-01

    Tyrosinase is a type I membrane protein regulating the pigmentation process in humans. Mutations of the human tyrosinase gene cause the tyrosinase negative type I oculocutaneous albinism (OCAI). Some OCAI mutations were shown to delete the transmembrane domain or to affect its hydrophobic properties, resulting in soluble tyrosinase mutants that are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To understand the specific mechanisms involved in the ER retention of soluble tyrosinase, we have constructed a tyrosinase mutant truncated at its C-terminal end and investigated its maturation process. The mutant is retained in the ER, and it is degraded through the proteasomal pathway. We determined that the mannose trimming is required for an efficient degradation process. Moreover, this soluble ER-associated degradation substrate is stopped at the ER quality control checkpoint with no requirements for an ER-Golgi recycling pathway. Co-immmunoprecipitation experiments showed that soluble tyrosinase interacts with calreticulin and BiP/GRP78 (and not calnexin) during its ER transit. Expression of soluble tyrosinase in calreticulin-deficient cells resulted in the export of soluble tyrosinase of the ER, indicating the calreticulin role in ER retention. Taken together, these data show that OCAI soluble tyrosinase is an ER-associated degradation substrate that, unlike other albino tyrosinases, associates with calreticulin and BiP/GRP78. The lack of specificity for calnexin interaction reveals a novel role for calreticulin in OCAI albinism. PMID:15677452

  4. Thrombospondin-1 Interacts with Trypanosoma cruzi Surface Calreticulin to Enhance Cellular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Candice A.; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y.; Ikejiani, Adaeze O.; Udoko, Aniekanabasi N.; Cardenas, Tatiana C.; Pratap, Siddharth; Duquette, Mark A.; Lima, Maria F.; Lawler, Jack; Villalta, Fernando; Nde, Pius N.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which is a neglected tropical disease that produces severe pathology and mortality. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades cells are not well elucidated. We recently reported that T. cruzi up-regulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) to enhance the process of cellular invasion. Here we characterize a novel TSP-1 interaction with T. cruzi that enhances cellular infection. We show that labeled TSP-1 interacts specifically with the surface of T. cruzi trypomastigotes. We used TSP-1 to pull down interacting parasite surface proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry. We also show that full length TSP-1 and the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (NTSP) interact with T. cruzi surface calreticulin (TcCRT) and other surface proteins. Pre-exposure of recombinant NTSP or TSP-1 to T. cruzi significantly enhances cellular infection of wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) compared to the C-terminal domain of TSP-1, E3T3C1. In addition, blocking TcCRT with antibodies significantly inhibits the enhancement of cellular infection mediated by the TcCRT-TSP-1 interaction. Taken together, our findings indicate that TSP-1 interacts with TcCRT on the surface of T. cruzi through the NTSP domain and that this interaction enhances cellular infection. Thus surface TcCRT is a virulent factor that enhances the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection through TSP-1, which is up-regulated by the parasite. PMID:22808206

  5. Phylogenetic analyses and expression studies reveal two distinct groups of calreticulin isoforms in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Persson, Staffan; Rosenquist, Magnus; Svensson, Karin; Galvão, Rafaelo; Boss, Wendy F; Sommarin, Marianne

    2003-11-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifunctional protein mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells. Here, we present the first analysis, to our knowledge, of evolutionary diversity and expression profiling among different plant CRT isoforms. Phylogenetic studies and expression analysis show that higher plants contain two distinct groups of CRTs: a CRT1/CRT2 group and a CRT3 group. To corroborate the existence of these isoform groups, we cloned a putative CRT3 ortholog from Brassica rapa. The CRT3 gene appears to be most closely related to the ancestral CRT gene in higher plants. Distinct tissue-dependent expression patterns and stress-related regulation were observed for the isoform groups. Furthermore, analysis of posttranslational modifications revealed differences in the glycosylation status among members within the CRT1/CRT2 isoform group. Based on evolutionary relationship, a new nomenclature for plant CRTs is suggested. The presence of two distinct CRT isoform groups, with distinct expression patterns and posttranslational modifications, supports functional specificity among plant CRTs and could account for the multiple functional roles assigned to CRTs.

  6. Taenia solium: immune response against oral or systemic immunization with purified recombinant calreticulin in mice.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Ruiz-Tovar, Karina; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Flisser, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant functional Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) confers different degrees of protection in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response induced after oral or systemic immunization with an electroeluted rTsCRT in BALB/c mice. Oral immunization elicited high fecal IgA and the production of IL-4 and IL-5 by mesenteric lymph node cells after in vitro stimulation with rTSCRT, indicating a Th2 response. Mice subcutaneously immunized produced high amounts of serum IgG, being IgG1 (Th2-related) the predominant isotype, while in vitro stimulated spleen cells synthesized IL-4, IL-5 and also IFN-γ, indicating a mixed Th1/Th2 cellular response after systemic immunization. Our data show that purified rTsCRT induces polarized Th2 responses after oral immunization of mice, a common characteristic of protective immunity against helminths and, consequently, a desirable hallmark in the search for a vaccine.

  7. Anti-calreticulin immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in refractory coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, D; Palová-Jelínková, L; Felsberg, J; Šimšová, M; Pekáriková, A; Pecharová, B; Swoboda, I; Mothes, T; Mulder, C J J; Beneš, Z; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H; Tučková, L

    2008-01-01

    Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a very rare and dangerous form of CD, in which gluten-free diet loses its therapeutic effect and the damage of intestinal mucosa persists. Because of the adherence to the diet, serological markers of CD [immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against gliadin, tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and endomysium] are often missing in RCD patients. We found substantially elevated levels of IgA anti-calreticulin (CRT) antibodies in the sera of almost all RCD patients tested. These sera were negative for IgA antibodies to gliadin and tTG and only some of them showed IgA antibodies to enterocytes. Analysis of patients' IgA reactivity to CRT fragments (quarters and halves) by Western blotting revealed differences in the specificity of IgA antibodies between RCD and CD patients. We therefore used the Pepscan technique with synthetic overlapping decapeptides of CRT to characterize antigenic epitopes recognized by serum IgA antibodies of RCD patients. Employing this method we demonstrated several dominant antigenic epitopes recognized by IgA antibodies of RCD patients on the CRT molecule. Epitope GVTKAAEKQMKD was recognized predominantly by serum IgA of RCD patients. Our results suggest that testing for serum IgA antibodies against CRT and its selected peptide could be a very useful tool in RCD differential diagnosis. PMID:18637103

  8. Is the Antitumor Property of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Mediated by Its Calreticulin?

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Toloza, Galia; Abello, Paula; Ferreira, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Eight to 10 million people in 21 endemic countries are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, only 30% of those infected develop symptoms of Chagas’ disease, a chronic, neglected tropical disease worldwide. Similar to other pathogens, T. cruzi has evolved to resist the host immune response. Studies, performed 80 years ago in the Soviet Union, proposed that T. cruzi infects tumor cells with similar capacity to that displayed for target tissues such as cardiac, aortic, or digestive. An antagonistic relationship between T. cruzi infection and cancer development was also proposed, but the molecular mechanisms involved have remained largely unknown. Probably, a variety of T. cruzi molecules is involved. This review focuses on how T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), exteriorized from the endoplasmic reticulum, targets the first classical complement component C1 and negatively regulates the classical complement activation cascade, promoting parasite infectivity. We propose that this C1-dependent TcCRT-mediated virulence is critical to explain, at least an important part, of the parasite capacity to inhibit tumor development. We will discuss how TcCRT, by directly interacting with venous and arterial endothelial cells, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. Thus, these TcCRT functions not only illustrate T. cruzi interactions with the host immune defensive strategies, but also illustrate a possible co-evolutionary adaptation to privilege a prolonged interaction with its host. PMID:27462315

  9. Calreticulin Binds to Fas Ligand and Inhibits Neuronal Cell Apoptosis Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Beilei; Wu, Zhengzheng; Xu, Jun; Xu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Calreticulin (CRT) can bind to Fas ligand (FasL) and inhibit Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis of Jurkat T cells. However, its effect on neuronal cell apoptosis has not been investigated. Purpose. We aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CRT following ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods. Mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and SH-SY5Y cells subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were used as models for IRI. The CRT protein level was detected by Western blotting, and mRNA expression of CRT, caspase-3, and caspase-8 was measured by real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the localization of CRT and FasL. The interaction of CRT with FasL was verified by coimmunoprecipitation. SH-SY5Y cell viability was determined by MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The measurement of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activity was carried out using caspase activity assay kits. Results. After IRI, CRT was upregulated on the neuron surface and bound to FasL, leading to increased viability of OGD-exposed SH-SY5Y cells and decreased activity of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Conclusions. This study for the first time revealed that increased CRT inhibited Fas/FasL-mediated neuronal cell apoptosis during the early stage of ischemic stroke, suggesting it to be a potential protector activated soon after IRI. PMID:26583143

  10. Is the Antitumor Property of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Mediated by Its Calreticulin?

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Toloza, Galia; Abello, Paula; Ferreira, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Eight to 10 million people in 21 endemic countries are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, only 30% of those infected develop symptoms of Chagas' disease, a chronic, neglected tropical disease worldwide. Similar to other pathogens, T. cruzi has evolved to resist the host immune response. Studies, performed 80 years ago in the Soviet Union, proposed that T. cruzi infects tumor cells with similar capacity to that displayed for target tissues such as cardiac, aortic, or digestive. An antagonistic relationship between T. cruzi infection and cancer development was also proposed, but the molecular mechanisms involved have remained largely unknown. Probably, a variety of T. cruzi molecules is involved. This review focuses on how T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), exteriorized from the endoplasmic reticulum, targets the first classical complement component C1 and negatively regulates the classical complement activation cascade, promoting parasite infectivity. We propose that this C1-dependent TcCRT-mediated virulence is critical to explain, at least an important part, of the parasite capacity to inhibit tumor development. We will discuss how TcCRT, by directly interacting with venous and arterial endothelial cells, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. Thus, these TcCRT functions not only illustrate T. cruzi interactions with the host immune defensive strategies, but also illustrate a possible co-evolutionary adaptation to privilege a prolonged interaction with its host. PMID:27462315

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Moreira, Ana R; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2013-06-01

    Mammalian calreticulin (CRT) is a key molecular chaperone and regulator of Ca(2+) homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), also being implicated in a variety of physiological/pathological processes outside the ER. Importantly, it is involved in assembly of MHC class I molecules. In this work, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) CRT (Dila-CRT) gene and cDNA have been isolated and characterized. The mature protein retains two conserved motifs, three structural/functional domains (N, P and C), three type 1 and 2 motifs repeated in tandem, a conserved pair of cysteines and ER-retention motif. It is a single-copy gene composed of 9 exons. Dila-CRT three-dimensional homology models are consistent with the structural features described for mammalian molecules. Together, these results are supportive of a highly conserved structure of CRT through evolution. Moreover, the present data provides information that will allow further studies on sea bass CRT involvement in immunity and in particular class I antigen presentation.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin inhibits the complement lectin pathway activation by direct interaction with L-Ficolin.

    PubMed

    Sosoniuk, Eduardo; Vallejos, Gerardo; Kenawy, Hany; Gaboriaud, Christine; Thielens, Nicole; Fujita, Teizo; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Ferreira, Arturo; Valck, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, the sixth neglected tropical disease worldwide, infects 10-12 million people in Latin America. Differently from T. cruzi epimastigotes, trypomastigotes are complement-resistant and infective. CRPs, T-DAF, sialic acid and lipases explain at least part of this resistance. In vitro, T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a chaperone molecule that translocates from the ER to the parasite surface: (a) Inhibits the human classical complement activation, by interacting with C1, (b) As a consequence, an increase in infectivity is evident and, (c) It inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. We report here that TcCRT also binds to the L-Ficolin collagenous portion, thus inhibiting approximately between 35 and 64% of the human complement lectin pathway activation, initiated by L-Ficolin, a property not shared by H-Ficolin. While L-Ficolin binds to 60% of trypomastigotes and to 24% of epimastigotes, 50% of the former and 4% of the latter display TcCRT on their surfaces. Altogether, these data indicate that TcCRT is a parasite inhibitory receptor for Ficolins. The resulting evasive activities, together with the TcCRT capacity to inhibit C1, with a concomitant increase in infectivity, may represent T. cruzi strategies to inhibit important arms of the innate immune response.

  13. Thrombospondin-1 interacts with Trypanosoma cruzi surface calreticulin to enhance cellular infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Candice A; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y; Ikejiani, Adaeze O; Udoko, Aniekanabasi N; Cardenas, Tatiana C; Pratap, Siddharth; Duquette, Mark A; Lima, Maria F; Lawler, Jack; Villalta, Fernando; Nde, Pius N

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which is a neglected tropical disease that produces severe pathology and mortality. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades cells are not well elucidated. We recently reported that T. cruzi up-regulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) to enhance the process of cellular invasion. Here we characterize a novel TSP-1 interaction with T. cruzi that enhances cellular infection. We show that labeled TSP-1 interacts specifically with the surface of T. cruzi trypomastigotes. We used TSP-1 to pull down interacting parasite surface proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry. We also show that full length TSP-1 and the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (NTSP) interact with T. cruzi surface calreticulin (TcCRT) and other surface proteins. Pre-exposure of recombinant NTSP or TSP-1 to T. cruzi significantly enhances cellular infection of wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) compared to the C-terminal domain of TSP-1, E3T3C1. In addition, blocking TcCRT with antibodies significantly inhibits the enhancement of cellular infection mediated by the TcCRT-TSP-1 interaction. Taken together, our findings indicate that TSP-1 interacts with TcCRT on the surface of T. cruzi through the NTSP domain and that this interaction enhances cellular infection. Thus surface TcCRT is a virulent factor that enhances the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection through TSP-1, which is up-regulated by the parasite. PMID:22808206

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Moreira, Ana R; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2013-06-01

    Mammalian calreticulin (CRT) is a key molecular chaperone and regulator of Ca(2+) homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), also being implicated in a variety of physiological/pathological processes outside the ER. Importantly, it is involved in assembly of MHC class I molecules. In this work, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) CRT (Dila-CRT) gene and cDNA have been isolated and characterized. The mature protein retains two conserved motifs, three structural/functional domains (N, P and C), three type 1 and 2 motifs repeated in tandem, a conserved pair of cysteines and ER-retention motif. It is a single-copy gene composed of 9 exons. Dila-CRT three-dimensional homology models are consistent with the structural features described for mammalian molecules. Together, these results are supportive of a highly conserved structure of CRT through evolution. Moreover, the present data provides information that will allow further studies on sea bass CRT involvement in immunity and in particular class I antigen presentation. PMID:23523749

  15. Overexpression of a Triticum aestivum Calreticulin gene (TaCRT1) Improves Salinity Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min; Wang, Yun; Xu, Wenqi; Wu, Lintao; Wang, Hancheng; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and abundant multifunctional protein that is encoded by a small gene family and is often associated with abiotic/biotic stress responses in plants. However, the roles played by this protein in salt stress responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain obscure. In this study, three TaCRT genes were identified in wheat and named TaCRT1, TaCRT2 and TaCRT3-1 based on their sequence characteristics and their high homology to other known CRT genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that these three genes exhibit different expression patterns in different tissues and are strongly induced under salt stress in wheat. The calcium-binding properties of the purified recombinant TaCRT1 protein were determined using a PIPES/Arsenazo III analysis. TaCRT1 gene overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum decreased salt stress damage in transgenic tobacco plants. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco plants showed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) than non-transgenic tobacco under normal growth conditions. Interestingly, overexpression of the entire TaCRT1 gene or of partial TaCRT1 segments resulted in significantly higher tolerance to salt stress in transgenic plants compared with their WT counterparts, thus revealing the essential role of the C-domain of TaCRT1 in countering salt stress in plants. PMID:26469859

  16. Calreticulin is required for development of the cumulus oocyte complex and female fertility

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhiro, Keizo; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Nozawa, Kaori; Isotani, Ayako; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Hirashima, Yumiko; Matsumura, Hiroyuki; Takumi, Kazuhiro; Miyano, Takashi; Okabe, Masaru; Benham, Adam M.; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Calnexin (CANX) and calreticulin (CALR) chaperones mediate nascent glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we report that these chaperones have distinct roles in male and female fertility. Canx null mice are growth retarded but fertile. Calr null mice die during embryonic development, rendering indeterminate any effect on reproduction. Therefore, we conditionally ablated Calr in male and female germ cells using Stra8 (mcKO) and Zp3 (fcKO) promoter-driven Cre recombinase, respectively. Calr mcKO male mice were fertile, but fcKO female mice were sterile despite normal mating behavior. Strikingly, we found that Calr fcKO female mice had impaired folliculogenesis and decreased ovulatory rates due to defective proliferation of cuboidal granulosa cells. Oocyte-derived, TGF-beta family proteins play a major role in follicular development and molecular analysis revealed that the normal processing of GDF9 and BMP15 was defective in Calr fcKO oocytes. These findings highlight the importance of CALR in female reproduction and demonstrate that compromised CALR function leads to ovarian insufficiency and female infertility. PMID:26388295

  17. Calreticulin Controls the Rate of Assembly of CD1d Molecules in the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yajuan; Zhang, Wei; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal; Cresswell, Peter

    2010-01-01

    CD1d is an MHC class I-like molecule comprised of a transmembrane glycoprotein (heavy chain) associated with β2-microglobulin (β2m) that presents lipid antigens to NKT cells. Initial folding of the heavy chain involves its glycan-dependent association with calreticulin (CRT), calnexin (CNX), and the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57, and is followed by assembly with β2m to form the heterodimer. Here we show that in CRT-deficient cells CD1d heavy chains convert to β2m-associated dimers at an accelerated rate, indicating faster folding of the heavy chain, while the rate of intracellular transport after assembly is unaffected. Unlike the situation with MHC class I molecules, antigen presentation by CD1d is not impaired in the absence of CRT. Instead, there are elevated levels of stable and functional CD1d on the surface of CRT-deficient cells. Association of the heavy chains with the ER chaperones Grp94 and Bip is observed in the absence of CRT, and these may replace CRT in mediating CD1d folding and assembly. ER retention of free CD1d heavy chains is impaired in CRT-deficient cells, allowing their escape and subsequent expression on the plasma membrane. However, these free heavy chains are rapidly internalized and degraded in lysosomes, indicating that β2m association is required for the exceptional resistance of CD1d to lysosomal degradation that is normally observed. PMID:20861015

  18. Is the Antitumor Property of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Mediated by Its Calreticulin?

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Toloza, Galia; Abello, Paula; Ferreira, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Eight to 10 million people in 21 endemic countries are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, only 30% of those infected develop symptoms of Chagas' disease, a chronic, neglected tropical disease worldwide. Similar to other pathogens, T. cruzi has evolved to resist the host immune response. Studies, performed 80 years ago in the Soviet Union, proposed that T. cruzi infects tumor cells with similar capacity to that displayed for target tissues such as cardiac, aortic, or digestive. An antagonistic relationship between T. cruzi infection and cancer development was also proposed, but the molecular mechanisms involved have remained largely unknown. Probably, a variety of T. cruzi molecules is involved. This review focuses on how T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), exteriorized from the endoplasmic reticulum, targets the first classical complement component C1 and negatively regulates the classical complement activation cascade, promoting parasite infectivity. We propose that this C1-dependent TcCRT-mediated virulence is critical to explain, at least an important part, of the parasite capacity to inhibit tumor development. We will discuss how TcCRT, by directly interacting with venous and arterial endothelial cells, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. Thus, these TcCRT functions not only illustrate T. cruzi interactions with the host immune defensive strategies, but also illustrate a possible co-evolutionary adaptation to privilege a prolonged interaction with its host.

  19. A novel interaction between calreticulin and ubiquitin-like nuclear protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arun; Isogai, Minako; Yamamoto, Taichi; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Hashimoto, Junji; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2004-06-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), a major Ca2+ -sequestering protein, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions such as Ca2+ storage, signaling and chaperone activity within the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum. To investigate the biological role of CRT in rice, 21 partial cDNAs, encoding proteins that interacted with rice CRT in a yeast two-hybrid interaction-cloning system, were characterized and the nucleotide sequences were found to be identical to each other. A full-length cDNA of 3.5 kb, obtained from rice genomic sequence data and 5' RACE, codes for a novel protein of 966 amino acid residues and was designated as CRTintP (CRT interacting protein). Primary sequence analysis of CRTintP showed no sequence homology with the known functional proteins; however, a potential ubiquitin-like domain at the N-terminal together with a putative leucine zipper, a nuclear localization signal and several sites for serine/threonine kinases were evident. Cellular localization of CRTintP demonstrated its role in directing green fluorescent protein to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells. Northern and immunoblot analysis showed increased expression of CRT and CRTintP in response to cold stress. Co-immunoprecipitation using anti-CRT antibodies confirmed the existence of the CRT-CRTintP complex in vivo in the stressed leaf tissue, suggesting their potential role in regulating stress response. PMID:15215503

  20. Novel distribution of calreticulin to cardiomyocyte mitochondria and its increase in a rat model of dilated cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Wei, Jin; Li, Yali; Shan, Hu; Yan, Rui; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Qiuhong; Xue, Jiahong

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • Calreticulin can also be found in cardiomyocyte mitochondria. • The mitochondrial content of calreticulin is increased in DCM hearts. • Increased expression of mitochondrial CRT may induce mitochondrial damage. • Mitochondrial CRT may inhibit the phosphorylation of mitochondrial STAT3. - Abstract: Background: Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca{sup 2+}-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, can also be found in several other locations including the cytosol, nucleus, secretory granules, the outer side of the plasma membrane, and the extracellular matrix. Whether CRT is localized at mitochondria of cardiomyocytes and whether such localization is affected under DCM are still unclear. Methods and results: The DCM model was generated in rats by the daily oral administration of furazolidone for thirty weeks. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies demonstrated enlarged left ventricular dimensions and reduced systolic and diastolic function in DCM rats. Immuno-electron microscopy and Western blot showed that CRT was present in cardiomyocyte mitochondria and the mitochondrial content of CRT was increased in DCM hearts (P < 0.05). Morphometric analysis showed notable myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial swelling with fractured or dissolved cristae in the DCM hearts. Compared with the control group, the mitochondrial membrane potential level of the freshly isolated cardiac mitochondria and the enzyme activities of cytochrome c oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in the model group were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the myocardial apoptosis index and the caspase activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Pearson linear correlation analysis showed that the mitochondrial content of CRT had negative correlations with the mitochondrial function, and a positive correlation with myocardial apoptosis index (P < 0.001). The protein expression level of cytochrome c and the phosphorylation activity of STAT3 in the

  1. Calreticulin mutants in mice induce an MPL-dependent thrombocytosis with frequent progression to myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Marty, Caroline; Pecquet, Christian; Nivarthi, Harini; El-Khoury, Mira; Chachoua, Ilyas; Tulliez, Micheline; Villeval, Jean-Luc; Raslova, Hana; Kralovics, Robert; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Plo, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William

    2016-03-10

    Frameshift mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene are seen in about 30% of essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis patients. To address the contribution of the CALR mutants to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, we engrafted lethally irradiated recipient mice with bone marrow cells transduced with retroviruses expressing these mutants. In contrast to wild-type CALR, CALRdel52 (type I) and, to a lesser extent, CALRins5 (type II) induced thrombocytosis due to a megakaryocyte (MK) hyperplasia. Disease was transplantable into secondary recipients. After 6 months, CALRdel52-, in contrast to rare CALRins5-, transduced mice developed a myelofibrosis associated with a splenomegaly and a marked osteosclerosis. Monitoring of virus-transduced populations indicated that CALRdel52 leads to expansion at earlier stages of hematopoiesis than CALRins5. However, both mutants still specifically amplified the MK lineage and platelet production. Moreover, a mutant deleted of the entire exon 9 (CALRdelex9) did not induce a disease, suggesting that the oncogenic property of CALR mutants was related to the new C-terminus peptide. To understand how the CALR mutants target the MK lineage, we used a cell-line model and demonstrated that the CALR mutants, but not CALRdelex9, specifically activate the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor (MPL) to induce constitutive activation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5/3/1. We confirmed in c-mpl- and tpo-deficient mice that expression of Mpl, but not of Tpo, was essential for the CALR mutants to induce thrombocytosis in vivo, although Tpo contributes to disease penetrance. Thus, CALR mutants are sufficient to induce thrombocytosis through MPL activation. PMID:26608331

  2. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding calreticulin from Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinliang; Luo, Jianxun; Fan, Ruiquan; Fingerle, Volker; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Zhao, Haiping; Ma, Miling; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Dang, Zhisheng; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yin, Hong

    2008-03-01

    The application of anti-tick vaccine has been shown to be the most promising alternative strategy compared to the current use of acaricides that suffer from a number of serious limitations. The success of this method is dependent upon identification and cloning of potential tick vaccine antigens. Previously, we have cloned 21 positive clones (named from Hq02 to Hq22) by immunoscreening complimentary DNA (cDNA) libraries of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis; however, some of those clones did not contain open reading frames (ORF). In this study, we amplified the entire sequence of Hq07 by using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. Hq07 contains an ORF of 1,233 bp that encodes for 410 amino acid residues with a coding capacity of 47 kDa. Search of the cloned sequences against GenBank revealed that Hq07 is a calreticulin (CRT)-similar clone and designated HqCRT. Expression analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that this gene is ubiquitously expressed at different developmental stages and in different tissues of H. qinghaiensis. The gene was expressed as glutathione S-transferase-fused proteins in a prokaryotic system. Western blot analysis revealed that native HqCRT was secreted into their hosts by ticks during blood sucking. Vaccination of sheep with rHqCRT conferred protective immunity against ticks, resulting in 54.3% mortality in adult ticks, compared to the 38.7% death rate in the control group. These results demonstrated that rHqCRT might be a useful vaccine candidate antigen for biological control of H. qinghaiensis.

  3. Calreticulin mutation does not contribute to disease progression in essential thrombocythemia by inhibiting phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Daitoku, Shinya; Takenaka, Katsuto; Yamauchi, Takuji; Yurino, Ayano; Jinnouchi, Fumiaki; Nunomura, Takuya; Eto, Tetsuya; Kamimura, Tomohiko; Higuchi, Masakazu; Harada, Naoki; Saito, Noriyuki; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Akashi, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Somatic mutations of calreticulin (CALR) have been observed in many cases of essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis that harbor non-mutated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). CALR mainly localizes within the endoplasmic reticulum lumen, but a small fraction of the total CALR pool is distributed over the cell surface. Cell surface CALR is known to transduce prophagocytic "eat me" signals to macrophages and acts as one of the important regulators for macrophage engulfment. In this study, we attempted to clarify whether mutant CALR may affect the threshold for macrophage engulfment and play an integral role in the pathogenesis of CALR-mutated ET. First, we compared the surface expression levels of CALR on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mature blood cells in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and found that the surface expression of mutant CALR did not change. Next, we compared the threshold for macrophage phagocytosis of each HSPC fraction and mature blood cells and found no significant change in the efficiency of macrophage engulfment. Our data suggest that CALR mutation does not affect sensitivity to phagocytosis by macrophages. Finally, we analyzed the phosphorylation statuses of molecules downstream of JAK2 at each HSPC level in patients with ET and found that CALR mutations activated the JAK-STAT pathway in a manner similar to that associated with JAK2 mutations. These results indicate that mutant CALR causes myeloproliferation because of the activation of JAK-STAT pathway and not by the inhibition of phagocytosis, which is similar to the myeloproliferation caused by JAK2 V617F mutation. PMID:27185380

  4. Collaboration between a soluble C-type lectin and calreticulin facilitates white spot syndrome virus infection in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Wei; Xu, Yi-Hui; Xu, Ji-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) mainly infects crustaceans through the digestive tract. Whether C-type lectins (CLs), which are important receptors for many viruses, participate in WSSV infection in the shrimp stomach remains unknown. In this study, we orally infected kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus to model the natural transmission of WSSV and identified a CL (designated as M. japonicus stomach virus-associated CL [MjsvCL]) that was significantly induced by virus infection in the stomach. Knockdown of MjsvCL expression by RNA interference suppressed the virus replication, whereas exogenous MjsvCL enhanced it. Further analysis by GST pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation showed that MjsvCL could bind to viral protein 28, the most abundant and functionally relevant envelope protein of WSSV. Furthermore, cell-surface calreticulin was identified as a receptor of MjsvCL, and the interaction between these proteins was a determinant for the viral infection-promoting activity of MjsvCL. The MjsvCL-calreticulin pathway facilitated virus entry likely in a cholesterol-dependent manner. This study provides insights into a mechanism by which soluble CLs capture and present virions to the cell-surface receptor to facilitate viral infection. PMID:25070855

  5. Circulating Calreticulin Is Increased in Myelofibrosis: Correlation with Interleukin-6 Plasma Levels, Bone Marrow Fibrosis, and Splenomegaly

    PubMed Central

    Sollazzo, Daria; Romano, Marco; Luatti, Simona; Vianelli, Nicola; Cavo, Michele; Palandri, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal neoplasia of the hemopoietic stem/progenitor cells associated with genetic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL), and calreticulin (CALR) genes. MF is also characterized by a state of chronic inflammation. Calreticulin (CRT), as a multifunctional protein, is involved in a spectrum of cellular processes including inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer initiation/progression. Based on this background, we hypothesised that in MF circulating CRT might reflect the inflammatory process. In the present study we show that circulating CRT is increased in MF patients compared to healthy controls. Also, in MF, CRT levels highly correlate with bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels. In turn, higher IL-6 levels also correlated with disease severity in terms of increased spleen size, bone marrow fibrosis, number of circulating CD34+ cells, and lower hemoglobin values. These results demonstrate that the circulating CRT takes part in the inflammatory network of MF and correlates with aggressiveness of the disease. PMID:27672242

  6. Expression of calreticulin P-domain results in impairment of secretory pathway in Leishmania donovani and reduced parasite survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Debrabant, Alain; Lee, Nancy; Pogue, Gregory P; Dwyer, Dennis M; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2002-10-01

    The secretory proteins of Leishmania are thought to be involved in the parasite survival inside the insect vector or mammalian host. It is clear from studies in higher eukaryotes that proper folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and targeting out of the endoplasmic reticulum is critical for the function of secretory proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum chaperones such as calreticulin play an important role in the quality control of secretory proteins. However, very little is known about the secretory pathway of trypanosomatid parasites such as Leishmania. In the present study, we show that overexpression of the P-domain of Leishmania donovani calreticulin in transfected L. donovani resulted in a significant reduction in the secretion of the parasite secretory acid phosphatases. This effect is associated with an intracellular accumulation of active enzyme in these transfected parasites. In addition, parasites expressing the P-domain calreticulin showed a significant decrease in survival inside human macrophages. This study suggests that altering the function of an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone such as calreticulin in Leishmania may affect the targeting of proteins that are associated with the virulence of the parasite during their trafficking through the parasite secretory pathway. PMID:12350377

  7. Ectopic expression of a maize calreticulin mitigates calcium deficiency-like disorders in "sCAX1"-expressing tobacco and tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deregulated expression of an Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) antiporter (sCAX1) in agricultural crops increases total calcium (Ca(2+)) but may result in yield losses due to Ca(2+) deficiency-like symptoms. Here we demonstrate that co-expression of a maize calreticulin (CRT, a Ca(2+) binding protein located ...

  8. The miR-27a-calreticulin axis affects drug-induced immunogenic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, T; Polcaro, G; Ziccardi, P; Muccillo, L; Galgani, M; Pucci, B; Rita Milone, M; Budillon, A; Santopaolo, M; Mazzoccoli, G; Matarese, G; Sabatino, L; Colantuoni, V

    2016-01-01

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) evoked by chemotherapeutic agents implies emission of selected damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) such as cell surface exposure of calreticulin, secretion of ATP and HMGB1. We sought to verify whether miR-27a is implicated in ICD, having demonstrated that it directly targets calreticulin. To this goal, we exposed colorectal cancer cell lines, genetically modified to express high or low miR-27a levels, to two bona fide ICD inducers (mitoxantrone and oxaliplatin). Low miR-27a-expressing cells displayed more ecto-calreticulin on the cell surface and increased ATP and HMGB1 secretion than high miR-27a-expressing ones in time-course experiments upon drug exposure. A calreticulin target protector counteracted the miR-27a effects while specific siRNAs mimicked them, confirming the results reported. In addition, miR-27a negatively influenced the PERK-mediated route and the late PI3K-dependent secretory step of the unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting that miR-27a modulates the entire ICD program. Interestingly, upon chemotherapeutic exposure, low miR-27a levels associated with an earlier and stronger induction of apoptosis and with morphological and molecular features of autophagy. Remarkably, in ex vivo setting, under the same chemotherapeutic induction, the conditioned media from high miR-27a-expressing cells impeded dendritic cell maturation while increased the secretion of specific cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8) and negatively influenced CD4+ T-cell interferon γ production and proliferation, all markers of a tumor immunoevasion strategy. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that miR-27a impairs the cell response to drug-induced ICD through the regulatory axis with calreticulin. PMID:26913599

  9. The miR-27a-calreticulin axis affects drug-induced immunogenic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, T; Polcaro, G; Ziccardi, P; Muccillo, L; Galgani, M; Pucci, B; Milone, M Rita; Budillon, A; Santopaolo, M; Mazzoccoli, G; Matarese, G; Sabatino, L; Colantuoni, V

    2016-01-01

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) evoked by chemotherapeutic agents implies emission of selected damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) such as cell surface exposure of calreticulin, secretion of ATP and HMGB1. We sought to verify whether miR-27a is implicated in ICD, having demonstrated that it directly targets calreticulin. To this goal, we exposed colorectal cancer cell lines, genetically modified to express high or low miR-27a levels, to two bona fide ICD inducers (mitoxantrone and oxaliplatin). Low miR-27a-expressing cells displayed more ecto-calreticulin on the cell surface and increased ATP and HMGB1 secretion than high miR-27a-expressing ones in time-course experiments upon drug exposure. A calreticulin target protector counteracted the miR-27a effects while specific siRNAs mimicked them, confirming the results reported. In addition, miR-27a negatively influenced the PERK-mediated route and the late PI3K-dependent secretory step of the unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting that miR-27a modulates the entire ICD program. Interestingly, upon chemotherapeutic exposure, low miR-27a levels associated with an earlier and stronger induction of apoptosis and with morphological and molecular features of autophagy. Remarkably, in ex vivo setting, under the same chemotherapeutic induction, the conditioned media from high miR-27a-expressing cells impeded dendritic cell maturation while increased the secretion of specific cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8) and negatively influenced CD4(+) T-cell interferon γ production and proliferation, all markers of a tumor immunoevasion strategy. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that miR-27a impairs the cell response to drug-induced ICD through the regulatory axis with calreticulin.

  10. Calreticulin and other components of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat and human inflammatory demyelination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CRT) is a chaperone protein, which aids correct folding of glycosylated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Under conditions of ER stress, CRT is upregulated and may be displayed on the surface of cells or be secreted. This ‘ecto-CRT’ may activate the innate immune response or it may aid clearance of apoptotic cells. Our and other studies have demonstrated upregulation of ER stress markers CHOP, BiP, ATF4, XBP1 and phosphorylated e-IF2 alpha (p-eIF2 alpha) in biopsy and post-mortem human multiple sclerosis (MS) samples. We extend this work by analysing changes in expression of CRT, BiP, CHOP, XBP1 and p-eIF2 alpha in a rat model of inflammatory demyelination. Demyelination was induced in the spinal cord by intradermal injection of recombinant mouse MOG mixed with incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA) at the base of the tail. Tissue samples were analysed by semi-quantitative scoring of immunohistochemically stained frozen tissue sections. Data generated following sampling of tissue from animals with spinal cord lesions, was compared to that obtained using tissue derived from IFA- or saline-injected controls. CRT present in rat serum and in a cohort of human serum derived from 14 multiple sclerosis patients and 11 healthy controls was measured by ELISA. Results Stained tissue scores revealed significantly (p<0.05) increased amounts of CRT, CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha in the lesion, lesion edge and normal-appearing white matter when compared to controls. CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha were also significantly raised in regions of grey matter and the central canal (p<0.05). Immunofluorescent dual-label staining confirmed expression of these markers in astrocytes, microglia or neurons. Dual staining of rat and human spinal cord lesions with Oil Red O and CRT antibody showed co-localisation of CRT with the rim of myelin fragments. ELISA testing of sera from control and EAE rats demonstrated significant down-regulation (p<0.05) of CRT in the serum of

  11. Presence of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, calreticulin, and calsequestrin in eggs of sea urchins and Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Parys, J B; McPherson, S M; Mathews, L; Campbell, K P; Longo, F J

    1994-02-01

    The presence of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R), calreticulin, and calsequestrin was demonstrated in eggs of sea urchins (Lytechinus pictus, Lytechinus variegatus, and Strongylocentroutus purpuratus) and Xenopus laevis. Binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) to microsomes of L. pictus eggs was inhibited by heparin and NaCl. An affinity-purified antibody against the C-terminal of the type I InsP3R, which recognizes InsP3R isoforms of rabbit brain (273 kDa) and Xenopus oocytes and eggs (256 kDa), reacted with a 373-kDa protein in sea urchin eggs. The 373-kDa protein was tentatively identified as the sea urchin egg InsP3R. Observations with fluorescence microscopy indicated that the InsP3R is present throughout the cytoplasm of sea urchin eggs in a pattern consistent with the distribution of endoplasmic reticulum. Small differences in the relative amount of reaction deposits in cortex vs subcortex were noted among the species of sea urchins examined. Reaction product was also localized to the periphery of female pronuclei in eggs of all three sea urchins. InsP3R reactivity was present in the perinuclear region, along the periphery of the germinal vesicle, and throughout the animal and vegetal hemispheres of Xenopus oocytes. A similar cytoplasmic staining pattern was also observed in eggs, although islands of reactivity, much larger than those in oocytes, were present in the animal hemisphere of eggs. Calreticulin and calsequestrin in sea urchin eggs had the same molecular mass as in rabbit brain (56 and 60 kDa, respectively), but differed from those present in Xenopus oocytes/eggs (61 and 57 kDa, respectively). The distribution of calreticulin and calsequestrin in both sea urchin and Xenopus oocytes and eggs was similar to that observed for the InsP3R. These results are discussed in relation to previous studies of Ca2+ regulation during egg development and fertilization and suggest that in the oocytes and eggs of the species examined, InsP3

  12. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  13. Frequency of Calreticulin (CALR) Mutation and Its Clinical Prognostic Significance in Essential Thrombocythemia and Primary Myelofibrosis: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hao; Liu, Yancheng; Luo, Sai; Li, Qiaoqiao; Wang, Qinglu

    2016-01-01

    Objective As the calreticulin (CALR) mutation frequency is significantly associated with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), this mutation may be an important biomarker in patients with ET and PMF. Methods We performed a literature search until April 2015 and obtained 21 relevant studies. The outcome was pooled as the effect size by using the Stata software program. Results The CALR mutation frequencies in patients with ET and PMF were 19% and 22%, respectively. The CALR mutation ratio in Asian patients with ET was 23% and higher than that in European-American patients (16%). Moreover, the mutation ratio in Asian patients with PMF was lower (21%) than that in European-American patients (23%). A slight trend toward fibrotic transformation was found in ET with CALR mutations, whereas leukemic transformation was not significant in patients with ET or PMF with CALR mutations. Conclusion CALR mutations significantly influence the incident of ET as demonstrated by the meta-analysis. PMID:27477402

  14. Proteomic screening identifies calreticulin as a miR-27a direct target repressing MHC class I cell surface exposure in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, T; Polcaro, G; Ziccardi, P; Pucci, B; Muccillo, L; Galgani, M; Fucci, A; Milone, M R; Budillon, A; Santopaolo, M; Votino, C; Pancione, M; Piepoli, A; Mazzoccoli, G; Binaschi, M; Bigioni, M; Maggi, C A; Fassan, M; Laudanna, C; Matarese, G; Sabatino, L; Colantuoni, V

    2016-01-01

    Impairment of the immune response and aberrant expression of microRNAs are emerging hallmarks of tumour initiation/progression, in addition to driver gene mutations and epigenetic modifications. We performed a preliminary survey of independent adenoma and colorectal cancer (CRC) miRnoma data sets and, among the most dysregulated miRNAs, we selected miR-27a and disclosed that it is already upregulated in adenoma and further increases during the evolution to adenocarcinoma. To identify novel genes and pathways regulated by this miRNA, we employed a differential 2DE-DIGE proteome analysis. We showed that miR-27a modulates a group of proteins involved in MHC class I cell surface exposure and, mechanistically, demonstrated that calreticulin is a miR-27a direct target responsible for most downstream effects in epistasis experiments. In vitro miR-27a affected cell proliferation and angiogenesis; mouse xenografts of human CRC cell lines expressing different miR-27a levels confirmed the protein variations and recapitulated the cell growth and apoptosis effects. In vivo miR-27a inversely correlated with MHC class I molecules and calreticulin expression, CD8+ T cells infiltration and cytotoxic activity (LAMP-1 exposure and perforin release). Tumours with high miR-27a, low calreticulin and CD8+ T cells' infiltration were associated with distant metastasis and poor prognosis. Our data demonstrate that miR-27a acts as an oncomiRNA, represses MHC class I expression through calreticulin downregulation and affects tumour progression. These results may pave the way for better diagnosis, patient stratification and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26913609

  15. Epitopes of the Onchocerca volvulus RAL1 antigen, a member of the calreticulin family of proteins, recognized by sera from patients with onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Rokeach, L A; Zimmerman, P A; Unnasch, T R

    1994-01-01

    RAL1 is an antigen (Ag) encoded by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, the parasite causing onchocerciasis (river blindness). RAL1 shares 64.4% identity with the autoantigen calreticulin. The striking similarity of the parasite Ag and the human autoantigen has led to the hypothesis that RAL1 may induce a cross-reactive immune response to calreticulin, which in turn may be involved in the pathogenesis of onchocerciasis. To test this hypothesis, we explored the immune response to RAL1 recombinant Ag (RAL1 rAg) and human calreticulin in patients with O. volvulus infection. A total of 86% of the O. volvulus-infected individuals produced antibodies recognizing RAL1 rAg. Antibody reactivity to RAL1 rAg in patient sera was confined primarily to the central and carboxyl-terminal parts of the molecule. No significant correlations were found to associate recognition of RAL1 rAg, or any particular portion thereof, with a particular disease state. Antibodies against RAL1 thus appear to be produced as a general immune reaction to O. volvulus infection and do not necessarily lead to a cross-reacting response with the host protein. In contrast, 33% of the patient sera tested bound recombinant human calreticulin. All of these sera also recognized a polypeptide encompassing the carboxyl-terminal portion of the RAL1 rAg. These results suggest that recognition of an epitope encoded in the carboxyl-terminal portion of RAL1 is at least in part responsible for inducing a cross-reacting immune response to the host protein. Images PMID:7520419

  16. Over-expression of Chinese cabbage calreticulin 1, BrCRT1, enhances shoot and root regeneration, but retards plant growth in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheng-Lu; Hong, Joon Ki; Yang, Kyung Ae; Koo, Ja Choon; Choi, Young Ju; Chung, Woo Sik; Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sang Yeol; Cho, Moo Je; Lim, Chae Oh

    2005-10-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a ubiquitously expressed, high capacity Ca(2+)-binding protein that is involved in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and molecular chaperoning in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A cDNA encoding a calreticulin, BrCRT1 (Brassica rapa Calreticulin 1), has been isolated from Chinese cabbage (B. rapa subsp. pekinensis) flower bud. Constitutive over-expression of the BrCRT1 gene promotes robust shoot production and root formation at sub-optimal concentrations of BA/NAA, which are important factors controlling plant regeneration in tissue culture. In contrast, the suppressed BrCRT1 line exhibited a slight reduction of shoot and root regeneration. In spite of enhanced regeneration in tissue culture, the seedling and plant growth rate was inhibited in soil. The steady state level of BrCRT1 transcripts was sensitive to exogenous auxins and cytokinins, and rapidly accumulated within 30 min, and this induction required de novo protein synthesis. Together with the results of transgenic tobacco plants and mRNA analysis in Chinese cabbage, our data suggest that BrCRT1 genes may up-regulate the competency of vegetative tissue to respond to hormonal signals involved in shoot and root regeneration processes.

  17. Catalyzed sodium chlorate candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malich, C. W.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    The catalytic effect of cobalt powder on chlorate decomposition has been confirmed. Catalysis is enhanced by oxidation of the metal during burning. Catalysts other than cobalt compounds should also be effective; the complete elimination of fuel has shown that the oxidation of cobalt during decomposition is not a vital factor in the improved performance of catalyzed candles.

  18. Tritium catalyzed deuterium tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.; Jung, J.; Gilligan, J.

    1984-04-01

    A preliminary assessment of the promise of the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium (TCD) tokamak power reactors relative to that of deuterium-tritium (D-T) and catalyzed deuterium (Cat-D) tokamaks is undertaken. The TCD mode of operation is arrived at by converting the /sup 3/He from the D(D,n)/sup 3/He reaction into tritium, by neutron capture in the blanket; the tritium thus produced is fed into the plasma. There are three main parts to the assessment: blanket study, reactor design and economic analysis and an assessment of the prospects for improvements in the performance of TCD reactors (and in the promise of the TCD mode of operation, in general).

  19. Occurrence of calreticulin during the exchange of nucleohistones into protamine-type proteins in Chara vulgaris spermiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Popłońska, Katarzyna

    2013-02-01

    During spermiogenesis of an alga Chara vulgaris, which resembles that of animals, nucleohistones are replaced by protamine-type proteins. This exchange takes place in a spermatid nucleus during the key V spermiogenesis stage, in which rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of protamine-type protein synthesis and is also the pathway guiding the proteins to their destination, nucleus. In the present work, it was shown that a chaperon protein, calreticulin (CRT), abundantly present at this significant V stage of spermiogenesis in a few cellular compartments, i.e., a nucleus, lumen of cisternae, and vesicles of significantly swollen ER as well as outside these structures, e.g., in Golgi apparatus, could have taken part in the process of exchange of nuclear proteins. Colocalization of two proteins, protamine-type proteins, crucial for reproduction, and CRT, was especially visible in a nucleus, mainly on its peripheries where condensed chromatin was present. Localization of protamine-type proteins and CRT in nucleus is in agreement with our previous results showing that protamine-type proteins were twofold more labelled in the peripheral area in comparison to the nucleus center occupied by noncondensed chromatin. The role of CRT in the reproduction of both plants and animals is also discussed.

  20. Immunological mechanisms involved in the protection against intestinal taeniosis elicited by oral immunization with Taenia solium calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Mendlovic, Fela; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Vaughan, Gilberto; Salazar, Ana María; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2012-11-01

    Oral immunization with functional recombinant Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) induces 37% reduction in tapeworm burden in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters. Furthermore, tapeworms recovered from vaccinated animals exhibit diminished length, being frequently found in more posterior parts of the small intestine. The aim of this study was to analyze the immunological mechanisms involved in protection in response to rTsCRT oral immunization. Hamsters were orally immunized with rTsCRT using cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant, weekly for 4 weeks. Fifteen days after the last boost animals were challenged with four T. solium cysticerci. Reduction in the adult worm recovery and increased transcription of mRNA for IL-4 and IFN-γ in the mucosa of rTsCRT+CT immunized animals were observed. Immunization also induced goblet cell hyperplasia in the mucosa surrounding the implantation site of the parasite. Specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and fecal supernatants were detected after the second immunization, being more pronounced after challenge. Our data suggest that oral vaccination with rTsCRT+CT regulates a local expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ, stimulating secretion of IgA that, together with the increase of goblet cells and mucin production, could result in an unfavorable environment for T. solium promoting an impaired tapeworm development.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) antibacterial response revealed the involvement of apextrin and calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Haynes, Paul A; Bove, Ulysse; Nair, Sham V; Raftos, David A

    2011-02-01

    Echinoderms evolved early in the deuterostome lineage, and as such constitute model organisms for comparative physiology and immunology. The sea urchin genome sequence (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) revealed a complex repertoire of genes with similarities to the immune response genes of other species. To complement these genomic data, we investigated the responses of sea urchins to the injection of bacteria using a comparative proteomics approach on a closely related species. In the sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the relative abundance of many proteins was altered in response to the injection of both bacteria and saline, suggesting their involvement in wounding responses, while others were differentially altered in response to bacteria only. The identities of 15 proteins that differed in relative abundance were determined by mass spectrometry. These proteins revealed a significant modification in energy metabolism in coelomocytes towards the consumption of glutamate and the production of NADPH after injection, as well as an increased concentration of cell signalling molecules, such as heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein. The injection of bacteria specifically increased the abundance of apextrin and calreticulin, suggesting that these two proteins are involved in the sequestration or inactivation of bacteria.

  2. Involvement of calreticulin in cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in diallyl disulfide-treated HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lan; Shan, Jian; Chen, Xin; Li, Guoqing; Li, Linwei; Tan, Hui; Su, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) has shown potential as a therapeutic agent in various cancers. Previously, calreticulin (CRT) was found to be downregulated in differentiated HL-60 cells treated with DADS. The present study investigated the role of CRT proteins in DADS-induced proliferation, invasion and differentiation in HL-60 cells. The present study demonstrated that DADS treatment significantly changed the morphology of HL-60 cells and caused the significant time-dependent downregulation of CRT. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRT expression significantly inhibited proliferation, decreased invasion ability, increased the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)11b and reduced the expression of CD33 in DADS-treated HL-60 cells. DADS also significantly affected cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in CRT-overexpressed HL-60 cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays showed decreased NBT reduction activity in the CRT overexpression group and increased NBT reduction in the CRT siRNA group. Following treatment with DADS, the NBT reduction abilities in all groups were increased. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the downregulation of CRT during DADS-induced differentiation in HL-60 cells and indicates that CRT is involved in cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in DADS-treated HL-60 cells. PMID:27588133

  3. Detection of cell surface calreticulin as a potential cancer biomarker using near-infrared emitting gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Bala Subramaniyam; Giorgakis, Emmanouil; Lopez-Davila, Victor; Dashtarzheneha, Ashkan Kamali; Loizidou, Marilena

    2016-07-15

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein. The aim of this study was to investigate CRT presence in cancer with the use of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) and to explore AuNC synthesis using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a coating agent. MSA-coated AuNCs conferred well-dispersed, bio-stable, water-soluble nanoparticles with bioconjugation capacity and 800-850 nm fluorescence after broad-band excitation. Cell-viability assay revealed good AuNC tolerability. A native CRT amino-terminus corresponding peptide sequence was synthesised and used to generate rabbit site-specific antibodies. Target specificity was demonstrated with antibody blocking in colorectal and breast cancer cell models; human umbilical vein endothelial cells served as controls. We demonstrated a novel route of AuNC/MSA manufacture and CRT presence on colonic and breast cancerous cell surface. AuNCs served as fluorescent bio-probes specifically recognising surface-bound CRT. These results are promising in terms of AuNC application in cancer theranostics and CRT use as surface biomarker in human cancer. PMID:27255548

  4. Two endoplasmic reticulum proteins (calnexin and calreticulin) are involved in innate immunity in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Hui, Kaimin; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Calnexin (Cnx) and calreticulin (Crt), which are important chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), participate in the folding and quality control of client proteins. Cnx and Crt identified from Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) are designated as EsCnx and EsCrt, respectively. EsCnx and EsCrt are expressed in the hemocyte, hepatopancrea, gill, and intestine at the mRNA and protein level. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that EsCnx and EsCRT are located in the ER. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of EsCnx and EsCrt were altered by challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycans (PGN), Staphyloccocus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Recombinant EsCnx and EsCrt (rEsCnx and rEsCrt, respectively) proteins can bind to various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as to different polysaccharides (LPS and PGN). rEsCnx and rEsCrt assisted in the clearance of V. parahaemolyticus in vivo, and the clearance efficiency was impaired after silencing of EsCnx and EsCrt. Our results suggest that the two ER proteins are involved in anti-bacterial immunity in E. sinensis. PMID:27279413

  5. A new monoclonal antibody (CAL2) detects CALRETICULIN mutations in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies.

    PubMed

    Stein, H; Bob, R; Dürkop, H; Erck, C; Kämpfe, D; Kvasnicka, H-M; Martens, H; Roth, A; Streubel, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the diagnostic of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) discovered CALRETICULIN (CALR) mutations as a major driver in these disorders. In contrast to JAK2 mutations being mainly associated with polycythaemia vera, CALR mutations are only associated with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET). CALR mutations are present in the majority of PMF and ET patients lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. As these CALR mutations are absent from reactive bone marrow (BM) lesions their presence indicates ET or PMF. So far these mutations are detectable only by molecular assays. Their molecular detection is cumbersome because of the great CALR mutation heterogeneity. Therefore, the availability of a simple assay would be of great help. All CALR mutations reported lead to a frameshift generating a new 36 amino-acid C-terminus. We generated a monoclonal antibody (CAL2) to this C-neoterminus by immunizing mice with a representative peptide and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing data in 173 MPNs and other BM diseases. There was a 100% correlation between the molecular and the CAL2 immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Thus, the detection of CALR mutations by the CAL2 IHC is a specific, sensitive, rapid, simple and low-cost method.

  6. Two endoplasmic reticulum proteins (calnexin and calreticulin) are involved in innate immunity in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Hui, Kaimin; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Calnexin (Cnx) and calreticulin (Crt), which are important chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), participate in the folding and quality control of client proteins. Cnx and Crt identified from Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) are designated as EsCnx and EsCrt, respectively. EsCnx and EsCrt are expressed in the hemocyte, hepatopancrea, gill, and intestine at the mRNA and protein level. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that EsCnx and EsCRT are located in the ER. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of EsCnx and EsCrt were altered by challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycans (PGN), Staphyloccocus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Recombinant EsCnx and EsCrt (rEsCnx and rEsCrt, respectively) proteins can bind to various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as to different polysaccharides (LPS and PGN). rEsCnx and rEsCrt assisted in the clearance of V. parahaemolyticus in vivo, and the clearance efficiency was impaired after silencing of EsCnx and EsCrt. Our results suggest that the two ER proteins are involved in anti-bacterial immunity in E. sinensis. PMID:27279413

  7. A molluscan calreticulin ortholog from Haliotis discus discus: Molecular characterization and transcriptional evidence for its role in host immunity.

    PubMed

    Udayantha, H M V; Godahewa, G I; Bathige, S D N K; Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Jeong, Hyung-Bok; Lim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-05-20

    Calreticulin (CALR), a Ca(2+) binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mainly involved in Ca(2+) storage and signaling. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and immune responses of CALR homolog from disk abalone (AbCALR). The full length AbCALR cDNA (1837 bp) had an ORF of 1224 bp. According to the multiple alignments analysis, N- and P-domains were highly conserved in all the selected members of CALRs. In contrast, the C-domain which terminated with the characteristic ER retrieval signal (HDEL) was relatively less conserved. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all the selected molluscan homologs clustered together. Genomic sequence of AbCALR revealed that cDNA sequence was dispersed into ten exons interconnected with nine introns. AbCALR mRNA expression shows the significant (P < 0.05) up-regulation of AbCALR transcripts in hemocytes upon bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus), viral (Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus; VHSV) and immune stimulants (LPS and poly I:C) challenges at middle and/or late phases. These results collectively implied that AbCALR is able to be stimulated by pathogenic signals and might play a potential role in host immunity. PMID:27086846

  8. A molluscan calreticulin ortholog from Haliotis discus discus: Molecular characterization and transcriptional evidence for its role in host immunity.

    PubMed

    Udayantha, H M V; Godahewa, G I; Bathige, S D N K; Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Jeong, Hyung-Bok; Lim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-05-20

    Calreticulin (CALR), a Ca(2+) binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mainly involved in Ca(2+) storage and signaling. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and immune responses of CALR homolog from disk abalone (AbCALR). The full length AbCALR cDNA (1837 bp) had an ORF of 1224 bp. According to the multiple alignments analysis, N- and P-domains were highly conserved in all the selected members of CALRs. In contrast, the C-domain which terminated with the characteristic ER retrieval signal (HDEL) was relatively less conserved. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all the selected molluscan homologs clustered together. Genomic sequence of AbCALR revealed that cDNA sequence was dispersed into ten exons interconnected with nine introns. AbCALR mRNA expression shows the significant (P < 0.05) up-regulation of AbCALR transcripts in hemocytes upon bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus), viral (Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus; VHSV) and immune stimulants (LPS and poly I:C) challenges at middle and/or late phases. These results collectively implied that AbCALR is able to be stimulated by pathogenic signals and might play a potential role in host immunity.

  9. Functional interplay of SP family members and nuclear factor Y is essential for transcriptional activation of the human Calreticulin gene.

    PubMed

    Schardt, Julian A; Keller, Manuela; Seipel, Katja; Pabst, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) is a highly conserved, multifunctional protein involved in a variety of cellular processes including the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, proper protein folding, differentiation and immunogenic cell death. More recently, a crucial role for CALR in the pathogenesis of certain hematologic malignancies was discovered: in clinical subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia, CALR overexpression mediates a block in differentiation, while somatic mutations have been found in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) or thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL). However, the mechanisms underlying CALR promoter activation have insufficiently been investigated so far. By dissecting the core promoter region, we could identify a functional TATA-box relevant for transcriptional activation. In addition, we characterized two evolutionary highly conserved cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) within the proximal promoter each composed of one binding site for the transcription factors SP1 and SP3 as well as for the nuclear transcription factor Y (NFY) and we verified binding of these factors to their cognate sites in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Detection of cell surface calreticulin as a potential cancer biomarker using near-infrared emitting gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniyam Ramesh, Bala; Giorgakis, Emmanouil; Lopez-Davila, Victor; Kamali Dashtarzheneha, Ashkan; Loizidou, Marilena

    2016-07-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein. The aim of this study was to investigate CRT presence in cancer with the use of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) and to explore AuNC synthesis using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a coating agent. MSA-coated AuNCs conferred well-dispersed, bio-stable, water-soluble nanoparticles with bioconjugation capacity and 800-850 nm fluorescence after broad-band excitation. Cell-viability assay revealed good AuNC tolerability. A native CRT amino-terminus corresponding peptide sequence was synthesised and used to generate rabbit site-specific antibodies. Target specificity was demonstrated with antibody blocking in colorectal and breast cancer cell models; human umbilical vein endothelial cells served as controls. We demonstrated a novel route of AuNC/MSA manufacture and CRT presence on colonic and breast cancerous cell surface. AuNCs served as fluorescent bio-probes specifically recognising surface-bound CRT. These results are promising in terms of AuNC application in cancer theranostics and CRT use as surface biomarker in human cancer.

  11. Detection of cell surface calreticulin as a potential cancer biomarker using near-infrared emitting gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniyam Ramesh, Bala; Giorgakis, Emmanouil; Lopez-Davila, Victor; Kamali Dashtarzheneha, Ashkan; Loizidou, Marilena

    2016-07-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein. The aim of this study was to investigate CRT presence in cancer with the use of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) and to explore AuNC synthesis using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a coating agent. MSA-coated AuNCs conferred well-dispersed, bio-stable, water-soluble nanoparticles with bioconjugation capacity and 800–850 nm fluorescence after broad-band excitation. Cell-viability assay revealed good AuNC tolerability. A native CRT amino-terminus corresponding peptide sequence was synthesised and used to generate rabbit site-specific antibodies. Target specificity was demonstrated with antibody blocking in colorectal and breast cancer cell models; human umbilical vein endothelial cells served as controls. We demonstrated a novel route of AuNC/MSA manufacture and CRT presence on colonic and breast cancerous cell surface. AuNCs served as fluorescent bio-probes specifically recognising surface-bound CRT. These results are promising in terms of AuNC application in cancer theranostics and CRT use as surface biomarker in human cancer.

  12. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  13. A Nematode Calreticulin, Rs-CRT, Is a Key Effector in Reproduction and Pathogenicity of Radopholus similis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Wang, Yan-Tao; Wang, Dong-Wei; Xu, Chun-Lin; Huang, Xin; Wang, De-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Radopholus similis is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes severe damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops. Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding multifunctional protein that plays key roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many animal parasites and plant nematodes. Therefore, CRT is a promising target for controlling R. similis. In this study, we obtained the full-length sequence of the CRT gene from R. similis (Rs-crt), which is 1,527-bp long and includes a 1,206-bp ORF that encodes 401 amino acids. Rs-CRT and Mi-CRT from Meloidogyne incognita showed the highest similarity and were grouped on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. Rs-crt is a multi-copy gene that is expressed in the oesophageal glands and gonads of females, the gonads of males, the intestines of juveniles and the eggs of R. similis. The highest Rs-crt expression was detected in females, followed by juveniles, eggs and males. The reproductive capability and pathogenicity of R. similis were significantly reduced after treatment with Rs-crt dsRNA for 36 h. Using plant-mediated RNAi, we confirmed that Rs-crt expression was significantly inhibited in the nematodes, and resistance to R. similis was significantly improved in transgenic tomato plants. Plant-mediated RNAi-induced silencing of Rs-crt could be effectively transmitted to the F2 generation of R. similis; however, the silencing effect of Rs-crt induced by in vitro RNAi was no longer detectable in F1 and F2 nematodes. Thus, Rs-crt is essential for the reproduction and pathogenicity of R. similis. PMID:26061142

  14. Honokiol confers immunogenicity by dictating calreticulin exposure, activating ER stress and inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lai, De-Wei; Wu, Sheng-Mao; Liu, Chia-Yu; Tien, Hsing-Ru; Chiu, Chien-Shan; Peng, Yen-Chun; Jan, Yee-Jee; Chao, Te-Hsin; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Sheu, Meei-Ling

    2015-04-01

    Peritoneal dissemination is a major clinical obstacle in gastrointestinal cancer therapy, and it accounts for the majority of cancer-related mortality. Calreticulin (CRT) is over-expressed in gastric tumors and has been linked to poor prognosis. In this study, immunohistochemistry studies revealed that the up-regulation of CRT was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with gastric cancer specimens. CRT was significantly down-regulated in highly metastatic gastric cancer cell lines and metastatic animal by Honokiol-treated. Small RNA interference blocking CRT by siRNA-CRT was translocated to the cells in the early immunogenic response to Honokiol. Honokiol activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activity resulting in PPARγ and CRT degradation through calpain-II activity, which could be reversed by siRNA-calpain-II. The Calpain-II/PPARγ/CRT axis and interaction evoked by Honokiol could be blocked by gene silencing or pharmacological agents. Both transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced cell migration, invasion and reciprocal down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin, which could be abrogated by siRNA-CRT. Moreover, Honokiol significantly suppressed MNNG-induced gastrointestinal tumor growth and over-expression of CRT in mice. Knockdown CRT in gastric cancer cells was found to effectively reduce growth ability and metastasis in vivo. The present study provides insight into the specific biological behavior of CRT in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest that the therapeutic inhibition of CRT by Honokiol suppresses both gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by dictating early translocation of CRT in immunogenic cell death, activating ER stress, and blocking EMT. PMID:25619450

  15. Role of calreticulin in the sensitivity of myocardiac H9c2 cells to oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kondo, Takahito

    2006-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a vital role in cardiac physiology and pathology. Oxidative stress is a main cause of myocardiac apoptosis in the ischemic heart, but the function of CRT under oxidative stress is not fully understood. In the present study, the effect of overexpression of CRT on susceptibility to apoptosis under oxidative stress was examined using myocardiac H9c2 cells transfected with the CRT gene. Under oxidative stress due to H2O2, the CRT-overexpressing cells were highly susceptible to apoptosis compared with controls. In the overexpressing cells, the levels of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) were significantly increased by H2O2, whereas in controls, only a slight increase was observed. The H2O2-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the increase in [Ca2+]i caused by thapsigargin in control cells but was suppressed by BAPTA-AM, a cell-permeable Ca2+ chelator in the CRT-overexpressing cells, indicating the importance of the level of [Ca2+]i in the sensitivity to H2O2-induced apoptosis. Suppression of CRT by the introduction of the antisense cDNA of CRT enhanced cytoprotection against oxidative stress compared with controls. Furthermore, we found that the levels of activity of calpain and caspase-12 were elevated through the regulation of [Ca2+]i in the CRT-overexpressing cells treated with H2O2 compared with controls. Thus we conclude that the level of CRT regulates the sensitivity to apoptosis under oxidative stress due to H2O2 through a change in Ca2+ homeostasis and the regulation of the Ca2+-calpain-caspase-12 pathway in myocardiac cells. PMID:16135540

  16. A Nematode Calreticulin, Rs-CRT, Is a Key Effector in Reproduction and Pathogenicity of Radopholus similis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Wang, Yan-Tao; Wang, Dong-Wei; Xu, Chun-Lin; Huang, Xin; Wang, De-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Radopholus similis is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes severe damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops. Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding multifunctional protein that plays key roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many animal parasites and plant nematodes. Therefore, CRT is a promising target for controlling R. similis. In this study, we obtained the full-length sequence of the CRT gene from R. similis (Rs-crt), which is 1,527-bp long and includes a 1,206-bp ORF that encodes 401 amino acids. Rs-CRT and Mi-CRT from Meloidogyne incognita showed the highest similarity and were grouped on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. Rs-crt is a multi-copy gene that is expressed in the oesophageal glands and gonads of females, the gonads of males, the intestines of juveniles and the eggs of R. similis. The highest Rs-crt expression was detected in females, followed by juveniles, eggs and males. The reproductive capability and pathogenicity of R. similis were significantly reduced after treatment with Rs-crt dsRNA for 36 h. Using plant-mediated RNAi, we confirmed that Rs-crt expression was significantly inhibited in the nematodes, and resistance to R. similis was significantly improved in transgenic tomato plants. Plant-mediated RNAi-induced silencing of Rs-crt could be effectively transmitted to the F2 generation of R. similis; however, the silencing effect of Rs-crt induced by in vitro RNAi was no longer detectable in F1 and F2 nematodes. Thus, Rs-crt is essential for the reproduction and pathogenicity of R. similis. PMID:26061142

  17. Role of calreticulin in the sensitivity of myocardiac H9c2 cells to oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kondo, Takahito

    2006-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a vital role in cardiac physiology and pathology. Oxidative stress is a main cause of myocardiac apoptosis in the ischemic heart, but the function of CRT under oxidative stress is not fully understood. In the present study, the effect of overexpression of CRT on susceptibility to apoptosis under oxidative stress was examined using myocardiac H9c2 cells transfected with the CRT gene. Under oxidative stress due to H2O2, the CRT-overexpressing cells were highly susceptible to apoptosis compared with controls. In the overexpressing cells, the levels of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) were significantly increased by H2O2, whereas in controls, only a slight increase was observed. The H2O2-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the increase in [Ca2+]i caused by thapsigargin in control cells but was suppressed by BAPTA-AM, a cell-permeable Ca2+ chelator in the CRT-overexpressing cells, indicating the importance of the level of [Ca2+]i in the sensitivity to H2O2-induced apoptosis. Suppression of CRT by the introduction of the antisense cDNA of CRT enhanced cytoprotection against oxidative stress compared with controls. Furthermore, we found that the levels of activity of calpain and caspase-12 were elevated through the regulation of [Ca2+]i in the CRT-overexpressing cells treated with H2O2 compared with controls. Thus we conclude that the level of CRT regulates the sensitivity to apoptosis under oxidative stress due to H2O2 through a change in Ca2+ homeostasis and the regulation of the Ca2+-calpain-caspase-12 pathway in myocardiac cells.

  18. The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

  19. Molecular responses of calreticulin gene to Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV challenge in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Liu, Ping; Li, Jitao; Wang, Yun; Li, Jian; Chen, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), as a highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum luminal resident protein, plays important roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis, molecular chaperoning and response to viral infection. In this study, a full-length cDNA of CRT (designated EcCRT) was cloned from hemocytes of the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcCRT was 1725 bp, which contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 57 bp, 3'-UTR of 453 bp with a poly (A) tail, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1215 bp, encoding a 404 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 46.51 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 4.32. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcCRT shared high identity (82%-85%) with that of other crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EcCRT of E. carinicauda was clustered together with CRT of other shrimps, indicating that EcCRT should be a member of the CRT family. Quantitative real-time RT-qPCR analysis indicated that EcCRT was expressed in hemocytes, gill, hepatopancreas, muscle, ovary, intestine, stomach and eyestalk, with the highest expression level in hemocytes. After Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV challenge, the expression level of EcCRT transcripts both in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas of E. carinicauda were up-regulated in the first 6 h, respectively. The results suggested that EcCRT might be associated with the immune defenses to V. anguillarum and WSSV in E. carinicauda.

  20. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  1. Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Couplings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Dai, Yijing; Gong, Hegui

    2016-08-01

    The Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of alkyl/aryl with other electrophiles has evolved to be an important protocol for the construction of C-C bonds. This chapter first emphasizes the recent progress on the Ni-catalyzed alkylation, arylation/vinylation, and acylation of alkyl electrophiles. A brief overview of CO2 fixation is also addressed. The chemoselectivity between the electrophiles and the reactivity of the alkyl substrates will be detailed on the basis of different Ni-catalyzed conditions and mechanistic perspective. The asymmetric formation of C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) bonds arising from activated alkyl halides is next depicted followed by allylic carbonylation. Finally, the coupling of aryl halides with other C(sp(2))-electrophiles is detailed at the end of this chapter. PMID:27573395

  2. Silanediol-Catalyzed Chromenone Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Hardman-Baldwin, Andrea M; Visco, Michael D; Wieting, Joshua M; Stern, Charlotte; Kondo, Shin-Ichi; Mattson, Anita E

    2016-08-01

    Promising levels of enantiocontrol are observed in the silanediol-catalyzed addition of silyl ketene acetals to benzopyrylium triflates. This rare example of enantioselective, intermolecular chromenone functionalization with carbonyl-containing nucleophiles has potential applications in the synthesis of bioactive chromanones and tetrahydroxanthones. PMID:27453257

  3. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  4. Pd-catalyzed steroid reactions.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska-Szczykowska, Dorota; Morzycki, Jacek W; Wojtkielewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-05-01

    We review the most important achievements of the last decade in the field of steroid synthesis in the presence of palladium catalysts. Various palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, including Heck, Suzuki, Stille, Sonogashira, Negishi and others, are exemplified with steroid transformations.

  5. Identification of Up- and Down-Regulated Proteins in Pemetrexed-Resistant Human Lung Adenocarcinoma: Flavin Reductase and Calreticulin Play Key Roles in the Development of Pemetrexed-Associated Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Chen, Jing-Yi; Lin, Dai-Ying; Wen, Yueh-Feng; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lin, Sheng-Hao; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Chung, Ting-Wen; Liao, En-Chi; Chen, Ying-Jen; Wei, Yu-Shan; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Chan, Hong-Lin

    2015-11-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major causes of cancer chemotherapy failure. In the current study, we used a pair of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and the pemetrexed-resistant A549/PEM cells, as a model to monitor resistance-dependent cellular responses and identify potential therapeutic targets. By means of 2D differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), we investigated the global protein expression alterations induced by pemetrexed treatment and resistance. The proteomic result revealed that pemetrexed exposure obviously altered the expression of 81 proteins in the A549 cells, whereas no significant response was observed in the similarly treated A549/PEM cells, hence implying an association between these proteins and the drug-specific response. Moreover, 72 proteins including flavin reductase and calreticulin demonstrated differential expression between the A549 and A549/PEM cells, indicating baseline resistance. Additional tests employed siRNA silencing, protein overexpression, cell viability analysis, and analysis of apoptosis to examine and confirm the potency of flavin reductase and calreticulin proteins in the development of pemetrexed resistance. In summary, by using a proteomic approach, we identified numerous proteins, including flavin reductase and calreticulin, involved in pemetrexed drug resistance-developing mechanisms. Our results provide useful diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for pemetrexed-resistant lung cancer treatment.

  6. Gold-Catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcadi, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Synthesis of Heterocycles via Gold-Catalyzed Heteroatom Addition to Unsaturated C-C Bonds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization of Polyunsaturated Compounds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds via α-Oxo Gold Carbenoid * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cycloaddition Reactions * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Activation of Carbonyl Groups and Alcohols * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds through Gold-Mediated C-H Bond Functionalization * Gold-Catalyzed Domino Cyclization/Oxidative Coupling Reactions * Conclusions * References

  7. Catalyzed oxidation for nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Kaiping; Sun, Ke; Huang, Bo; Dillon, Shen J.

    2014-04-01

    A simple, low-cost and scalable route to substrate-supported nanowire growth is reported based on catalyzed oxidation. The process shares common features with popular catalyzed nanowire growth techniques such as vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), vapor-solid-solid (VSS), or vapor-quasi-solid (VQS) that use catalyst nanoparticles to direct the deposition of reactants from the vapor phase. Catalyzed oxidation for nanowire growth (CONG) utilizes catalyzed anion (e.g. O2) reduction from the vapor phase and metal (e.g. Fe) oxidation from the substrate to produce oxide nanowires (e.g. Fe3O4). The approach represents a new class of nanowire growth methodology that may be applied to a broad range of systems. CONG does not require expensive chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition equipment and can be implemented at intermediate temperatures (400-600 °C) in a standard laboratory furnace. This work also demonstrates a passive approach to catalyst deposition that allows the process to be implemented simply with no lithography or physical vapor deposition steps. This effort validates the general approach by synthesizing MnO, Fe3O4, WO3, MgO, TiO2, ZnO, ReO3, and NiO nanowires via CONG. The process produces single crystalline nanowires that can be grown to high aspect ratio and as high-density nanowire forests. Applications of the as-grown Fe3O4 and ReO3 nanowires for lithium ion battery systems are demonstrated to display high areal energy density and power.

  8. Catalyzed oxidation for nanowire growth.

    PubMed

    Tai, Kaiping; Sun, Ke; Huang, Bo; Dillon, Shen J

    2014-04-11

    A simple, low-cost and scalable route to substrate-supported nanowire growth is reported based on catalyzed oxidation. The process shares common features with popular catalyzed nanowire growth techniques such as vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), vapor-solid-solid (VSS), or vapor-quasi-solid (VQS) that use catalyst nanoparticles to direct the deposition of reactants from the vapor phase. Catalyzed oxidation for nanowire growth (CONG) utilizes catalyzed anion (e.g. O2) reduction from the vapor phase and metal (e.g. Fe) oxidation from the substrate to produce oxide nanowires (e.g. Fe3O4). The approach represents a new class of nanowire growth methodology that may be applied to a broad range of systems. CONG does not require expensive chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition equipment and can be implemented at intermediate temperatures (400-600 °C) in a standard laboratory furnace. This work also demonstrates a passive approach to catalyst deposition that allows the process to be implemented simply with no lithography or physical vapor deposition steps. This effort validates the general approach by synthesizing MnO, Fe3O4, WO3, MgO, TiO2, ZnO, ReO3, and NiO nanowires via CONG. The process produces single crystalline nanowires that can be grown to high aspect ratio and as high-density nanowire forests. Applications of the as-grown Fe3O4 and ReO3 nanowires for lithium ion battery systems are demonstrated to display high areal energy density and power.

  9. Is it all That Bad When Living with an Intracellular Protozoan? The Role of Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin in Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Toloza, Galia; Aguilar-Guzmán, Lorena; Valck, Carolina; Abello, Paula; Ferreira, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The immune system protects against disease, but may aberrantly silence immunity against “altered self,” with consequent development of malignancies. Among the components of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), important in immunity, is calreticulin (CRT) that, in spite of its residence in the ER, can be translocated to the exterior. Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of Chagas disease, one of the most important global neglected infections, affecting several hundred thousand people. The syndrome, mainly digestive and circulatory, affects only one-third of those infected. The anti-tumor effects of the infection are known for several decades, but advances in the identification of responsible T. cruzi molecules are scarce. We have shown that T. cruzi CRT (TcCRT) better executes the antiangiogenic and anti-tumor effects of mammal CRT and its N-terminus vasostatin. In this regard, recombinant TcCRT (rTcCRT) and/or its N-terminus inhibit angiogenesis in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. TcCRT also inhibits the growth of murine adenocarcinomas and melanomas. Finally, rTcCRT fully reproduces the anti-tumor effect of T. cruzi infection in mice. Thus, we hypothesize that, the long reported anti-tumor effect of T. cruzi infection is mediated at least in part by TcCRT. PMID:25629005

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi carrying a monoallelic deletion of the calreticulin (TcCRT) gene are susceptible to complement mediated killing and defective in their metacyclogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Valdéz, Fernando J; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Zago, M Paola; Labriola, Carlos; Ferreira, Arturo; Basombrío, Miguel Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT) can hijack complement C1, mannan-binding lectin and ficolins from serum thus inhibiting the classical and lectin complement pathway activation respectively. To understand the in vivo biological functions of TcCRT in T. cruzi we generated a clonal cell line lacking one TcCRT allele (TcCRT+/-) and another clone overexpressing it (TcCRT+). Both clones were derived from the TCC T. cruzi strain. As expected, TcCRT+/- epimastigotes showed impairment on TcCRT synthesis, whereas TcCRT+ ones showed increased protein levels. In correlation to this, monoallelic mutant parasites were significantly susceptible to killing by the complement machinery. On the contrary, TcCRT+ parasites showed higher levels of resistance to killing mediate by the classical and lectin but not the alternative pathway. The involvement of surface TcCRT in depleting C1 was demonstrated through restoration of serum killing activity by addition of exogenous C1. In axenic cultures, a reduced propagation rate of TcCRT+/- parasites was observed. Moreover, TcCRT+/- parasites presented a reduced rate of differentiation in in vitro assays. As shown by down- or upregulation of TcCRT expression this gene seems to play a major role in providing T. cruzi with the ability to resist complement system. PMID:22954747

  11. Calreticulin expression: Interaction with the immune infiltrate and impact on survival in patients with ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Gautier; Iribarren, Kristina; Michels, Judith; Leary, Alexandra; Zitvogel, Laurence; Cremer, Isabelle; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-07-01

    Loss of expression of calreticulin (CALR) has been detected by immunohistochemistry in a fraction of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and has been demonstrated to have a major negative prognostic impact on overall patient survival. Here, we analyzed the impact of CALR expression levels detected by microarray finding a positive correlation between CALR and the expression of a metagene indicating the presence of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in NSCLC and ovarian cancer. In addition, we detected a positive correlation with a metagene suggestive of activated dendritic cell (aDC) infiltration in ovarian cancer. Combination of two parameters (CALR + DC (dendritic cell) in NSCL and CALR + aDC in ovarian cancer) or three parameters (CALR + CTL + DC in NSCL and CALR + CTL + aDC in ovarian cancer) had a significant impact on overall patient survival in NSCL (Adenoconsortium) and ovarian cancer (TCGA collection), allowing the stratification of patients in high-risk and low-risk groups. In addition, CALR and aDC alone have a significant impact on overall survival in ovarian cancer. In contrast, in mammary, colorectal and prostate cancer, CALR had no impact on patient survival if analyzed alone or in combination with the immune infiltrate. In addition, CALR correlates with CTL infiltrate in three cancer types (colorectal, breast, ovarian). Altogether, these results support the contention that, at least in some cancers, loss of CALR expression may negatively affect immunosurveillance, thereby reducing patient survival. PMID:27622029

  12. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  13. Clinical Manifestation of Calreticulin Gene Mutations in Essential Thrombocythemia without Janus Kinase 2 and MPL Mutations: A Chinese Cohort Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chao; Zhou, Xin; Zou, Zhi-Jian; Guo, Hong-Feng; Li, Jian-Yong; Qiao, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, calreticulin (CALR) gene mutations have been identified in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET). A high-frequency of ET cases without Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutations contain CALR mutations and exhibit clinical characteristics different from those with mutant JAK2. Thus, we investigated the frequency and clinical features of Chinese patients of Han ethnicity with CALR mutations in ET. Methods: We recruited 310 Chinese patients of Han ethnicity with ET to analyze states of CALR, JAK2V617F, and MPLW515 mutations by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. We analyzed the relationship between the mutations and clinical features. Results: CALR, JAK2V617F, and MPLW515 mutations were detected in 30% (n = 92), 48% (n = 149), and 1% (n = 4) of patients with ET, respectively. The mutation types of CALR involved deletion and insertion of base pairs. Most of them were Type 1 (52-bp deletion) and Type 2 (5-bp insertion, TTGTC) mutations, leading to del367fs46 and ins385fs47, respectively. The three mutations were exclusive. Clinically, patients with mutated CALR had a lower hemoglobin level, lower white blood cell (WBC) count, and higher platelet count compared to those with mutated JAK2 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant difference was found in WBCs between wild-type patients (triple negative for JAK2, MPL, and CALR mutations) and patients with JAK2 mutations. Patients with CALR mutations predominantly clustered into low or intermediate groups according to the International Prognostic Score of thrombosis for ET (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CALR mutations were frequent in Chinese patients with ET, especially in those without JAK2 or MPL mutations. Compared with JAK2 mutant ET, CALR mutant ET showed a different clinical manifestation and an unfavorable prognosis. Thus, CALR is a potentially valuable diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in ET. PMID:27453224

  14. BEND3 is involved in the human-specific repression of calreticulin: Implication for the evolution of higher brain functions in human.

    PubMed

    Aghajanirefah, A; Nguyen, L N; Ohadi, M

    2016-01-15

    Recent emerging evidence indicates that changes in gene expression levels are linked to human evolution. We have previously reported a human-specific nucleotide in the promoter sequence of the calreticulin (CALR) gene at position -220C, which is the site of action of valproic acid. Reversion of this nucleotide to the ancestral A-allele has been detected in patients with degrees of deficit in higher brain cognitive functions. This mutation has since been reported in the 1000 genomes database at an approximate frequency of <0.0004 in humans (rs138452745). In the study reported here, we present update on the status of rs138452745 across evolution, based on the Ensembl and NCBI databases. The DNA pulldown assay was also used to identify the proteins binding to the C- and A-alleles, using two cell lines, SK-N-BE and HeLa. Consistent with our previous findings, the C-allele is human-specific, and the A-allele is the rule across all other species (N=38). This nucleotide resides in a block of 12-nucleotides that is strictly conserved across evolution. The DNA pulldown experiments revealed that in both SK-N-BE and HeLa cells, the transcription repressor BEN domain containing 3 (BEND3) binds to the human-specific C-allele, whereas the nuclear factor I (NFI) family members, NF1A, B, C, and X, specifically bind to the ancestral A-allele. This binding pattern is consistent with a previously reported decreased promoter activity of the C-allele vs. the A-allele. We propose that there is a link between binding of BEND3 to the CALR rs138452745 C-allele and removal of NFI binding site from this nucleotide, and the evolution of human-specific higher brain functions. To our knowledge, CALR rs138452745 is the first instance of enormous nucleotide conservation across evolution, except in the human species.

  15. Decreased gene expression activity as a result of a mutation in the calreticulin gene promoter in a family case of schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Farashi, S; Ohadi, M; Hosseinkhani, S; Darvish, H; Mirabzadeh, A

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence of population association studies support the hypothesis that the high heritability of major psychiatric disorders is a combination of relatively common alleles of modest effect, and rare alleles some with relatively larger effects. We have previously reported low frequency mutations in the proximal promoter of the human calreticulin (CALR) gene that co-occur with the spectrum of major psychiatric disorders. One of those mutations at -205C>T (rs556992558) was detected in an isolate case of schizoaffective disorder. In the current study, the functional implication of mutation -205T is studied in the human neuronal cell lines LAN-5, BE(2)-C and HEK-293. In contrast with other mutations in the promoter region which increase gene expression activity, the -205T mutation significantly decreased gene expression in those cell lines in comparison with the wild-type -205C nucleotide (p < 0.000001, p < 0.0005, and p < 0.017, respectively). Treatment of the cell lines with the mood-stabilizing drug, valproic acid (VPA) resulted in differential gene expression activity in the mutant -205T versus the wild-type -205C construct. VPA increased gene expression activity in both constructs, while a significantly higher expression activity was observed in the mutant construct (p < 0.01), indicative of the creation of a positive effector binding site for VPA as a result of the -205T mutation. We conclude that deviation from normalcy in the level of CALR in either direction is associated with major psychiatric disorders. PMID:27275382

  16. BEND3 is involved in the human-specific repression of calreticulin: Implication for the evolution of higher brain functions in human.

    PubMed

    Aghajanirefah, A; Nguyen, L N; Ohadi, M

    2016-01-15

    Recent emerging evidence indicates that changes in gene expression levels are linked to human evolution. We have previously reported a human-specific nucleotide in the promoter sequence of the calreticulin (CALR) gene at position -220C, which is the site of action of valproic acid. Reversion of this nucleotide to the ancestral A-allele has been detected in patients with degrees of deficit in higher brain cognitive functions. This mutation has since been reported in the 1000 genomes database at an approximate frequency of <0.0004 in humans (rs138452745). In the study reported here, we present update on the status of rs138452745 across evolution, based on the Ensembl and NCBI databases. The DNA pulldown assay was also used to identify the proteins binding to the C- and A-alleles, using two cell lines, SK-N-BE and HeLa. Consistent with our previous findings, the C-allele is human-specific, and the A-allele is the rule across all other species (N=38). This nucleotide resides in a block of 12-nucleotides that is strictly conserved across evolution. The DNA pulldown experiments revealed that in both SK-N-BE and HeLa cells, the transcription repressor BEN domain containing 3 (BEND3) binds to the human-specific C-allele, whereas the nuclear factor I (NFI) family members, NF1A, B, C, and X, specifically bind to the ancestral A-allele. This binding pattern is consistent with a previously reported decreased promoter activity of the C-allele vs. the A-allele. We propose that there is a link between binding of BEND3 to the CALR rs138452745 C-allele and removal of NFI binding site from this nucleotide, and the evolution of human-specific higher brain functions. To our knowledge, CALR rs138452745 is the first instance of enormous nucleotide conservation across evolution, except in the human species. PMID:26481236

  17. Decreased gene expression activity as a result of a mutation in the calreticulin gene promoter in a family case of schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Farashi, S; Ohadi, M; Hosseinkhani, S; Darvish, H; Mirabzadeh, A

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence of population association studies support the hypothesis that the high heritability of major psychiatric disorders is a combination of relatively common alleles of modest effect, and rare alleles some with relatively larger effects. We have previously reported low frequency mutations in the proximal promoter of the human calreticulin (CALR) gene that co-occur with the spectrum of major psychiatric disorders. One of those mutations at -205C>T (rs556992558) was detected in an isolate case of schizoaffective disorder. In the current study, the functional implication of mutation -205T is studied in the human neuronal cell lines LAN-5, BE(2)-C and HEK-293. In contrast with other mutations in the promoter region which increase gene expression activity, the -205T mutation significantly decreased gene expression in those cell lines in comparison with the wild-type -205C nucleotide (p < 0.000001, p < 0.0005, and p < 0.017, respectively). Treatment of the cell lines with the mood-stabilizing drug, valproic acid (VPA) resulted in differential gene expression activity in the mutant -205T versus the wild-type -205C construct. VPA increased gene expression activity in both constructs, while a significantly higher expression activity was observed in the mutant construct (p < 0.01), indicative of the creation of a positive effector binding site for VPA as a result of the -205T mutation. We conclude that deviation from normalcy in the level of CALR in either direction is associated with major psychiatric disorders.

  18. Gold-catalyzed naphthalene functionalization.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Pedro J; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Rivilla, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The complexes IPrMCl (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene, M = Cu, 1a; M = Au, 1b), in the presence of one equiv of NaBAr'(4) (Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl), catalyze the transfer of carbene groups: C(R)CO(2)Et (R = H, Me) from N(2)C(R)CO(2)Et to afford products that depend on the nature of the metal center. The copper-based catalyst yields exclusively a cycloheptatriene derivative from the Buchner reaction, whereas the gold analog affords a mixture of products derived either from the formal insertion of the carbene unit into the aromatic C-H bond or from its addition to a double bond. In addition, no byproducts derived from carbene coupling were observed.

  19. Gold-catalyzed naphthalene functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Rivilla, Iván

    2011-01-01

    Summary The complexes IPrMCl (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene, M = Cu, 1a; M = Au, 1b), in the presence of one equiv of NaBAr'4 (Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl), catalyze the transfer of carbene groups: C(R)CO2Et (R = H, Me) from N2C(R)CO2Et to afford products that depend on the nature of the metal center. The copper-based catalyst yields exclusively a cycloheptatriene derivative from the Buchner reaction, whereas the gold analog affords a mixture of products derived either from the formal insertion of the carbene unit into the aromatic C–H bond or from its addition to a double bond. In addition, no byproducts derived from carbene coupling were observed. PMID:21647320

  20. Gold-catalyzed naphthalene functionalization.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Pedro J; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Rivilla, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The complexes IPrMCl (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene, M = Cu, 1a; M = Au, 1b), in the presence of one equiv of NaBAr'(4) (Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl), catalyze the transfer of carbene groups: C(R)CO(2)Et (R = H, Me) from N(2)C(R)CO(2)Et to afford products that depend on the nature of the metal center. The copper-based catalyst yields exclusively a cycloheptatriene derivative from the Buchner reaction, whereas the gold analog affords a mixture of products derived either from the formal insertion of the carbene unit into the aromatic C-H bond or from its addition to a double bond. In addition, no byproducts derived from carbene coupling were observed. PMID:21647320

  1. Rh-Catalyzed Five-Membered Heterocycle Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, Subban; Nicholls, Ian A.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Rhodium-catalyzed nitrogen containing five-membered heterocycle synthesis * Rhodium-catalyzed oxygen containing five-membered heterocycle synthesis * Rhodium-catalyzed sulfur containing five-membered heterocycle synthesis * Rhodium-catalyzed phosphorous containing five-membered heterocycle synthesis * Rhodium-catalyzed silicon containing five-membered heterocycle synthesis * Rhodium-catalyzed synthesis of bis-heterocycles * Conclusions and outlook * References

  2. Transition metal-catalyzed functionalization of pyrazines.

    PubMed

    Nikishkin, Nicolai I; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2013-06-14

    Transition metal-catalyzed reactions are generally used for carbon-carbon bond formation on pyrazines and include, but are not limited to, classical palladium-catalyzed reactions like Sonogashira, Heck, Suzuki, and Stille reactions. Also a few examples of carbon-heteroatom bond formation in pyrazines are known. This perspective reviews recent progress in the field of transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions on pyrazine systems. It deals with the most important C-C- and C-X-bond formation methodologies.

  3. In Silico and In Vitro Studies on the Protein-Protein Interactions between Brugia malayi Immunomodulatory Protein Calreticulin and Human C1q

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sunita; Gupta, Smita; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Verma, Anita; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Filarial parasites modulate effective immune response of their host by releasing a variety of immunomodulatory molecules, which help in the long persistence of the parasite within the host. The present study was aimed to characterize an immunomodulatory protein of Brugia malayi and its interaction with the host immune component at the structural and functional level. Our findings showed that Brugia malayi Calreticulin (BmCRT) is responsible for the prevention of classical complement pathway activation via its interaction with the first component C1q of the human host. This was confirmed by inhibition of C1q dependent lysis of immunoglobulin-sensitized Red Blood Cells (S-RBCs). This is possibly the first report which predicts CRT-C1q interaction on the structural content of proteins to explain how BmCRT inhibits this pathway. The molecular docking of BmCRT-C1q complex indicated that C1qB chain (IgG/M and CRP binding sites on C1q) played a major role in the interaction with conserved and non-conserved regions of N and P domain of BmCRT. Out of 37 amino acids of BmCRT involved in the interaction, nine amino acids (Pro126, Glu132, His147, Arg151, His153, Met154, Lys156, Ala196 and Lys212) are absent in human CRT. Both ELISA and in silico analysis showed the significant role of Ca+2 in BmCRT-HuC1q complex formation and deactivation of C1r2–C1s2. Molecular dynamics studies of BmCRT-HuC1q complex showed a deviation from ∼0.4 nm to ∼1.0 nm. CD analyses indicated that BmCRT is composed of 49.6% α helix, 9.6% β sheet and 43.6% random coil. These findings provided valuable information on the architecture and chemistry of BmCRT-C1q interaction and supported the hypothesis that BmCRT binds with huC1q at their targets (IgG/M, CRP) binding sites. This interaction enables the parasite to interfere with the initial stage of host complement activation, which might be helpful in parasites establishment. These results might be utilized for help in blocking the C1q

  4. Calreticulin acts as an adjuvant to promote dendritic cell maturation and enhances antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinli; Li, Jijia; Liu, Yu; Ding, Jianqiao; Tong, Zhuang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Yongyu

    2016-02-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has promising for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Melanoma-associated antigen 3 (MAGE-A3) is a tumor-specific antigen and expressed in approximately 35-40% of NSCLC tissues. Calreticulin (CALR) is a protein chaperone and can enhance DC maturation and antigen presentation. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvant activity of CALR in human DC maturation and their capacity to induce MAGE-A3-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to NSCLC in vitro. Infection with recombinant Ad-CALR and/or Ad-MAGE-A3, but not with control Ads, induced CALR and/or MAGE-A3 expression in DCs. Infection with Ad-CALR significantly increased the percentages of CD80+, CD83+, CD86+ and HLA-DR+ DCs and IL-12 secretion, but reduced IL-10 production in DCs. Co-culture of autologous lymphocytes with DC-Ad-CALR or DC-Ad-CM significantly increased the numbers of induced CD8+ CTLs. The percentages of IFNγ-secreting CTLs responding to SK-LU-1 and NCI-H522 NSCLC, but not to non-tumor NL-20 cells in Ad-C-CTL, Ad-M-CTL and Ad-CM-CTL were significantly higher than that of DC-CTL and Ad-null-CTL. Ad-C-CTL, Ad-M-CTL and Ad-CM-CTL, but not control DC-CTL and Ad-null-CTL, induced higher frequency of MAGE-A3+HLA-A2+ NCI-H-522 cell apoptosis, but did not affect the survival of MAGE-A3+HLA-A2- SK-LU-1 and non-tumor NL20 cells in vitro. Treatment with anti-HLA-I antibody, but not with anti-HLA-II, dramatically diminished the cytotoxicity of Ad-CM-CTLs against NCI-H522 cells. Our data indicated that CALR acted as an adjuvant to promote DC maturation, which induced CTL development and enhanced MAGE-A3-specific CTL cytotoxicity against NSCLC.

  5. Overexpression of calreticulin increases the Ca2+ capacity of rapidly exchanging Ca2+ stores and reveals aspects of their lumenal microenvironment and function

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    A molecularly tagged form of calreticulin (CR), a low affinity-high capacity Ca2+ binding protein that resides in the ER lumen, was transiently transfected into HeLa cells to specifically modify the Ca2+ buffering capacity of the intracellular Ca2+ stores. Fluorescence and confocal microscope immunocytochemistry revealed the tagged protein to be expressed by over 40% of the cells and to overlap in its distribution the endogenous CR yielding a delicate cytoplasmic network, i.e., the typical pattern of ER. In contrast, no signal was observed associated with the plasmalemma (marked by ConA) and within the nucleus. One- and two-dimensional Western blots revealed the transfected to exceed the endogenous CR of approximately 3.5-fold and to maintain its Ca2+ binding ability, whereas the expression of other ER proteins was unchanged. Ca2+ homeostasis in the transfected cells was investigated by three parallel approaches: (a) 45Ca equilibrium loading of cell populations; (b) [Ca2+]c measurement with fura-2 followed by quantitative immunocytochemistry of single cells and iii) [Ca2+]c measurement of cell population upon cotransfection with the Ca(2+)-sensitive photoprotein, aequorin. The three approaches revealed different aspects of Ca2+ homeostasis, yielding results which were largely complementary. In particular, the following conclusions were established: (a) both endogenous and transfected CR participate in Ca2+ buffering within the IP3-sensitive, rapidly exchanging, Ca2+ stores; the other pools of the cells were in contrast unaffected by CR transfection; (b) the Ca2+ capacity of the stores is not the main limiting factor of individual IP3-mediated Ca2+ release responses triggered by receptor agonists; (c) in control cells, the contribution of CR to Ca2+ buffering within the IP3-sensitive stores accounts for approximately 45% of the total, the rest being probably contributed by the other lumenal (and also membrane) Ca2+ binding proteins; (d) the free [Ca2+] within the

  6. Iron catalyzed asymmetric oxyamination of olefins.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kevin S; Yoon, Tehshik P

    2012-08-01

    The regioselective and enantioselective oxyamination of alkenes with N-sulfonyl oxaziridines is catalyzed by a novel iron(II) bis(oxazoline) complex. This process affords oxazolidine products that can be easily manipulated to yield highly enantioenriched free amino alcohols. The regioselectivity of this process is complementary to that obtained from the analogous copper(II)-catalyzed reaction. Thus, both regioisomers of enantioenriched 1,2-aminoalcohols can be obtained using oxaziridine-mediated oxyamination reactions, and the overall sense of regiochemistry can be controlled using the appropriate choice of inexpensive first-row transition metal catalyst. PMID:22793789

  7. Attractor Explosions and Catalyzed Vacuum Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Silverstein, Eva; Starr, David

    2006-05-05

    We present a mechanism for catalyzed vacuum bubble production obtained by combining moduli stabilization with a generalized attractor phenomenon in which moduli are sourced by compact objects. This leads straightforwardly to a class of examples in which the Hawking decay process for black holes unveils a bubble of a different vacuum from the ambient one, generalizing the new endpoint for Hawking evaporation discovered recently by Horowitz. Catalyzed vacuum bubble production can occur for both charged and uncharged bodies, including Schwarzschild black holes for which massive particles produced in the Hawking process can trigger vacuum decay. We briefly discuss applications of this process to the population and stability of metastable vacua.

  8. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  9. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Richland, WA; Hart,; Todd, R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  10. Iridium-catalyzed enantioselective polyene cyclization.

    PubMed

    Schafroth, Michael A; Sarlah, David; Krautwald, Simon; Carreira, Erick M

    2012-12-19

    A highly enantioselective polycyclization method has been developed using the combination of Lewis acid activation with iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This strategy relies on direct use of branched, racemic allylic alcohols and furnishes a diverse and unique set of carbo- and heteropolycyclic ring systems in good yields and ≥99% ee. PMID:23193947

  11. Microorganisms detected by enzyme-catalyzed reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vango, S. P.; Weetall, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Enzymes detect the presence of microorganisms in soils. The enzyme lysozymi is used to release the enzyme catalase from the microorganisms in a soil sample. The catalase catalyzes the decomposition of added hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen which is detected manometrically. The partial pressure of the oxygen serves as an index of the samples bacteria content.

  12. Rhodium-catalyzed restructuring of carbon frameworks.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro

    2010-10-01

    Metal-catalyzed reactions involving an elementary step which cleaves a carbon-carbon bond provide unique organic transformations. Restructuring reactions recently developed in our laboratory, through which the carbon framework of a starting substance is restructured into a totally different carbon framework, are discussed, with the possibility of applying such methods to the synthesis of natural products.

  13. Data, Leadership, and Catalyzing Culture Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, R. Todd; Trower, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial to understand today's tenure-track workers so that colleges and universities can continue to attract and retain a large subset of them by understanding and supporting their satisfaction and success at work. In this article, the authors talk about data, leadership, and catalyzing culture change. They discuss data use in the academy…

  14. Zinc-catalyzed depolymerization of artificial polyethers.

    PubMed

    Enthaler, Stephan; Weidauer, Maik

    2012-02-13

    Recycling polymers: In the present study, the efficient zinc-catalyzed depolymerization of a variety of artificial polyethers has been investigated. Chloroesters were obtained as the depolymerization products, which are suitable precursors for new polymers. By using straightforward zinc salts, extraordinary catalyst activities and selectivities were feasible (see scheme). PMID:22253040

  15. Mechanochemical ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis.

    PubMed

    Do, Jean-Louis; Mottillo, Cristina; Tan, Davin; Štrukil, Vjekoslav; Friščić, Tomislav

    2015-02-25

    We describe the development of a mechanochemical approach for Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis, including cross-metathesis and ring-closing metathesis. The method uses commercially available catalysts to achieve high-yielding, rapid, room-temperature metathesis of solid or liquid olefins on a multigram scale using either no or only a catalytic amount of a liquid. PMID:25668586

  16. Catalyzing curriculum evolution in graduate science education.

    PubMed

    Gutlerner, Johanna L; Van Vactor, David

    2013-05-01

    Strategies in life science graduate education must evolve in order to train a modern workforce capable of integrative solutions to challenging problems. Our institution has catalyzed such evolution through building a postdoctoral Curriculum Fellows Program that provides a collaborative and scholarly education laboratory for innovation in graduate training.

  17. Copper-Catalyzed Borylcupration of Allenylsilanes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weiming; Song, Liu; Ma, Shengming

    2016-02-24

    A highly regio- and stereoselective copper-catalyzed borylcupration of 1,2-allenylsilanes affords an unexpected regioreversed allylic boronate bearing an extra C-Si bond at the 3-position, with a thermodynamically disfavored Z geometry. Such stereodefined allylic boronates containing an extra alkenyl silane moiety are very useful organodimetallic reagents for organic synthesis. PMID:26821774

  18. Mechanochemical ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis.

    PubMed

    Do, Jean-Louis; Mottillo, Cristina; Tan, Davin; Štrukil, Vjekoslav; Friščić, Tomislav

    2015-02-25

    We describe the development of a mechanochemical approach for Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis, including cross-metathesis and ring-closing metathesis. The method uses commercially available catalysts to achieve high-yielding, rapid, room-temperature metathesis of solid or liquid olefins on a multigram scale using either no or only a catalytic amount of a liquid.

  19. Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The…

  20. Gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective cycloaddition reactions.

    PubMed

    López, Fernando; Mascareñas, José L

    2013-10-30

    In recent years there have been extraordinary developments of gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective processes. This includes progress in the area of cycloaddition reactions, which are of particular interest due to their potential for the rapid construction of optically active cyclic products. In this article we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, emphasizing reaction mechanisms and key intermediates involved in the processes.

  1. Iridium-catalyzed enantioselective polyene cyclization.

    PubMed

    Schafroth, Michael A; Sarlah, David; Krautwald, Simon; Carreira, Erick M

    2012-12-19

    A highly enantioselective polycyclization method has been developed using the combination of Lewis acid activation with iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This strategy relies on direct use of branched, racemic allylic alcohols and furnishes a diverse and unique set of carbo- and heteropolycyclic ring systems in good yields and ≥99% ee.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Environmentally Benign Acylation.

    PubMed

    Suchand, Basuli; Satyanarayana, Gedu

    2016-08-01

    Recent trends in research have gained an orientation toward developing efficient strategies using innocuous reagents. The earlier reported transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylations involved either toxic carbon monoxide (CO) gas as carbonylating agent or functional-group-assisted ortho sp(2) C-H activation (i.e., ortho acylation) or carbonylation by activation of the carbonyl group (i.e., via the formation of enamines). Contradicting these methods, here we describe an environmentally benign process, [Pd]-catalyzed direct carbonylation starting from simple and commercially available iodo arenes and aldehydes, for the synthesis of a wide variety of ketones. Moreover, this method comprises direct coupling of iodoarenes with aldehydes without activation of the carbonyl and also without directing group assistance. Significantly, the strategy was successfully applied to the synthesis n-butylphthalide and pitofenone. PMID:27377566

  3. Heterogeneously-Catalyzed Conversion of Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Karine De Oliveira; Jérôme, François

    Polyfunctionality of carbohydrates and their low solubility in conventional organic solvents make rather complex their conversion to higher value added chemicals. Therefore, innovative processes are now strongly needed in order to increase the selectivity of these reactions. Here, we report an overview of the different heterogeneously-catalyzed processes described in the literature. In particular, hydrolysis, dehydration, oxidation, esterification, and etherification of carbohydrates are presented. We shall discuss the main structural parameters that need to be controlled and that permit the conversion of carbohydrates to bioproducts with good selectivity. The conversion of monosaccharides and disaccharides over solid catalysts, as well as recent advances in the heterogeneously-catalyzed conversion of cellulose, will be presented.

  4. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  5. Antiproton catalyzed microfission/fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Pi-Ren; Lewis, Raymond A.; Smith, Gerald A.; Newton, Richard; Dailey, James; Werthman, W. Lance; Chakrabarti, Suman

    1994-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) utilizing an antiproton catalyzed hybrid fission/fusion target is discussed as a potential energy source for interplanetary propulsion. A proof-of-principle experiment underway at Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB and antiproton trapping experiments at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, are presented. The ICAN propulsion concept is described and results of performance analyses are reviewed. Future work to further define the ICAN concept is outlined.

  6. Gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective cycloaddition reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary In recent years there have been extraordinary developments of gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective processes. This includes progress in the area of cycloaddition reactions, which are of particular interest due to their potential for the rapid construction of optically active cyclic products. In this article we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, emphasizing reaction mechanisms and key intermediates involved in the processes. PMID:24204438

  7. Desaturation reactions catalyzed by soluble methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Lipscomb, J D

    2001-09-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) is shown to be capable of catalyzing desaturation reactions in addition to the usual hydroxylation and epoxidation reactions. Dehydrogenated products are generated from MMO-catalyzed oxidation of certain substrates including ethylbenzene and cyclohexadienes. In the reaction of ethylbenzene, desaturation of ethyl C-H occurred along with the conventional hydroxvlations of ethyl and phenyl C-Hs. As a result, styrene is formed together with ethylphenols and phenylethanols. Similarly, when 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadienes were used as substrates, benzene was detected as a product in addition to the corresponding alcohols and epoxides. In all cases, reaction conditions were found to significantly affect the distribution among the different products. This new activity of MMO is postulated to be associated with the chemical properties of the substrates rather than fundamental changes in the nature of the oxygen and C-H activation chemistries. The formation of the desaturated products is rationalized by formation of a substrate cationic intermediate, possibly via a radical precursor. The cationic species is then proposed to partition between recombination (alcohol formation) and elimination (alkene production) pathways. This novel function of MMO indicates close mechanistic kinship between the hydroxylation and desaturation reactions catalyzed by the nonheme diiron clusters.

  8. Fe-catalyzed etching of graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guangjun; Calizo, Irene; Hight Walker, Angela; PML, NIST Team

    We investigate the Fe-catalyzed etching of graphene layers in forming gas. Fe thin films are deposited by sputtering onto mechanically exfoliated graphene, few-layer graphene (FLG), and graphite flakes on a Si/SiO2 substrate. When the sample is rapidly annealed in forming gas, particles are produced due to the dewetting of the Fe thin film and those particles catalyze the etching of graphene layers. Monolayer graphene and FLG regions are severely damaged and that the particles catalytically etch channels in graphite. No etching is observed on graphite for the Fe thin film annealed in nitrogen. The critical role of hydrogen indicates that this graphite etching process is catalyzed by Fe particles through the carbon hydrogenation reaction. By comparing with the etched monolayer and FLG observed for the Fe film annealed in nitrogen, our Raman spectroscopy measurements identify that, in forming gas, the catalytic etching of monolayer and FLG is through carbon hydrogenation. During this process, Fe particles are catalytically active in the dissociation of hydrogen into hydrogen atoms and in the production of hydrogenated amorphous carbon through hydrogen spillover.

  9. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Bioorthogonal Cycloaddition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maiyun; Yang, Yi; Chen, Peng R

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, bioorthogonal reactions have emerged as a powerful toolbox for specific labeling and visualization of biomolecules, even within the highly complex and fragile living systems. Among them, copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is one of the most widely studied and used biocompatible reactions. The cytotoxicity of Cu(I) ions has been greatly reduced due to the use of Cu(I) ligands, which enabled the CuAAC reaction to proceed on the cell surface, as well as within an intracellular environment. Meanwhile, other transition metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and silver are now under development as alternative sources for catalyzing bioorthogonal cycloadditions. In this review, we summarize the development of CuAAC reaction as a prominent bioorthogonal reaction, discuss various ligands used in reducing Cu(I) toxicity while promoting the reaction rate, and illustrate some of its important biological applications. The development of additional transition metals in catalyzing cycloaddition reactions will also be briefly introduced. PMID:27572985

  10. Imidazole catalyzes chlorination by unreactive primary chloramines.

    PubMed

    Roemeling, Margo D; Williams, Jared; Beckman, Joseph S; Hurst, James K

    2015-05-01

    Hypochlorous acid and simple chloramines (RNHCl) are stable biologically derived chlorinating agents. In general, the chlorination potential of HOCl is much greater than that of RNHCl, allowing it to oxidize or chlorinate a much wider variety of reaction partners. However, in this study we demonstrate by kinetic analysis that the reactivity of RNHCl can be dramatically promoted by imidazole and histidyl model compounds via intermediary formation of the corresponding imidazole chloramines. Two biologically relevant reactions were investigated--loss of imidazole-catalyzed chlorinating capacity and phenolic ring chlorination using fluorescein and the tyrosine analog, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). HOCl reacted stoichiometrically with imidazole, N-acetylhistidine (NAH), or imidazoleacetic acid to generate the corresponding imidazole chloramines which subsequently decomposed. Chloramine (NH2Cl) also underwent a markedly accelerated loss in chlorinating capacity when NAH was present, although in this case N-α-acetylhistidine chloramine (NAHCl) did not accumulate, indicating that the catalytic intermediate must be highly reactive. Mixing HOCl with 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) led to very rapid loss in chlorinating capacity via formation of a highly reactive chlorinium ion (MeImCl(+)) intermediate; this behavior suggests that the reactive forms of the analogous imidazole chloramines are their conjugate acids, e.g., the imidazolechlorinium ion (HImCl(+)). HOCl-generated imidazole chloramine (ImCl) reacted rapidly with fluorescein in a specific acid-catalyzed second-order reaction to give 3'-monochloro and 3',5'-dichloro products. Equilibrium constants for the transchlorination reactions HOCl + HIm = H2O + ImCl and NH2Cl + HIm = NH3 + ImCl were estimated from the dependence of the rate constants on [HIm]/[HOCl] and literature data. Acid catalysis again suggests that the actual chlorinating agent is HImCl(+); consistent with this interpretation, MeIm markedly catalyzed

  11. Imidazole catalyzes chlorination by unreactive primary chloramines

    PubMed Central

    Roemeling, Margo D.; Williams, Jared; Beckman, Joseph S.; Hurst, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid and simple chloramines (RNHCl) are stable biologically-derived chlorinating agents. In general, the chlorination potential of HOCl is much greater than that of RNHCl, allowing it to oxidize or chlorinate a much wider variety of reaction partners. However, in this study we demonstrate by kinetic analysis that the reactivity of RNHCl can be dramatically promoted by imidazole and histidyl model compounds via intermediary formation of the corresponding imidazole chloramines. Two biologically relevant reactions were investigated—loss of imidazole-catalyzed chlorinating capacity and phenolic ring chlorination using fluorescein and the tyrosine analog, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). HOCl reacted stoichiometrically with imidazole, N-acetylhistidine (NAH), or imidazoleacetic acid to generate the corresponding imidazole chloramines which subsequently decomposed. Chloramine (NH2Cl) also underwent a markedly accelerated loss in chlorinating capacity when NAH was present, although in this case NAHCl did not accumulate, indicating that the catalytic intermediate must be highly reactive. Mixing HOCl with 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) led to very rapid loss in chlorinating capacity via formation of a highly reactive chlorinium ion (MeImCl+) intermediate; this behavior suggests that the reactive forms of the analogous imidazole chloramines are their conjugate acids, e.g., the imidazolechlorinium ion (HImCl+). HOCl-generated imidazole chloramine (ImCl) reacted rapidly with fluorescein in a specific acid-catalyzed second order reaction to give 3′-monochloro and 3′,5′-dichloro products. Equilibrium constants for the transchlorination reactions: HOCl + HIm = H2O + ImCl and NH2Cl + HIm = NH3 + ImCl were estimated from the dependence of the rate constants upon [HIm]/[HOCl] and literature data. Acid catalysis again suggests that the actual chlorinating agent is HImCl+; consistent with this interpretation, MeIm markedly catalyzed fluorescein chlorination by HOCl

  12. Hydroxylation and dealkylation reactions catalyzed by hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Mieyal, J J; Starke, D W

    1994-01-01

    Red blood cells contain many enzymes that are akin to those that catalyze xenobiotic metabolism in liver and other tissues. An obvious exception is the cytochrome P-450 system that is found in virtually all other tissues. In vitro studies, however, have shown that hemoglobin can be a broad monooxygenase catalyst, exhibiting the properties of a monooxygenase enzyme. Thus, catalysis by Hb displays typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, dependence on the native protein, coupling to NADPH-dependent flavoprotein reductases, and inhibition by carbon monoxide. The reconstituted system containing Hb along with P-450 reductase utilizes NADPH and O2 to catalyze typical monooxygenase reactions, including O- and N-demethylations as well as aromatic and aliphatic hydroxylations, and the catalytic cycle appears to mimic the typical P-450 mechanism. Turnover numbers for aniline hydroxylation are similar for Hb and P-450 reconstituted systems, whereas P-450 systems are more effective for other reactions. Catalysis by Hb seems to be restricted to the beta-heme sites of the tetramer, reflecting more facile substrate access. Overall the similarities and differences between Hb and P-450 provide an opportunity to examine the basis for their differential monooxygenase or peroxidase/peroxygenase activities in a comparative manner. Hb may be especially useful in delineating the early events in the respective reaction schemes, because it can be studied in various stable redox/ligand states, including the oxyferrous form. Similar hemoglobin-catalyzed oxidative biotransformations occur within intact erythrocytes, but apparent turnover numbers are much lower than those with the reconstituted Hb system, suggesting different mechanisms of catalysis. Although Hb-mediated oxidase activity in erythrocytes is low relative to other sites of xenobiotic metabolism, it may contribute to in situ activation of xenobiotics leading to oxidative stress, disruption of sulfhydryl homeostasis in the erythrocytes

  13. Asymmetric petasis reactions catalyzed by chiral biphenols.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sha; Schaus, Scott E

    2008-06-01

    Chiral biphenols catalyze the enantioselective Petasis reaction of alkenyl boronates, secondary amines, and ethyl glyoxylate. The reaction requires the use of 15 mol % of (S)-VAPOL as the catalyst, alkenyl boronates as nucleophiles, ethyl glyoxylate as the aldehyde component, and 3 A molecular sieves as an additive. The chiral alpha-amino ester products are obtained in good yields (71-92%) and high enantiomeric ratios (89:11-98:2). Mechanistic investigations indicate single ligand exchange of acyclic boronate with VAPOL and tetracoordinate boronate intermediates. PMID:18459782

  14. Ligand Intermediates in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gladysz, John A.

    1999-07-31

    The longest-running goal of this project has been the synthesis, isolation, and physical chemical characterization of homogeneous transition metal complexes containing ligand types believed to be intermediates in the metal-catalyzed conversion of CO/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and similar raw materials to organic fuels, feedstocks, etc. In the current project period, complexes that contain unusual new types of C{sub x}(carbide) and C{sub x}O{sub y} (carbon oxide) ligands have been emphasized. A new program in homogeneous fluorous phase catalysis has been launched as described in the final report.

  15. Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions for Indoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie Jack; Gribble, Gordon W.

    Metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions for indoles are reviewed. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are the most widely explored and applied of all metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Applications of Kumada coupling, Negishi coupling, Suzuki coupling, Stille coupling, Sonogashira reaction, the Heck reaction, carbonylation, and C-N bond formation reactions in indoles are summarized. In addition, other transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions using copper, rhodium, iron, and nickel in indole synthesis are also discussed.

  16. New concept for muon catalyzed fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Eliezer, S.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1988-12-27

    A new concept for a muon catalyzed pure fusion reactor is considered. To our best knowledge this constitutes a first plausible configuration to make energy gain without resorting to fissile matter breeding by fusion neutrons, although a number of crucial physical and engineering questions as well as details have yet to be resolved. A bundle of DT ice ribbons (with a filling factor f) is immersed in the magnetic field. The overall magnetic field in the mirror configuration confines pions created by the injected high energy deuterium (or tritium) beam. The DT materials is long enough to be inertially confined along the axis of mirror. The muon catalyzed mesomolecule formation and nuclear fusion take place in the DT target, leaving ..cap alpha../sup + +/ and occasionally (..cap alpha mu..)/sup +/ (muon sticking). The stuck muons are stripped fast enough in the target, while they are accelerated by ion cyclotron resonance heating when they circulate in the vaccum (or dilute plasma). The ribbon is (eventually) surrounded and pressure-confined by this coronal plasma, whereas the corona is magnetically confined. The overall bundle of ribbons (a pellet) is inertially confined. This configuration may also be of use for stripping stuck muons via the plasma mechanism of Menshikov and Ponomarev.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Fluoroalkylamines

    PubMed Central

    Brusoe, Andrew T.; Hartwig, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of fluorinated anilines by palladium-catalyzed coupling of fluoroalkylamines with aryl bromides and aryl chlorides. The products of these reactions are valuable because anilines typically require the presence of an electron-withdrawing substituent on nitrogen to suppress aerobic or metabolic oxidation, and the fluoroalkyl groups have steric properties and polarity distinct from those of more common electron-withdrawing amide and sulfonamide units. The fluoroalkylaniline products are unstable under typical conditions for C–N coupling reactions (heat and strong base). However, the reactions conducted with the weaker base KOPh, which has rarely been used in cross-coupling to form C–N bonds, occurred in high yield in the presence of a catalyst derived from commercially available AdBippyPhos and [Pd(allyl)Cl]2. Under these conditions, the reactions occur with low catalyst loadings (<0.50 mol % for most substrates) and tolerate the presence of various functional groups that react with the strong bases that are typically used in Pd-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides. The resting state of the catalyst is the phenoxide complex, (BippyPhosPd(Ar)OPh); due to the electron-withdrawing property of the fluoroalkyl substituent, the turnover-limiting step of the reaction is reductive elimination to form the C–N bond. PMID:26065341

  18. Catalyzed D-D stellarator reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald A.

    2016-05-12

    The advantages of using the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) approach for a fusion reactor—lower and less energetic neutron flux and no need for a tritium breeding blanket—have been evaluated in previous papers, giving examples of both tokamak and stellarator reactors. This paper presents an update for the stellarator example, taking account of more recent empirical transport scaling results and design studies of lower-aspect-ratio stellarators. We use a modified version of the Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor model to cost a stellarator-type reactor. Recently, this model has been updated to reflect the improved science and technology base and costs in the magnetic fusionmore » program. Furthermore, it is shown that an interesting catalyzed D-D, stellarator power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved: R/ ≈ 4, required improvement factor to ISS04 scaling, FR = 0.9 to 1.15, <β> ≈ 8.0% to 11.5%, Zeff ≈ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ≈ 0.07, Bm ≈ 14 to 16 T, and R ≈ 18 to 24 m.« less

  19. Manganese Catalyzed C-H Halogenation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Groves, John T

    2015-06-16

    The remarkable aliphatic C-H hydroxylations catalyzed by the heme-containing enzyme, cytochrome P450, have attracted sustained attention for more than four decades. The effectiveness of P450 enzymes as highly selective biocatalysts for a wide range of oxygenation reactions of complex substrates has driven chemists to develop synthetic metalloporphyrin model compounds that mimic P450 reactivity. Among various known metalloporphyrins, manganese derivatives have received considerable attention since they have been shown to be versatile and powerful mediators for alkane hydroxylation and olefin epoxidation. Mechanistic studies have shown that the key intermediates of the manganese porphyrin-catalyzed oxygenation reactions include oxo- and dioxomanganese(V) species that transfer an oxygen atom to the substrate through a hydrogen abstraction/oxygen recombination pathway known as the oxygen rebound mechanism. Application of manganese porphyrins has been largely restricted to catalysis of oxygenation reactions until recently, however, due to ultrafast oxygen transfer rates. In this Account, we discuss recently developed carbon-halogen bond formation, including fluorination reactions catalyzed by manganese porphyrins and related salen species. We found that biphasic sodium hypochlorite/manganese porphyrin systems can efficiently and selectively convert even unactivated aliphatic C-H bonds to C-Cl bonds. An understanding of this novel reactivity derived from results obtained for the oxidation of the mechanistically diagnostic substrate and radical clock, norcarane. Significantly, the oxygen rebound rate in Mn-mediated hydroxylation is highly correlated with the nature of the trans-axial ligands bound to the manganese center (L-Mn(V)═O). Based on the ability of fluoride ion to decelerate the oxygen rebound step, we envisaged that a relatively long-lived substrate radical could be trapped by a Mn-F fluorine source, effecting carbon-fluorine bond formation. Indeed, this idea

  20. Acid-Catalyzed Isomerization of Carvone to Carvacrol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjonaas, Richard A.; Mattingly, Shawn P.

    2005-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed isomerization of carvone to carvacrol, first reported by Ritter and Ginsburg, is especially well suited with a permanent-magnet FT instrument. The acid-catalyzed isomerization of carvone to carvacrol produced a 61% yield after a three hour reflux with 30% aqueous sulfuric acid.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  2. Representing Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2011-01-01

    Rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are derived and presented in a way that makes it easier for the nonspecialist to see how the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction depends upon kinetic constants and concentrations. This is done with distribution equations that show how the rate of the reaction depends upon the relative quantities of…

  3. RNA-Catalyzed RNA Ligation on an External RNA Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the hc ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes ligation of the 3' end of an RNA substrate to the 5' end of the ribozyme, were utilized to evolve a ribozyme that catalyzes ligation reactions on an external RNA template. The evolved ribozyme catalyzes the joining of an oligonucleotide 3'-hydroxyl to the 5'-triphosphate of an RNA hairpin molecule. The ribozyme can also utilize various substrate sequences, demonstrating a largely sequence-independent mechanism for substrate recognition. The ribozyme also carries out the ligation of two oligonucleotides that are bound at adjacent positions on a complementary template. Finally, it catalyzes addition of mononucleoside '5-triphosphates onto the '3 end of an oligonucleotide primer in a template-dependent manner. The development of ribozymes that catalyze polymerase-type reactions contributes to the notion that an RNA world could have existed during the early history of life on Earth.

  4. Catalyzed modified clean fractionation of switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Cybulska, Iwona; Brudecki, Grzegorz P; Hankerson, Brett R; Julson, James L; Lei, Hanwu

    2013-01-01

    Switchgrass was used as a lignocellulosic feedstock for second generation ethanol production, after pretreatment using sulfuric acid-catalyzed modified clean fractionation based on NREL's (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) original procedure. Optimization of temperature, catalyst concentration and solvent composition was performed using Response Surface Methodology, and 59.03 ± 7.01% lignin recovery, 84.85 ± 1.34% glucose, and 44.11 ± 3.44% aqueous fraction xylose yields were obtained at 140.00 °C, 0.46% w/w catalyst concentration, 36.71% w/w ethyl acetate concentration, and 25.00% w/w ethanol concentration. The cellulose fraction did not inhibit the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and resulted in an ethanol yield of 89.60 ± 2.1%.

  5. Efficient antibody-catalyzed oxygenation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, L.C.; Stephans, J.C.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1994-03-09

    Biological oxygen-transfer reactions are essential for the biosynthesis of steroids and neurotransmitters, the degradation of endogenous substances, and the detoxification of xenobiotics. The monooxygenase enzymes responsible for these transformations require biological cofactors such as flavin, heme and non-heme iron, copper, or pterin and typically utilize NADPH for cofactor regeneration. We now report an antibody-catalyzed sulfide oxygenation reaction mediated by the chemical cofactor sodium periodate, with turnover numbers similar to those of the corresponding enzymatic reactions. Sodium periodate NaIO[sub 4]O was chosen as the oxidant, since sulfoxide formation occurs under mild aqueous conditions with minimal overoxidation to the sulfone. Furthermore, compared to the flavin and heme cofactors required by the monooxygenase enzymes, NaIO[sub 4] is very inexpensive, obviating the need for cofactor recycling. Overall, these results raise the possibility of using antibodies as catalysts for regio- and stereoselective sulfide oxidations. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Fabrication of catalyzed ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Kibby, Charles Leonard

    2013-06-04

    Process for fabricating a catalyzed ion transport membrane (ITM). In one embodiment, an uncatalyzed ITM is (a) contacted with a non-reducing gaseous stream while heating to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM possessing anion mobility; (b) contacted with a reducing gaseous stream for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM having anion mobility and essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry; (c) cooled while contacting the ITM with the reducing gaseous stream to provide an ITM having essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry and no anion mobility; and (d) treated by applying catalyst to at least one of (1) a porous mixed conducting multicomponent metallic oxide (MCMO) layer contiguous with a first side of a dense layer of MCMO and (2) a second side of the dense MCMO layer. In another embodiment, these steps are carried out in the alternative order of (a), (d), (b), and (c).

  7. Enzyme-catalyzed degradation of carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchey, Gregg P.

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene, the nanoscale sp 2 allotropes of carbon, have garnered widespread attention as a result of their remarkable electrical, mechanical, and optical properties and the promise of new technologies that harness these properties. Consequently, these carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have been employed for diverse applications such as electronics, sensors, composite materials, energy conversion devices, and nanomedicine. The manufacture and eventual disposal of these products may result in the release of CNMs into the environment and subsequent exposure to humans, animals, and vegetation. Given the possible pro-inflammatory and toxic effects of CNMs, much attention has been focused on the distribution, toxicity, and persistence of CNMs both in living systems and the environment. This dissertation will guide the reader though recent studies aimed at elucidating fundamental insight into the persistence of CNMs such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide). In particular, in-testtube oxidation/degradation of CNMs catalyzed by peroxidase enzymes will be examined, and the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying these processes will be discussed. Finally, an outlook of the current field including in vitro and in vivo biodegradation experiments, which have benefits in terms of human health and environmental safety, and future directions that could have implications for nanomedical applications such as imaging and drug delivery will be presented. Armed with an understanding of how and why CNMs undergo enzyme-catalyzed oxidation/biodegradation, researchers can tailor the structure of CNMs to either promote or inhibit these processes. For example, in nanomedical applications such as drug delivery, the incorporation of carboxylate functional groups could facilitate biodegradation of the nanomaterial after delivery of the cargo. Also, the incorporation of CNMs with defect sites in consumer

  8. Tax posttranslational modifications and interaction with calreticulin in MT-2 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients.

    PubMed

    Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastian; Alberti, Carolina; Barriga, Andres; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Ramírez, Eugenio; Ferreira, Arturo; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, Maria Antonieta

    2014-04-01

    The human retrovirus human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Axonal degeneration in HAM/TSP patients occurs without neuron infection, with the secreted viral Tax protein proposed to be involved. We previously found that Tax secreted into the culture medium of MT-2 cells (HTLV-1-infected cell line) produced neurite retraction in neuroblastoma cells differentiated to neuronal type. To assess the relevance of Tax posttranslational modifications on this effect, we addressed the question of whether Tax secreted by MT-2 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HTLV-1-infected subjects is modified. The interaction of Tax with calreticulin (CRT) that modulates intracellular Tax localization and secretion has been described. We studied Tax localization and modifications in MT-2 cells and its interaction with CRT. Intracellular Tax in MT-2 cells was assessed by flow cytometry, corresponding mainly to a 71-kDa protein followed by western blot. This protein reported as a chimera with gp21 viral protein-confirmed by mass spectrometry-showed no ubiquitination or SUMOylation. The Tax-CRT interaction was determined by confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation. Extracellular Tax from HAM/TSP PBMCs is ubiquitinated according to western blot, and its interaction with CRT was shown by coimmunoprecipitation. A positive correlation between Tax and CRT secretion was observed in HAM/TSP PBMCs and asymptomatic carriers. For both proteins inhibitors and activators of secretion showed secretion through the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex. Tax, present in PBMC culture medium, produced neurite retraction in differentiated neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that Tax, whether ubiquitinated or not, is active for neurite retraction. PMID:24321043

  9. Tax posttranslational modifications and interaction with calreticulin in MT-2 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients.

    PubMed

    Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastian; Alberti, Carolina; Barriga, Andres; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Ramírez, Eugenio; Ferreira, Arturo; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, Maria Antonieta

    2014-04-01

    The human retrovirus human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Axonal degeneration in HAM/TSP patients occurs without neuron infection, with the secreted viral Tax protein proposed to be involved. We previously found that Tax secreted into the culture medium of MT-2 cells (HTLV-1-infected cell line) produced neurite retraction in neuroblastoma cells differentiated to neuronal type. To assess the relevance of Tax posttranslational modifications on this effect, we addressed the question of whether Tax secreted by MT-2 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HTLV-1-infected subjects is modified. The interaction of Tax with calreticulin (CRT) that modulates intracellular Tax localization and secretion has been described. We studied Tax localization and modifications in MT-2 cells and its interaction with CRT. Intracellular Tax in MT-2 cells was assessed by flow cytometry, corresponding mainly to a 71-kDa protein followed by western blot. This protein reported as a chimera with gp21 viral protein-confirmed by mass spectrometry-showed no ubiquitination or SUMOylation. The Tax-CRT interaction was determined by confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation. Extracellular Tax from HAM/TSP PBMCs is ubiquitinated according to western blot, and its interaction with CRT was shown by coimmunoprecipitation. A positive correlation between Tax and CRT secretion was observed in HAM/TSP PBMCs and asymptomatic carriers. For both proteins inhibitors and activators of secretion showed secretion through the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex. Tax, present in PBMC culture medium, produced neurite retraction in differentiated neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that Tax, whether ubiquitinated or not, is active for neurite retraction.

  10. NEW CORDIERITE DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTERS FOR CATALYZED AND NON-CATALYZED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, G; Cutler, W; Tao, T Chiffey, A; Phillips, P; Twigg, M; Walker, A

    2003-08-24

    Cordierite diesel particulate filters provide an economical approach to diesel emissions control. However, further reduction in the pressure drop of catalyzed and non-catalyzed cordierite filters is desirable. In order to derive a fundamental understanding of the relationship between clean and sootloaded pressure drop and the pore microstructure of the ceramic, and to optimize the microstructure for filter performance, cordierite filters have been fabricated spanning an extended range in porosity, pore size distribution, and pore connectivity. Analysis of the results has been applied to the development of several new cordierite diesel particulate filters that possess a unique combination of high filtration efficiency, high strength, and very low clean and soot-loaded pressure drop. Furthermore, catalyst systems have been developed that result in a minimal pressure drop increase of the catalyzed filter. Optimization of porosity and cell geometry has enabled fabrication o f filters with either high or low thermal mass appropriate to the regeneration strategy employed for a given engine management system.

  11. Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Picardal, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using {sup 14}C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

  12. Horseradish peroxidase catalyzed hydroxylations: mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Dordick, J S; Klibanov, A M; Marletta, M A

    1986-05-20

    The hydroxylation of phenol to hydroquinone and catechol in the presence of dihydroxyfumaric acid and oxygen catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase was studied under conditions where the product yield was high and the side reactions were minimal. The reaction is partially uncoupled with a molar ratio of dihydroxyfumaric acid consumed to hydroxylated products of 12:1. Hydrogen peroxide does not participate in the reaction as evidenced by the lack of effect of catalase and by the direct addition of hydrogen peroxide. Conversely, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals are involved as their scavengers are potent inhibitors. Experiments were all consistent with the involvement of compound III (oxygenated ferrous complex) of peroxidase in the reaction. Compound III is stable in the presence of phenol alone but decomposes rapidly in the presence of both phenol and dihydroxyfumaric acid with the concomitant formation of product. Therefore, phenol and dihydroxyfumaric acid must be present with compound III in order for the hydroxylation reaction to occur. A mechanism consistent with the experimental results is proposed. PMID:3718931

  13. Peptide Bond Formation Mechanism Catalyzed by Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Marti, Sergio; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vicent; Bertran, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of the peptide bond formation reaction catalyzed by ribosome. Different mechanistic proposals have been explored by means of Free Energy Perturbation methods within hybrid QM/MM potentials, where the chemical system has been described by the M06-2X functional and the environment by means of the AMBER force field. According to our results, the most favourable mechanism in the ribosome would proceed through an eight-membered ring transition state, involving a proton shuttle mechanism through the hydroxyl group of the sugar and a water molecule. This transition state is similar to that described for the reaction in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 8708–8719) but the reaction mechanisms are noticeable different. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally determined catalytic effect of ribosome that can be explained by the different behaviour of the two environments. While the solvent reorganizes during the chemical process involving an entropic penalty, the ribosome is preorganized in the formation of the Michaelis complex and does not suffer important changes along the reaction, dampening the charge redistribution of the chemical system. PMID:26325003

  14. Thioglycoside hydrolysis catalyzed by {beta}-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Hong; Byers, Larry D.

    2007-10-26

    Sweet almond {beta}-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) has been shown to have significant thioglycohydrolase activity. While the K{sub m} values for the S- and O-glycosides are similar, the k{sub cat} values are about 1000-times lower for the S-glycosides. Remarkably, the pH-profile for k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl thioglucoside (pNPSG) shows the identical dependence on a deprotonated carboxylate (pK{sub a} 4.5) and a protonated group (pK{sub a} 6.7) as does the pH-profile for hydrolysis of the corresponding O-glycoside. Not surprisingly, in spite of the requirement for the presence of this protonated group in catalytically active {beta}-glucosidase, thioglucoside hydrolysis does not involve general acid catalysis. There is no solvent kinetic isotope effect on the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of pNPSG.

  15. Biotransformations catalyzed by the genus rhodococcus

    SciTech Connect

    Warhurst, A.M.; Fewson, C.A. . Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1994-01-01

    Rhodococci display a diverse range of metabolic capabilities and they are a ubiquitous feature of many environments. They are able to degrade short-chain, long-chain, and halogenated hydrocarbons, and numerous aromatic compounds, including halogenated and other substituted aromatics, heteroaromatics, hydroaromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They possess a wide variety of pathways for degrading and modifying aromatic compounds, including dioxygenase and monooxygenase ring attack, and cleavage of catechol by both ortho- and meta-routes, and some strains posses a modified 3-oxoadipate pathway. Biotransformations catalyzed by rhodococci include steroid modification, enantioselective synthesis, and the transformation of nitriles to amides and acids. Tolerance of rhodococci to starvation, their frequent lack of catabolite repression, and their environmental persistence make them excellent candidates for bioremediation treatments. Some strains can produce poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s, others can accumulate cesium, and still others are the source of useful enzymes such as phenylalanine dehydrogenase and endoglycosidases. Other actual or potential applications of rhodococci include desulfurization of coal, bioleaching, use of their surfactants in enhancement of oil recovery and as industrial dispersants, and the construction of biosensors.

  16. Pd-catalyzed arylation of chlorotrifluoroethylene using arylboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tetsu

    2012-07-01

    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of chlorotrifluoroethylene and arylboronic acids proceeds in the presence of a base and H(2)O to provide α,β,β-trifluorostyrene derivatives in satisfactory yields. PMID:22691065

  17. Hydrolase-catalyzed biotransformations in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Gorke, Johnathan T; Srienc, Friedrich; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2008-03-14

    Hydrolases show good catalytic activity in deep eutectic solvents, despite the presence of urea, which can denature enzymes, or alcohols, which can interfere with hydrolase-catalyzed reactions. PMID:18309428

  18. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of primary and secondary alkylboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xinxin; Liu, Tianfei; Lu, Long; Shen, Qilong

    2014-09-19

    A Cu-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of primary and secondary alkylboronic acids with an electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagent is described. Tolerance for a variety of functional groups was observed. PMID:25198142

  19. Recent developments in gold-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions.

    PubMed

    López, Fernando; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-01-01

    In the last years there have been extraordinary advances in the development of gold-catalyzed cycloaddition processes. In this review we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, and present the mechanistic rational underlying the transformations.

  20. Nitroreductase catalyzed biotransformation of CL-20.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Halasz, Annamaria; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-09-10

    Previously, we reported that a salicylate 1-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 29352 biotransformed CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaaza-isowurtzitane) (C(6)H(6)N(12)O(12)) and produced a key metabolite with mol. wt. 346 Da corresponding to an empirical formula of C(6)H(6)N(10)O(8) which spontaneously decomposed in aqueous medium to produce N(2)O, NH(4)(+), and HCOOH [Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004)]. In the present study, we found that nitroreductase from Escherichia coli catalyzed a one-electron transfer to CL-20 to form a radical anion (CL-20(-)) which upon initial N-denitration also produced metabolite C(6)H(6)N(10)O(8). The latter was tentatively identified as 1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,3a,4,4a,5,7a,8,8a-octahydro-diimidazo[4,5-b:4',5'-e]pyrazine [IUPAC] which decomposed spontaneously in water to produce glyoxal (OHCCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH). The rates of CL-20 biotransformation under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were 3.4+/-0.2 and 0.25+/-0.01 nmol min(-1)mg of protein(-1), respectively. The product stoichiometry showed that each reacted CL-20 molecule produced about 1.8 nitrite ions, 3.3 molecules of nitrous oxide, 1.6 molecules of formic acid, 1.0 molecule of glyoxal, and 1.3 ammonium ions. Carbon and nitrogen products gave mass-balances of 60% and 81%, respectively. A comparative study between native-, deflavo-, and reconstituted-nitroreductase showed that FMN-site was possibly involved in the biotransformation of CL-20. PMID:15313201

  1. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  2. Length distributions of Au-catalyzed and In-catalyzed InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Sibirev, N. V.; Berdnikov, Y.; Gomes, U. P.; Ercolani, D.; Zannier, V.; Sorba, L.

    2016-09-01

    We present experimental data on the length distributions of InAs nanowires grown by chemical beam epitaxy with Au catalyst nanoparticles obtained by thermal dewetting of Au film, Au colloidal nanoparticles and In droplets. Poissonian length distributions are observed in the first case. Au colloidal nanoparticles produce broader and asymmetric length distributions of InAs nanowires. However, the distributions can be strongly narrowed by removing the high temperature annealing step. The length distributions for the In-catalyzed growth are instead very broad. We develop a generic model that is capable of describing the observed behaviors by accounting for both the incubation time for nanowire growth and secondary nucleation of In droplets. These results allow us to formulate some general recipes for obtaining more uniform length distributions of III-V nanowires.

  3. Length distributions of Au-catalyzed and In-catalyzed InAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dubrovskii, V G; Sibirev, N V; Berdnikov, Y; Gomes, U P; Ercolani, D; Zannier, V; Sorba, L

    2016-09-16

    We present experimental data on the length distributions of InAs nanowires grown by chemical beam epitaxy with Au catalyst nanoparticles obtained by thermal dewetting of Au film, Au colloidal nanoparticles and In droplets. Poissonian length distributions are observed in the first case. Au colloidal nanoparticles produce broader and asymmetric length distributions of InAs nanowires. However, the distributions can be strongly narrowed by removing the high temperature annealing step. The length distributions for the In-catalyzed growth are instead very broad. We develop a generic model that is capable of describing the observed behaviors by accounting for both the incubation time for nanowire growth and secondary nucleation of In droplets. These results allow us to formulate some general recipes for obtaining more uniform length distributions of III-V nanowires.

  4. Length distributions of Au-catalyzed and In-catalyzed InAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dubrovskii, V G; Sibirev, N V; Berdnikov, Y; Gomes, U P; Ercolani, D; Zannier, V; Sorba, L

    2016-09-16

    We present experimental data on the length distributions of InAs nanowires grown by chemical beam epitaxy with Au catalyst nanoparticles obtained by thermal dewetting of Au film, Au colloidal nanoparticles and In droplets. Poissonian length distributions are observed in the first case. Au colloidal nanoparticles produce broader and asymmetric length distributions of InAs nanowires. However, the distributions can be strongly narrowed by removing the high temperature annealing step. The length distributions for the In-catalyzed growth are instead very broad. We develop a generic model that is capable of describing the observed behaviors by accounting for both the incubation time for nanowire growth and secondary nucleation of In droplets. These results allow us to formulate some general recipes for obtaining more uniform length distributions of III-V nanowires. PMID:27501469

  5. Palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Kevin H

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

  6. Nickel-Catalyzed Aromatic C-H Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Muto, Kei; Itami, Kenichiro

    2016-08-01

    Catalytic C-H functionalization using transition metals has received significant interest from organic chemists because it provides a new strategy to construct carbon-carbon bonds and carbon-heteroatom bonds in highly functionalized, complex molecules without pre-functionalization. Recently, inexpensive catalysts based on transition metals such as copper, iron, cobalt, and nickel have seen more use in the laboratory. This review describes recent progress in nickel-catalyzed aromatic C-H functionalization reactions classified by reaction types and reaction partners. Furthermore, some reaction mechanisms are described and cutting-edge syntheses of natural products and pharmaceuticals using nickel-catalyzed aromatic C-H functionalization are presented. PMID:27573407

  7. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated) asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C–C, C–N, C–O and other carbon–heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C–C and carbon–heteroatom bonds. PMID:26734106

  8. Muon-catalyzed fusion theory: Introduction and review

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Muon-catalyzed fusion ({mu}CF) has proved to be a fruitful subject for basic physics research as well as a source of cold nuclear fusion. Experiments have demonstrated that over 100 fusions per muon can be catalyzed by formation of the dt{mu} molecule in mixtures of deuterium and tritium. After a brief review of the subject's history, the dt{mu} catalysis cycle and the principal relations used in its analysis are described. Some of the important processes in the {mu}CF cycle are then discussed. Finally, the status of current research is appraised. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Coalification by clay-catalyzed oligomerization of plant monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Orchin, M.; Wilson, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of this research program is to devise laboratory methods to mimic the processes by which plants synthesize lignans, lignins and the processes by which these materials are transformed further by geochemical reactions catalyzed by certain clays to coal-like materials. We believe that the radical cation Diels-Alder reaction is one of the principal routes which transforms simple plant materials to coal-like substances and that such reactions may be catalyzed by clays that occur in the environment of the decaying plant materials. Progress is described.

  10. New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches to Heterocycles and Carbocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Qinhua Huang

    2004-12-19

    The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I{sub 2}, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O{sub 2}NC{sub 6}H{sub 4}SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines in moderate to excellent yields. The introduction of an ortho-methoxy group on the arylaldimine promotes the Pd-catalyzed cyclization and stabilizes the resulting Pd(II) intermediate, improving the yields of the isoquinoline products. Highly substituted naphthalenes have been synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of a variety of internal alkynes, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step under relatively mild reaction conditions. This method has also been used to synthesize carbazoles, although a higher reaction temperature is necessary. The process involves arylpalladation of the alkyne, followed by intramolecular Heck olefination and double bond isomerization. This method accommodates a variety of functional groups and affords the anticipated highly substituted naphthalenes and carbazoles in good to excellent yields. Novel palladium migratiodarylation methodology for the synthesis of complex fused polycycles has been developed, in which one or more sequential Pd-catalyzed intramolecular migration processes involving C-H activation are employed. The chemistry works best with electron-rich aromatics, which is in agreement with the idea that

  11. Iron‐ and Cobalt‐Catalyzed Synthesis of Carbene Phosphinidenes

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Kuntal; Hemming, Oliver B.; Day, Benjamin M.; Pugh, Thomas; Evans, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the presence of stoichiometric or catalytic amounts of [M{N(SiMe3)2}2] (M=Fe, Co), N‐heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) react with primary phosphines to give a series of carbene phosphinidenes of the type (NHC)⋅PAr. The formation of (IMe4)⋅PMes (Mes=mesityl) is also catalyzed by the phosphinidene‐bridged complex [(IMe4)2Fe(μ‐PMes)]2, which provides evidence for metal‐catalyzed phosphinidene transfer. PMID:26643712

  12. Copper-Catalyzed Carbonylative Coupling of Cycloalkanes and Amides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yahui; Dong, Kaiwu; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Zechao; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-06-13

    Carbonylation reactions are a most powerful method for the synthesis of carbonyl-containing compounds. However, most known carbonylation procedures still require noble-metal catalysts and the use of activated compounds and good nucleophiles as substrates. Herein, we developed a copper-catalyzed carbonylative transformation of cycloalkanes and amides. Imides were prepared in good yields by carbonylation of a C(sp(3) )-H bond of the cycloalkane with the amides acting as weak nucleophiles. Notably, this is the first report of copper-catalyzed carbonylative C-H activation. PMID:27167881

  13. Microbial-Catalyzed Biotransformation of Multifunctional Triterpenoids Derived from Phytonutrients

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Tan, Huey Ling; Sultan, Sadia; Mohd Faridz, Muhammad Afifi Bin; Mohd Shah, Mohamad Azlan Bin; Nurfazilah, Sharifah; Hussain, Munawar

    2014-01-01

    Microbial-catalyzed biotransformations have considerable potential for the generation of an enormous variety of structurally diversified organic compounds, especially natural products with complex structures like triterpenoids. They offer efficient and economical ways to produce semi-synthetic analogues and novel lead molecules. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi could catalyze chemo-, regio- and stereospecific hydroxylations of diverse triterpenoid substrates that are extremely difficult to produce by chemical routes. During recent years, considerable research has been performed on the microbial transformation of bioactive triterpenoids, in order to obtain biologically active molecules with diverse structures features. This article reviews the microbial modifications of tetranortriterpenoids, tetracyclic triterpenoids and pentacyclic triterpenoids. PMID:25003642

  14. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fengtao; Cai, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated) asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C-C, C-N, C-O and other carbon-heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C-C and carbon-heteroatom bonds. PMID:26734106

  15. Heterocycle Formation via Palladium-Catalyzed C–H Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Tian-Sheng; Kou, Lei; Ma, Sandy; Engle, Keary M.; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are ubiquitous in natural products, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Therefore, the design of novel protocols to construct heterocycles more efficiently is a major area of focus in the organic chemistry. In the past several years, cyclization reactions based upon palladium-catalyzed C–H activation have received substantial attention due to their capacity for expediting heterocycle synthesis. This review discusses strategies for heterocycle synthesis via palladium-catalyzed C–H bond activation and highlights recent examples from the literature. PMID:27397938

  16. Molecular Mechanism by which One Enzyme Catalyzes Two Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Fushinobu, Shinya; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    Unlike ordinary enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase/phosphatase (FBPA/P) catalyzes two distinct reactions : (1) the aldol condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to FBP, and (2) the dephosphorylation of FBP to fructose-6-phosphate. We solved the crystal structures of FBPA/P in complex with DHAP (its aldolase form) and FBP (its phosphatase form). The crystal structures revealed that FBPA/P exhibits the dual activities through a dramatic conformational change in the active-site architecture. Our findings expand the conventional concept that one enzyme catalyzes one reaction.

  17. Pd-catalyzed synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical siloxanes.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yu; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2013-12-14

    A palladium-catalyzed arylation of hydrosiloxanes was developed for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical siloxanes. Reactive functional moieties such as hydroxy or cyano groups were able to tolerate the reaction conditions and several novel unsymmetrical siloxanes were synthesized in moderate to high yield.

  18. Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Amidation of Unactivated Alkyl Bromides.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Eloisa; Martin, Ruben

    2016-09-01

    A user-friendly, nickel-catalyzed reductive amidation of unactivated primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl bromides with isocyanates is described. This catalytic strategy offers an efficient synthesis of a wide range of aliphatic amides under mild conditions and with an excellent chemoselectivity profile while avoiding the use of stoichiometric and sensitive organometallic reagents. PMID:27357076

  19. Metalloradical-catalyzed aliphatic carbon-carbon activation of cyclooctane.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yun Wai; Chan, Kin Shing

    2010-05-26

    The aliphatic carbon-carbon activation of c-octane was achieved via the addition of Rh(ttp)H to give Rh(ttp)(n-octyl) in good yield under mild reaction conditions. The aliphatic carbon-carbon activation was Rh(II)(ttp)-catalyzed and was very sensitive to porphyrin sterics.

  20. Nickel, Manganese, Cobalt, and Iron-Catalyzed Deprotonative Arene Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thanh; Alvarado, Joseph; Tran, Ly Dieu; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-01-01

    A number of first-row transition metal salts catalyze deprotonative dimerization of acidic arenes. Under the atmosphere of oxygen, nickel, manganese, cobalt, and iron chlorides have been shown to dimerize five- and six-membered ring heterocycles as well as electron-poor arenes. Both tetramethylpiperidide and dicyclohexylamide bases can be employed; however, the former afford slightly higher yields. PMID:20192197

  1. Ruthenium-catalyzed C–H activation of thioxanthones

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Summary Thioxanthones – being readily available in one step from thiosalicylic acid and arenes – were used in ruthenium-catalyzed C–H-activation reaction to produce 1-mono- or 1,8-disubstituted thioxanthones in good to excellent yields. Scope and limitation of this reaction are presented. PMID:25977717

  2. Boric acid catalyzed chemoselective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Houston, Todd A; Wilkinson, Brendan L; Blanchfield, Joanne T

    2004-03-01

    Boric acid catalyzes the selective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids without causing significant esterification to occur with other carboxylic acids. The procedure is simple, high-yielding, and applicable to the esterification of alpha-hydroxy carboxylates in the presence of other carboxylic acids including beta-hydroxyacids within the same molecule. [reaction: see text

  3. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  4. Rh-Catalyzed arylation of fluorinated ketones with arylboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Luca S; Pattison, Graham

    2016-09-25

    The Rh-catalyzed arylation of fluorinated ketones with boronic acids is reported. This efficient process allows access to fluorinated alcohols in high yields under mild conditions. Competition experiments suggest that difluoromethyl ketones are more reactive than trifluoromethyl ketones in this process, despite their decreased electronic activation, an effect we postulate to be steric in origin.

  5. Metal-Catalyzed Cleavage of tRNA[superscript Phe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    This laboratory project is one component of a semester-long advanced biochemistry laboratory course that uses several complementary techniques to study tRNA[superscript Phe] conformational changes induced by ligand binding. In this article we describe a set of experiments in which students assay metal-catalyzed hydrolysis of tRNA[superscript Phe]…

  6. Ligand-Controlled Regiodivergent Copper-Catalyzed Alkylboration of Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei; Gong, Tian-Jun; Lu, Xi; Xu, Meng-Yu; Yu, Chu-Guo; Xu, Zheng-Yang; Yu, Hai-Zhu; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2015-10-26

    A novel copper-catalyzed regiodivergent alkylboration of alkenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron and alkyl halides has been developed. The regioselectivity of the alkylboration was controlled by subtle differences in the ligand structure. The reaction thus enables the practical, regiodivergent synthesis of two different alkyl boronic esters with complex structures from a single alkene. PMID:26338141

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective 1,1-Fluoroarylation of Aminoalkenes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The development of an enantioselective palladium-catalyzed 1,1-fluoroarylation of unactivated aminoalkenes is described. The reaction uses arylboronic acids as the arene source and Selectfluor as the fluorine source to generate benzylic fluorides in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. This transformation, likely proceeding through an oxidative Heck mechanism, affords 1,1-difunctionalized alkene products. PMID:26378886

  8. Endo-Selective Pd-Catalyzed Silyl Methyl Heck Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A palladium (Pd)-catalyzed endo-selective Heck reaction of iodomethylsilyl ethers of phenols and aliphatic alkenols has been developed. Mechanistic studies reveal that this silyl methyl Heck reaction operates via a hybrid Pd-radical process and that the silicon atom is crucial for the observed endo selectivity. The obtained allylic silyloxycycles were further oxidized into (Z)-alkenyldiols. PMID:25494921

  9. Ruthenium-catalyzed tandem olefin metathesis-oxidations.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Andrew A; An, Mi Hyun; Snapper, Marc L

    2006-10-12

    [reaction: see text] The utility of Grubbs' 2nd generation metathesis catalyst has been expanded by the development of two tandem olefin metathesis/oxidation protocols. These ruthenium-catalyzed processes provide cis-diols or alpha-hydroxy ketones from simple olefinic starting materials.

  10. Development of a Lewis Base Catalyzed Selenocyclization Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, William

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Lewis base activation of selenium Lewis acids has been effectively reduced to practice in the Lewis base catalyzed selenofunctionalization of unactivated olefins. In this reaction, the weakly acidic species, "N"-phenylselenyl succinimide, is cooperatively activated by the addition of a "soft" Lewis base donor (phosphine sulfides,…

  11. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nikolaus; Mukherjee, Kumar D

    2004-08-25

    Various methods have been applied for the enzymatic preparation of diacylglycerols that are used as dietary oils for weight reduction in obesity and related disorders. Interesterification of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols with commercial preparations of monoacylglycerols, such as Monomuls 90-O18, Mulgaprime 90, and Nutrisoft 55, catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) in vacuo at 60 degrees C led to extensive (from 60 to 75%) formation of diacylglycerols. Esterification of rapeseed oil fatty acids with Nutrisoft, catalyzed by Lipozyme RM in vacuo at 60 degrees C, also led to extensive (from 60 to 70%) formation of diacylglycerols. Esterification of rapeseed oil fatty acids with glycerol in vacuo at 60 degrees C, catalyzed by Lipozyme RM and lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) and Candida antarctica (lipase B, Novozym 435), also provided diacylglycerols, however, to a lower extent (40-45%). Glycerolysis of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols with glycerol in vacuo at 60 degrees C, catalyzed by Lipozyme TL and Novozym 435, led to diacylglycerols to the extent of

  12. Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, Frances Helen; Baker, Ralph Thomas

    2010-01-12

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric [R.sup.1R.sup.2B--NR.sup.3R.sup.4].sub.n product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources.

  13. Aluminum Monohydride Catalyzed Selective Hydroboration of Carbonyl Compounds.

    PubMed

    Jakhar, Vineet Kumar; Barman, Milan Kr; Nembenna, Sharanappa

    2016-09-16

    The well-defined aluminum monohydride compound [{(2,4,6-Me3-C6H2)NC(Me)}2(Me)(H)]AlH·(NMe2Et) (1) catalyzes hydroboration of a wide range of aldehydes and ketones under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, compound 1 displayed chemoselective hydroboration of aldehydes over ketones at rt. PMID:27571142

  14. Oxo-rhenium catalyzed reductive coupling and deoxygenation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kasner, Gabrielle R; Boucher-Jacobs, Camille; Michael McClain, J; Nicholas, Kenneth M

    2016-06-01

    Representative benzylic, allylic and α-keto alcohols are deoxygenated to alkanes and/or reductively coupled to alkane dimers by reaction with PPh3 catalyzed by (PPh3)2ReIO2 (1). The newly discovered catalytic reductive coupling reaction is a rare C-C bond-forming transformation of alcohols. PMID:27174412

  15. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric propargylic dearomatization of indoles.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wen; Li, He; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Chen-Jiang; You, Shu-Li

    2015-06-22

    The first copper-catalyzed intermolecular dearomatization of indoles by an asymmetric propargylic substitution reaction was developed. This method provides a highly efficient synthesis of versatile furoindoline and pyrroloindoline derivatives containing a quaternary carbon stereogenic center and a terminal alkyne moiety with up to 86 % yield and 98 % ee. PMID:25968474

  16. Gold-catalyzed propargylic substitutions: Scope and synthetic developments

    PubMed Central

    Debleds, Olivier; Gayon, Eric; Vrancken, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Summary This personal account summarizes our recent developments in gold-catalyzed direct substitutions on propargylic (allylic, benzylic) alcohols, with various nucleophiles (and bi-nucleophiles) based on the σ- and/or π-acidity of gold(III) complexes. Synthetic developments are also briefly described. PMID:21804883

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed N-Arylation of 2-Aminothiazoles

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Meredeth A.; Henderson, Jaclyn L.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the Pd-catalyzed coupling of 2-aminothiazole derivatives with aryl bromides and triflates is described. Significantly, for this class of nucleophiles, the coupling exhibits a broad substrate scope and proceeds with a reasonable catalyst loading. Furthermore, an interesting effect of acetic acid as an additive is uncovered that facilitates catalyst activation. PMID:22394197

  18. Computational Studies on Cinchona Alkaloid-Catalyzed Asymmetric Organic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Tanriver, Gamze; Dedeoglu, Burcu; Catak, Saron; Aviyente, Viktorya

    2016-06-21

    Remarkable progress in the area of asymmetric organocatalysis has been achieved in the last decades. Cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives have emerged as powerful organocatalysts owing to their reactivities leading to high enantioselectivities. The widespread usage of cinchona alkaloids has been attributed to their nontoxicity, ease of use, stability, cost effectiveness, recyclability, and practical utilization in industry. The presence of tunable functional groups enables cinchona alkaloids to catalyze a broad range of reactions. Excellent experimental studies have extensively contributed to this field, and highly selective reactions were catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives. Computational modeling has helped elucidate the mechanistic aspects of cinchona alkaloid catalyzed reactions as well as the origins of the selectivity they induce. These studies have complemented experimental work for the design of more efficient catalysts. This Account presents recent computational studies on cinchona alkaloid catalyzed organic reactions and the theoretical rationalizations behind their effectiveness and ability to induce selectivity. Valuable efforts to investigate the mechanisms of reactions catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and the key aspects of the catalytic activity of cinchona alkaloids in reactions ranging from pharmaceutical to industrial applications are summarized. Quantum mechanics, particularly density functional theory (DFT), and molecular mechanics, including ONIOM, were used to rationalize experimental findings by providing mechanistic insights into reaction mechanisms. B3LYP with modest basis sets has been used in most of the studies; nonetheless, the energetics have been corrected with higher basis sets as well as functionals parametrized to include dispersion M05-2X, M06-2X, and M06-L and functionals with dispersion corrections. Since cinchona alkaloids catalyze reactions by forming complexes with substrates via hydrogen bonds and long

  19. Computational Studies on Cinchona Alkaloid-Catalyzed Asymmetric Organic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Tanriver, Gamze; Dedeoglu, Burcu; Catak, Saron; Aviyente, Viktorya

    2016-06-21

    Remarkable progress in the area of asymmetric organocatalysis has been achieved in the last decades. Cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives have emerged as powerful organocatalysts owing to their reactivities leading to high enantioselectivities. The widespread usage of cinchona alkaloids has been attributed to their nontoxicity, ease of use, stability, cost effectiveness, recyclability, and practical utilization in industry. The presence of tunable functional groups enables cinchona alkaloids to catalyze a broad range of reactions. Excellent experimental studies have extensively contributed to this field, and highly selective reactions were catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives. Computational modeling has helped elucidate the mechanistic aspects of cinchona alkaloid catalyzed reactions as well as the origins of the selectivity they induce. These studies have complemented experimental work for the design of more efficient catalysts. This Account presents recent computational studies on cinchona alkaloid catalyzed organic reactions and the theoretical rationalizations behind their effectiveness and ability to induce selectivity. Valuable efforts to investigate the mechanisms of reactions catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and the key aspects of the catalytic activity of cinchona alkaloids in reactions ranging from pharmaceutical to industrial applications are summarized. Quantum mechanics, particularly density functional theory (DFT), and molecular mechanics, including ONIOM, were used to rationalize experimental findings by providing mechanistic insights into reaction mechanisms. B3LYP with modest basis sets has been used in most of the studies; nonetheless, the energetics have been corrected with higher basis sets as well as functionals parametrized to include dispersion M05-2X, M06-2X, and M06-L and functionals with dispersion corrections. Since cinchona alkaloids catalyze reactions by forming complexes with substrates via hydrogen bonds and long

  20. Copper-Catalyzed Cascade Substitution/Cyclization of N-Isocyanates: A Synthesis of 1-Aminobenzimidazolones.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Alper, Howard; Beauchemin, André M

    2016-07-15

    A copper-catalyzed cascade reaction of in situ generated nitrogen-substituted isocyanates (N-isocyanates) and 2-iodoanilines has been developed. The cascade relies on the base-catalyzed substitution of masked N-isocyanates, followed by Cu(I)-catalyzed coupling to afford a variety of 1-aminobenzimidazolones in moderate to excellent yields. This is the first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed cascade reaction involving N-isocyanate intermediates. PMID:27341005

  1. Copper-Catalyzed Cascade Substitution/Cyclization of N-Isocyanates: A Synthesis of 1-Aminobenzimidazolones.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Alper, Howard; Beauchemin, André M

    2016-07-15

    A copper-catalyzed cascade reaction of in situ generated nitrogen-substituted isocyanates (N-isocyanates) and 2-iodoanilines has been developed. The cascade relies on the base-catalyzed substitution of masked N-isocyanates, followed by Cu(I)-catalyzed coupling to afford a variety of 1-aminobenzimidazolones in moderate to excellent yields. This is the first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed cascade reaction involving N-isocyanate intermediates.

  2. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  3. Kinetics of Imidazole Catalyzed Ester Hydrolysis: Use of Buffer Dilutions to Determine Spontaneous Rate, Catalyzed Rate, and Reaction Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Described is an advanced undergraduate kinetics experiment using buffer dilutions to determine spontaneous rate, catalyzed rate, and reaction order. The reaction utilized is hydrolysis of p-nitro-phenyl acetate in presence of imidazole, which has been shown to enhance rate of the reaction. (Author/JN)

  4. Synthesis of hindered biphenyls by sequential non-transition metal-catalyzed reaction/palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Dong, Cheng-Guo; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2008-03-17

    The sequential reaction of 1,2-dihalobenzenes with aryl lithiums followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with Grignard reagents and arylboronic acids is described. This sequential reaction provides a convenient and expeditious access to tri-ortho substituted biaryl derivatives.

  5. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine.

    PubMed

    McCue, Jeffrey M; Driscoll, William J; Mueller, Gregory P

    2008-01-11

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo.

  6. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

  7. Transition-metal-catalyzed C-S bond coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Liu, Yi-Chen; Badsara, Satpal Singh

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur-containing molecules such as thioethers are commonly found in chemical biology, organic synthesis, and materials chemistry. While many reliable methods have been developed for preparing these compounds, harsh reaction conditions are usually required in the traditional methods. The transition metals have been applied in this field, and the palladium-catalyzed coupling of thiols with aryl halides and pseudo halides is one of the most important methods in the synthesis of thioethers. Other metals have also been used for the same purpose. Here, we summarize recent efforts in metal-catalyzed C-S bond cross-coupling reactions, focusing especially on the coupling of thiols with aryl- and vinyl halides based on different metals.

  8. GaCl3-catalyzed allenyne cycloisomerizations to allenenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ick; Sim, So Hee; Kim, Soo Min; Kim, Kwang; Chung, Young Keun

    2006-09-01

    Cycloisomerizations of allenynes to allenenes have been studied in the presence of catalytic amounts of [Au(PPh3)]SbF6 in dichloromethane or GaCl3 in toluene. Both catalytic systems are quite effective for terminal 1,6-allenynes. However, they showed different reactivities toward allenynes with di-substituents at the allenic terminal carbon. For the GaCl3-catalyzed reactions, allenenes were obtained in reasonable to high yields. However, for a Au(I)-catalyzed reaction, a triene was obtained in a poor yield. Thus, GaCl3 serves as an effective catalyst for the cycloisomerization of allenynes bearing a terminal alkyne to give cyclic allenenes in reasonable to high yields. PMID:16930081

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Alkyl Sulfenate Anions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tiezheng; Zhang, Mengnan; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Carol Y; Walsh, Patrick J

    2015-11-01

    A unique palladium-catalyzed arylation of alkyl sulfenate anions is introduced that affords aryl alkyl sulfoxides in high yields. Due to the base sensitivity of the starting sulfoxides, sulfenate anion intermediates, and alkyl aryl sulfoxide products, the use of a mild method to generate alkyl sulfenate anions was crucial to the success of this process. Thus, a fluoride triggered elimination strategy was employed with alkyl 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl sulfoxides to liberate the requisite alkyl sulfenate anion intermediates. In the presence of palladium catalysts with bulky monodentate phosphines (SPhos and Cy-CarPhos) and aryl bromides or chlorides, alkyl sulfenate anions were readily arylated. Moreover, the thermal fragmentation and the base promoted elimination of alkyl sulfoxides was overridden. The alkyl sulfenate anion arylation exhibited excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of functional groups, such as anilines and phenols, which are also known to undergo palladium catalyzed arylation reactions.

  10. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-11

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo.

  11. Stereoselectivity in (Acyloxy)borane-Catalyzed Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua M; Zhang, Xin; Norrby, Per-Ola; Helquist, Paul; Wiest, Olaf

    2016-07-01

    The origin of diastereo- and enantioselectivity in a Lewis acid-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reaction is investigated using a combination of dispersion corrected DFT calculations and transition state force fields (TSFF) developed using the quantum guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) method. The reaction proceeds via a closed transition structure involving a nontraditional hydrogen bond that is 3.3 kJ/mol lower in energy than the corresponding open transition structure. The correct prediction of the diastereoselectivity of a Mukaiyama aldol reaction catalyzed by the conformationally flexible Yamamoto chiral (acyloxy) borane (CAB) requires extensive conformational sampling at the transition structure, which is achieved using a Q2MM-derived TSFF, followed by DFT calculations of the low energy conformational clusters. Finally, a conceptual model for the rationalization of the observed diastereo- and enantioselectivity of the reaction using a closed transition state model is proposed. PMID:27247023

  12. Actinide-Catalyzed Intermolecular Addition of Alcohols to Carbodiimides.

    PubMed

    Batrice, Rami J; Kefalidis, Christos E; Maron, Laurent; Eisen, Moris S

    2016-02-24

    The unprecedented actinide-catalyzed addition of alcohols to carbodiimides is presented. This represents a rare example of thorium-catalyzed transformations of an alcoholic substrate and the first example of uranium complexes showing catalytic reactivity with alcohols. Using the uranium and thorium amides U[N(SiMe3)2]3 and [(Me3Si)2N]2An[κ(2)-(N,C)-CH2Si(CH3)2N(SiMe3)] (An = Th or U), alcohol additions to unsaturated carbon-nitrogen bonds are achieved in short reaction times with excellent selectivities and high to excellent yields. Computational studies, supported by experimental thermodynamic data, suggest plausible models of the profile of the reaction which allow the system to overcome the high barrier of scission of the actinide-oxygen bond. Accompanied by experimentally determined kinetic parameters, a plausible mechanism is proposed for the catalytic cycle. PMID:26844823

  13. Effect of urate on the lactoperoxidase catalyzed oxidation of adrenaline.

    PubMed

    Løvstad, Rolf A

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase is an iron containing enzyme, which is an essential component of the defense system of mammalian secretary fluids. The enzyme readily oxidizes adrenaline and other catecholamines to coloured aminochrome products. A Km-value of 1.21 mM and a catalytic constant (k = Vmax/[Enz]) of 15.5 x 10(3) min(-1) characterized the reaction between lactoperoxidase and adrenaline at pH 7.4. Urate was found to activate the enzyme catalyzed oxidation of adrenaline in a competitive manner, the effect decreasing with increasing adrenaline concentration. Lactoperoxidase was able to catalyze the oxidation of urate. However, urate was a much poorer substrate than adrenaline, and it seems unlikely that urate activates by functioning as a free, redox cycling intermediate between enzyme and adrenaline. The activation mechanism probably involves an urate-lactoperoxidase complex.

  14. Copper-Catalyzed Intramolecular Oxidative Amination of Unactivated Internal Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Peng; Xu, Fan; Qian, Xiang-Yang; Yohannes, Yared; Song, Jinshuai; Lu, Xin; Xu, Hai-Chao

    2016-03-18

    A copper-catalyzed oxidative amination of unactivated internal alkenes has been developed. The Wacker-type oxidative alkene amination reaction is traditionally catalyzed by a palladium through a mechanism involving aminopalladation and β-hydride elimination. Replacing the precious and scarce palladium with a cheap and abundant copper for this transformation has been challenging because of the difficulty associated with the aminocupration of internal alkenes. The combination of a simple copper salt, without additional ligand, as the catalyst and Dess-Martin periodinane as the oxidant, promotes efficiently the oxidative amination of allylic carbamates and ureas bearing di- and trisubstituted alkenes leading to oxazolidinones and imidazolidinones. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggested a hybrid radical-organometallic mechanism involving an amidyl radical cyclization to form the key C-N bond.

  15. The catalyzing role of PPDK in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xian-Min; Cao, Li-Jing; Adam, Rodney D; Zhang, Xi-Chen; Lu, Si-Qi

    2008-03-01

    Giardia lamblia is an early branching eukaryotic microorganism that derives its metabolic energy primarily from anaerobic glycolysis. In most organisms, glycolysis is catalyzed by pyruvate kinase (PK), allowing the generation of two ATP molecules from one molecule of pyruvate. Giardia has both PK and pyrophosphate-dependent pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), which catalyzes the generation of five ATP molecules from pyruvate by pyrophosphate-dependent glycolysis and offers a potential selective advantage. In order to evaluate the importance of pyrophosphate-dependent glycolysis, we used ribozyme-mediated cleavage of the PPDK transcript to decrease PPDK transcript levels to 20% of normal. The accompanying decrease in PPDK enzyme activity decreased ATP levels to 3% of normal and increased glycogen deposition, confirming the importance pyrophosphate-mediated glycolysis that was previously suggested by cell lysate studies. PPDK is not found in vertebrates, so specific inhibitors may be useful for treatment of infections caused by anaerobic protists that depend on pyrophosphate-dependent glycolysis.

  16. Cross-ligation and exchange reactions catalyzed by hairpin ribozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Y; Koizumi, M; Sekiguchi, A; Ohtsuka, E

    1993-01-01

    The negative strand of the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus (sTobRV(-)) contains a hairpin catalytic domain that shows self-cleavage and self-ligation activities in the presence of magnesium ions. We describe here that the minimal catalytic domain can catalyze a cross-ligation reaction between two kinds of substrates in trans. The cross-ligated product increased when the reaction temperature was decreased during the reaction from 37 degrees C to 4 degrees C. A two-stranded hairpin ribozyme, divided into two fragments between G45 and U46 in a hairpin loop, showed higher ligation activity than the nondivided ribozyme. The two stranded ribozyme also catalyzed an exchange reaction of the 3'-portion of the cleavage site. Images PMID:8441626

  17. Copper-catalyzed divergent kinetic resolution of racemic allylic substrates.

    PubMed

    Pineschi, Mauro; Di Bussolo, Valeria; Crotti, Paolo

    2011-10-01

    When a racemic mixture is fully consumed the products may still be enantiomerically enriched. In particular, the regiodivergent kinetic resolution is a process in which a single chiral catalyst or reagent reacts with a racemic substrate to form regioisomers possessing an opposite configuration on the newly-formed stereogenic centers. This review reports the major advances in the field of the copper-catalyzed regiodivergent and stereodivergent kinetic resolution of allylic substrates with organometallic reagents. The chiral recognition matching phenomena found with particular allylic substrates with the absolute configuration of the chiral catalyst allows in some cases an excellent control of the regio- and stereoselectivity, sheding some light on the so-called "black-box" mechanism of a copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation. PMID:21837639

  18. Iron-catalyzed diboration and carboboration of alkynes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naohisa; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Nakamura, Masaharu

    2015-03-01

    An iron-catalyzed diboration reaction of alkynes with bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2) and external borating agents (MeOB(OR)2) affords diverse symmetrical or unsymmetrical cis-1,2-diborylalkenes. The simple protocol for the diboration reaction can be extended to the iron-catalyzed carboboration of alkynes with primary and, unprecedentedly, secondary alkyl halides, affording various tetrasubstituted monoborylalkenes in a highly stereoselective manner. DFT calculations indicate that a boryliron intermediate adds across the triple bond of an alkyne to afford an alkenyliron intermediate, which can react with the external trapping agents, borates and alkyl halides. In situ trapping experiments support the intermediacy of the alkenyl iron species using radical probe stubstrates.

  19. Scandium(III)-catalyzed enantioselective allylation of isatins using allylsilanes.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, Nadine V; Tang, Yng C; Tran, Ngon T; Franz, Annaliese K

    2012-05-01

    The scandium(III)-catalyzed enantioselective Hosomi-Sakurai allylation of isatins with various substituted allylic silanes is described. A catalyst loading as low as 0.05 mol % is utilized at room temperature to afford the 3-allyl-3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles in excellent yields and enantioselectivity up to 99% ee, including a demonstration of a gram-scale reaction. The effects of additives and varying silyl groups were explored to demonstrate the scope and application.

  20. Gold-catalyzed homogeneous oxidative cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhu; Peng, Yu; Cui, Li; Zhang, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Oxidizing gold? A gold(I)/gold(III) catalytic cycle is essential for the first oxidative cross-coupling reaction in gold catalysis. By using Selectfluor for gold(I) oxidation, this chemistry reveals the synthetic potential of incorporating gold(I)/gold(III) catalytic cycles into contemporary gold chemistry and promises a new area of gold research by merging powerful gold catalysis and oxidative metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

  1. Metal-catalyzed annulation reactions for π-conjugated polycycles.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tienan; Zhao, Jian; Asao, Naoki; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-03-24

    The progress of the metal-catalyzed annulation reactions toward construction of various π-conjugated polycyclic cores with high conjugation extension is described. This article gives a brief overview of various annulation reactions promoted by metal catalysts including C-H bond functionalization, [2+2+2] cycloaddition, cascade processes, ring closing metathesis, electrophilic aromatization, and various cross-coupling reactions. A variety of conjugated polycycles with planar, bowl-shaped, and helical structures have been constructed in high efficiency and selectivity.

  2. Gold-catalyzed oxidative cycloadditions to activate a quinoline framework.

    PubMed

    Huple, Deepak B; Ghorpade, Satish; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2013-09-23

    Going for gold! Gold-catalyzed reactions of 3,5- and 3,6-dienynes with 8-alkylquinoline oxides results in an oxidative cycloaddition with high stereospecificity (see scheme; EWG = electron-withdrawing group); this process involves a catalytic activation of a quinoline framework. The reaction mechanism involves the intermediacy of α-carbonyl pyridinium ylides (I) in a concerted [3+2]-cycloaddition with a tethered alkene.

  3. Tandem Difluoroalkylation-Arylation of Enamides Catalyzed by Nickel.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ji-Wei; Min, Qiao-Qiao; Yu, Ling-Chao; Zhang, Xingang

    2016-09-26

    A nickel-catalyzed three-component reaction for the synthesis of difluoroalkylated compounds through tandem difluoroalkylation-arylation of enamides has been developed. The reaction tolerates a variety of arylboronic acids and widely available difluoroalkyl bromides, and even the relatively inert substrate chlorodifluoroacetate. The significant advantages of this protocol are the low-cost nickel catalyst, synthetic convenience, excellent functional-group compatibility and high reaction efficiency. PMID:27605485

  4. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bijay

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1) as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26734088

  5. Palladium Catalyzed Intramolecular Acylcyanation of Alkenes Using α-Iminonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Rondla, Naveen R.; Ogilvie, Jodi M.; Pan, Zhongda

    2014-01-01

    Reported here is a palladium catalyzed intramolecular acylcyanation of alkenes using α-iminonitriles. Through this method, highly functionalized indanones are synthesized in moderate to high yields using Pd(PPh3)4, without need for any additional ligands, and a common Lewis acid (ZnCl2). Additionally, the reaction tolerates substitution at various positions on the aromatic ring including electron donating, and electron withdrawing groups. PMID:24980625

  6. Synthesis of Optically Active Polystyrene Catalyzed by Monophosphine Pd Complexes.

    PubMed

    Jouffroy, Matthieu; Armspach, Dominique; Matt, Dominique; Osakada, Kohtaro; Takeuchi, Daisuke

    2016-07-11

    Cationic Pd(II) monophosphine complexes derived from α- and β-cyclodextrins (CDs) promote the homopolymerization of styrene under carbon monoxide pressure. Although reversible CO coordination takes place under catalytic conditions according to (13) C NMR studies with (13) C-enriched CO, both complexes catalyze the formation of CO-free styrene polymers. These macromolecules display optical activity as a result of the presence of stereoregular sequences within the overall atactic polymer.

  7. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of trisubstituted allylic and homoallylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jian; Liu, Xiaowu; Zhang, Shaolin; Jiang, Shuang; Huang, Minhao; Wu, Xiaoxing; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-04-27

    An efficient copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of trisubstituted allylic and homoallylic alcohols with Togni's reagent has been developed. This strategy, accompanied by a double-bond migration, leads to various branched CF3-substituted alcohols by using readily available trisubstituted cyclic/acyclic alcohols as substrates. Moreover, for alcohols in which β-H elimination is prohibited, CF3-containing oxetanes are isolated as the sole product. PMID:25810003

  8. Copper-Catalyzed Divergent Addition Reactions of Enoldiazoacetamides with Nitrones.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qing-Qing; Yedoyan, Julietta; Arman, Hadi; Doyle, Michael P

    2016-01-13

    Catalyst-controlled divergent addition reactions of enoldiazoacetamides with nitrones have been developed. By using copper(I) tetrafluoroborate/bisoxazoline complex as the catalyst, a [3+3]-cycloaddition reaction was achieved with excellent yield and enantioselectivity under exceptionally mild conditions, which represents the first highly enantioselective base-metal-catalyzed vinylcarbene transformation. When the catalyst was changed to copper(I) triflate, Mannich addition products were formed in high yields with near exclusivity under otherwise identical conditions.

  9. Biaryl Phosphine Ligands in Palladium-Catalyzed Amination

    PubMed Central

    Surry, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl halides has undergone rapid development in the last 12 years. This has been largely driven by implementation of new classes of ligands. Biaryl phosphines have proven to provide especially active catalysts in this context. This review discusses the applications that these catalysts have found in C-N cross-coupling in heterocycle synthesis, pharmaceuticals, materials science and natural product synthesis. PMID:18663711

  10. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  11. The gravitino-stau scenario after catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, Joern; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai E-mail: kai.schmidt-hoberg@ph.tum.de

    2008-01-15

    We consider the impact of catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis on theories with a gravitino lightest superparticle and a charged slepton next-to-lightest superparticle. In models where the gravitino to gaugino mass ratio is bounded from below, such as gaugino-mediated supersymmetry breaking, we derive a lower bound on the gaugino mass parameter m{sub 1/2}. As a concrete example, we determine the parameter space of gaugino mediation that is compatible with all cosmological constraints.

  12. Synthesis of Aryldifluoroamides by Copper-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling.

    PubMed

    Arlow, Sophie I; Hartwig, John F

    2016-03-24

    A copper-catalyzed coupling of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl iodides with α-silyldifluoroamides is reported. The reaction forms α,α-difluoro-α-aryl amides from electron-rich, electron-poor, and sterically hindered aryl iodides in high yield and tolerates a variety of functional groups. The aryldifluoroamide products can be transformed further to provide access to a diverse array of difluoroalkylarenes, including compounds of potential biological interest. PMID:26929068

  13. Copper bronze catalyzed Heck reaction in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Calò, Vincenzo; Nacci, Angelo; Monopoli, Antonio; Ieva, Eliana; Cioffi, Nicola

    2005-02-17

    Heck reaction of aryl iodides and activated aryl bromides catalyzed by copper bronze in tetrabutylammonium bromide as solvent and tetrabutylammonium acetate as base was developed. The effective catalysts are Cu nanoparticles deriving from the reaction of iodobenzene with copper bronze. These nanoparticles are very stable in tetraalkylammonium salts, are easily recycled, and can be stored for months without a loss of catalytic efficiency. [reaction: see text

  14. Rh catalyzed olefination and vinylation of unactivated acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Patureau, Frederic W; Glorius, Frank

    2010-07-28

    In the catalyzed oxidative olefination of acetanilides (oxidative-Heck coupling), Rh offers great advantages over more common Pd catalysts. Lower catalyst loadings, large functional group tolerance (in particular to halides), and higher reactivity of electron-neutral olefins (styrenes) are some of the attractive features. Most interestingly, even ethylene reacts to yield the corresponding acetanilido-styrene. Moreover, the Cu(II) oxidant can also be utilized in catalytic amounts with air serving as the terminal oxidant. PMID:20593901

  15. Comparing Ru and Fe-catalyzed olefin metathesis.

    PubMed

    Poater, Albert; Chaitanya Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama; Pump, Eva; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Fe-based complexes with an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, as olefin metathesis catalysts. Apart from a less endothermic reaction energy profile, a small reduction in the predicted upper energy barriers (≈ 2 kcal mol(-1)) is calculated in the Fe catalyzed profile with respect to the Ru catalysed profile. Overall, this study indicates that Fe-based catalysts have the potential to be very effective olefin metathesis catalysts.

  16. Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik

    2013-01-01

    Summary The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate. PMID:24062838

  17. Bi(OTf)3-Catalyzed Multicomponent α-Amidoalkylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Angelika E; Manolikakes, Georg

    2015-06-19

    A bismuth(III) triflate catalyzed three-component synthesis of α-substituted amides starting from amides, aldehydes, and (hetero)arenes is reported. The reaction has a broad substrate scope, encompassing formaldehyde as well as aryl and alkyl aldehydes. Low catalyst loadings are required, and water is formed as the only side product. The scope and limitation of this method will be discussed. PMID:25996906

  18. Synthesis of Graphite Encapsulated Metal Nanoparticles and Metal Catalyzed Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWal, R. L.; Dravid, V. P.

    1999-01-01

    This work focuses on the growth and inception of graphite encapsulated metal nanoparticles and metal catalyzed nanotubes using combustion chemistry. Deciphering the inception and growth mechanism(s) for these unique nanostructures is essential for purposeful synthesis. Detailed knowledge of these mechanism(s) may yield insights into alternative synthesis pathways or provide data on unfavorable conditions. Production of these materials is highly desirable given many promising technological applications.

  19. Copper-Catalyzed Perfluoroalkylthiolation of Alkynes with Perfluoroalkanesulfenamides.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Anis; Alazet, Sébastien; Glenadel, Quentin; Billard, Thierry

    2016-07-11

    Copper-catalyzed direct perfluoroalkylthiolation of alkynes by using the corresponding perfluoroalkanesulfenamide reagent is reported. The selective mono- and bis-perfluoroalkylthiolation of alkynes can be conducted under very mild conditions (no base, room temperature) in very good to excellent yields. This approach, which uses a low toxicity, inexpensive copper catalyst that incorporates a commercially available ligand, is applied in the absence of any additional base. Preliminary mechanistic investigations shed some light on the nature of the unprecedented reactivity observed. PMID:27334703

  20. Copper-Catalyzed Divergent Addition Reactions of Enoldiazoacetamides with Nitrones.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qing-Qing; Yedoyan, Julietta; Arman, Hadi; Doyle, Michael P

    2016-01-13

    Catalyst-controlled divergent addition reactions of enoldiazoacetamides with nitrones have been developed. By using copper(I) tetrafluoroborate/bisoxazoline complex as the catalyst, a [3+3]-cycloaddition reaction was achieved with excellent yield and enantioselectivity under exceptionally mild conditions, which represents the first highly enantioselective base-metal-catalyzed vinylcarbene transformation. When the catalyst was changed to copper(I) triflate, Mannich addition products were formed in high yields with near exclusivity under otherwise identical conditions. PMID:26699516

  1. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bijay; Giri, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1) as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26734088

  2. Iron-catalyzed aromatic amination for nonsymmetrical triarylamine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takuji; Imayoshi, Ryuji; Yoshimoto, Yuya; Ghorai, Sujit K; Jin, Masayoshi; Takaya, Hikaru; Norisuye, Kazuhiro; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Masaharu

    2012-12-19

    Novel iron-catalyzed amination reactions of various aryl bromides have been developed for the synthesis of diaryl- and triarylamines. The key to the success of this protocol is the use of in situ generated magnesium amides in the presence of a lithium halide, which dramatically increases the product yield. The present method is simple and free of precious and expensive metals and ligands, thus providing a facile route to triarylamines, a recurrent core unit in organic electronic materials as well as pharmaceuticals.

  3. Synthesis of Optically Active Polystyrene Catalyzed by Monophosphine Pd Complexes.

    PubMed

    Jouffroy, Matthieu; Armspach, Dominique; Matt, Dominique; Osakada, Kohtaro; Takeuchi, Daisuke

    2016-07-11

    Cationic Pd(II) monophosphine complexes derived from α- and β-cyclodextrins (CDs) promote the homopolymerization of styrene under carbon monoxide pressure. Although reversible CO coordination takes place under catalytic conditions according to (13) C NMR studies with (13) C-enriched CO, both complexes catalyze the formation of CO-free styrene polymers. These macromolecules display optical activity as a result of the presence of stereoregular sequences within the overall atactic polymer. PMID:27218801

  4. Enzyme-catalyzed biocathode in a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Hu, Donghua; Zhang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Kunqi; Wang, Bin; Sun, Bo; Qiu, Zhidong

    2014-12-01

    A novel double-enzyme photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PEBFC) has been developed by taking glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the enzyme of the photoanode and biocathode to catalyze the oxidation of glucose and the reduction of oxygen. A H2-mesoporphyrin IX is used as a dye for a TiO2 film electrode to fabricate a photoanode. The horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is immobilized on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode to construct a biocathode which is used to catalyze the reduction of oxygen in the PEBFC for the first time. The biocathode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity in the presence of O2. The performances of the PEBFC are obtained by current-voltage and power-voltage curves. The short-circuit current density (Isc), the open-circuit voltage (Voc), maximum power density (Pmax), fill factor (FF) and energy conversion efficiency (η) are 439 μA cm-2, 678 mV, 79 μW cm-2, 0.39 and 0.016%, respectively, and the incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) is 32% at 350 nm. The Isc is higher than that of the PEBFC with Pt cathode, and the Voc is higher than that of the dye-sensitized solar cell or the enzyme-catalyzed biofuel cell operating individually, which demonstrates that the HRP is an efficient catalyst for the biocathode in the PEBFC.

  5. Carrier gas effects on aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yue; Hainey, Mel, Jr.; Won, Dongjin; Weng, Xiaojun; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowire growth under low-pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions requires higher reactor pressures than gold-catalyzed growth, but the reasons for this difference are not well understood. In this study, the effects of reactor pressure and hydrogen partial pressure on silicon nanowire growth using an aluminum catalyst were studied by growing nanowires in hydrogen and hydrogen/nitrogen carrier gas mixtures at different total reactor pressures. Nanowires grown in the nitrogen/hydrogen mixture have faceted catalyst droplet tips, minimal evidence of aluminum diffusion from the tip down the nanowire sidewalls, and significant vapor-solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. In comparison, wires grown in pure hydrogen show less well-defined tips, evidence of aluminum diffusion down the nanowire sidewalls at increasing reactor pressures and reduced vapor-solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. The results are explained in terms of a model wherein the hydrogen partial pressure plays a critical role in aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth by controlling hydrogen termination of the silicon nanowire sidewalls. For a given reactor pressure, increased hydrogen partial pressures increase the extent of hydrogen termination of the sidewalls which suppresses SiH4 adsorption thereby reducing vapor-solid deposition of silicon but increases the surface diffusion length of aluminum. Conversely, lower hydrogen partial pressures reduce the hydrogen termination and also increase the extent of SiH4 gas phase decomposition, shifting the nanowire growth window to lower growth temperatures and silane partial pressures.

  6. Anisotropic Morphological Changes in Goethite during Fe(2+)-Catalyzed Recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prachi; Gorski, Christopher A

    2016-07-19

    When goethite is exposed to aqueous Fe(2+), rapid and extensive Fe atom exchange can occur between solid-phase Fe(3+) and aqueous Fe(2+) in a process referred to as Fe(2+)-catalyzed recrystallization. This process can lead to the structural incorporation or release of trace elements, which has important implications for contaminant remediation and nutrient biogeochemical cycling. Prior work found that the process did not cause major changes to the goethite structure or morphology. Here, we further investigated if and how goethite morphology and aggregation behavior changed temporally during Fe(2+)-catalyzed recrystallization. On the basis of existing literature, we hypothesized that Fe(2+)-catalyzed recrystallization of goethite would not result in changes to individual particle morphology or interparticle interactions. To test this, we reacted nanoparticulate goethite with aqueous Fe(2+) at pH 7.5 over 30 days and used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryogenic TEM, and (55)Fe as an isotope tracer to observe changes in particle dimensions, aggregation, and isotopic composition over time. Over the course of 30 days, the goethite particles substantially recrystallized, and the particle dimensions changed anisotropically, resulting in a preferential increase in the mean particle width. The temporal changes in goethite morphology could not be completely explained by a single mineral-transformation mechanism but rather indicated that multiple transformation mechanisms occurred concurrently. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the morphology of goethite nanoparticles does change during recrystallization, which is an important step toward identifying the driving force(s) of recrystallization.

  7. Asymmetric Stetter reactions catalyzed by thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kasparyan, Elena; Richter, Michael; Dresen, Carola; Walter, Lydia S; Fuchs, Georg; Leeper, Finian J; Wacker, Tobias; Andrade, Susana L A; Kolter, Geraldine; Pohl, Martina; Müller, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The intermolecular asymmetric Stetter reaction is an almost unexplored transformation for biocatalysts. Previously reported thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent PigD from Serratia marcescens is the first enzyme identified to catalyze the Stetter reaction of α,β-unsaturated ketones (Michael acceptor substrates) and α-keto acids. PigD is involved in the biosynthesis of the potent cytotoxic agent prodigiosin. Here, we describe the investigation of two new ThDP-dependent enzymes, SeAAS from Saccharopolyspora erythraea and HapD from Hahella chejuensis. Both show a high degree of homology to the amino acid sequence of PigD (39 and 51 %, respectively). The new enzymes were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, and the yield of soluble protein was enhanced by co-expression of the chaperone genes groEL/ES. SeAAS and HapD catalyze intermolecular Stetter reactions in vitro with high enantioselectivity. The enzymes possess a characteristic substrate range with respect to Michael acceptor substrates. This provides support for a new type of ThDP-dependent enzymatic activity, which is abundant in various species and not restricted to prodigiosin biosynthesis in different strains. Moreover, PigD, SeAAS, and HapD are also able to catalyze asymmetric carbon-carbon bond formation reactions of aldehydes and α-keto acids, resulting in 2-hydroxy ketones.

  8. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    PubMed Central

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I−) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  9. Stau-catalyzed big-bang nucleosynthesis reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu; Kino, Yasushi; Hiyama, Emiko

    2010-06-01

    We study the new type of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) reactions that are catalyzed by a hypothetical long-lived negatively charged, massive leptonic particle (called X{sup -}) such as the supersymmetric (SUSY) particle stau, the scalar partner of the tau lepton. It is known that if the X{sup -} particle has a lifetime of tau{sub X} > or approx. 10{sup 3} s, it can capture a light element previously synthesized in standard BBN and form a Coulombic bound state and induces various types of reactions in which X{sup -} acts as a catalyst. Some of these X{sup -} catalyzed reactions have significantly large cross sections so that the inclusion of the reactions into the BBN network calculation can markedly change the abundances of some elements. We use a high-accuracy three-body calculation method developed by the authors and provide precise cross sections and rates of these catalyzed BBN reactions for use in the BBN network calculation.

  10. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-12-01

    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis on methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.

  11. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  12. Hydrophobic properties of polytetrafluoroethylene thin films fabricated at various catalyzer temperatures through catalytic chemical vapor deposition using a tungsten catalyzer.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jeong Ok; Yeo, Seung Jun; Pode, Ramchandra; Ahn, Jeung Sun

    2011-07-01

    Using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) method, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films were fabricated on Si(100) substrates at various catalyzer temperatures, using a tungsten catalyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) were used to confirm the fabrication of the films. An atomic-force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to study the correlation between the wettability and surface morphology of the samples. It was found that the wettability of the PTFE thin films fabricated via Cat-CVD is strongly correlated with the sizes of the film surfaces' nanoprotrusions, and that superhydrophobic PTFE thin-film surfaces can be easily achieved by controlling the sizes of the nanoprotrusions through the catalyzer temperature. The comparison of the wettability values and surface morphologies of the films confirmed that nanoscale surface roughness enhances the hydrophobic properties of PTFE thin films. Further, the detailed analysis of the films' surface morphologies from their AFM images with the use of the Wenzel and Cassie models confirmed that the nanoscale surface roughness enhanced the hydrophobic property of the PTFE films. Further, the variations of the wettability of the PTFE thin films prepared via Cat-CVD are well explained by the Cassie model. It seems that the increase in the trapping air and the reduction of the liquid-solid contact area are responsible for the superhydrophobicity of the PTFE thin films prepared via Cat-CVD. PMID:22121615

  13. Gold-catalyzed cyclization reactions of allenol and alkynol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro

    2014-03-18

    Although gold is chemically inert as a bulk metal, the landmark discovery that gold nanoparticles can be effective catalysts has opened up new and exciting research opportunities in the field. In recent years, there has been growth in the number of reactions catalyzed by gold complexes [gold(I) and gold(III)], usually as homogeneous catalysts, because they are soft Lewis acids. In addition, alkynes and allenes have interesting reactivities and selectivities, notably their ability to produce complex structures in very few steps. In this Account, we describe our work in gold catalysis with a focus on the formation of C-C and C-O bonds using allenes and alkynes as starting materials. Of these, oxa- and carbo-cyclizations are perhaps the best known and most frequently studied. We have divided those contributions into sections arranged according to the nature of the starting material (allene versus alkyne). Gold-catalyzed carbocyclizations in allenyl C2-linked indoles, allenyl-β-lactams, and allenyl sugars follow different mechanistic pathways. The cyclization of indole-tethered allenols results in the efficient synthesis of carbazole derivatives, for example. However, the compound produced from gold-catalyzed 9-endo carbocyclization of (aryloxy)allenyl-tethered 2-azetidinones is in noticeable contrast to the 5-exo hydroalkylation product that results from allenyl sugars. We have illustrated the unusual preference for the 4-exo-dig cyclization in allene chemistry, as well as the rare β-hydride elimination reaction, in gold catalysis from readily available α-allenols. We have also observed in γ-allenols that a (methoxymethyl)oxy protecting group not only masks a hydroxyl functionality but also exerts directing effects as a controlling unit in a gold-catalyzed regioselectivity reversal. Our recent work has also led to a combined experimental and computational study on regioselective gold-catalyzed synthetic routes to 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones (kinetically controlled

  14. Ammonia and hydrazine. Transition-metal-catalyzed hydroamination and metal-free catalyzed functionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy

    2012-06-29

    high temperatures and long reaction times. To address this issue, we have developed several new families of carbon- and boron-based ligands, which are even better donors. The corresponding metal complexes (particularly gold, rhodium, iridium, and ruthenium) of all these species will be tested in the Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov hydroamination of alkynes, allenes, and also alkenes with ammonia and hydrazine. We will also develop metal-free catalytic processes for the functionalization of ammonia and hydrazine. By possessing both a lone pair of electrons and an accessible vacant orbital, singlet carbenes resemble and can mimic the chemical behavior of transition metals. Our preliminary results demonstrate that specially designed carbenes can split the N–H bond of ammonia by an initial nucleophilic activation that prevents the formation of Lewis acid-base adducts, which is the major hurdle for the transition metal catalyzed functionalization of NH3. The use of purely organic compounds as catalysts will eliminate the major drawbacks of transition-metal-catalysis technology, which are the excessive cost of metal complexes (metal + ligands) and in many cases the toxicity of the metal.

  15. A Link between Protein Structure and Enzyme Catalyzed Hydrogen Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahnson, Brian J.; Colby, Thomas D.; Chin, Jodie K.; Goldstein, Barry M.; Klinman, Judith P.

    1997-11-01

    We present evidence that the size of an active site side chain may modulate the degree of hydrogen tunneling in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Primary and secondary kH/kT and kD/kT kinetic isotope effects have been measured for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol catalyzed by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 25 degrees C. As reported in earlier studies, the relationship between secondary kH/kT and kD/kT isotope effects provides a sensitive probe for deviations from classical behavior. In the present work, catalytic efficiency and the extent of hydrogen tunneling have been correlated for the alcohol dehydrogenase-catalyzed hydride transfer among a group of site-directed mutants at position 203. Val-203 interacts with the opposite face of the cofactor NAD+ from the alcohol substrate. The reduction in size of this residue is correlated with diminished tunneling and a two orders of magnitude decrease in catalytic efficiency. Comparison of the x-ray crystal structures of a ternary complex of a high-tunneling (Phe-93 --> Trp) and a low-tunneling (Val-203 --> Ala) mutant provides a structural basis for the observed effects, demonstrating an increase in the hydrogen transfer distance for the low-tunneling mutant. The Val-203 --> Ala ternary complex crystal structure also shows a hyperclosed interdomain geometry relative to the wild-type and the Phe-93 --> Trp mutant ternary complex structures. This demonstrates a flexibility in interdomain movement that could potentially narrow the distance between the donor and acceptor carbons in the native enzyme and may enhance the role of tunneling in the hydride transfer reaction.

  16. Energy harvesting by implantable abiotically catalyzed glucose fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzenmacher, S.; Ducrée, J.; Zengerle, R.; von Stetten, F.

    Implantable glucose fuel cells are a promising approach to realize an autonomous energy supply for medical implants that solely relies on the electrochemical reaction of oxygen and glucose. Key advantage over conventional batteries is the abundant availability of both reactants in body fluids, rendering the need for regular replacement or external recharging mechanisms obsolete. Implantable glucose fuel cells, based on abiotic catalysts such as noble metals and activated carbon, have already been developed as power supply for cardiac pacemakers in the late-1960s. Whereas, in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies demonstrated their long-term stability, the performance of these fuel cells is limited to the μW-range. Consequently, no further developments have been reported since high-capacity lithium iodine batteries for cardiac pacemakers became available in the mid-1970s. In recent years research has been focused on enzymatically catalyzed glucose fuel cells. They offer higher power densities than their abiotically catalyzed counterparts, but the limited enzyme stability impedes long-term application. In this context, the trend towards increasingly energy-efficient low power MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) implants has revived the interest in abiotic catalysts as a long-term stable alternative. This review covers the state-of-the-art in implantable abiotically catalyzed glucose fuel cells and their development since the 1960s. Different embodiment concepts are presented and the historical achievements of academic and industrial research groups are critically reviewed. Special regard is given to the applicability of the concept as sustainable micro-power generator for implantable devices.

  17. A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Moon, Hong S; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Stewart, Neal C.; Gang, David R.; Chen, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Known SABATH methyltransferases, all of which were identified from seed plants, catalyze methylation of either the carboxyl group of a variety of low molecular weight metabolites or the nitrogen moiety of precursors of caffeine. In this study, the SABATH family from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens was identified and characterized. Four SABATH-like sequences (PpSABATH1, PpSABATH2, PpSABATH3, and PpSABATH4) were identified from the P. patens genome. Only PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 showed expression in the leafy gametophyte of P. patens. Full-length cDNAs of PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were cloned and expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were tested for methyltransferase activity with a total of 75 compounds. While showing no activity with carboxylic acids or nitrogen-containing compounds, PpSABATH1 displayed methyltransferase activity with a number of thiols. PpSABATH2 did not show activity with any of the compounds tested. Among the thiols analyzed, PpSABATH1 showed the highest level of activity with thiobenzoic acid with an apparent Km value of 95.5 lM, which is comparable to those of known SABATHs. Using thiobenzoic acid as substrate, GC MS analysis indicated that the methylation catalyzed by PpSABATH1 is on the sulfur atom. The mechanism for S-methylation of thiols catalyzed by PpSABATH1 was partially revealed by homology-based structural modeling. The expression of PpSABATH1 was induced by the treatment of thiobenzoic acid. Further transgenic studies showed that tobacco plants overexpressing PpSABATH1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to thiobenzoic acid, suggesting that PpSABATH1 have a role in the detoxification of xenobiotic thiols.

  18. On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-Catalyzed Rates.

    PubMed

    Arcus, Vickery L; Prentice, Erica J; Hobbs, Joanne K; Mulholland, Adrian J; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Pudney, Christopher R; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-03-29

    One of the critical variables that determine the rate of any reaction is temperature. For biological systems, the effects of temperature are convoluted with myriad (and often opposing) contributions from enzyme catalysis, protein stability, and temperature-dependent regulation, for example. We have coined the phrase "macromolecular rate theory (MMRT)" to describe the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates independent of stability or regulatory processes. Central to MMRT is the observation that enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur with significant values of ΔCp(‡) that are in general negative. That is, the heat capacity (Cp) for the enzyme-substrate complex is generally larger than the Cp for the enzyme-transition state complex. Consistent with a classical description of enzyme catalysis, a negative value for ΔCp(‡) is the result of the enzyme binding relatively weakly to the substrate and very tightly to the transition state. This observation of negative ΔCp(‡) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates. Here, we lay out the fundamentals of MMRT. We present a number of hypotheses that arise directly from MMRT including a theoretical justification for the large size of enzymes and the basis for their optimum temperatures. We rationalize the behavior of psychrophilic enzymes and describe a "psychrophilic trap" which places limits on the evolution of enzymes in low temperature environments. One of the defining characteristics of biology is catalysis of chemical reactions by enzymes, and enzymes drive much of metabolism. Therefore, we also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms, and even ecosystems. PMID:26881922

  19. On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-Catalyzed Rates.

    PubMed

    Arcus, Vickery L; Prentice, Erica J; Hobbs, Joanne K; Mulholland, Adrian J; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Pudney, Christopher R; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-03-29

    One of the critical variables that determine the rate of any reaction is temperature. For biological systems, the effects of temperature are convoluted with myriad (and often opposing) contributions from enzyme catalysis, protein stability, and temperature-dependent regulation, for example. We have coined the phrase "macromolecular rate theory (MMRT)" to describe the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates independent of stability or regulatory processes. Central to MMRT is the observation that enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur with significant values of ΔCp(‡) that are in general negative. That is, the heat capacity (Cp) for the enzyme-substrate complex is generally larger than the Cp for the enzyme-transition state complex. Consistent with a classical description of enzyme catalysis, a negative value for ΔCp(‡) is the result of the enzyme binding relatively weakly to the substrate and very tightly to the transition state. This observation of negative ΔCp(‡) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates. Here, we lay out the fundamentals of MMRT. We present a number of hypotheses that arise directly from MMRT including a theoretical justification for the large size of enzymes and the basis for their optimum temperatures. We rationalize the behavior of psychrophilic enzymes and describe a "psychrophilic trap" which places limits on the evolution of enzymes in low temperature environments. One of the defining characteristics of biology is catalysis of chemical reactions by enzymes, and enzymes drive much of metabolism. Therefore, we also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms, and even ecosystems.

  20. Iodine-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions utilizing C - H and X - H as nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, iodine-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions utilizing C - H and X - H as nucleophiles have received considerable attention because they represent more efficient, greener, more atom-economical, and milder bond-formation strategies over transition-metal-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions. This Focus Review gives a brief summary of recent development on iodine-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions utilizing C - H and X - H as nucleophiles.

  1. Pt-Catalyzed Synthesis of Functionalized Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Disilazanes.

    PubMed

    Kuciński, Krzysztof; Szudkowska-Frątczak, Justyna; Hreczycho, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    In nearly every total synthesis, silylating agents are employed in synthetic steps to protect sensitive functional groups. A Pt-catalyzed hydrosilylation of various unsaturated substrates to prepare novel symmetrical and unsymmetrical disilazanes is described. The developed synthetic methodology is widely applicable and tolerates all manner of functional groups (e.g., amines, ethers, esters, halogens, silanes, etc.). To demonstrate the value of the described method, mono-substituted 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisilazanes were further selectively converted to completely new unsymmetrical derivatives. PMID:27414042

  2. Ruthenium-Catalyzed meta-Selective C—H Bromination

    PubMed Central

    Teskey, Christopher J; Lui, Andrew Y W; Greaney, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed, meta-selective C–H bromination procedure is reported. In the presence of catalytic [{Ru(p-cymene)Cl2}2], tetrabutylammonium tribromide can be used to functionalize the meta C–H bond of 2-phenylpyridine derivatives, thus affording difficult to access products which are highly predisposed to further derivatization. We demonstrate this utility with one-pot bromination/arylation and bromination/alkenylation procedures to deliver meta-arylated and meta-alkenylated products, respectively, in a single step. PMID:26288217

  3. Urea- and Thiourea-Catalyzed Aminolysis of Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Blain, Marine; Yau, Honman; Jean-Gérard, Ludivine; Auvergne, Rémi; Benazet, Dominique; Schreiner, Peter R; Caillol, Sylvain; Andrioletti, Bruno

    2016-08-23

    The aminolysis of (poly)carbonates by (poly)amines provides access to non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) that are toxic-reagent-free analogues of polyurethanes (PUs). Owing to their low reactivity, the ring opening of cyclic carbonates requires the use of a catalyst. Herein, we report that the more available and cheaper ureas could advantageously be used for catalyzing the formation of NIPUs at the expense of the thiourea analogues. In addition, we demonstrate a medium-range pKa of the (thio)urea and an unqeual substitution pattern is critical for controlling the efficiency of the carbonate opening. PMID:27467779

  4. Asymmetric Propargylation of Ketones using Allenylboronates Catalyzed by Chiral Biphenols

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, David S.; Schaus, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Chiral biphenols catalyze the enantioselective asymmetric propargylation of ketones using allenylboronates. The reaction uses 10 mol % of 3,3′-Br2-BINOL as the catalyst and allenyldioxoborolane as the nucleophile, in the absence of solvent, and under microwave irradiation to afford the homopropargylic alcohol. The reaction products are obtained in good yields (60 – 98%) and high enantiomeric ratios (3:1 – 99:1). Diastereoselective propargylations using chiral racemic allenylboronates result in good diastereoselectivities (dr > 86:14) and enantioselectivities (er > 92:8) under the catalytic conditions. PMID:21732609

  5. Asymmetric propargylation of ketones using allenylboronates catalyzed by chiral biphenols.

    PubMed

    Barnett, David S; Schaus, Scott E

    2011-08-01

    Chiral biphenols catalyze the enantioselective asymmetric propargylation of ketones using allenylboronates. The reaction uses 10 mol % of 3,3'-Br(2)-BINOL as the catalyst and allenyldioxoborolane as the nucleophile, in the absence of solvent, and under microwave irradiation to afford the homopropargylic alcohol. The reaction products are obtained in good yields (60-98%) and high enantiomeric ratios (3:1-99:1). Diastereoselective propargylations using chiral racemic allenylboronates result in good diastereoselectivities (dr >86:14) and enantioselectivities (er >92:8) under the catalytic conditions. PMID:21732609

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Domino Carbocyclization–Arylation of Bisallenes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report a highly efficient and site-selective palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbocyclization–arylation reaction of bisallenes and arylboronic acids under operationally simple conditions for the selective synthesis of cyclohexadiene derivatives. The palladium source and the solvent proved to be crucial for the selectivity and the reactivity displayed. Interestingly, in the absence of the nucleophile, an oxidative carbocyclization-β-elimination pathway predominates. The reaction conditions are compatible with a wide range of functional groups, and the reaction exhibits broad substrate scope. Furthermore, key information regarding the mechanism was obtained using control experiments and kinetic studies. PMID:27761298

  7. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin: Separation of Monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneault, A.; Johnson, D. K.; Chornet, E.

    2007-12-01

    In our quest for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass and valorizing specific constitutive fractions, we have developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers generated during the hydrolytic based-catalyzed depolymerization of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy combines liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC were tested experimentally. Batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation confirmed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, 3 of which require further chromatography and crystallization for purification.

  8. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Allylic Substitutions with a Hydride Nucleophile.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N Thanh; Thiel, Niklas O; Pape, Felix; Teichert, Johannes F

    2016-05-20

    An easily accessible copper(I)/N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex enables a regioselective hydride transfer to allylic bromides, an allylic reduction. The resulting aryl- and alkyl-substituted branched α-olefins, which are valuable building blocks for synthesis, are obtained in good yields and regioselectivity. A commercially available silane, (TMSO)2Si(Me)H, is employed as hydride source. This protocol offers a unified alternative to the established metal-catalyzed allylic substitutions with carbon nucleophiles, as no adaption of the catalyst to the nature of the nucleophile is required. PMID:27151495

  9. Complex Biotransformations Catalyzed by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Liu, Wen

    2011-01-01

    The radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) superfamily currently comprises thousands of proteins that participate in numerous biochemical processes across all kingdoms of life. These proteins share a common mechanism to generate a powerful 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical, which initiates a highly diverse array of biotransformations. Recent studies are beginning to reveal the role of radical AdoMet proteins in the catalysis of highly complex and chemically unusual transformations, e.g. the ThiC-catalyzed complex rearrangement reaction. The unique features and intriguing chemistries of these proteins thus demonstrate the remarkable versatility and sophistication of radical enzymology. PMID:21771780

  10. Copper-catalyzed selective arylations of benzoxazoles with aryl iodides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghae; Yoo, Kwangho; Kim, Se Eun; Cho, Hee Jin; Lee, Junseong; Kim, Youngjo; Kim, Min

    2015-04-01

    A copper-catalyzed direct ring-opening double N-arylation of benzoxazoles with aryl iodides has been developed. The present system exhibits high selectivity despite competition from C-arylation. The selectivity between ring-opening N-arylation and C-arylation was controlled by the choice of reaction vessel. The nitrile bound bis(triphenylphosphine)copper cyanide was identified as the active catalytic species for both reactions, and when combined with a nitrile-containing solvent, enhanced the reaction efficiency.

  11. Comparing Ru and Fe-catalyzed olefin metathesis.

    PubMed

    Poater, Albert; Chaitanya Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama; Pump, Eva; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Fe-based complexes with an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, as olefin metathesis catalysts. Apart from a less endothermic reaction energy profile, a small reduction in the predicted upper energy barriers (≈ 2 kcal mol(-1)) is calculated in the Fe catalyzed profile with respect to the Ru catalysed profile. Overall, this study indicates that Fe-based catalysts have the potential to be very effective olefin metathesis catalysts. PMID:24821502

  12. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    SciTech Connect

    Roman Vladimirovich Rozhkov

    2004-12-19

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a {beta}-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in {beta}-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the {alpha}-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  13. Aerobic Copper-Catalyzed O-Methylation with Methylboronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Clare E; Martinez-Muñoz, Noelia; Gorin, David J

    2015-07-17

    The oxidative coupling of alkylboronic acids with oxygen nucleophiles offers a strategy for replacing toxic, electrophilic alkylating reagents. Although the Chan-Lam reaction has been widely applied in the arylation of heteroatom nucleophiles, O-alkylation with boronic acids is rare. We report a Cu-catalyzed nondecarboxylative methylation of carboxylic acids with methylboronic acid that proceeds in air with no additional oxidant. An isotope-labeling study supports an oxidative cross-coupling mechanism, in analogy to that proposed for Chan-Lam arylation. PMID:26111825

  14. Exploring Transition Metal Catalyzed Reactions via AB Initio Reaction Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2011-06-01

    The study and prediction of chemical reactivity is one of the most influential contributions of quantum chemistry. A central concept in the theoretical treatment of chemical reactions is the reaction pathway, which can be quite difficult to integrate accurately and efficiently. This talk will outline our developments in the integration of these pathways on ab initio potential energy surfaces. We will also describe results from recent studies on the kinetics of transition metal catalyzed reactions, including the importance of vibrational coupling to the reaction coordinate and the role of this coupling in catalytic rate enhancement.

  15. Can Chlorine Anion Catalyze the Reaction fo HOCl with HCl?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. L.; Francisco, J. S.; Mebel, A. M.; Morokuma, K.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of HOCl + HCl -> Cl2 + H20 in the presence of Cl has been studied using ab initio methods. This reaction has been shown to have a high activation barrier of 46.5 kcal/mol. The chlorine anion, Cl- is found to catalyze the reaction, viz. two mechanisms. The first involves Cl- interacting through the concerted four-center transition state of the neutral reaction. The other mechanism involves the formation of a HCl-HOCl-Cl- intermediate which dissociates into Cl2 + Cl- + H20. The steps are found to have no barriers. The overall exothermicity is 15.5 kcal/mol.

  16. New modes for the osmium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Timothy J; Lindsay-Scott, Peter J; Parker, Jeremy S; Callens, Cedric K A

    2010-03-01

    The osmium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of amino alcohol initiators formally derived from 1,4-dienes is an effective method for the construction of pyrrolidines, utilizing a novel reoxidant (4-nitropyridine N-oxide = NPNO). The cyclization of enantiopure syn- and anti-amino alcohols gives rise to enantiopure cis- and trans-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, respectively. Moreover, the cyclization of bis-homoallylic amines bearing an exocyclic chelating group is shown to be a complementary method for trans-pyrrolidine formation.

  17. Copper-catalyzed stereoselective aminoboration of bicyclic alkenes.

    PubMed

    Sakae, Ryosuke; Hirano, Koji; Satoh, Tetsuya; Miura, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    A copper-catalyzed aminoboration of bicyclic alkenes, including oxa- and azabenzonorbornadienes, has been developed. With this method, amine and boron moieties are simultaneously introduced at an olefin with exo selectivity. Subsequent stereospecific transformations of the boryl group can provide oxygen- and nitrogen-rich cyclic molecules with motifs that may be found in natural products or pharmaceutically active compounds. Moreover, a catalytic asymmetric variant of this transformation was realized by using a copper complex with a chiral bisphosphine ligand, namely (R,R)-Ph-BPE. PMID:25404258

  18. Iron-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Alkenyl Acetates.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Dominik; Stein, André Luiz; Grupe, Sabine; Arp, Johannes; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Stable C-O linkages are generally unreactive in cross-coupling reactions which mostly employ more electrophilic halides or activated esters (triflates, tosylates). Acetates are cheap and easily accessible electrophiles but have not been used in cross-couplings because the strong C-O bond and high propensity to engage in unwanted acetylation and deprotonation. Reported herein is a selective iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of diverse alkenyl acetates, and it operates under mild reaction conditions (0 °C, 2 h) with a ligand-free catalyst (1-2 mol%). PMID:26184455

  19. Photoredox Catalysis in Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Livia N; Molander, Gary A

    2016-08-01

    The traditional transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction, although well suited for C(sp2)-C(sp2) cross-coupling, has proven less amenable toward coupling of C(sp3)-hybridized centers, particularly using functional group tolerant reagents and reaction conditions. The development of photoredox/Ni dual catalytic methods for cross-coupling has opened new vistas for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds at C(sp3)-hybridized centers. In this chapter, a general outline of the features of such processes is detailed. PMID:27573391

  20. Nickel-Catalyzed Negishi Cross-Coupling of Bromodifluoroacetamides.

    PubMed

    Tarui, Atsushi; Shinohara, Saori; Sato, Kazuyuki; Omote, Masaaki; Ando, Akira

    2016-03-01

    A nickel-catalyzed Negishi coupling of bromodifluoroacetamides with arylzinc reagents has been developed. This reaction allows access to difluoromethylated aromatic compounds containing a variety of aryl groups and amide moieties. Furthermore, highly effective transformation of the functionalized difluoromethyl group (-CF2CONR(1)R(2)) was realized via microwave-assisted reduction under mild conditions. The notable features of this strategy are its generality and its use of a low-cost nickel catalyst and ligand; thus, this reaction provides a facile method for applications in drug discovery and development. PMID:26910536

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective Difluoroalkylation and Carbonylation of Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; He, Yu-Tao; Zhao, Jia-Hui; Qiu, Yi-Feng; Zheng, Lan; Hu, Jing-Yuan; Yang, Yu-Chen; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Liang, Yong-Min

    2016-06-01

    A novel, four-component synthetic strategy to synthesize a series of β-difluoroalkyl unsaturated esters/amides with high regioslectivity is described. This Pd-catalyzed difluoroalkylation and carbonylation reaction can be carried out with simple starting materials. Through this protocol, two new C-C bonds (including one C-CF2 bond) and one C-O(N) bond are constructed simultaneously in a single step. The synthetic utility of this reaction system has been certified by the applicability to a wide scope of alkynes and nucleophiles. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the difluoroalkyl radical pathway is involved in this reaction. PMID:27191858

  2. Iron-Catalyzed C-H Functionalization Processes.

    PubMed

    Cera, Gianpiero; Ackermann, Lutz

    2016-10-01

    Iron-catalyzed C-H activation has recently emerged as an increasingly powerful tool for the step-economical transformation of unreactive C-H bonds. Particularly, the recent development of low-valent iron catalysis has set the stage for novel C-H activation strategies via chelation assistance. The low-cost, natural abundance, and low toxicity of iron prompted its very recent application in organometallic C-H activation catalysis. An overview of the use of iron catalysis in C-H activation processes is summarized herein up to May 2016. PMID:27573499

  3. Copper-catalyzed stereoselective aminoboration of bicyclic alkenes.

    PubMed

    Sakae, Ryosuke; Hirano, Koji; Satoh, Tetsuya; Miura, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    A copper-catalyzed aminoboration of bicyclic alkenes, including oxa- and azabenzonorbornadienes, has been developed. With this method, amine and boron moieties are simultaneously introduced at an olefin with exo selectivity. Subsequent stereospecific transformations of the boryl group can provide oxygen- and nitrogen-rich cyclic molecules with motifs that may be found in natural products or pharmaceutically active compounds. Moreover, a catalytic asymmetric variant of this transformation was realized by using a copper complex with a chiral bisphosphine ligand, namely (R,R)-Ph-BPE.

  4. Copper-Catalyzed Azide–Alkyne Click Chemistry for Bioconjugation

    PubMed Central

    Presolski, Stanislav I.; Hong, Vu Phong; Finn, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction is widely used for the connection of molecular entities of all sizes. A protocol is provided here for the process with biomolecules. Ascorbate is used as reducing agent to maintain the required cuprous oxidation state. Since these convenient conditions produce reactive oxygen species, five equivalents of a copper-binding ligand is used with respect to metal. The ligand both accelerates the reaction and serves as a sacrificial reductant, protecting the biomolecules from oxidation. A procedure is also described for testing the efficiency of the reaction under desired conditions for purposes of optimization, before expensive biological reagents are used. PMID:22844652

  5. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of monoacylglycerol in a homogeneous system.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Julieta B; Nascimento, Maria G; Ninow, Jorge L

    2003-04-01

    The 1,3-regiospecifique lipase, Lipozyme IM, catalyzed the esterification of lauric acid and glycerol in a homogeneous system. To overcome the drawback of the insolubility of glycerol in hexane, which is extensively used in enzymatic synthesis, a mixture of n-hexane/tert-butanol (1:1, v/v) was used leading to a monophasic system. The conversion of lauric acid into monolaurin was 65% in 8 h, when a molar ratio of glycerol to fatty acid (5:1) was used with the fatty acid at 0.1 M, and the phenomenon of acyl migration was minimized.

  6. The Palladium-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Vinyl Sulfonates

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Jin; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of cyclohexenyl sulfonates has been developed. Various cyclohexenyl triflates and nonaflates underwent trifluoromethylation under mild reaction conditions using a catalyst system composed of Pd(dba)2 or [(allyl)PdCl]2 and the monodentate biaryl phosphine ligand tBuXPhos. The trifluoromethyl anion (CF3−) or its equivalent for the process was generated in situ from TMSCF3 in combination with KF or TESCF3 in combintion with RbF. PMID:22111687

  7. Rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration of diols and polyols.

    PubMed

    Dethlefsen, Johannes R; Fristrup, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The substitution of platform chemicals of fossil origin by biomass-derived analogues requires the development of chemical transformations capable of reducing the very high oxygen content of biomass. One such reaction, which has received increasing attention within the past five years, is the rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of a vicinal diol into an alkene; this is a model system for abundant polyols like glycerol and sugar alcohols. The present contribution includes a review of early investigations of stoichiometric reactions involving rhenium, diols, and alkenes followed by a discussion of the various catalytic systems that have been developed with emphasis on the nature of the reductant, the substrate scope, and mechanistic investigations.

  8. Lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction on acrylate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Steunenberg, Peter; Sijm, Maarten; Zuilhof, Han; Sanders, Johan P M; Scott, Elinor L; Franssen, Maurice C R

    2013-04-19

    A methodology has been developed for an efficient and selective lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction of various amines (primary and secondary) with a series of acrylates and alkylacrylates. Reaction parameters were tuned, and under the optimal conditions it was found that Pseudomonas stutzeri lipase and Chromobacterium viscosum lipase showed the highest selectivity for the aza-Michael addition to substituted alkyl acrylates. For the first time also, some CLEAs were examined that showed a comparable or higher selectivity and yield than the free enzymes and other formulations.

  9. The prosegment catalyzes native folding of Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin II.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Ahmad Haniff; Xiao, Huogen; Dee, Derek R; Bryksa, Brian C; Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Yada, Rickey Y

    2016-10-01

    Plasmepsin II is a malarial pepsin-like aspartic protease produced as a zymogen containing an N-terminal prosegment domain that is removed during activation. Despite structural similarities between active plasmepsin II and pepsin, their prosegments adopt different conformations in the respective zymogens. In contrast to pepsinogen, the proplasmepsin II prosegment is 80 residues longer, contains a transmembrane region and is non-essential for recombinant expression in an active form, thus calling into question the prosegment's precise function. The present study examines the role of the prosegment in the folding mechanism of plasmepsin II. Both a shorter (residues 77-124) and a longer (residues 65-124) prosegment catalyze plasmepsin II folding at rates more than four orders of magnitude faster compared to folding without prosegment. Native plasmepsin II is kinetically trapped and requires the prosegment both to catalyze folding and to shift the folding equilibrium towards the native conformation. Thus, despite low sequence identity and distinct zymogen conformations, the folding landscapes of plasmepsin II and pepsin, both with and without prosegment, are qualitatively identical. These results imply a conserved and unusual feature of the pepsin-like protease topology that necessitates prosegment-assisted folding. PMID:27378574

  10. Lanthanide cofactors accelerate DNA-catalyzed synthesis of branched RNA.

    PubMed

    Javadi-Zarnaghi, Fatemeh; Höbartner, Claudia

    2013-08-28

    Most deoxyribozymes (DNA catalysts) require metal ions as cofactors for catalytic activity, with Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) being the most represented activators. Trivalent transition-metal ions have been less frequently considered. Rare earth ions offer attractive properties for studying metal ion binding by biochemical and spectroscopic methods. Here we report the effect of lanthanide cofactors, in particular terbium (Tb(3+)), for DNA-catalyzed synthesis of 2',5'-branched RNA. We found up to 10(4)-fold increased ligation rates for the 9F7 deoxribozyme using 100 μM Tb(3+) and 7 mM Mg(2+), compared to performing the reaction with 7 mM Mg(2+) alone. Combinatorial mutation interference analysis (CoMA) was used to identify nucleotides in the catalytic region of 9F7 that are essential for ligation activity with different metal ion combinations. A minimized version of the DNA enzyme sustained high levels of Tb(3+)-assisted activity. Sensitized luminescence of Tb(3+) bound to DNA in combination with DMS probing and DNase I footprinting results supported the CoMA data. The accelerating effect of Tb(3+) was confirmed for related RNA-ligating deoxyribozymes, pointing toward favorable activation of internal 2'-OH nucleophiles. The results of this study offer fundamental insights into nucleotide requirements for DNA-catalyzed RNA ligation and will be beneficial for practical applications that utilize 2',5'-branched RNA.

  11. Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Kambe, Nobuaki; Iwasaki, Takanori; Terao, Jun

    2011-10-01

    Cross-coupling reactions have become indispensable tools for creating carbon-carbon (or heteroatom) bonds in organic synthesis. Like in other important transition metal catalyzed reactions, such as metathesis, addition, and polymerization, unsaturated compounds are usually employed as substrates for cross-coupling reactions. However during the past decade, a great deal of effort has been devoted to the use of alkyl halides as saturated compounds in cross-coupling reactions, which has resulted in significant progress in this undeveloped area by introducing new effective ligands. Many useful catalytic systems are now available for synthetic transformations based on C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)), C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) and C(sp(3))-C(sp) bond formation as complementary methods to conventional C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)), C(sp(2))-C(sp) and C(sp)-C(sp) coupling. This tutorial review summarizes recent advances in cross-coupling reactions of alkyl halides and pseudohalides catalyzed by a palladium complex.

  12. Metal-Catalyzed Oxidation and Photo-oxidation of Glucagon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation of glucagon by the H2O2/Cu(2+) system and by simulated sunlight was studied using HPLC-MS methodologies. It was found that copper ion-catalyzed oxidation is much faster in the residue 1-12 region than in photo-oxidation, but it is slower than photo-oxidation in the residue 18-29 region. This difference is due to the unique feature of the primary sequence of glucagon. The residue 1-12 region contains His-1 and Asp-9 that can bind to Cu(2+) ions and catalyze the oxidation of His-1 and Tyr-10, while the residue 18-29 region lacks these charged residues near the liable Met-27 and Trp-25 and hence no catalysis by the neighboring groups occurs. Fragment (residue 13-17) was more stable than the other regions of the peptide toward photo-oxidation because it contains only one oxidizable residue, Tyr-13. These findings may help explain the mechanism of action of glucagon and provide some hints for the development of effective anti-diabetic drug molecules and stable glucagon formulations.

  13. Triethylenetetramine prevents insulin aggregation and fragmentation during copper catalyzed oxidation.

    PubMed

    Torosantucci, Riccardo; Weinbuch, Daniel; Klem, Robin; Jiskoot, Wim

    2013-08-01

    Metal catalyzed oxidation via the oxidative system Cu(2+)/ascorbate is known to induce aggregation of therapeutic proteins, resulting in enhanced immunogenicity. Hence, inclusion of antioxidants in protein formulations is of great interest. In this study, using recombinant human insulin (insulin) as a model, we investigated the ability of several excipients, in particular triethylenetetramine (TETA), reduced glutathione(GSH) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), for their ability to prevent protein oxidation, aggregation, and fragmentation. Insulin (1mg/ml) was oxidized with 40 μM Cu(2+) and 4mM ascorbic acid in absence or presence of excipients. Among the excipients studied, 1mM of TETA, EDTA, or GSH prevented insulin aggregation upon metal catalyzed oxidation (MCO) for 3h at room temperature, based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC). At lower concentration (100 μM), for 72 h at +4 °C, TETA was the only one to inhibit almost completely oxidation-induced insulin aggregation, fragmentation, and structural changes, as indicated by SEC, nanoparticle tracking analysis, light obscuration particle counting, intrinsic/extrinsic fluorescence, circular dichroism, and chemical derivatization. In contrast, GSH had a slight pro-oxidant effect, as demonstrated by the higher percentage of aggregates and a more severe structural damage, whereas EDTA offered substantially less protection. TETA also protected a monoclonal IgG1 against MCO-induced aggregation, suggesting its general applicability. In conclusion, TETA is a potential candidate excipient for inclusion in formulations of oxidation-sensitive proteins.

  14. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  15. Can proteins and crystals self-catalyze methyl rotations?

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome

    2005-10-01

    The {chi} (C{sub {alpha}}-C{sub {beta}}) torsional barrier in the dipeptide alanine (N-methyl-l-alanyl-N-methylamide) crystal was investigated using ab initio calculations at various levels of theory, molecular mechanics, and molecular dynamics. For one of the two molecules in the asymmetric unit the calculations suggest that rotation around the ? dihedral angle is catalyzed by the crystal environment, reducing by up to 2kT the torsional barrier in the crystal with respect to that in the gas phase. This catalytic effect is present at both low and room temperature and originates from a van der Waals destabilization of the minima in the methyl dihedral potential coming from the nonbonded environment of the side chain. Screening of a subset of the Protein Data Bank with a pharmacophore model reproducing the crystal environment around this side chain methyl identified a protein containing an alanine residue with an environment similar to that in the crystal. Calculations indicate that this ? torsional barrier is also reduced in the protein at low temperature but not at room temperature. This suggests that environment-catalyzed rotation of methyl groups can occur both in the solid phase and in native biological structures, though this effect might be temperature-dependent. The relevance of this catalytic effect is discussed in terms of its natural occurrence and its possible contribution to the low-frequency vibrational modes of molecules.

  16. Porous silicon formation during Au-catalyzed etching

    SciTech Connect

    Algasinger, Michael; Bernt, Maximilian; Koynov, Svetoslav; Stutzmann, Martin

    2014-04-28

    The formation of “black” nano-textured Si during the Au-catalyzed wet-chemical etch process was investigated with respect to photovoltaic applications. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images recorded at different stages of the etch process exhibit an evolution of a two-layer structure, consisting of cone-like Si hillocks covered with a nano-porous Si (np-Si) layer. Optical measurements confirm the presence of a np-Si phase which appears after the first ∼10 s of the etch process and continuously increases with the etch time. Furthermore, the etch process was investigated on Si substrates with different doping levels (∼0.01–100 Ω cm). SEM images show a transition from the two-layer morphology to a structure consisting entirely of np-Si for higher doping levels (<0.1 Ω cm). The experimental results are discussed on the basis of the model of a local electrochemical etch process. A better understanding of the metal-catalyzed etch process facilitates the fabrication of “black” Si on various Si substrates, which is of significant interest for photovoltaic applications.

  17. Study of microwave effects on the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Devi, C Shobha; Chang, Po-Chi; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating on lipase-catalyzed reaction remains controversial. It is not clear whether the reaction rate enhancements are purely due to thermal/heating effects or to non-thermal effects. Therefore, quantitative mass spectrometry was used to conduct accurate kinetic analysis of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triolein by microwave and conventional heating. Commercial lipases from Candida rugosa (CRL), Porcine Pancreas (PPL), and Burkholderia cepacia (BCL) were used. Hydrolysis reactions were performed at various temperatures and pH levels, along with various amounts of buffer and enzymes. Hydrolysis product yields at each time point using an internal-standard method showed no significant difference between microwave and conventional heating conditions when the reaction was carried out at the same temperature. CRL showed optimum catalytic activity at 37 °C, while PPL and BCL had better activities at 50 °C. The phosphate buffer was found to give a better hydrolysis yield than the Tris-HCl buffer. Overall results prove that a non-thermal effect does not exist in microwave-assisted lipase hydrolysis of triolein. Therefore, conventional heating at high temperatures (e.g., 50 °C) can be also used to accelerate hydrolysis reactions.

  18. Metalloporphyrin solubility: a trigger for catalyzing reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ishai; Schlautman, Mark A

    2004-02-01

    Metalloporphyrins are well known for their electron-transfer roles in many natural redox systems. In addition, several metalloporphyrins and related tetrapyrrole macrocycles complexed with various core metals have been shown to catalyze the reductive dechlorination of certain organic compounds, thus demonstrating the potential for using naturally occurring metalloporphyrins to attenuate toxic and persistent chlorinated organic pollutants in the environment. However, despite the great interest in reductive dechlorination reactions and the wide variety of natural and synthetic porphyrins currently available, only soluble porphyrins, which comprise a small fraction of this particular family of organic macrocycles, have been used as electron-transfer shuttles in these reactions. Results from the present study clearly demonstrate that metalloporphyrin solubility is a key factor in their ability to catalyze the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and its daughter compounds. Additionally, we show that certain insoluble and nonreactive metalloporphyrins can be activated as catalysts merely by changing solution conditions to bring about their dissolution. Furthermore, once a metalloporphyrin is fully dissolved and activated, tetrachloroethylene transformation proceeds rapidly, giving nonchlorinated and less toxic alkenes as the major reaction products. Results from the present study suggest that if the right environmental conditions exist or can be created, specific metalloporphyrins may provide a solution for cleaning up sites that are contaminated with chlorinated organic pollutants.

  19. Lipase-catalyzed polyester synthesis – A green polymer chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    This article is a short comprehensive review describing in vitro polyester synthesis catalyzed by a hydrolysis enzyme of lipase, most of which has been developed for these two decades. Polyesters are prepared by repeated ester bond-formation reactions; they include two major modes, ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic monomers such as cyclic esters (lactones) and condensation polymerization via the reaction between a carboxylic acid or its ester group and an alcohol group. Polyester synthesis is, therefore, a reaction in reverse way of in vivo lipase catalysis of ester bond-cleavage with hydrolysis. The lipase-catalyzed polymerizations show very high chemo-, regio-, and enantio-selectivities and involve various advantageous characteristics. Lipase is robust and compatible with other chemical catalysts, which allows novel chemo-enzymatic processes. New syntheses of a variety of functional polyesters and a plausible reaction mechanism of lipase catalysis are mentioned. The polymerization characteristics are of green nature currently demanded for sustainable society, and hence, desirable for conducting ‘green polymer chemistry’. PMID:20431260

  20. Enzyme catalyzed electricity-driven water softening system.

    PubMed

    Arugula, Mary A; Brastad, Kristen S; Minteer, Shelley D; He, Zhen

    2012-12-10

    Hardness in water, which is caused by divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium ions, presents a major water quality problem. Because hard water must be softened before use in residential applications, there is great interest in the saltless water softening process because, unlike ion exchange softeners, it does not introduce additional ions into water. In this study, a saltless hardness removal driven by bioelectrochemical energy produced through enzymatic oxidation of glucose was proposed and investigated. Glucose dehydrogenase was coated on a carbon electrode to catalyze glucose oxidation in the presence of NAD⁺ as a cofactor/mediator and methylene green as an electrocatalyst. The results showed that electricity generation stimulated hardness removal compared with non-electricity conditions. The enzymatic water softener worked upon a 6h batch operation per day for eight days, and achieved an average hardness removal of 46% at a high initial concentration of 800 mg/L as CaCO₃. More hardness was removed at a lower initial concentration. For instance, at 200mg/L as CaCO₃ the enzymatic water softener removed 76.4±4.6% of total hardness. The presence of magnesium ions decreased hardness removal because of its larger hydrated radius than calcium ions. The enzymatic water softener removed 70-80% of total hardness from three actual hard water samples. These results demonstrated a proof-of-concept that enzyme catalyzed electricity generation can be used to soften hard water. PMID:23040397

  1. Study of microwave effects on the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Devi, C Shobha; Chang, Po-Chi; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating on lipase-catalyzed reaction remains controversial. It is not clear whether the reaction rate enhancements are purely due to thermal/heating effects or to non-thermal effects. Therefore, quantitative mass spectrometry was used to conduct accurate kinetic analysis of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triolein by microwave and conventional heating. Commercial lipases from Candida rugosa (CRL), Porcine Pancreas (PPL), and Burkholderia cepacia (BCL) were used. Hydrolysis reactions were performed at various temperatures and pH levels, along with various amounts of buffer and enzymes. Hydrolysis product yields at each time point using an internal-standard method showed no significant difference between microwave and conventional heating conditions when the reaction was carried out at the same temperature. CRL showed optimum catalytic activity at 37 °C, while PPL and BCL had better activities at 50 °C. The phosphate buffer was found to give a better hydrolysis yield than the Tris-HCl buffer. Overall results prove that a non-thermal effect does not exist in microwave-assisted lipase hydrolysis of triolein. Therefore, conventional heating at high temperatures (e.g., 50 °C) can be also used to accelerate hydrolysis reactions. PMID:26672464

  2. Solution-solid-solid mechanism: superionic conductors catalyze nanowire growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junli; Chen, Kangmin; Gong, Ming; Xu, Bin; Yang, Qing

    2013-09-11

    The catalytic mechanism offers an efficient tool to produce crystalline semiconductor nanowires, in which the choice, state, and structure of catalysts are active research issues of much interest. Here we report a novel solution-solid-solid (SSS) mechanism for nanowire growth catalyzed by solid-phase superionic conductor nanocrystals in low-temperature solution. The preparation of Ag2Se-catalyzed ZnSe nanowires at 100-210 °C is exampled to elucidate the SSS model, which can be extendable to grow other II-VI semiconductor (e.g., CdSe, ZnS, and CdS) nanowires by the catalysis of nanoscale superionic-phase silver or copper(I) chalcogenides (Ag2Se, Ag2S, and Cu2S). The exceptional catalytic ability of these superionic conductors originates from their structure characteristics, known for high-density vacancies and fast mobility of silver or copper(I) cations in the rigid sublattice of Se(2-) or S(2-) ions. Insights into the SSS mechanism are provided based on the formation of solid solution and the solid-state ion diffusion/transport at solid-solid interface between catalyst and nanowire. PMID:23919513

  3. Small molecule screening in context: Lipid-catalyzed amyloid formation

    PubMed Central

    Hebda, James A; Magzoub, Mazin; Miranker, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP) is a 37-residue hormone cosecreted with insulin by the β-cells of the pancreas. Amyloid fiber aggregation of IAPP has been correlated with the dysfunction and death of these cells in type II diabetics. The likely mechanisms by which IAPP gains toxic function include energy independent cell membrane penetration and induction of membrane depolarization. These processes have been correlated with solution biophysical observations of lipid bilayer catalyzed acceleration of amyloid formation. Although the relationship between amyloid formation and toxicity is poorly understood, the fact that conditions promoting one also favor the other suggests related membrane active structural states. Here, a novel high throughput screening protocol is described that capitalizes on this correlation to identify compounds that target membrane active species. Applied to a small library of 960 known bioactive compounds, we are able to report identification of 37 compounds of which 36 were not previously reported as active toward IAPP fiber formation. Several compounds tested in secondary cell viability assays also demonstrate cytoprotective effects. It is a general observation that peptide induced toxicity in several amyloid diseases (such as Alzhiemer’s and Parkinson’s) involves a membrane bound, preamyloid oligomeric species. Our data here suggest that a screening protocol based on lipid-catalyzed assembly will find mechanistically informative small molecule hits in this subclass of amyloid diseases. PMID:25043951

  4. Metal-Catalyzed Oxidation and Photo-oxidation of Glucagon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation of glucagon by the H2O2/Cu(2+) system and by simulated sunlight was studied using HPLC-MS methodologies. It was found that copper ion-catalyzed oxidation is much faster in the residue 1-12 region than in photo-oxidation, but it is slower than photo-oxidation in the residue 18-29 region. This difference is due to the unique feature of the primary sequence of glucagon. The residue 1-12 region contains His-1 and Asp-9 that can bind to Cu(2+) ions and catalyze the oxidation of His-1 and Tyr-10, while the residue 18-29 region lacks these charged residues near the liable Met-27 and Trp-25 and hence no catalysis by the neighboring groups occurs. Fragment (residue 13-17) was more stable than the other regions of the peptide toward photo-oxidation because it contains only one oxidizable residue, Tyr-13. These findings may help explain the mechanism of action of glucagon and provide some hints for the development of effective anti-diabetic drug molecules and stable glucagon formulations. PMID:27435200

  5. Montmorillonite Clay-Catalyzed Synthesis of RNA Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Miyakawa, S.; Huang, W.; Joshi, P.

    2005-12-01

    It is proposed that catalysis had a central role in the origins of life. This will be illustrated using the montmorillonite clay-catalyzed synthesis of oligomers of RNA from activated monomers, (Ferris and Ertem, 1993) a possible step in the origin of the RNA world (Ferris, 2005). Structural analysis of oligomers formed in the reaction of the activated monomer of 5'-AMP with that of 5'-CMP demonstrated that the oligomers formed were not produced by random synthesis but rather the sequences observed were directed by the montmorillonite catalyst (Miyakawa and Ferris, 2003). RNA oligomers containing up to 40 mers have been synthesized in reactions performed in water at 25 oC in the presence of montmorillonite (Huang and Ferris, 2003). Analysis of the structure elements in these oligomers from the 7 to 39 mers showed that they did not vary. Reaction of D, L-mixtures of the activated monomers of A and U resulted in the formation of greater amounts of the homochiral amounts of dimers and trimers of A than would be expected if there was no selectivity in the reaction. A limited number of the dimers and trimers of U were also formed but here the selectivity was for the formation of an excess of heterochiral products (Joshi et al., 2000). A postulate that explains why homochiral trimers of U are not formed and the significance of catalysis in prebiotic synthesis will be discussed. Ferris, J.P. (2005) Origins of life, molecular basis of. In R.A. Meyers, Ed. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, 10. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany. Ferris, J.P., and Ertem, G. (1993) Montmorillonite catalysis of RNA oligomer formation in aqueous solution. A model for the prebiotic formation of RNA. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115, 12270-12275. Huang, W., and Ferris, J.P. (2003) Synthesis of 35-40 mers of RNA oligomers from unblocked monomers. A simple approach to the RNA world. Chem. Commun., 1458-1459. Joshi, P.C., Pitsch, S., and Ferris, J.P. (2000) Homochiral selection

  6. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of indoles via ammonia cross-coupling-alkyne cyclization.

    PubMed

    Alsabeh, Pamela G; Lundgren, Rylan J; Longobardi, Lauren E; Stradiotto, Mark

    2011-06-28

    The synthesis of indoles via the metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of ammonia is reported for the first time; the developed protocol also allows for the unprecedented use of methylamine or hydrazine as coupling partners. These Pd/Josiphos-catalyzed reactions proceed under relatively mild conditions for a range of 2-alkynylbromoarenes.

  7. ROLE OF COPPER,ZINC-SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN CATALYZING NITROTYROSINE FORMATION IN MURINE LIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solely known function of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is to catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide. Our objective was to determine if SOD1 catalyzed murine liver protein nitration induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Liver and plasma ...

  8. Nickel-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling of perfluorobenzoates with aryl halides and sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Sardzinski, Logan W; Wertjes, William C; Schnaith, Abigail M; Kalyani, Dipannita

    2015-03-01

    A Ni-catalyzed method for the coupling of perfluorobenzoates with aryl halides and pseudohalides is described. Aryl iodides, bromides, chlorides, triflates, and tosylates participate in these transformations to afford the products in good yields. Penta-, tetra-, and trifluorinated biaryl compounds are obtained using these newly developed Ni-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling reactions.

  9. Cu(OAc)2-catalyzed coupling of aromatic C-H bonds with arylboron reagents.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ming; Sun, Shang-Zheng; Dai, Hui-Xiong; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2014-11-01

    Cu-catalyzed coupling of aryl C-H bonds with arylboron reagents was accomplished using a readily removable directing group, which provides a useful method for the synthesis of biaryl compounds. The distinct transmetalation step in this Cu-catalyzed C-H coupling with aryl borons provides unique evidence for the formation of an aryl cupperate intermediate. PMID:25325402

  10. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Nardoaristolone B via a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-nardoaristolone B is accomplished by the implementation of an enantio- and diastereoselective copper(I)-catalyzed conjugate addition/enolate trapping sequence and a gold(I)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization (intermolecular oxidant), employed for the first time in total synthesis. PMID:25563976

  11. Epoxide ring-opening and Meinwald rearrangement reactions of epoxides catalyzed by mesoporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mathew W C; Davies, A Matthew; Buckle, Richard; Mabbett, Ian; Taylor, Stuart H; Graham, Andrew E

    2009-06-21

    Mesoporous aluminosilicates efficiently catalyze the ring-opening of epoxides to produce beta-alkoxyalcohols in high yields under extremely mild reaction conditions. These materials also catalyze the corresponding Meinwald rearrangement in non-nucleophilic solvents to give aldehydes which can be trapped in situ to provide the corresponding acetals in an efficient tandem process.

  12. Synthesis of Functionalized Cyclohexenone Core of Welwitindolinones via Rhodium- Catalyzed [5+1] Cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The cyclohexenone core of welwitindolinones was synthesized by a Rh(I)-catalyzed [5+1]-cycloaddition of an allenylcyclopropane with CO. A penta-substituted cyclopropane was prepared successfully by a Rh(II)-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of alkenes with chlorodiazoacetates. PMID:22783971

  13. Degradation and transformation of atrazine under catalyzed ozonation process with TiO2 as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yixin; Cao, Hongbin; Peng, Pai; Bo, Hongmiao

    2014-08-30

    Degradation of atrazine by heterogeneously catalyzed ozonation was carried out with TiO2 in the form of rutile as the catalyst. Some experimental factors such as catalyst dose, ozone dose and initial concentration of atrazine were investigated for their influence on catalyzed ozonation process. Although atrazine was effectively removed from aqueous solution by catalyzed ozonation process, the mineralization degree only reached 56% at the experimental conditions. Five transformation products were identified by GC/MS analysis. The degradation of atrazine involved de-alkylation, de-chlorination and de-amination. Diaminotriazine and 5-azauracil were the de-chlorinated and de-aminated products, respectively. The evolution of concentration of transformation products during catalyzed ozonation process was compared with uncatalyzed ozonation to show the degradation pathway. Toxicity tests based on the inhibition of the luminescence emitted by Vibrio fisheri indicated the detoxification of atrazine by catalyzed ozonation. PMID:25106044

  14. Degradation and transformation of atrazine under catalyzed ozonation process with TiO2 as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yixin; Cao, Hongbin; Peng, Pai; Bo, Hongmiao

    2014-08-30

    Degradation of atrazine by heterogeneously catalyzed ozonation was carried out with TiO2 in the form of rutile as the catalyst. Some experimental factors such as catalyst dose, ozone dose and initial concentration of atrazine were investigated for their influence on catalyzed ozonation process. Although atrazine was effectively removed from aqueous solution by catalyzed ozonation process, the mineralization degree only reached 56% at the experimental conditions. Five transformation products were identified by GC/MS analysis. The degradation of atrazine involved de-alkylation, de-chlorination and de-amination. Diaminotriazine and 5-azauracil were the de-chlorinated and de-aminated products, respectively. The evolution of concentration of transformation products during catalyzed ozonation process was compared with uncatalyzed ozonation to show the degradation pathway. Toxicity tests based on the inhibition of the luminescence emitted by Vibrio fisheri indicated the detoxification of atrazine by catalyzed ozonation.

  15. Dirhodium-catalyzed C-H arene amination using hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Mahesh P; Adebesin, Adeniyi Michael; Burt, Scott R; Ess, Daniel H; Ma, Zhiwei; Kürti, László; Falck, John R

    2016-09-01

    Primary and N-alkyl arylamine motifs are key functional groups in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and functional materials, as well as in bioactive natural products. However, there is a dearth of generally applicable methods for the direct replacement of aryl hydrogens with NH2/NH(alkyl) moieties. Here, we present a mild dirhodium-catalyzed C-H amination for conversion of structurally diverse monocyclic and fused aromatics to the corresponding primary and N-alkyl arylamines using NH2/NH(alkyl)-O-(sulfonyl)hydroxylamines as aminating agents; the relatively weak RSO2O-N bond functions as an internal oxidant. The methodology is operationally simple, scalable, and fast at or below ambient temperature, furnishing arylamines in moderate-to-good yields and with good regioselectivity. It can be readily extended to the synthesis of fused N-heterocycles. PMID:27609890

  16. Synthesis of rosin acid starch catalyzed by lipase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rihui; Li, He; Long, Han; Su, Jiating; Huang, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Rosin, an abundant raw material from pine trees, was used as a starting material directly for the synthesis of rosin acid starch. The esterification reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Novozym 435) under mild conditions. Based on single factor experimentation, the optimal esterification conditions were obtained as follows: rosin acid/anhydrous glucose unit in the molar ratio 2:1, reaction time 4 h at 45°C, and 15% of lipase dosage. The degree of substitution (DS) reaches 0.098. Product from esterification of cassava starch with rosin acid was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and iodine coloration analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the morphology and crystallinity of the cassava starch were largely destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that thermal stability of rosin acid starch decreased compared with native starch.

  17. Ni-Catalyzed C-C Couplings Using Alkyl Electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takanori; Kambe, Nobuaki

    2016-10-01

    Much effort has been devoted to developing new methods using Ni catalysts for the cross-coupling reaction of alkyl electrophiles with organometallic reagents, and significant achievements in this area have emerged during the past two decades. Nickel catalysts have enabled the coupling reaction of not only primary alkyl electrophiles, but also sterically hindered secondary and tertiary alkyl electrophiles possessing β-hydrogens with various organometallic reagents to construct carbon skeletons. In addition, Ni catalysts opened a new era of asymmetric cross-coupling reaction using alkyl halides. Recent progress in nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of alkyl electrophiles with sp(3)-, sp(2)-, and sp-hybridized organometallic reagents including asymmetric variants as well as mechanistic insights of nickel catalysis are reviewed in this chapter. PMID:27580894

  18. Trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling for quantitative proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Weijun; Petritis, Brianne O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-07-01

    Stable isotope labeling based on relative peptide/protein abundance measurements is commonly applied for quantitative proteomics. Recently, trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling has grown in popularity due to its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and its ability to universally label peptides with high sample recovery. In (18)O labeling, both C-terminal carboxyl group atoms of tryptic peptides can be enzymatically exchanged with (18)O, thus providing the labeled peptide with a 4 Da mass shift from the (16)O-labeled sample. Peptide (18)O labeling is ideally suited for generating a labeled "universal" reference sample used for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantitative measurements across large number of samples in quantitative discovery proteomics.

  19. Site-specific DNA transesterification catalyzed by a restriction enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Connolly, Bernard A.; Halford, Stephen E.; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2007-01-01

    Most restriction endonucleases use Mg2+ to hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds at specific DNA sites. We show here that BfiI, a metal-independent restriction enzyme from the phospholipase D superfamily, catalyzes both DNA hydrolysis and transesterification reactions at its recognition site. In the presence of alcohols such as ethanol or glycerol, it attaches the alcohol covalently to the 5′ terminus of the cleaved DNA. Under certain conditions, the terminal 3′-OH of one DNA strand can attack the target phosphodiester bond in the other strand to create a DNA hairpin. Transesterification reactions on DNA with phosphorothioate linkages at the target bond proceed with retention of stereoconfiguration at the phosphorus, indicating, uniquely for a restriction enzyme, a two-step mechanism. We propose that BfiI first makes a covalent enzyme–DNA intermediate, and then it resolves it by a nucleophilic attack of water or an alcohol, to yield hydrolysis or transesterification products, respectively. PMID:17267608

  20. Quinone-Catalyzed Selective Oxidation of Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-12-01

    Quinones are common stoichiometric reagents in organic chemistry. Para-quinones with high reduction potentials, such as DDQ and chloranil, are widely used and typically promote hydride abstraction. In recent years, many catalytic applications of these methods have been achieved by using transition metals, electrochemistry, or O2 to regenerate the oxidized quinone in situ. Complementary studies have led to the development of a different class of quinones that resemble the ortho-quinone cofactors in copper amine oxidases and mediate the efficient and selective aerobic and/or electrochemical dehydrogenation of amines. The latter reactions typically proceed by electrophilic transamination and/or addition-elimination reaction mechanisms, rather than hydride abstraction pathways. The collective observations show that the quinone structure has a significant influence on the reaction mechanism and has important implications for the development of new quinone reagents and quinone-catalyzed transformations. PMID:26530485

  1. Lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of borage oil: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos F; Hill, Charles G; Otero, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    Ethanolysis of borage oil catalyzed by two commercial lipases (from Pseudomonas cepacia and Candida antarctica) was studied using two different methodologies. Multiresponse models derived from a generalized Michaelis-Menten mechanism were utilized to describe the rates of formation of ethyl esters of the primary fatty acids present in the precursor oil. The relative rate constants determined for each of the fatty acid residues indicated that both lipases discriminate against release of gamma-linolenic acid residues under the reaction conditions studied. However, both lipases also released some of the residues located at the sn-2 position, indicating that for the experimental conditions studied, both lipases are nonspecific. Moreover, inactivation of Novozym 435 was rapid. Because the half-life of this enzyme (ca. 2.2 h) is comparable to the half-life of the reaction, the intrinsic reaction rate and enzyme deactivation must both be considered in modeling the kinetics. PMID:15176879

  2. Ni-Catalyzed C-C Couplings Using Alkyl Electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takanori; Kambe, Nobuaki

    2016-10-01

    Much effort has been devoted to developing new methods using Ni catalysts for the cross-coupling reaction of alkyl electrophiles with organometallic reagents, and significant achievements in this area have emerged during the past two decades. Nickel catalysts have enabled the coupling reaction of not only primary alkyl electrophiles, but also sterically hindered secondary and tertiary alkyl electrophiles possessing β-hydrogens with various organometallic reagents to construct carbon skeletons. In addition, Ni catalysts opened a new era of asymmetric cross-coupling reaction using alkyl halides. Recent progress in nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of alkyl electrophiles with sp(3)-, sp(2)-, and sp-hybridized organometallic reagents including asymmetric variants as well as mechanistic insights of nickel catalysis are reviewed in this chapter.

  3. Pd-Catalyzed Heterocycle Synthesis in Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianxiao; Jiang, Huanfeng

    Heterocyclic and fused heterocyclic compounds are ubiquitously found in natural products and biologically interesting molecules, and many currently marketed drugs hold heterocycles as their core structure. In this chapter, recent advances on Pd-catalyzed synthesis of heterocycles in ionic liquids (ILs) are reviewed. In palladium catalysis, ILs with different cations and anions are investigated as an alternative recyclable and environmentally benign reaction medium, and a variety of heterocyclic compounds including cyclic ketals, quinolones, quinolinones, isoindolinones, and lactones are conveniently constructed. Compared to the traditional methods, these new approaches have many advantages, such as environmentally friendly synthetic procedure, easy product and catalyst separation, recyclable medium, which make them have the potential applications in industry.

  4. Olefin hydroaryloxylation catalyzed by pincer-iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Haibach, Michael C; Guan, Changjian; Wang, David Y; Li, Bo; Lease, Nicholas; Steffens, Andrew M; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Goldman, Alan S

    2013-10-01

    Aryl alkyl ethers, which are widely used throughout the chemical industry, are typically produced via the Williamson ether synthesis. Olefin hydroaryloxylation potentially offers a much more atom-economical alternative. Known acidic catalysts for hydroaryloxylation, however, afford very poor selectivity. We report the organometallic-catalyzed intermolecular hydroaryloxylation of unactivated olefins by iridium "pincer" complexes. These catalysts do not operate via the hidden Brønsted acid pathway common to previously developed transition-metal-based catalysts. The reaction is proposed to proceed via olefin insertion into an iridium-alkoxide bond, followed by rate-determining C-H reductive elimination to yield the ether product. The reaction is highly chemo- and regioselective and offers a new approach to the atom-economical synthesis of industrially important ethers and, potentially, a wide range of other oxygenates. PMID:24028199

  5. Solvent effects in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions.

    PubMed

    Mellmer, Max A; Sener, Canan; Gallo, Jean Marcel R; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A

    2014-10-27

    Reaction kinetics were studied to quantify the effects of polar aprotic organic solvents on the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose into furfural. A solvent of particular importance is γ-valerolactone (GVL), which leads to significant increases in reaction rates compared to water in addition to increased product selectivity. GVL has similar effects on the kinetics for the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propanal and for the hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose. Based on results obtained for homogeneous Brønsted acid catalysts that span a range of pKa values, we suggest that an aprotic organic solvent affects the reaction kinetics by changing the stabilization of the acidic proton relative to the protonated transition state. This same behavior is displayed by strong solid Brønsted acid catalysts, such as H-mordenite and H-beta. PMID:25214063

  6. WILDCAT: a catalyzed D-D tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed D-D, tokamak, commercial, fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing D-T designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete, conceptual design.

  7. Dirhodium Catalyzed C-H Arene Amination using Hydroxylamines

    PubMed Central

    Paudyal, Mahesh P.; Adebesin, Adeniyi Michael; Burt, Scott R.; Ess, Daniel H.; Ma, Zhiwei; Kürti, László; Falck, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary and N-alkyl arylamine motifs are key functional groups in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and functional materials as well as in bioactive natural products. However, there is a dearth of generally applicable methods for the direct replacement of aryl hydrogens with –NH2/-NH-alkyl moieties. Here, we present a mild dirhodium-catalyzed C-H amination for conversion of structurally diverse monocyclic and fused aromatics to the corresponding primary and N-alkyl arylamines using either NH2/NHalkyl-O-(sulfonyl)hydroxylamines as aminating agents; the relatively weak RSO2O-N bond functions as an internal oxidant. The methodology is operationally simple, scalable, and fast at or below ambient temperature, furnishing arylamines in moderate-to-good yields and with good regioselectivity. It can be readily extended to the synthesis of fused N-heterocycles. PMID:27609890

  8. Oligonucleotide synthesis catalyzed by the Zn/2+/ ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawai, H.; Orgel, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results of experiments are reported in which Zn(2+) ion catalyzed the formation of oligonucleotides from nucleoside phosphorimidazolides in aqueous solution, even in the absence of a template. Specifically, the imidazolides (ImpU or ImpA) polymerized to form ImpApA, and pApA, pApApA, and pApApApA, or the analogous uracil compounds. In addition, the expected hydrolysis products of the hydrolysis of ImpA were formed (pA, imidazole). Judging from the ratio of pA(n) over pA (with and without zinc ion), this ion increased the efficiency of phosphodiester-bond formation by up to 10 times. Possible mechanisms for the reaction are tentatively proposed.

  9. Chemical and genomic evolution of enzyme-catalyzed reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, Minoru

    2013-09-01

    There is a tendency that a unit of enzyme genes in an operon-like structure in the prokaryotic genome encodes enzymes that catalyze a series of consecutive reactions in a metabolic pathway. Our recent analysis shows that this and other genomic units correspond to chemical units reflecting chemical logic of organic reactions. From all known metabolic pathways in the KEGG database we identified chemical units, called reaction modules, as the conserved sequences of chemical structure transformation patterns of small molecules. The extracted patterns suggest co-evolution of genomic units and chemical units. While the core of the metabolic network may have evolved with mechanisms involving individual enzymes and reactions, its extension may have been driven by modular units of enzymes and reactions.

  10. Dissecting Anion Effects in Gold(I)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    Homs, Anna; Obradors, Carla; Lebœuf, David; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2014-01-01

    From a series of gold complexes of the type [t-BuXPhosAu(MeCN)]X (X=anion), the best results in intermolecular gold(I)-catalyzed reactions are obtained with the complex with the bulky and soft anion BAr4F− [BAr4F−=3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylborate] improving the original protocols by 10–30% yield. A kinetic study on the [2+2] cycloaddition reaction of alkynes with alkenes is consistent with an scenario in which the rate-determining step is the ligand exchange to generate the (η2-phenylacetylene)gold(I) complex. We have studied in detail the subtle differences that can be attributed to the anion in this formation, which result in a substantial decrease in the formation of unproductive σ,π-(alkyne)digold(I) complexes by destabilizing the conjugated acid formed. PMID:26190958

  11. Borinic Acid Catalyzed Stereo- and Regioselective Couplings of Glycosyl Methanesulfonates.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Kyan A; Taylor, Mark S

    2016-08-31

    In the presence of a diarylborinic acid catalyst, glycosyl methanesulfonates engage in regio- and stereoselective couplings with partially protected pyranoside and furanoside acceptors. The methanesulfonate donors are prepared in situ from glycosyl hemiacetals, and are coupled under mild, operationally simple conditions (amine base, organoboron catalyst, room temperature). The borinic acid catalyst not only influences site-selectivity via activation of 1,2- or 1,3-diol motifs, but also has a pronounced effect on the stereochemical outcome: 1,2-trans-linked disaccharides are obtained selectively in the absence of neighboring group participation. Reaction progress kinetic analysis was used to obtain insight into the mechanism of glycosylation, both in the presence of catalyst and in its absence, while rates of interconversion of methanesulfonate anomers were determined by NMR exchange spectroscopy (EXSY). Together, the results suggest that although the uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions give rise to opposite stereochemical outcomes, both proceed by associative mechanisms. PMID:27533523

  12. Homogeneously catalyzed oxidation for the destruction of aqueous organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, D.D.; Horbath, J.S.; Abraham, M.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Several organic species, specifically atrazine, 2,4-dichlorophenozyacetic acid, and biphenyl, were converted to CO{sub 2} and other non-harmful gases through oxidation catalyzed by inorganic acid. Nearly complete conversion was obtained through homogeneous liquid-phase oxidation with ammonium nitrate. The kinetics of reaction have been investigated and indicate parallel oxidation and thermal degradation of the oxidant. This results in a maximum conversion at an intermediate temperature. Increasing oxidant concentration accelerates the rate of conversion and shifts the location of the optimum temperature. Reaction at varying acid concentration revealed that conversion increased with an approximately linear relationship as the pH of the solution was increased. Conversion was increased to greater than 99% through the addition of small amounts of transition metal salts demonstrating the suitability of a treatment process based on this technology for wastestreams containing small quantities of heavy metals.

  13. Transition Metals Catalyzed Element-Cyano Bonds Activations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Falck, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Cyano group as a versatile functionalized intermediate has been explored for several decades, as it readily transfers to many useful functionalization groups such as amine, amide, acid, etc., which make it possess high popularization and use value in organic synthesis. Reactions involved with element-cyano bond cleavage can provide not only a new cyano group but also a freshly functionalized skeleton in one-pot, consequently making it of high importance. The highlights reviewed herein include H-CN, Si-CN, C-CN, B-CN, Sn-CN, Ge-CN, S-CN, Halo-CN, N-CN, and O-CN bonds cleavages and will summarize progress in such an important research area. This review article will focus on transition metal catalyzed reactions involving element-cyano bond activation. PMID:25558119

  14. Calcium-catalyzed formal [2+2+2] cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Vera J; Ascheberg, Christoph; Niggemann, Meike

    2015-04-20

    A formal intermolecular [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction of enynes to aldehydes is presented, which can be realized in the presence of a simple and benign calcium catalyst. The reaction proceeds with excellent chemo, regio- and diastereoselectivity and leads to a one-step assembly of highly interesting bicyclic building blocks containing up to three stereocenters from simple precursors via a new type of skeletal rearrangement of enynes. The observed diastereoselectivity is accounted for by two different mechanistic proposals. The first one engages mechanistic prospects arising from a gold catalyzed reaction in the absence of the stabilizing gold substituent. The second proposal involves an unprecedented cyclization-carbonyl allene ene reaction-hydroalkoxylation cascade.

  15. Lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of borage oil: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos F; Hill, Charles G; Otero, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    Ethanolysis of borage oil catalyzed by two commercial lipases (from Pseudomonas cepacia and Candida antarctica) was studied using two different methodologies. Multiresponse models derived from a generalized Michaelis-Menten mechanism were utilized to describe the rates of formation of ethyl esters of the primary fatty acids present in the precursor oil. The relative rate constants determined for each of the fatty acid residues indicated that both lipases discriminate against release of gamma-linolenic acid residues under the reaction conditions studied. However, both lipases also released some of the residues located at the sn-2 position, indicating that for the experimental conditions studied, both lipases are nonspecific. Moreover, inactivation of Novozym 435 was rapid. Because the half-life of this enzyme (ca. 2.2 h) is comparable to the half-life of the reaction, the intrinsic reaction rate and enzyme deactivation must both be considered in modeling the kinetics.

  16. Guide to Enantioselective Dirhodium(II)-Catalyzed Cyclopropanation with Aryldiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Chepiga, Kathryn M.; Qin, Changming; Alford, Joshua S.; Chennamadhavuni, Spandan; Gregg, Timothy M.; Olson, Jeremy P.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic enantioselective methods for the generation of cyclopropanes has been of longstanding pharmaceutical interest. Chiral dirhodium(II) catalysts prove to be an effective means for the generation of diverse cyclopropane libraries. Rh2(R-DOSP)4 is generaally the most effective catalyst for asymmetric intermolecular cyclopropanation of methyl aryldiazoacetates with styrene. Rh2(S-PTAD)4 provides high levels of enantioinduction with ortho-substituted aryldiazoacetates. The less-established Rh2(R-BNP)4 plays a complementary role to Rh2(R-DOSP)4 and Rh2(S-PTAD)4 in catalyzing highly enantioselective cyclopropanation of 3- methoxy-substituted aryldiazoacetates. Substitution on the styrene has only moderate influence on the asymmetric induction of the cyclopropanation. PMID:24273349

  17. Decomposition of peracetic acid catalyzed by vanadium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A.P.; Gekhman, A.E.; Moiseev, I.I.; Polotryuk, O.Y.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of peracetic acid (AcOOH) in acetic acid (AcOH) catalyzed by vanadium complexes. It is shown that peractic acid in acetic acid solutions of ammonium anadate decomposes with the predominant formation of 0/sub 2/ and small amounts of CO/sub 2/, the yield of which increases with increasing temperature and peracetic acid concentration. Both reactions proceed without the formation of free radicals in amounts detectable by ESR spectroscopy. The rate of oxygen release under conditions in which the formation of CO/sub 2/ is insignificant obeys a kinetic equation indicating the intermediate formation of a complex between V/sup 5 +/ ions and peracetic acid and the slow conversion of this complex into the observed products.

  18. Protease-catalyzed synthesis of oligopeptides in heterogenous substrate mixtures.

    PubMed

    López-Fandiño, R; Gill, I; Vulfson, E N

    1994-05-01

    A systematic study of enzymatic peptide synthesis in heterogeneous substrate mixtures was carried out, with the aim of establishing the preparative scope of this methodology. Semiliquid eutectics were obtained with various combinations of neutral, acidic, and basic amino acid derivatives, in the presence or absence of adjuvants. A range of serine cysteine, and metalloproteases readily catalyzed the formation of the required dipeptides under these conditions. The synthetic usefulness of the approach was demonstrated by the sequential and convergent synthesis of derivatives of a number of bioactive di-, tri-, and pentapeptides, including aspartame, sweet lysine peptide, kyotorphin amide, ACE-inhibiting and -immunoactive tripeptides, and Leu-enkephalin amide, with overallyields of 21% to 84% and productivities of 0.13 to 0.75 g/g being obtained. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Rhodium-Catalyzed Regiodivergent Hydrothiolation of Allyl Amines and Imines.

    PubMed

    Kennemur, Jennifer L; Kortman, Gregory D; Hull, Kami L

    2016-09-14

    The regiodivergent Rh-catalyzed hydrothiolation of allyl amines and imines is presented. Bidentate phosphine ligands with larger natural bite angles (βn ≥ 99°), for example, DPEphos, dpph, or L1, promote a Markovnikov-selective hydrothiolation in up to 88% yield and >20:1 regioselectivity. Conversely, when smaller bite angle ligands (βn ≤ 86°), for example, dppbz or dppp, are employed, the anti-Markovnikov product is formed in up to 74% yield and >20:1 regioselectivity. Initial mechanistic investigations are performed and are consistent with an oxidative addition/olefin insertion/reductive elimination mechanism for each regioisomeric pathway. We hypothesize that the change in regioselectivity is an effect of diverging coordination spheres to favor either Rh-S or Rh-H insertion to form the branched or linear isomer, respectively. PMID:27547858

  20. The promise and challenge of iron-catalyzed cross coupling.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Benjamin D; Fürstner, Alois

    2008-11-18

    Transition metal catalysts, particularly those derived from the group VIII-X metals, display remarkable efficiency for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds through the reactions of suitable nucleophiles with organic electrophilic partners. Within this subset of the periodic table, palladium and nickel complexes offer the broadest utility, while additionally providing the deepest mechanistic insight into thus-termed "cross-coupling reactions". The mammoth effort devoted to palladium and nickel catalysts over the past 30 years has somewhat obscured reports of alternative metal complexes in this arena. As cross-coupling reactions have evolved into a critical support for modern synthetic chemistry, the search for alternative catalysts has been taken up with renewed vigor.When the current generation of synthetic chemists reflects back to the origins of cross coupling for inspiration, the well-documented effect of iron salts on the reactivity of Grignard reagents with organic electrophiles surfaces as a fertile ground for alternative catalyst development. Iron possesses the practical benefits more befitting an alkali or alkaline earth metal, while displaying the unique reactivity of a d-block element. Therefore the search for broadly applicable iron catalysts for cross coupling is an increasingly important goal in modern synthetic organic chemistry.This Account describes the evolution of iron-catalyzed cross coupling from its inception in the work of Kochi to the present. Specific emphasis is placed on reactivity and synthetic applications, with selected examples from acyl-, alkenyl-, aryl-, and alkyl halide/pseudohalide cross coupling included. The typical reaction partners are Grignard reagents, though organomanganese, -copper, and -zinc derivatives have also been used in certain cases. Such iron-catalyzed processes occur very rapidly even at low temperature and therefore are distinguished by broad functional group compatibility. Furthermore

  1. Mechanistic proposal for the zeolite catalyzed methylation of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Svelle, Stian; Bjørgen, Morten

    2010-12-01

    Alkylation and methylation reactions are important reactions in petrochemical production and form part of the reaction mechanism of many hydrocarbon transformation processes. Here, a new reaction mechanism is explored for the zeolite catalyzed methylation of arenes using quantum chemical calculations. It is proposed that the most substituted methylbenzenes, which will reside predominantly on the protonated form when adsorbed in a zeolite, can react directly with a neutral methanol molecule in the vicinity, thereby initiating the methylation reaction without having to return a proton to the zeolite surface. The calculated barriers are quite low, indicating that the suggested mechanism is plausible. This route might explain how the most substituted methylbenzenes can function as efficient reaction intermediates in the methanol to hydrocarbons reaction without themselves acting as catalyst poisons as a consequence of their high proton affinities. PMID:21049891

  2. Activity of formylphosphate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Jahansouz, H.; Kofron, J.L.; Smithers, G.W.; Himes, R.H.; Reed, G.H.

    1986-05-01

    Formylphosphate (FP), a putative enzyme-bound intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate synthetase, was synthesized from formylfluoride and Pi. Measurement of hydrolysis rates by /sup 31/P NMR showed that FP is very unstable with a half-life of 48 min at 20/sup 0/C and pH 7. At pH 7 hydrolysis occurs with O-P bond cleavage as shown by /sup 18/O incorporation from /sup 18/O-H/sub 2/O into Pi. The substrate activity of FP was tested in the reaction catalyzed by N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate synthetase isolated from Clostridium cylindrosporum. MgATP + H/sub 4/folate + HCOO/sup -/ in equilibrium MgADP + Pi +N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate FP supports the reaction in both the forward and reverse directions. Thus, N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate is produced from H/sub 4/-folate and FP but only if ADP is present, and ATP is produced from FP and ADP but only if H/sub 4/folate is present. The requirements for H/sub 4/folate in the synthesis of ATP from ADP and FP and for ADP in the synthesis of N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate from FP and H/sub 4/folate, are consistent with past kinetic and isotope exchange studies which showed that the reaction proceeds by a sequential mechanism and that all three substrates must be present for any reaction to occur.

  3. The general base in the thymidylate synthase catalyzed proton abstraction.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ananda K; Islam, Zahidul; Krueger, Jonathan; Abeysinghe, Thelma; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-12-14

    The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TSase), an important chemotherapeutic drug target, catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP), a precursor of one of the DNA building blocks. TSase catalyzes a multi-step mechanism that includes the abstraction of a proton from the C5 of the substrate 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP). Previous studies on ecTSase proposed that an active-site residue, Y94 serves the role of the general base abstracting this proton. However, since Y94 is neither very basic, nor connected to basic residues, nor located close enough to the pyrimidine proton to be abstracted, the actual identity of this base remains enigmatic. Based on crystal structures, an alternative hypothesis is that the nearest potential proton-acceptor of C5 of dUMP is a water molecule that is part of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) network comprised of several water molecules and several protein residues including H147, E58, N177, and Y94. Here, we examine the role of the residue Y94 in the proton abstraction step by removing its hydroxyl group (Y94F mutant). We investigated the effect of the mutation on the temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and found that these KIEs are more temperature dependent than those of the wild-type enzyme (WT). These results suggest that the phenolic -OH of Y94 is a component of the transition state for the proton abstraction step. The findings further support the hypothesis that no single functional group is the general base, but a network of bases and hydroxyls (from water molecules and tyrosine) sharing H-bonds across the active site can serve the role of the general base to remove the pyrimidine proton.

  4. Metal-catalyzed protein tyrosine nitration in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Campolo, Nicolás; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Radi, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is an oxidative postranslational modification that can affect protein structure and function. It is mediated in vivo by the production of nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and nitrogen dioxide ((•)NO₂). Redox-active transition metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) can actively participate in the processes of tyrosine nitration in biological systems, as they catalyze the production of both reactive oxygen species and RNS, enhance nitration yields and provide site-specificity to this process. Early after the discovery that protein tyrosine nitration can occur under biologically relevant conditions, it was shown that some low molecular weight transition-metal centers and metalloproteins could promote peroxynitrite-dependent nitration. Later studies showed that nitration could be achieved by peroxynitrite-independent routes as well, depending on the transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of nitrite (NO₂(-)) to (•)NO₂ in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Processes like these can be achieved either by hemeperoxidase-dependent reactions or by ferrous and cuprous ions through Fenton-type chemistry. Besides the in vitro evidence, there are now several in vivo studies that support the close relationship between transition metal levels and protein tyrosine nitration. So, the contribution of transition metals to the levels of tyrosine nitrated proteins observed under basal conditions and, specially, in disease states related with high levels of these metal ions, seems to be quite clear. Altogether, current evidence unambiguously supports a central role of transition metals in determining the extent and selectivity of protein tyrosine nitration mediated both by peroxynitrite-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  5. Modern Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbon-Halogen Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Petrone, David A; Ye, Juntao; Lautens, Mark

    2016-07-27

    The high utility of halogenated organic compounds has prompted the development of a vast number of transformations which install the carbon-halogen motif. Traditional routes to these building blocks have commonly involved multiple steps, harsh reaction conditions, and the use of stoichiometric and/or toxic reagents. In this regard, using transition metals to catalyze the synthesis of organohalides has become a mature field in itself, and applying these technologies has allowed for a decrease in the production of waste, higher levels of regio- and stereoselectivity, and the ability to produce enantioenriched target compounds. Furthermore, transition metals offer the distinct advantage of possessing a diverse spectrum of mechanistic possibilities which translate to the capability to apply new substrate classes and afford novel and difficult-to-access structures. This Review provides comprehensive coverage of modern transition metal-catalyzed syntheses of organohalides via a diverse array of mechanisms. Attention is given to the seminal stoichiometric organometallic studies which led to the corresponding catalytic processes being realized. By breaking this field down into the synthesis of aryl, vinyl, and alkyl halides, it becomes clear which methods have surfaced as most favored for each individual class. In general, a pronounced shift toward the use of C-H bonds as key functional groups, in addition to methods which proceed by catalytic, radical-based mechanisms has occurred. Although always evolving, this field appears to be heading in the direction of using starting materials with a significantly lower degree of prefunctionalization in addition to less expensive and abundant metal catalysts. PMID:27341176

  6. Cathodic oxygen reduction catalyzed by bacteria in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Rabaey, Korneel; Read, Suzanne T; Clauwaert, Peter; Freguia, Stefano; Bond, Philip L; Blackall, Linda L; Keller, Jurg

    2008-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to combine wastewater treatment efficiency with energetic efficiency. One of the major impediments to MFC implementation is the operation of the cathode compartment, as it employs environmentally unfriendly catalysts such as platinum. As recently shown, bacteria can facilitate sustainable and cost-effective cathode catalysis for nitrate and also oxygen. Here we describe a carbon cathode open to the air, on which attached bacteria catalyzed oxygen reduction. The bacteria present were able to reduce oxygen as the ultimate electron acceptor using electrons provided by the solid-phase cathode. Current densities of up to 2.2 A m(-2) cathode projected surface were obtained (0.303+/-0.017 W m(-2), 15 W m(-3) total reactor volume). The cathodic microbial community was dominated by Sphingobacterium, Acinetobacter and Acidovorax sp., according to 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. Isolates of Sphingobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were obtained using H(2)/O(2) mixtures. Some of the pure culture isolates obtained from the cathode showed an increase in the power output of up to three-fold compared to a non-inoculated control, that is, from 0.015+/-0.001 to 0.049+/-0.025 W m(-2) cathode projected surface. The strong decrease in activation losses indicates that bacteria function as true catalysts for oxygen reduction. Owing to the high overpotential for non-catalyzed reduction, oxygen is only to a limited extent competitive toward the electron donor, that is, the cathode. Further research to refine the operational parameters and increase the current density by modifying the electrode surface and elucidating the bacterial metabolism is warranted. PMID:18288216

  7. Comparison of iron-catalyzed DNA and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Z; Potter, D W; Taffe, B G; Strasburg, G M

    2001-01-01

    Lipid and DNA oxidation catalyzed by iron(II) were compared in HEPES and phosphate buffers. Lipid peroxidation was examined in a sensitive liposome system constructed with a fluorescent probe that allowed us to examine the effects of both low and high iron concentrations. With liposomes made from synthetic 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or from rat liver microsomal lipid, lipid peroxidation increased with iron concentration up to the range of 10--20 microM iron(II), but then rates decreased with further increases in iron concentration. This may be due to the limited amount of lipid peroxides available in liposomes for oxidation of iron(II) to generate equimolar iron(III), which is thought to be important for the initation of lipid peroxidation. Addition of hydrogen peroxide to incubations with 1--10 microM iron(II) decreased rates of lipid peroxidation, whereas addition of hydrogen peroxide to incubations with higher iron concentrations increased rates of lipid peroxidation. Thus, in this liposome system, sufficient peroxide from either within the lipid or from exogenous sources must be present to generate equimolar iron(II) and iron(III). With iron-catalyzed DNA oxidation, hydrogen peroxide always stimulated product formation. Phosphate buffer, which chelates iron but still allows for generation of hydroxyl radicals, inhibited lipid peroxidation but not DNA oxidation. HEPES buffer, which scavenges hydroxyl radicals, inhibited DNA oxidation, whereas lipid peroxidation was unaffected since presumably iron(II) and iron(III) were still available for reaction with liposomes in HEPES buffer. PMID:11284053

  8. Multimethylation of Rickettsia OmpB Catalyzed by Lysine Methyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Abeykoon, Amila; Wang, Guanghui; Chao, Chien-Chung; Chock, P. Boon; Gucek, Marjan; Ching, Wei-Mei; Yang, David C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of rickettsial OmpB (outer membrane protein B) has been implicated in bacterial virulence. Rickettsial methyltransferases RP789 and RP027-028 are the first biochemically characterized methyltransferases to catalyze methylation of outer membrane protein (OMP). Methylation in OMP remains poorly understood. Using semiquantitative integrated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, we characterize methylation of (i) recombinantly expressed fragments of Rickettsia typhi OmpB exposed in vitro to trimethyltransferases of Rickettsia prowazekii RP027-028 and of R. typhi RT0101 and to monomethyltransferases of R. prowazekii RP789 and of R. typhi RT0776, and (ii) native OmpBs purified from R. typhi and R. prowazekii strains Breinl, RP22, and Madrid E. We found that in vitro trimethylation occurs at relatively specific locations in OmpB with consensus motifs, KX(G/A/V/I)N and KT(I/L/F), whereas monomethylation is pervasive throughout OmpB. Native OmpB from virulent R. typhi contains mono- and trimethyllysines at locations well correlated with methylation in recombinant OmpB catalyzed by methyltransferases in vitro. Native OmpBs from highly virulent R. prowazekii strains Breinl and RP22 contain multiple clusters of trimethyllysine in contrast to a single cluster in OmpB from mildly virulent R. typhi. Furthermore, OmpB from the avirulent strain Madrid E contains mostly monomethyllysine and no trimethyllysine. The native OmpB from Madrid E was minimally trimethylated by RT0101 or RP027-028, consistent with a processive mechanism of trimethylation. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of methylation of an OMP at the molecular level and may lead to uncovering the link between OmpB methylation and rickettsial virulence. PMID:24497633

  9. Metal ion-catalyzed nucleic acid alkylation and fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kenneth A

    2002-07-10

    Nucleic acid microarrays are a growing technology in which high densities of known sequences are attached to a substrate in known locations (addressed). Hybridization of complementary sequences leads to a detectable signal such as an electrical impulse or fluorescence. This combination of sequence addressing, hybridization, and detection increases the efficiency of a variety of genomic disciplines including those that profile genetic expression, search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or diagnose infectious diseases by sequencing portions of microbial or viral genomes. Incorporation of reporter molecules into nucleic acids is essential for the sensitive detection of minute amounts of nucleic acids on most types of microarrays. Furthermore, polynucleic acid size reduction increases hybridization because of increased diffusion rates and decreased competing secondary structure of the target nucleic acids. Typically, these reactions would be performed as two separate processes. An improvement to past techniques, termed labeling-during-cleavage (LDC), is presented in which DNA or RNA is alkylated with fluorescent tags and fragmented in the same reaction mixture. In model studies with 26 nucleotide-long RNA and DNA oligomers using ultraviolet/visible and fluorescence spectroscopies as well as high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, addition of both alkylating agents (5-(bromomethyl)fluorescein, 5- or 6-iodoacetamidofluorescein) and select metal ions (of 21 tested) to nucleic acids in aqueous solutions was critical for significant increases in both labeling and fragmentation, with >or=100-fold increases in alkylation possible relative to metal ion-free reactions. Lanthanide series metal ions, Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) were the most reactive ions in terms of catalyzing alkylation and fragmentation. While oligonucleotides were particularly susceptible to fragmentation at sites containing phosphorothioate moieties, labeling and cleavage reactions

  10. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of Pyridines and Quinolines

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Ashley; Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-07-29

    The pyridine and quinoline nuclei are privileged scaffolds that occupy a central role in many medicinally relevant compounds. Consequently, methods for their expeditious functionalization are of immediate interest. However, despite the immense importance of transition-metal catalyzed cross-coupling for the functionalization of aromatic scaffolds, general solutions for coupling 2-pyridyl organometallics with aryl halides have only recently been presented. Direct arylation at the ortho position of pyridine would constitute an even more efficient approach because it eliminates the need for the stoichiometric preparation and isolation of 2-pyridyl organometallics. Progress towards this goal has been achieved by activation of the pyridine nucleus for arylation via conversion to the corresponding pyridine N-oxide or N-iminopyridinium ylide. However, this approach necessitates two additional steps: activation of the pyridine or quinoline starting material, and then unmasking the arylated product. The use of pyridines directly would clearly represent the ideal situation both in terms of cost and simplicity. We now wish to document our efforts in this vein, culminating in an operationally simple Rh(I)-catalyzed direct arylation of pyridines and quinolines. We recently developed an electron-rich Rh(I) system for catalytic alkylation at the ortho position of pyridines and quinolines with alkenes. Therefore, we initially focused our attention on the use of similarly electron-rich Rh(I) catalysts for the proposed direct arylation. After screening an array of electron-rich phosphine ligands and Rh(I) salts, only marginal yields (<20%) of the desired product were obtained. Much more efficient was an electron-poor Rh(I) system with [RhCl(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} as precatalyst (Table 1). For the direct arylation of picoline with 3,5-dimethyl-bromobenzene, addition of P(OiPr){sub 3} afforded a promising 40% yield of the cross coupled product 1a (entry 1). The exclusion of phosphite

  11. Recent advances in osmium-catalyzed hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Chelucci, Giorgio; Baldino, Salvatore; Baratta, Walter

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: A current issue in metal-catalyzed reactions is the search for highly efficient transition-metal complexes affording high productivity and selectivity in a variety of processes. Moreover, there is also a great interest in multitasking catalysts that are able to efficiently promote different organic transformations by careful switching of the reaction parameters, such as temperature, solvent, and cocatalyst. In this context, osmium complexes have shown the ability to catalyze efficiently different types of reactions involving hydrogen, proving at the same time high thermal stability and simple synthesis. In the catalytic reduction of C═X (X = O, N) bonds by both hydrogenation (HY) and transfer hydrogenation (TH) reactions, the most interest has been focused on homogeneous systems based on rhodium, iridium, and in particular ruthenium catalysts, which have proved to catalyze chemo- and stereoselective hydrogenations with remarkable efficiency. By contrast, osmium catalysts have received much less attention because they are considered less active on account of their slower ligand exchange kinetics. Thus, this area remained almost neglected until recent studies refuted these prejudices. The aim of this Account is to highlight the impressive developments achieved over the past few years by our and other groups on the design of new classes of osmium complexes and their applications in homogeneous catalytic reactions involving the hydrogenation of carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bonds by both HY and TH reactions as well as in alcohol deydrogenation (DHY) reactions. The work described in this Account demonstrates that osmium complexes are emerging as powerful catalysts for asymmetric and non-asymmetric syntheses, showing a remarkably high catalytic activity in HY and TH reactions of ketones, aldehydes, imines, and esters as well in DHY reactions of alcohols. Thus, for instance, the introduction of ligands with an NH function, possibly in combination with a

  12. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density

  13. Fundamentals of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions of environmental importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Subodh Shrinivas

    Reaction kinetics and spectroscopic characterization are valuable tools for understanding heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions. The objective of this work was to apply the tools of catalysis and reaction kinetics to understand the fundamentals of chemical surface phenomena for environmentally important reactions. This thesis presents our work in two areas of catalytic reactions for pollution abatement---"chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) treatment chemistry" and "sulfur-tolerant auto exhaust catalysts." The ozone depletion potential of CFCs has resulted in a great interest in the academic and industrial communities to find replacements for these chemicals. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are amongst the best "environmentally benign" candidates for CFC replacement. One selective pathway for the synthesis of HFCs is via the hydrodechlorination of CFCs. This route has the added benefit of destroying harmful CFC stockpiles and converting them into more useful chemicals. The work in Chapter 3 shows that parallel hydrogenation pathways starting from a common CF2 species can explain the formation of the products CH2F2 and CH4 for the hydrodechlorination of CF2Cl2 over Pd/AlF3. Transient kinetics experiments using C2H4 as a trapping agent for surface carbenes have provided evidence for the presence of CH2 species on the catalyst surface during this reaction. The absence of either coupling products or trapped products containing F suggests that the rate of hydrogenation of surface CF2 species is faster than that of surface CH2 species. Another important class of CFC reactions is oxide-catalyzed disproportionations to control the number and position of halogen atoms in the CFC/HFC molecule. Chapter 4 combines the use of reaction kinetics tools and spectroscopic characterization techniques to understand the adsorption and reaction of CF3CFCl 2 over gamma-Al2O3. The CF3CFCl 2 reaction over gamma-Al2O3 lead to a modification of the gamma-Al2O3 surface due to fluorination and the

  14. Mechanistic insights into nickamine-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decades the transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of non-activated alkyl halides has significantly progressed. Within the context of alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling, first row transition metals spanning from iron, over cobalt, nickel, to copper have been successfully applied to catalyze this difficult reaction. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still in its infancy. Herein we outline our latest mechanistic studies that explain the efficiency of nickel, in particular nickamine-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions.

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Carbene Insertion into C(sp(3) )-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Solé, Daniel; Mariani, Francesco; Bennasar, M-Lluïsa; Fernández, Israel

    2016-05-23

    A palladium-catalyzed carbene insertion into C(sp(3) )-H bonds leading to pyrrolidines was developed. The coupling reaction can be catalyzed by both Pd(0) and Pd(II) , is regioselective, and shows a broad functional group tolerance. This reaction is the first example of palladium-catalyzed C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) bond assembly starting from diazocarbonyl compounds. DFT calculations revealed that this direct C(sp(3) )-H bond functionalization reaction involves an unprecedented concerted metalation-deprotonation step.

  16. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    DOE PAGES

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10more » h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. In conclusion: This study demonstrated that the fed

  17. Flame Synthesis Used to Create Metal-Catalyzed Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.

    2001-01-01

    Metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are highly ordered carbon structures of nanoscale dimensions. They may be thought of as hollow cylinders whose walls are formed by single atomic layers of graphite. Such cylinders may be composed of many nested, concentric atomic layers of carbon or only a single layer, the latter forming a single-walled carbon nanotube. This article reports unique results using a flame for their synthesis. Only recently were carbon nanotubes discovered within an arc discharge and recognized as fullerene derivatives. Today metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are of great interest for many reasons. They can be used as supports for the metal catalysts like those found in catalytic converters. Open-ended nanotubes are highly desirable because they can be filled by other elements, metals or gases, for battery and fuel cell applications. Because of their highly crystalline structure, they are significantly stronger than the commercial carbon fibers that are currently available (10 times as strong as steel but possessing one-sixth of the weight). This property makes them highly desirable for strengthening polymer and ceramic composite materials. Current methods of synthesizing carbon nanotubes include thermal pyrolysis of organometallics, laser ablation of metal targets within hydrocarbon atmospheres at high temperatures, and arc discharges. Each of these methods is costly, and it is unclear if they can be scaled for the commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes. In contrast, flame synthesis is an economical means of bulk synthesis of a variety of aerosol materials such as carbon black. Flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes could potentially realize an economy of scale that would enable their use in common structural materials such as car-body panels. The top figure is a transmission electron micrograph of a multiwalled carbon nanotube. The image shows a cross section of the atomic structure of the nanotube. The dark lines are individual atomic layer planes of

  18. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2008-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to

  19. Lipase catalyzed esterification of glycidol in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, J.F.; Nunes da Ponte, M.; Barreiros, S. . Centro de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica)

    1993-08-05

    The authors studied the resolution of racemic glycidol through esterification with butyric acid catalyzed by porcine pancreatic lipase in organic media. A screening of seven solvents (log P values between 0.49 and 3.0, P being the n-octanol-water partition coefficient of the solvent) showed that neither log P nor the logarithm of the molar solubility of water in the solvent provides good correlations between enantioselectivity and the properties of the organic media. Chloroform was one of the best solvents as regards the enantiometic purity (e.p.) of the ester produced. In this solvent, the optimum temperature for the reaction was determined to be 35C. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at a water content of 13 [plus minus] 2% (w/w). The enantiomeric purity obtained was 83 [plus minus] 2% of (S)-glycidol butyrate and did not depend on the alcohol concentration or the enzyme water content for values of these parameters up to 200 mM and 25% (w/w), respectively. The reaction was found to follow a BiBi mechanism.

  20. Lipase catalyzed esterification of glycidol in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Martins, J F; Da Ponte, M N; Barreiros, S

    1993-08-01

    We studied the resolution of racemic glycidol through esterification with butyric acid catalyzed by porcine pancreatic lipase in organic media. A screening of seven solvents (log P values between 0.49 and 3.0, P being the n-octanol-water partition coefficient of the solvent) showed that neither log P nor the logarithm of the molar solubility of water in the solvent provides good correlations between enantioselectivity and the properties of the organic media. Chloroform was one of the best solvents as regards the enantiomeric purity (e. p.) of the ester produced. In this solvent, the optimum temperature for the reaction was determined to be 35 degrees C. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at a water content of 13 +/- 2% (w/w). The enantiomeric purity obtained was 83 +/- 2% of (S)-glycidyl butyrate and did not depend on the alcohol concentration or the enzyme water content for values of these parameters up to 200 mM and 25% (w/w), respectively. The reaction was found to follow a BiBi mechanism.

  1. Optimized butyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andréa B; Friedrich, John L R; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Garcia-Galan, Cristina; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Ayub, Marco A Z

    2013-01-01

    Butyl butyrate is an ester present in pineapple flavor, which is very important for the food and beverages industries. In this work, the optimization of the reaction of butyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by the immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL-IM was performed. n-Hexane was selected as the most appropriate solvent. Other reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst content and added water, and their responses measured as yield, were evaluated using a fractional factorial design, followed by a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology. In the fractional design 2(4-1) , the four variables were tested and temperature and biocatalyst content were statistically significant and then used for optimization on CCD. The optimal conditions for butyl butyrate synthesis were found to be 48°C; substrate molar ratio 3:1 (butanol:butyric acid); biocatalyst content of 40% of acid mass. Under these conditions, over 90% of yield was obtained in 2 h. Enzyme reuse was tested by washing the biocatalyst with n-hexane or by direct reuse. The direct reuse produced a rapid decrease on enzyme activity, while washing with n-hexane allowed reusing the enzyme for five reactions cycles keeping approximately 85% of its activity.

  2. A Personal Adventure in Muon-Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, John David

    2010-03-01

    Luis Alvarez and colleagues discovered muon-catalyzed fusion of hydrogen isotopes by chance in late 1956. On sabbatical leave at Princeton University during that year, I read the first public announcement of the discovery at the end of December in that well-known scientific journal, The New York Times. A nuclear theorist by prior training, I was intrigued enough in the phenomenon to begin some calculations. I describe my work here, my interaction with Alvarez, and a summary of the surprising developments, both before and after Alvarez’s discovery. The rare proton-deuteron ( p-d) fusion events in Alvarez’s liquid-hydrogen bubble chamber occurred only because of the natural presence of a tiny amount of deuterium (heavy hydrogen). Additionally, the fusion rate, once the proton-deuteron-muon ( pdμ - ) molecular ion has been formed, is sufficiently slow that only rarely does an additional catalytic act occur. A far different situation occurs for muons stopping in pure deuterium or a deuterium-tritium ( d- t) mixture where the fusion rates are many orders of magnitude larger and the molecular-formation rates are large compared to the muon’s decay rate. The intricate interplay of atomic, molecular, and nuclear science, together with highly fortuitous accidents in the molecular dynamics and the hope of practical application, breathed life into a seeming curiosity. A small but vigorous worldwide community has explored these myriad phenomena in the past 50 years.

  3. Kinetics of Platinum-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Tiffany A.; Colombo, D. Philip, Jr.

    2003-07-01

    CIBA Vision Corporation markets a contact lens cleaning system that consists of an AOSEPT disinfectant solution and an AOSEPT lens cup. The disinfectant is a buffered 3.0% m/v hydrogen peroxide solution and the cup includes a platinum-coated AOSEPT disc. The hydrogen peroxide disinfects by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses found on the contact lenses. Because the concentration of hydrogen peroxide needed to disinfect is irritating to eyes, the hydrogen peroxide needs to be neutralized, or decomposed, before the contact lenses can be used again. A general chemistry experiment is described where the kinetics of the catalyzed decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide are studied by measuring the amount of oxygen generated as a function of time. The order of the reaction with respect to the hydrogen peroxide, the rate constant, and the energy of activation are determined. The integrated rate law is used to determine the time required to decompose the hydrogen peroxide to a concentration that is safe for eyes.

  4. Clay-catalyzed reactions of coagulant polymers during water chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-F.; Liao, P.-M.; Lee, C.-K.; Chao, H.-P.; Peng, C.-L.; Chiou, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of suspended clay/solid particles on organic-coagulant reactions during water chlorination was investigated by analyses of total product formation potential (TPFP) and disinfection by-product (DBP) distribution as a function of exchanged clay cation, coagulant organic polymer, and reaction time. Montmorillonite clays appeared to act as a catalytic center where the reaction between adsorbed polymer and disinfectant (chlorine) was mediated closely by the exchanged clay cation. The transition-metal cations in clays catalyzed more effectively than other cations the reactions between a coagulant polymer and chlorine, forming a large number of volatile DBPs. The relative catalytic effects of clays/solids followed the order Ti-Mont > Fe-Mont > Cu-Mont > Mn-Mont > Ca-Mont > Na-Mont > quartz > talc. The effects of coagulant polymers on TPFP follow the order nonionic polymer > anionic polymer > cationic polymer. The catalytic role of the clay cation was further confirmed by the observed inhibition in DBP formation when strong chelating agents (o-phenanthroline and ethylenediamine) were added to the clay suspension. Moreover, in the presence of clays, total DBPs increased appreciably when either the reaction time or the amount of the added clay or coagulant polymer increased. For volatile DBPs, the formation of halogenated methanes was usually time-dependent, with chloroform and dichloromethane showing the greatest dependence. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

  6. Dephenolization of industrial wastewaters catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Atlow, S.C.; Bonadonna-Aparo, L.; Klibanov, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A new enzymatic method for the removal of phenols from industrial aqueous effluents has been developed. The method uses the enzyme polyphenol oxidase which oxidizes phenols to the corresponding o-quinones; the latter then undergo a nonenzymatic polymerization to form water-insoluble aggregates. Therefore, the enzyme in effect precipitates phenols from water. Polyphenol oxidase has been found to nearly completely dephenolize solutions of phenol in the concentration range from 0.01 to 1.0 g/L. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide range of pH and temperature; a crude preparation of polyphenol oxidase (mushroom extract) is as effective as a purified, commercially obtained version. In addition to phenol itself, polyphenol oxidase is capable of precipitating from water a number of substituted phenols (cresols, chlorophenols, naphthol, etc.). Also, even pollutants which are unreactive towards polyphenol oxidase can be enzymatically coprecipitated with phenol. The polyphenol oxidase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize two different real industrial wastewater samples, from a plant producing triarylphosphates and from a coke plant. The advantage of the polyphenol oxidase dephenolization over the peroxidase-catalyzed one previously elaborated by the authors is that the former enzyme uses molecular oxygen instead of costly hydrogen peroxide (used by peroxidase) as an oxidant.

  7. Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil.

    PubMed

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M P

    2010-10-01

    Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstock for biodiesel production in India. Limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high free fatty acids containing oil. The present study reports the results of kinetic study of two-step acid base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at an optimum temperature of 65 °C and 50 °C for esterification and transesterification respectively under the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H₂SO₄ and NaOH. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The results indicate that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min⁻¹ and 0.008 min⁻¹ respectively. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained.

  8. ATP-dependent nucleosome unwrapping catalyzed by human RAD51.

    PubMed

    North, Justin A; Amunugama, Ravindra; Klajner, Marcelina; Bruns, Aaron N; Poirier, Michael G; Fishel, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSB) occur in chromatin following replication fork collapse and chemical or physical damage [Symington and Gautier (Double-strand break end resection and repair pathway choice. Annu. Rev. Genet. 2011;45:247-271.)] and may be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining. Nucleosomes are the fundamental units of chromatin and must be remodeled during DSB repair by HR [Andrews and Luger (Nucleosome structure(s) and stability: variations on a theme. Annu. Rev. Biophys. 2011;40:99-117.)]. Physical initiation of HR requires RAD51, which forms a nucleoprotein filament (NPF) that catalyzes homologous pairing and strand exchange (recombinase) between DNAs that ultimately bridges the DSB gap [San Filippo, Sung and Klein. (Mechanism of eukaryotic HR. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2008;77:229-257.)]. RAD51 forms an NPF on single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Although the single-stranded DNA NPF is essential for recombinase initiation, the role of the dsDNA NPF is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that the human RAD51 (HsRAD51) dsDNA NPF disassembles nucleosomes by unwrapping the DNA from the core histones. HsRAD51 that has been constitutively or biochemically activated for recombinase functions displays significantly reduced nucleosome disassembly activity. These results suggest that HsRAD51 can perform ATP hydrolysis-dependent nucleosome disassembly in addition to its recombinase functions. PMID:23757189

  9. Energetic communication between mitochondria and nucleus directed by catalyzed phosphotransfer

    PubMed Central

    Dzeja, Petras P.; Bortolon, Ryan; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Holmuhamedov, Ekshon L.; Terzic, Andre

    2002-01-01

    Exchange of information between the nucleus and cytosol depends on the metabolic state of the cell, yet the energy-supply pathways to the nuclear compartment are unknown. Here, the energetics of nucleocytoplasmic communication was determined by imaging import of a constitutive nuclear protein histone H1. Translocation of H1 through nuclear pores in cardiac cells relied on ATP supplied by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, but not by glycolysis. Although mitochondria clustered around the nucleus, reducing the distance for energy transfer, simple nucleotide diffusion was insufficient to meet the energetic demands of nuclear transport. Rather, the integrated phosphotransfer network was required for delivery of high-energy phosphoryls from mitochondria to the nucleus. In neonatal cardiomyocytes with low creatine kinase activity, inhibition of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer abolished nuclear import. With deficient adenylate kinase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, which secures phosphoryl exchange between ATP and GTP, was unable to sustain nuclear import. Up-regulation of creatine kinase phosphotransfer, to mimic metabolic conditions of adult cardiac cells, rescued H1 import, suggesting a developmental plasticity of the cellular energetic system. Thus, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation coupled with phosphotransfer relays provides an efficient energetic unit in support of nuclear transport. PMID:12119406

  10. Remote catalyzation for direct formation of graphene layers on oxides.

    PubMed

    Teng, Po-Yuan; Lu, Chun-Chieh; Akiyama-Hasegawa, Kotone; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yeh, Chao-Hui; Suenaga, Kazu; Chiu, Po-Wen

    2012-03-14

    Direct deposition of high-quality graphene layers on insulating substrates such as SiO(2) paves the way toward the development of graphene-based high-speed electronics. Here, we describe a novel growth technique that enables the direct deposition of graphene layers on SiO(2) with crystalline quality potentially comparable to graphene grown on Cu foils using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Rather than using Cu foils as substrates, our approach uses them to provide subliming Cu atoms in the CVD process. The prime feature of the proposed technique is remote catalyzation using floating Cu and H atoms for the decomposition of hydrocarbons. This allows for the direct graphitization of carbon radicals on oxide surfaces, forming isolated low-defect graphene layers without the need for postgrowth etching or evaporation of the metal catalyst. The defect density of the resulting graphene layers can be significantly reduced by tuning growth parameters such as the gas ratios, Cu surface areas, and substrate-to-Cu distance. Under optimized conditions, graphene layers with nondiscernible Raman D peaks can be obtained when predeposited graphite flakes are used as seeds for extended growth. PMID:22332771

  11. Broadening the scope of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed sugar nucleotide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Richard W.; Peltier-Pain, Pauline; Singh, Shanteri; Zhou, Maoquan; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    We described the integration of the general reversibility of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions, artificial glycosyl donors, and a high throughput colorimetric screen to enable the engineering of glycosyltransferases for combinatorial sugar nucleotide synthesis. The best engineered catalyst from this study, the OleD Loki variant, contained the mutations P67T/I112P/T113M/S132F/A242I compared with the OleD wild-type sequence. Evaluated against the parental sequence OleD TDP16 variant used for screening, the OleD Loki variant displayed maximum improvements in kcat/Km of >400-fold and >15-fold for formation of NDP–glucoses and UDP–sugars, respectively. This OleD Loki variant also demonstrated efficient turnover with five variant NDP acceptors and six variant 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl glycoside donors to produce 30 distinct NDP–sugars. This study highlights a convenient strategy to rapidly optimize glycosyltransferase catalysts for the synthesis of complex sugar nucleotides and the practical synthesis of a unique set of sugar nucleotides. PMID:23610417

  12. MEMS-based satellite micropropulsion via catalyzed hydrogen peroxide decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Zakrzwski, Charles M.; Thomas, Michael A.

    2001-12-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques offer great potential in satisfying the mission requirements for the next generation of miniaturized spacecraft being designed by NASA and Department of Defense agencies. More commonly referred to as `nanosats', these spacecraft feature masses in the range of 10-100 kg and therefore have unique propulsion requirements. The propulsion systems must be capable of providing extremely low levels of thrust and impulse while also satisfying stringent demands on size, mass, power consumption and cost. We begin with an overview of micropropulsion requirements and some current MEMS-based strategies being developed to meet these needs. The remainder of the paper focuses on the progress being made at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center toward the development of a prototype monopropellant MEMS thruster which uses the catalyzed chemical decomposition of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide as a propulsion mechanism. The products of decomposition are delivered to a microscale converging/diverging supersonic nozzle, which produces the thrust vector; the targeted thrust level is approximately 500 µN with a specific impulse of 140-180 s. Macroscale hydrogen peroxide thrusters have been used for satellite propulsion for decades; however, the implementation of traditional thruster designs on the MEMS scale has uncovered new challenges in fabrication, materials compatibility, and combustion and hydrodynamic modeling. A summary of the achievements of the project to date is given, as is a discussion of remaining challenges and future prospects.

  13. Kinetic modeling of Pt-catalyzed glycolaldehyde decomposition to syngas.

    PubMed

    Salciccioli, Michael; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2012-05-10

    Fundamental knowledge of the elementary reaction mechanisms involved in oxygenate decomposition on transition metal catalysts can facilitate the optimization of future catalyst and reactor systems for biomass upgrade to fuels and chemicals. Pt-catalyzed decomposition of glycolaldehyde, as the smallest oxygenate with alcohol and aldehyde functionality, was studied via a DFT-based microkinetic model. It was found that two decomposition pathways exist. Under conditions of low hydrogen surface coverage, the initial C-H bond breaking reaction to HOCH(2)CO* is prevalent, while under conditions of high hydrogen coverage, the rather unexpected O-H bond forming reaction to HOCH(2)CHOH* is more active (subsequent decomposition is energetically favorable from HOCH(2)CHOH*). Our results indicate the possibility that (de)hydrogenation chemistry is rate-controlling in many small polyoxygenate biomass derivatives, and suitable catalysts are needed. Finally, DFT was used to understand the increased decomposition activity observed on the surface segregated Ni-Pt-Pt bimetallic catalyst. It was found that the initial O-H bond breaking of glycolaldehyde to OCH(2)CHO* has an activation barrier of just 0.21 eV. This barrier is lower than that of any glycolaldehyde consuming reaction on Pt. These computational predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental results. PMID:22483365

  14. Hydrolysis of cellulose catalyzed by novel acidic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Kelei; Du, Quanzhou; Bai, Guangyue; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Yujuan; Wang, Jianji

    2015-01-22

    The conversion of cellulosic biomass directly into valuable chemicals becomes a hot subject. Six novel acidic ionic liquids (ILs) based on 2-phenyl-2-imidazoline were synthesized and characterized by UV-VIS, TGA, and NMR. The novel acidic ionic liquids were investigated as catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellulose in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl). The acidic ionic liquids with anions HSO4(-) and Cl(-) showed better catalytic performance for the hydrolysis of cellulose than those with H2PO4(-). The temperature and dosage of water affect significantly the yield of total reducing sugar (TRS). When the hydrolysis of cellulose was catalyzed by 1-propyl sulfonic acid-2-phenyl imidazoline hydrogensulfate (IL-1) and the dosage of water was 0.2g, the TRS yield was up to 85.1% within 60 min at 100°C. These new acidic ionic liquids catalysts are expected to have a wide application in the conversion of cellulose into valuable chemicals. PMID:25439867

  15. Selective, nickel-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of aryl ethers.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, Alexey G; Hartwig, John F

    2011-04-22

    Selective hydrogenolysis of the aromatic carbon-oxygen (C-O) bonds in aryl ethers is an unsolved synthetic problem important for the generation of fuels and chemical feedstocks from biomass and for the liquefaction of coal. Currently, the hydrogenolysis of aromatic C-O bonds requires heterogeneous catalysts that operate at high temperature and pressure and lead to a mixture of products from competing hydrogenolysis of aliphatic C-O bonds and hydrogenation of the arene. Here, we report hydrogenolyses of aromatic C-O bonds in alkyl aryl and diaryl ethers that form exclusively arenes and alcohols. This process is catalyzed by a soluble nickel carbene complex under just 1 bar of hydrogen at temperatures of 80 to 120°C; the relative reactivity of ether substrates scale as Ar-OAr>Ar-OMe>ArCH(2)-OMe (Ar, Aryl; Me, Methyl). Hydrogenolysis of lignin model compounds highlights the potential of this approach for the conversion of refractory aryl ether biopolymers to hydrocarbons. PMID:21512027

  16. Feasibility of an antiproton catalyzed fission fragment rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Hdinger, D.S.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of an antiproton catalyzed fission fragment rocket (FFR). The FFR is characterized by the extraction of fission fragments from the fissile fuel, and the utilization of their kinetic energy for thrust generation. A significant drawback to previous FFR designs was the requirement to maintain a critical nuclear pile as the fission fragment source. The author examined the possibility of replacing the critical pile with a sub-critical pile driven by antiprotons. Recent experiments have revealed that antiprotons stimulate highly energetic fissions in {sup 238}U, with a neutron multiplicity of 13.7 neutrons per fission. This interaction was used as a throttled neutron source. The pile consisted of layers of fissile coated fibers which are designed to allow fission fragments to escape them, where the fragments collide with a fluid. The heated fluid is then ejected from the rocket to provide thrust. The calculations performed indicate that each antiproton injected into the pile can stimulate 8 or more fissions while maintaining a neutron multiplication of less than 0.4. Based on the results seen, the engine design presented is inadequate. Limitations introduced by the reaction fluid far outweigh the simplicity-of-design gained. Despite this, the basic idea of using the antiproton-U interaction as a source of spacecraft propulsion warrants further study.

  17. Peroxidase-catalyzed color removal from bleach plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Paice, M G; Jurasek, L

    1984-05-01

    Effluent from the caustic extraction stage of a bleach plant is highly colored due to the presence of dissolved products from lignin chlorination and oxidation. Color removal from the effluent by hydrogen peroxide at neutral pH was catalyzed by addition of horseradish peroxidase. The catalysis with peroxidase (20 mg/L) was observed over a wide range of peroxide concentrations (0.1mM-500mM), but the largest effect was between 1mM and 100mM. The pH optimum for catalysis was around 5.0, while the basal rate of noncatalyzed peroxide color removal simply increased with pH within the range tested (3-10). Peroxidase catalysis at pH 7.6 reached a maximum at 40 degrees C in 4 h assays with 10mM peroxide, and disappeared above 60 degrees C. Compared with mycelial color removal by Coriolus versicolor, the rate of color removal by peroxide plus peroxidase was initially faster (first 4 h), but the extent of color removal after 48 h was higher with the fungal treatment. Further addition of peroxidase to the enzyme-treated effluent did not produce additional catalysis. Thus, the peroxide/peroxidase system did not fully represent the metabolic route used by the fungus.

  18. Copper-catalyzed enantioselective stereodivergent synthesis of amino alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shi-Liang; Wong, Zackary L.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    The chirality, or ‘handedness’, of a biologically active molecule can alter its physiological properties. For this reason, it is routine procedure in the drug discovery and development process to prepare and fully characterize all possible stereoisomers of a drug candidate for biological evaluation1,2. Despite many recent advances in asymmetric synthesis, the development of general and practical strategies to obtain all possible stereoisomers of an organic compound bearing multiple contiguous stereocenters remains a significant challenge3. In this manuscript, we report a stereodivergent copper-based approach for the expeditious construction of amino alcohols with high levels of chemo-, regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Specifically, these amino alcohol products were synthesized using the sequential copper hydride-catalyzed hydrosilylation and hydroamination of readily available enals and enones. This strategy provides a route to all possible stereoisomers of the amino alcohol products, which contain up to three contiguous stereocenters. Catalyst control and stereospecificity were simultaneously leveraged to attain exceptional control of the product stereochemistry. Beyond the utility of this protocol, the strategy demonstrated here should inspire the development of methods providing complete sets of stereoisomers for other valuable synthetic targets. PMID:27018656

  19. Primordial lithium abundance in catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Chris; Koopmans, Kristen; Pospelov, Maxim

    2008-10-15

    There exists a well-known problem with the {sup 7}Li+{sup 7}Be abundance predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis being larger than the value observed in population II stars. The catalysis of big bang nucleosynthesis by metastable, {tau}{sub X} > or approx. 10{sup 3} sec, charged particles X{sup -} is capable of suppressing the primordial {sup 7}Li+{sup 7}Be abundance and making it consistent with the observations. We show that to produce the correct abundance, this mechanism of suppression places a requirement on the initial abundance of X{sup -} at temperatures of 4x10{sup 8} K to be on the order of or larger than 0.02 per baryon, which is within the natural range of abundances in models with metastable electroweak-scale particles. The suppression of {sup 7}Li+{sup 7}Be is triggered by the formation of ({sup 7}BeX{sup -}) compound nuclei, with fast depletion of their abundances by catalyzed proton reactions, and in some models by direct capture of X{sup -} on {sup 7}Be. The combination of {sup 7}Li+{sup 7}Be and {sup 6}Li constraints favors the window of lifetimes, 1000 s < or approx. {tau}{sub X}{<=}2000 s.

  20. Enzyme-Catalyzed Regioselective Modification of Starch Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Soma; Sahoo, Bishwabhusan; Teraoka, Iwao; Miller, Lisa M.; Gross, Richard A.

    2004-12-13

    The selective esterification of starch nanoparticles was performed using as catalyst Candida antartica Lipase B (CAL-B) in its immobilized (Novozym 435) and free (SP-525) forms. The starch nanoparticles were made accessible for acylation reactions by formation of Aerosol-OT (AOT, bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate) stabilized microemulsions. Starch nanoparticles in microemulsions were reacted with vinyl stearate, ε-caprolactone, and maleic anhydride at 40 °C for 48 h to give starch esters with degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4, respectively. Substitution occurred regioselectively at the C-6 position of the glucose repeat units. Infrared microspectroscopy (IRMS) revealed that AOT-coated starch nanoparticles diffuse into the outer 50 μm shell of catalyst beads. Thus, even though CAL-B is immobilized within a macroporous resin, CAL-B is sufficiently accessible to the starch nanoparticles. When free CAL-B was incorporated along with starch within AOT-coated reversed micelles, CAL-B was also active and catalyzed the acylation with vinyl stearate (24 h, 40 °C) to give DS = 0.5. After removal of surfactant from the modified starch nanoparticles, they were dispersed in DMSO or water and were shown to retain their nanodimensions.

  1. Study of muon catalyzed dd-fusion in HD gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenchuk, G. G.; Balin, D. V.; Case, T.; Crowe, K. M.; Ganzha, V. A.; Hartmann, F. J.; Kozlov, S. M.; Lauss, B.; Maev, E. M.; Mühlbauer, M.; Petitjean, C.; Petrov, G. E.; Sadetsky, S. M.; Schapkin, G. N.; Schott, W.; Smirenin, Yu. V.; Soroka, M. A.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Voropaev, N. I.; Zmeskal, J.

    1999-06-01

    The results of an experiment on muon catalyzed dd-fussion in HD gas are presented. The experiment was performed at the muon beam of PSI using a high-pressure ionization chamber filled with pure HD-gas of low D2 concentration on the level 1%, at temperatures 50, 150 and 300 K. The non-resonant character of ddμ-molecule formation on HD molecules was confirmed by measuring the ratio of yields of the two ddμ-fusion channels, R=Y(3He,n)/Y(3H,p), which proved to be close to unity. The ddμ formation rate was found to vary from λddμ-HD=0.05· 106 s-1 at T=50 K to λddμ-HD=0.12· 106 s-1 at T=300 K, in agreement with the theoretical prediction. A prominent peak at t<60 ns was observed in the time spectrum of fusion neutrons indicating a resonant contribution of ddμ formation from epithermal dμ atoms.

  2. Micellar nanoreactors for hematin catalyzed synthesis of electrically conducting polypyrrole.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Sethumadhavan; Nagarajan, Subhalakshmi; Kokil, Akshay; Ponrathnam, Timothy; Bouldin, Ryan M; Bruno, Ferdinando F; Samuelson, Lynne; Kumar, Jayant; Nagarajan, Ramaswamy

    2012-09-18

    Enzymatic synthesis of doped polypyrrole (PPy) complexes using oxidoreductases (specifically peroxidases) is very well established "green" methods for producing conducting polypyrrole. The importance of this approach is realized by the numerous potential opportunities of using PPy in biological applications. However, due to very high costs and low acid stability of these enzymes, there is need for more robust alternate biomimetic catalysts. Hematin, a hydroxyferriprotoporphyrin, has a similar iron catalytic active center like the peroxidases and has previously shown to catalyze polymerization of phenol monomers at pH 12. The insolubility of hematin due to extensive self-aggregation at low pH conditions has prevented its use in the synthesis of conjugated polymers. In this study, we have demonstrated the use of a micellar environment with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBSA) for biomimetic synthesis of PPy. The micellar environment helps solubilize hematin, generating nanometer size reactors for the polymerization of pyrrole. The resulting PPy is characterized using UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reveals the formation of an ordered PPy/DBSA complex with conductivities approaching 0.1 S/cm.

  3. MEMS-Based Satellite Micropropulsion Via Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Zakrzwski, Charles M.; Thomas, Michael A.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques offer great potential in satisfying the mission requirements for the next generation of "micro-scale" satellites being designed by NASA and Department of Defense agencies. More commonly referred to as "nanosats", these miniature satellites feature masses in the range of 10-100 kg and therefore have unique propulsion requirements. The propulsion systems must be capable of providing extremely low levels of thrust and impulse while also satisfying stringent demands on size, mass, power consumption and cost. We begin with an overview of micropropulsion requirements and some current MEMS-based strategies being developed to meet these needs. The remainder of the article focuses the progress being made at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center towards the development of a prototype monopropellant MEMS thruster which uses the catalyzed chemical decomposition of high concentration hydrogen peroxide as a propulsion mechanism. The products of decomposition are delivered to a micro-scale converging/diverging supersonic nozzle which produces the thrust vector; the targeted thrust level approximately 500 N with a specific impulse of 140-180 seconds. Macro-scale hydrogen peroxide thrusters have been used for satellite propulsion for decades; however, the implementation of traditional thruster designs on a MEMS scale has uncovered new challenges in fabrication, materials compatibility, and combustion and hydrodynamic modeling. A summary of the achievements of the project to date is given, as is a discussion of remaining challenges and future prospects.

  4. Iodide-catalyzed ozonation of terpenes on aqueous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enami, S.; Hayase, S.; Kawasaki, M.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic terpenes are the dominant global source of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Their atmospheric chemistry has therefore major direct and indirect impacts on global climate change. At the same time, it has become apparent that organic and inorganic iodine species of marine origin are ubiquitous in the troposphere. They are found over the open ocean (even in the absence of biogenic sources), the Antarctic coast, in rain, aerosols, ice, and snow, and participate in HOx/NOx cycles in the troposphere. Here we report that iodide catalyzes the ozonation of alpha-pinene on aqueous surfaces. Nebulizer-assisted online electrospray mass spectrometry of alpha-pinene solutions briefly exposed to gaseous ozone reveals that alpha-pinene, which is unreactive during 10 microsecond contact times, is converted into acids (e.g., pinonic acid) and previously unreported iodine-containing species in the presence of millimolar iodide. These newly found products were characterized by MS/MS in conjunction with isotope and kinetic studies, and may account for unidentified organoiodine species observed in recent field measurements.

  5. Out of the fog: Catalyzing integrative capacity in interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Piso, Zachary; O'Rourke, Michael; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2016-04-01

    Social studies of interdisciplinary science investigate how scientific collaborations approach complex challenges that require multiple disciplinary perspectives. In order for collaborators to meet these complex challenges, interdisciplinary collaborations must develop and maintain integrative capacity, understood as the ability to anticipate and weigh tradeoffs in the employment of different disciplinary approaches. Here we provide an account of how one group of interdisciplinary fog scientists intentionally catalyzed integrative capacity. Through conversation, collaborators negotiated their commitments regarding the ontology of fog systems and the methodologies appropriate to studying fog systems, thereby enhancing capabilities which we take to constitute integrative capacity. On the ontological front, collaborators negotiated their commitments by setting boundaries to and within the system, layering different subsystems, focusing on key intersections of these subsystems, and agreeing on goals that would direct further investigation. On the methodological front, collaborators sequenced various methods, anchored methods at different scales, validated one method with another, standardized the outputs of related methods, and coordinated methods to fit a common model. By observing the process and form of collaborator conversations, this case study demonstrates that social studies of science can bring into critical focus how interdisciplinary collaborators work toward an integrated conceptualization of study systems.

  6. Stable Self-Catalyzed Growth of III-V Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tersoff, J

    2015-10-14

    Nanowire growth has generally relied on an initial particle of a catalyst such as Au to define the wire diameter and stabilize the growth. Self-catalyzed growth of III-V nanowires avoids the need for a foreign element, with the nanowire growing from the vapor via a droplet of the native group-III liquid. However, as suggested by Gibbs' phase rule, the absence of third element has a destabilizing effect. Here we analyze this system theoretically, finding that growth can be dynamically stable at pressures far above the equilibrium vapor pressure. Steady-state growth occurs via kinetic self-regulation of the droplet volume and wire diameter. In particular, for a given temperature and source-gas pressures there is a unique stable wire diameter and droplet volume, both of which decrease with increasing V/III ratio. We also examine the evolution of the droplet size and wire diameter toward the steady state as the wire grows and discuss implications for structural control. PMID:26389697

  7. Temperature dependences of rate coefficients for electron catalyzed mutual neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2011-07-14

    The flowing afterglow technique of variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) has recently yielded evidence for a novel plasma charge loss process, electron catalyzed mutual neutralization (ECMN), i.e., A{sup +}+ B{sup -}+ e{sup -}{yields} A + B + e{sup -}. Here, rate constants for ECMN of two polyatomic species (POCl{sub 3}{sup -} and POCl{sub 2}{sup -}) and one diatomic species (Br{sub 2}{sup -}) each with two monatomic cations (Ar{sup +}and Kr{sup +}) are measured using VENDAMS over the temperature range 300 K-500 K. All rate constants show a steep negative temperature dependence, consistent with that expected for a three body process involving two ions and an electron. No variation in rate constants as a function of the cation type is observed outside of uncertainty; however, rate constants of the polyatomic anions ({approx}1 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K) are measurably higher than that for Br{sub 2}{sup -}[(5.5 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K].

  8. Heterogeneous catalyzed benzylic acetoxylation of methylated aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Benazzi, E.; Mimoun, H.; Cameron, C.J. )

    1993-04-01

    The palladium-catalyzed acetoxylation of toluene to benzyl acetate is highly dependent on particle size. The rate of reaction is highest with 30--35 [Angstrom] particles corresponding to a 0.33 dispersion. Catalysts prepared and reduced by controlled methods before being contacted with the reaction medium, ex situ catalysts, were found to yield lower reaction rates than catalysts prepared in the reaction medium, in situ. Potassium ion-encapsulation in palladium during in situ preparation is a possible explanation for this result. Tin is required to reduce Pd[sup 2+] to Pd[sup 0] in the in situ system, but is not required for the ex situ catalyst. The improvement in activity of the ex situ catalyst in the presence of tin may be due to the reducibility of Sn[sup 4+] to Sn[sup 2+] during oxygen-poor regimes. Results obtained with diverse methylated aromatic hydrocarbons indicate that the aromatic ring interactions with the palladium surface via [pi]-donation before oxidation occurs. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Recent trends in protease-catalyzed peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lombard, C; Saulnier, J; Wallach, J M

    2005-10-01

    Enzymatic peptide syntheses may be either thermodynamically- or kinetically-controlled. The former may be catalyzed by any proteases; the latter is limited to serine and cysteine proteases. This methodology is quite stereospecific and avoids side chain protection but is suffering of some drawbacks. Thus, only two industrial processes are by now developed: the production of aspartame and the conversion of porcine into human insulin. However, recent improvements have been carried out in different directions: 1-Search for proteases with high and/or new P'1 and P1 specificities. 2-Protease engineering to promote synthesis towards hydrolysis and to enlarge specificity. 3-Development of mimetic or "inverse" substrates to limit further hydrolysis of synthesized peptide. 4-Change of the physical state of reactants. Three axes have mainly be explored: solid-solid conversion, use of cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLEC) and enzyme immobilization. 5-Modification of experimental conditions. The principal and recent developments deal with: heterogeneous catalysis, synthesis in low water-containing organic solvents, in ionic liquids or at subzero temperatures. This review will illustrate these new orientations with examples described in the recent literature.

  10. Existence of efficient divalent metal ion-catalyzed and inefficient divalent metal ion-independent channels in reactions catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing-Min; Zhou, De-Min; Takagi, Yasuomi; Kasai, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Atsushi; Baba, Tadashi; Taira, Kazunari

    2002-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme is generally accepted as a well characterized metalloenzyme. However, the precise nature of the interactions of the RNA with metal ions remains to be fully defined. Examination of metal ion-catalyzed hammerhead reactions at limited concentrations of metal ions is useful for evaluation of the role of metal ions, as demonstrated in this study. At concentrations of Mn2+ ions from 0.3 to 3 mM, addition of the ribozyme to the reaction mixture under single-turnover conditions enhances the reaction with the product reaching a fixed maximum level. Further addition of the ribozyme inhibits the reaction, demonstrating that a certain number of divalent metal ions is required for proper folding and also for catalysis. At extremely high concentrations, monovalent ions, such as Na+ ions, can also serve as cofactors in hammerhead ribozyme-catalyzed reactions. However, the catalytic efficiency of monovalent ions is extremely low and, thus, high concentrations are required. Furthermore, addition of monovalent ions to divalent metal ion-catalyzed hammerhead reactions inhibits the divalent metal ion-catalyzed reactions, suggesting that the more desirable divalent metal ion–ribozyme complexes are converted to less desirable monovalent metal ion–ribozyme complexes via removal of divalent metal ions, which serve as a structural support in the ribozyme complex. Even though two channels appear to exist, namely an efficient divalent metal ion-catalyzed channel and an inefficient monovalent metal ion-catalyzed channel, it is clear that, under physiological conditions, hammerhead ribozymes are metalloenzymes that act via the significantly more efficient divalent metal ion-dependent channel. Moreover, the observed kinetic data are consistent with Lilley’s and DeRose’s two-phase folding model that was based on ground state structure analyses. PMID:12034824

  11. Nickel-Catalyzed Borylation of Halides and Pseudo-Halides with Tetrahydroxydiboron [B2(OH)4

    PubMed Central

    Molander, Gary A.; Cavalcanti, Livia N.; García-García, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Arylboronic acids are gaining increased importance as reagents and target structures in a variety of useful applications. Recently, the palladium-catalyzed synthesis of arylboronic acids employing the atom economical tetrahydroxydiboron (BBA) reagent has been reported. The high cost associated with palladium, combined with several limitations of both palladium and copper-catalyzed processes, prompted us to develop an alternative method. Thus, the nickel-catalyzed borylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides and pseudo-halides using tetrahydroxydiboron (BBA) has been formulated. The reaction proved to be widely functional group tolerant and applicable to a number of heterocyclic systems. To the best of our knowledge, the examples presented here represent the only effective Ni-catalyzed Miyaura borylations conducted at room temperature. PMID:23777538

  12. Regimes of radial growth for Ga-catalyzed GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Berdnikov, Y.; Sibirev, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    We present a non-stationary growth model of Ga-catalyzed GaAs nanowires which is based on the two kinetic equations for the nanowire elongation rate and a time-dependent base radius of the droplet. We show that self-catalyzed nanowire growth is principally different from the Au-catalyzed one because a stationary droplet size cannot be maintained at all times. Close examination of the model enables us to separate different regimes of radial growth in which the droplet shrinks, inflates or converges to a certain stationary size as nanowires grow, depending on the initial droplet radius and the growth conditions. We also discuss some experimental data on the growth modes of Ga-catalyzed GaAs nanowires from the viewpoint of the obtained results.

  13. Transition-metal-catalyzed Chelation-assisted C-H Functionalization of Aromatic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Binlin; Shi, Zhuangzhi; Yuan, Yu

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activations have been very popular in the research field of organometallic chemistry, and have been considered as efficient and convenient strategies to afford complex natural products, functional advanced materials, fluorescent compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds. In this account, we begin with a brief introduction to the development of transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation, especially the development of transition-metal-catalyzed chelation-assisted C-H activation. Then, a more detailed discussion is directed towards our recent studies on the transition-metal-catalyzed chelation-assisted oxidative C-H/C-H functionalization of aromatic substrates bearing directing functional groups.

  14. Total Synthesis of Enantiopure (+)-γ -Lycorane Using Highly Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Chapsal, Bruno D.; Ojima, Iwao

    2008-01-01

    Highly efficient short total synthesis of γ -lycorane (>99% ee, 41% overall yield) was achieved by using the asymmetric allylic alkylation in the key step catalyzed by palladium complexes with novel chiral biphenol-based monodentate phosphoramidite ligands. PMID:16562900

  15. Transition-metal-catalyzed Chelation-assisted C-H Functionalization of Aromatic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Binlin; Shi, Zhuangzhi; Yuan, Yu

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activations have been very popular in the research field of organometallic chemistry, and have been considered as efficient and convenient strategies to afford complex natural products, functional advanced materials, fluorescent compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds. In this account, we begin with a brief introduction to the development of transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation, especially the development of transition-metal-catalyzed chelation-assisted C-H activation. Then, a more detailed discussion is directed towards our recent studies on the transition-metal-catalyzed chelation-assisted oxidative C-H/C-H functionalization of aromatic substrates bearing directing functional groups. PMID:26968749

  16. 53. VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE CATALYZER BUILDINGS, COOLING SHEDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE CATALYZER BUILDINGS, COOLING SHEDS AND ABSORPTION BUILDINGS IN THE BACKGROUND. MAY 29, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  17. Conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural catalyzed by ZnCl2 in water.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tiansheng; Cui, Xiaojing; Qi, Yongqin; Wang, Yinxiong; Hou, Xianglin; Zhu, Yulei

    2012-06-01

    The incompletely coordinated zinc ions in the concentrated aqueous ZnCl(2) solution catalyze the direct conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and a moderate HMF yield up to 50% can be achieved. PMID:22534980

  18. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF STYRENE AND ALKENES IN PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUIDS (WACKER REACTION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ionic liquids in various synthetic transformations is gaining significance due to the enhanced reaction rates, potential for recycling and compatibility with various organic compounds and organometallic catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed oxidation of styrene and other alk...

  19. Origins of the double asymmetric induction on proline-catalyzed aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Félix; Doyagüez, Elisa G; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Houk, K N

    2008-10-17

    Computational studies to elucidate the origin of the double asymmetric induction on proline-catalyzed aldol reaction have been performed using HF/6-31G(d) calculations. The computed transition structures explain the experimental data obtained. PMID:18811197

  20. The palladium-catalyzed intermolecular C-H chalcogenation of arenes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Renhua; Reddy, Vutukuri Prakash; Iwasaki, Takanori; Kambe, Nobuaki

    2015-01-01

    Palladium catalyzes the intermolecular chalcogenation of carbazole, 2-phenylpyridine, benzo[h]quinolone, and indole derivatives with disulfides and diselenides via selective C-H bond cleavage, providing a convenient route to thio and selenoethers. PMID:25437148

  1. Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Amidation of Indoles with Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Taejoo; Han, Sangil; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Sharma, Satyasheel; Lee, Seok-Yong; Oh, Joa Sub; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Su

    2015-07-17

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct amidation of indoles and pyrroles with aryl and alkyl isocyanates is described. These transformations provide a facile and efficient construction of C2-amidated N-heterocyclic scaffolds.

  2. Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Indole Synthesis via Intramolecular Nucleophilic Attack of Phenyldiazoacetates to Iminium Ions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Doyle, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Lewis acids catalyze the cyclization of methyl phenyldiazoacetates with an ortho-imino group, prepared from o-aminophenylacetic acid, to give 2,3-substituted indoles in quantitative yields. PMID:19904905

  3. Nickel-catalyzed borylation of halides and pseudohalides with tetrahydroxydiboron [B2(OH)4].

    PubMed

    Molander, Gary A; Cavalcanti, Livia N; García-García, Carolina

    2013-07-01

    Arylboronic acids are gaining increased importance as reagents and target structures in a variety of useful applications. Recently, the palladium-catalyzed synthesis of arylboronic acids employing the atom-economical tetrahydroxydiboron (BBA) reagent has been reported. The high cost associated with palladium, combined with several limitations of both palladium- and copper-catalyzed processes, prompted us to develop an alternative method. Thus, the nickel-catalyzed borylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides and pseudohalides using tetrahydroxydiboron (BBA) has been formulated. The reaction proved to be widely functional group tolerant and applicable to a number of heterocyclic systems. To the best of our knowledge, the examples presented here represent the only effective Ni-catalyzed Miyaura borylations conducted at room temperature. PMID:23777538

  4. Synthesis of (-)-Cannabimovone and Structural Reassignment of Anhydrocannabimovone through Gold(I)-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Javier; Kirillova, Mariia S; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-06-13

    The first total synthesis of cannabimovone from Cannabis sativa and anhydrocannabimovone was achieved by means of a highly stereoselective gold(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization. The results led to reassignment of the structure of anhydrocannabimovone. PMID:27119910

  5. Microwave-mediated selective monotetrahydropyranylation of symmetrical diols catalyzed by iodine.

    PubMed

    Deka, N; Sarma, J C

    2001-03-23

    Selective protection of one hydroxyl group as its tetrahydropyranyl ether in 1,n-symmetrical diol is achieved by iodine-catalyzed reaction of the diol with dihydropyranyl ether under microwave irradiation. PMID:11300886

  6. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems Generated by PARIS II

    Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas M. Becker, and Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26...

  7. Synthesis of Diphenylhexatriene by the Pd-Catalyzed Dimerization of Cinnamyl Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Mesganaw, Tehetena; Im, G.-Yoon J.; Garg, Neil K.

    2013-01-01

    A mild and operationally-simple method to synthesize diphenylhexatriene (DPH) is reported. The method relies on the Pd-catalyzed dimerization of cinnamyl acetate and provides efficient access to DPH in a single step. PMID:23414259

  8. Synthesis of 2-indolylphosphines by palladium-catalyzed annulation of 1-alkynylphosphine sulfides with 2-iodoanilines.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Azusa; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Oshima, Koichiro

    2010-04-01

    Palladium-catalyzed annulation of 1-alkynylphosphine sulfides with 2-iodoanilines followed by desulfidation affords 3-substituted 2-indolylphosphines. This annulation/desulfidation sequential protocol offers a conceptually new approach to bulky heteroarylphosphines.

  9. Metabolism of Monoterpenes: Acetylation of (-)-Menthol by a Soluble Enzyme Preparation from Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Croteau, R; Hooper, C L

    1978-05-01

    The essential oil from mature leaves of flowering peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) contains up to 15% (-)-menthyl acetate, and leaf discs converted exogenous (-)-[G-(3)H]menthol into this ester in approximately 15% yield of the incorporated precursor. Leaf extracts catalyzed the acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetylation of (-)-[G-(3)H]menthol and the product of this transacetylase reaction was identified by radiochromatographic techniques. Transacetylase activity was located mainly in the 100,000g supernatant fraction, and the preparation was partially purified by combination of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and chromatography on O-diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. The transacetylase had a molecular weight of about 37,000 as judged by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, and a pH optimum near 9. The apparent K(m) and velocity for (-)-menthol were 0.3 mm and 16 nmol/hr. mg of protein, respectively. The saturation curve for acetyl coenzyme A was sigmoidal, showing apparent saturation near 0.1 mm. Dithioerythritol was required for maximum activity and stability of the enzyme, and the enzyme was inhibited by thiol directed reagents such as p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Diisopropylfluorophosphate also inhibited transacylation suggesting the involvement of a serine residue in catalysis. The transacylase was highly specific for acetyl coenzyme A; propionyl coenzyme A and butyryl coenzyme A were not nearly as efficient as acyl donors (11% and 2%, respectively). However, the enzyme was much less selective with regard to the alcohol substrate, suggesting that the nature of the acetate ester synthesized in mint is more dependent on the type of alcohol available than on the specificity of the transacetylase. This is the first report on an enzyme involved in monoterpenol acetylation in plants. A very similar enzyme, catalyzing this key reaction in the metabolism of menthol, was also isolated from the flowers of peppermint. PMID:16660375

  10. Metabolism of Monoterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney; Hooper, Caroline Lee

    1978-01-01

    The essential oil from mature leaves of flowering peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) contains up to 15% (—)-menthyl acetate, and leaf discs converted exogenous (—)-[G-3H]menthol into this ester in approximately 15% yield of the incorporated precursor. Leaf extracts catalyzed the acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetylation of (—)-[G-3H]menthol and the product of this transacetylase reaction was identified by radiochromatographic techniques. Transacetylase activity was located mainly in the 100,000g supernatant fraction, and the preparation was partially purified by combination of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and chromatography on O-diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. The transacetylase had a molecular weight of about 37,000 as judged by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, and a pH optimum near 9. The apparent Km and velocity for (—)-menthol were 0.3 mm and 16 nmol/hr· mg of protein, respectively. The saturation curve for acetyl coenzyme A was sigmoidal, showing apparent saturation near 0.1 mm. Dithioerythritol was required for maximum activity and stability of the enzyme, and the enzyme was inhibited by thiol directed reagents such as p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Diisopropylfluorophosphate also inhibited transacylation suggesting the involvement of a serine residue in catalysis. The transacylase was highly specific for acetyl coenzyme A; propionyl coenzyme A and butyryl coenzyme A were not nearly as efficient as acyl donors (11% and 2%, respectively). However, the enzyme was much less selective with regard to the alcohol substrate, suggesting that the nature of the acetate ester synthesized in mint is more dependent on the type of alcohol available than on the specificity of the transacetylase. This is the first report on an enzyme involved in monoterpenol acetylation in plants. A very similar enzyme, catalyzing this key reaction in the metabolism of menthol, was also isolated from the flowers of peppermint. PMID:16660375

  11. Horseradish Peroxidase-Mediated, Iodide-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction for Plasmonic Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Xianyu, Yunlei; Chen, Yiping; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-11-01

    This report outlines an enzymatic cascade reaction for signal transduction and amplification for plasmonic immunoassays by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). HRP-catalyzed oxidation of iodide and iodide-catalyzed oxidation of cysteine is employed to modulate the plasmonic signals of AuNPs. It agrees well with the current immunoassay platforms and allows naked-eye readout with enhanced sensitivity, which holds great promise for applications in resource-constrained settings. PMID:26460152

  12. Copper-catalyzed oxidative homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents using diaziridinone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingguang; Xiong, Tao; Han, Wenyong; Shi, Yian

    2014-12-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are among the most powerful synthetic transformations. This paper describes an efficient copper-catalyzed homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as oxidant under mild conditions, giving the coupling products in good to excellent yields. The reaction process has a broad substrate scope and is also effective for the C(sp)-C(sp(3)) coupling.

  13. Rhodium-Catalyzed Ketone Methylation Using Methanol Under Mild Conditions: Formation of α-Branched Products**

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Louis K M; Poole, Darren L; Shen, Di; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    The rhodium-catalyzed methylation of ketones has been accomplished using methanol as the methylating agent and the hydrogen-borrowing method. The sequence is notable for the relatively low temperatures that are required and for the ability of the reaction system to form α-branched products with ease. Doubly alkylated ketones can be prepared from methyl ketones and two different alcohols by using a sequential one-pot iridium- and rhodium-catalyzed process. PMID:24288297

  14. Synthesis of new N-analogous corollosporine derivatives with antibacterial activity by laccase-catalyzed amination.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Hessel, Susanne; Salazar, Manuela Gesell; Neumann, Helfried; Manda, Katrin; Gōrdes, Dirk; Schmidt, Enrico; Thurow, Kerstin; Hammer, Elke; Lindequist, Ulrike; Beller, Matthias; Schauer, Frieder

    2008-06-01

    Corollosporine isolated from the marine fungus Corollospora maritima and N-analogous corollosporines are antimicrobial substances. Owing to the basic structure of the N-analogous corollosporines, they have become an attractive target for laccase-catalyzed derivatisation. In this regard we report on the straightforward laccase-catalyzed amination of dihydroxylated arenes with N-analogous corollosporines. In biological assays the obtained amination products are more active than the parent compounds.

  15. Ready Access to the Echinopines Skeleton via Gold(I)-Catalyzed Alkoxycyclizations of Enynes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The [3,5,5,7] tetracyclic skeleton of echinopines has been stereoselectively accessed through a gold(I)-catalyzed alkoxycyclization of cyclopropyl-tethered 1,6-enynes. The key bicyclo[4.2.1]nonane core of the enyne precursors was readily assembled by means of a Co-catalyzed [6 + 2] cycloaddition. Furthermore, the attempted alkoxycyclization of 1,5-enyne substrates revealed an uncovered cyclopropyl rearrangement that gives rise to [3,6,5,7] tetracyclic structures. PMID:27529429

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Dearomative Cyclocarbonylation by C-N Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Zhang, Guoying; Huang, Hanmin

    2015-09-01

    A fundamentally novel approach to bioactive quinolizinones is based on the palladium-catalyzed intramolecular cyclocarbonylation of allylamines. [Pd(Xantphos)I2 ], which features a very large bite angle, has been found to facilitate the rapid carbonylation of azaarene-substituted allylamines into bioactive quinolizinones in good to excellent yields. This transformation represents the first dearomative carbonylation and is proposed to proceed by palladium-catalyzed CN bond activation, dearomatization, CO insertion, and a Heck reaction.

  17. Copper-catalyzed oxidative homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents using diaziridinone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingguang; Xiong, Tao; Han, Wenyong; Shi, Yian

    2014-12-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are among the most powerful synthetic transformations. This paper describes an efficient copper-catalyzed homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as oxidant under mild conditions, giving the coupling products in good to excellent yields. The reaction process has a broad substrate scope and is also effective for the C(sp)-C(sp(3)) coupling. PMID:25420218

  18. Mo-catalyzed asymmetric olefin metathesis in target-oriented synthesis: Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-africanol

    PubMed Central

    Weatherhead, Gabriel S.; Cortez, G. A.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic asymmetric ring-opening metathesis (AROM) provides an efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of optically enriched small organic molecules that cannot be easily prepared by alternative methods. The development of Mo-catalyzed AROM transformations that occur in tandem with ring-closing metathesis are described. The utility of the Mo-catalyzed AROM/ring-closing metathesis is demonstrated through an enantioselective approach to the synthesis of (+)-africanol. PMID:15056762

  19. Horseradish Peroxidase-Mediated, Iodide-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction for Plasmonic Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Xianyu, Yunlei; Chen, Yiping; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-11-01

    This report outlines an enzymatic cascade reaction for signal transduction and amplification for plasmonic immunoassays by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). HRP-catalyzed oxidation of iodide and iodide-catalyzed oxidation of cysteine is employed to modulate the plasmonic signals of AuNPs. It agrees well with the current immunoassay platforms and allows naked-eye readout with enhanced sensitivity, which holds great promise for applications in resource-constrained settings.

  20. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Denitrogenative Transannulation: Converting Triazoles into Other Heterocyclic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Buddhadeb

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal catalyzed denitrogenative transannulation of a triazole ring has recently received considerable attention as a new concept for the construction of diverse nitrogen-containing heterocyclic cores. This method allows a single-step synthesis of complex nitrogen heterocycles from easily available and cheap triazole precursors. In this Minireview, recent progress of the transition metal catalyzed denitrogenative transannulation of a triazole ring, which was discovered in 2007, is discussed. PMID:22121072

  1. One-pot gold-catalyzed synthesis of 3-silylethynyl indoles from unprotected o-alkynylanilines

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jonathan P; Chevalley, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Au(III)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-alkynylanilines was combined in a one-pot procedure with the Au(I)-catalyzed C3-selective direct alkynylation of indoles using the benziodoxolone reagent TIPS-EBX to give a mild, easy and straightforward entry to 2-substituted-3-alkynylindoles. The reaction can be applied to unprotected anilines, was tolerant to functional groups and easy to carry out (RT, and requires neither an inert atmosphere nor special solvents). PMID:21647264

  2. Use of a palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution in synthetic efforts toward bielschowskysin

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael E.; Phillips, John H.; Ferreira, Eric M.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Progress toward the cyclobutane core of bielshowskysin is reported. The core was thought to arise from a cyclopropane intermediate via a furan-mediated cyclopropane fragmentation, followed by a 1,4-Michael addition. The synthesis of the cyclopropane intermediate utilizes a Suzuki coupling reaction, an esterification with 2-diazoacetoacetic acid, and a copper catalyzed cyclopropanation. An alcohol intermediate within the synthetic route was obtained in high enantiopurity via a highly selective palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution (OKR). PMID:23913988

  3. Mechanistic insights into the rhenium-catalyzed alcohol-to-olefin dehydration reaction.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Ties J; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2013-09-23

    Rhenium-based complexes are powerful catalysts for the dehydration of various alcohols to the corresponding olefins. Here, we report on both experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies into the mechanism of the rhenium-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols to olefins in general, and the methyltrioxorhenium-catalyzed dehydration of 1-phenylethanol to styrene in particular. The experimental and theoretical studies are in good agreement, both showing the involvement of several proton transfers, and of a carbenium ion intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

  4. Mechanism of base-catalyzed Schiff base deprotonation in halorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Lanyi, J.K.

    1986-10-21

    It has been shown earlier that the deprotonation of the Schiff base of illuminated halorhodopsin proceeds with a much lower pK/sub a/ than that of the unilluminated pigment and the reversible protonation change is catalyzed by azide and cyanate. The authors have studied the kinetics of the proton-transfer events with flash spectroscopy and compared a variety of anionic bases with different pK/sub a/ with regard to the apparent binding constants and the catalytic activities. The results suggest a general base catalysis mechanism in which the anionic bases bind with apparently low affinity to halorhodopsin, although with some degree of size- and/or shape-dependent specificity. The locus of the catalysis is accessible from the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not at site I, where various anions bind and shift the pK/sub a/ of the deprotonation. Neither is it at site II, where a few specific anions (like chloride) bind to the all-trans pigment. It may be concluded that while the all-trans pigment loses its Schiff base proton very rapidly at its pK/sub a/, there is a kinetic barrier to this deprotonation in the 13-cis photointermediate that can be partially overcome by the reversible protonation of an extrinsic anionic base, which shuttles protons between the interior of the protein and the aqueous medium. The need for an extrinsic proton acceptor for efficient deprotonation of the Schiff base of halorhodopsin is one of the main differences between this pigment and the analogous retinal protein, bacteriorhodopsin.

  5. Ammonia synthesis catalyzed by ruthenium supported on basic zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Fishel, C.T.; Davis, R.J.; Garces, J.M.

    1996-09-15

    Ammonia synthesis was catalyzed by ruthenium metal clusters, promoted by alkali and alkaline earth elements, supported on zeolite X, magnesia, and pure silica MCM-41. At atmospheric total pressure and temperatures ranging from 623 to 723 K, the turnover frequencies of ammonia synthesis on Ru/KX varied significantly with Fu cluster size, demonstrating the known structure sensitivity of the reaction. Therefore, zeolite and magnesia catalysts were prepared with similar Ru cluster sizes, about 1 nm in diameter, in order to properly evaluate the effect of promoters. The same high degree of metal dispersion could not be obtained with Ru/MCM-41 catalysts. The turnover frequency for ammonia synthesis over Ru/CsX exceeded that over Ru/KX, consistent with the rank of promoter basicity. However, alkaline earth metals were more effective promoters than alkali metals for Ru supported on both zeolite X and MCM-41. Since alkaline earth metals are less basic; this promotional effect was unexpected. In addition, the turnover frequency for ammonia synthesis on Ru/BaX exceeded that of Ru/MgO, a nonzeolitic material. Pore volumes for Ru/BaX and Ru/KX measured by N{sub 2} adsorption were essentially identical, suggesting that pore blockage by ions within the zeolites does not account for the differences in reaction rates. The kinetics of ammonia synthesis over ruthenium differed considerably from what has been reported for industrial iron catalysts. Most significantly, the order of reaction in H{sub 2} was negative over Ru but is positive over Fe. A likely cause of this change in reaction order is that dissociated hydrogen atoms cover a greater fraction of the Ru clusters compared to Fe under reaction conditions. 49 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Xanthine oxidase-catalyzed crosslinking of cell membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Girotti, A W; Thomas, J P; Jordan, J E

    1986-12-01

    Isolated erythrocyte membranes exposed to protease-free xanthine oxidase plus xanthine and ferric iron undergo lipid peroxidation and protein crosslinking (appearance of high molecular weight aggregates on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis). Spectrin is more susceptible to crosslinking than the other polypeptides. Thiol-reducible bonds (disulfides) as well as nonreducible bonds are generated, the former type relatively rapidly (detected within 10-20 min) and the latter type more slowly (usually detected after 1 h). Reducible crosslinking is inhibited by catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase, desferrioxamine, butylated hydroxyltoluene, and mannitol; whereas nonreducible crosslinking, like free radical lipid peroxidation, is inhibited by all of these agents except mannitol. Zinc(II) also inhibits lipid peroxidation, but stimulates disulfide bond formation to the virtual exclusion of all other crosslinking. Our results indicate that disulfide formation is dependent on H2O2, but not O2- or iron. However, O2-, H2O2, and iron are all required for lipid peroxidation and nondisulfide crosslinking, suggesting the intermediacy of OH generated via the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction. The possible role of malonaldehyde (MDA, a by-product of lipid peroxidation) in the latter type of crosslinking was examined. Solubilized samples of xanthine/xanthine oxidase-treated membranes showed a strong visible fluorescence (emission maximum 450 nm; excitation 390 nm). This resembled the fluorescence of membranes treated with authentic MDA, which forms conjugated imine linkages between amino groups. Fluorescence scanning of SDS gels from MDA-treated membranes showed a strong signal coincident with crosslinked proteins and also one in the low molecular weight, nonprotein region, suggestive of aminolipid conjugates. Similar scanning on xanthine/xanthine oxidase-reacted membranes indicated that all fluorescence is associated with the lipid fraction. Thus, nonreducible

  7. The mechanism for iron-catalyzed alkene isomerization in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Karma R.; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Cahoon, James F.; Schlegel, Jacob P.; Harris, Charles B.

    2008-05-27

    Here we report nano- through microsecond time-resolved IR experiments of iron-catalyzed alkene isomerization in room-temperature solution. We have monitored the photochemistry of a model system, Fe(CO){sub 4}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene), in neat 1-hexene solution. UV-photolysis of the starting material leads to the dissociation of a single CO to form Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene), in a singlet spin state. This CO loss complex shows a dramatic selectivity to form an allyl hydride, HFe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 6}H{sub 11}), via an internal C-H bond-cleavage reaction in 5-25 ns. We find no evidence for the coordination of an alkene molecule from the bath to the CO loss complex, but do observe coordination to the allyl hydride, indicating that it is the key intermediate in the isomerization mechanism. Coordination of the alkene ligand to the allyl hydride leads to the formation of the bis-alkene isomers, Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene)({eta}{sup 2}-2-hexene) and Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene){sub 2}. Because of the thermodynamic stability of Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene)({eta}{sup 2}-2-hexene) over Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene){sub 2} (ca. 12 kcal/mol), nearly 100% of the alkene population will be 2-alkene. The results presented herein provide the first direct evidence for this mechanism in solution and suggest modifications to the currently accepted mechanism.

  8. A thermodynamic investigation of reactions catalyzed by tryptophan synthase.

    PubMed

    Kishore, N; Tewari, Y B; Akers, D L; Goldberg, R N; Miles, E W

    1998-07-27

    Microcalorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of the following reactions catalyzed by the tryptophan synthase alpha 2 beta 2 complex (EC 4.2.1.20) and its subunits: indole(aq) + L-serine(aq) = L-tryptophan(aq) + H2O(1); L-serine(aq) = pyruvate(aq) + ammonia(aq); indole(aq) + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate(aq) = 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate(aq); L-serine(aq) + 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate(aq) = L-tryptophan(aq) + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate(aq) + H2O(1). The calorimetric measurements led to standard molar enthalpy changes for all four of these reactions. Direct measurements yielded an apparent equilibrium constant for the third reaction; equilibrium constants for the remaining three reactions were obtained by using thermochemical cycle calculations. The results of the calorimetric and equilibrium measurements were analyzed in terms of a chemical equilibrium model that accounted for the multiplicity of the ionic states of the reactants and products. Thermodynamic quantities for chemical reference reactions involving specific ionic forms have been obtained. These quantities permit the calculation of the position of equilibrium of the above four reactions as a function of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Values of the apparent equilibrium constants and standard transformed Gibbs free energy changes delta r G'(m) degree under approximately physiological conditions are given. Le Châtelier's principle provides an explanation as to why, in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of L-tryptophan, the third reaction proceeds in the direction of formation of indole and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate even though the apparent equilibrium constant greatly favors the formation of 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate. PMID:9700925

  9. Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of TG containing acetylenic FA.

    PubMed

    Jie, Marcel S F Lie Ken; Fua, Xun; Lau, Maureen M L; Chye, M L

    2002-10-01

    Hydrolysis of symmetrical acetylenic TG of type AAA [viz., glycerol tri-(4-decynoate), glycerol tri-(6-octadecynoate), glycerol tri-(9-octadecynoate), glycerol tri-(10-undecynoate), and glycerol tri-(13-docosynoate)] in the presence of eight microbial lipases was studied. Novozyme 435 (Candida antarctica), an efficient enzyme for esterification, showed a significant resistance in the hydrolysis of glycerol tri-(9-octadecynoate) and glycerol tri-(13-docosynoate). Hydrolysis of acetylenic TG with Lipolase 100T (Humicola lanuginosa) was rapidly accomplished. Lipase PS-D (Pseudomonas cepacia) showed a fair resistance toward the hydrolysis of glycerol tri-(6-octadecynoate) only, which reflected its ability to recognize the delta6 positional isomer of 18:1. Lipase CCL (Candida cylindracea, syn. C. rugosa) and AY-30 (C. rugosa) were able to catalyze the release of 10-undecynoic acid and 9-octadecynoic acid from the corresponding TG, but less readily the 13-docosynoic acid in the case of glycerol tri-(13-docosynoate). The two lipases CCL and AY-30 were able to distinguish the small difference in structure of fatty acyl moieties in the TG substrate. To confirm this trend, three regioisomers of mixed acetylenic TG of type ABC (containing one each of delta6, delta9, and delta13 acetylenic FA in various positions) were prepared and hydrolyzed with CCL and AY-40. The results reconfirmed the observation that AY-30 and CCL were able to distinguish the slight differences in the molecular structure (position of the acetylenic bond and chain length) of the acyl groups in the TG during the hydrolysis of such TG substrates.

  10. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Amidozirconium-Catalyzed Carbonyl Hydroboration

    DOE PAGES

    Eedugurala, Naresh; Wang, Zhuoran; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas; Kandel, Kapil; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Slowing, Igor I.; Pruski, Marek; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-11-04

    The hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones using a silica-supported zirconium catalyst is reported. Reaction of Zr(NMe2)4 and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) provides the catalytic material Zr(NMe2)n@MSN. Exhaustive characterization of Zr(NMe2)n@MSN with solid-state (SS)NMR and infrared spectroscopy, as well as through reactivity studies, suggests its surface structure is primarily ≡SiOZr(NMe2)3. The presence of these nitrogen-containing zirconium sites is supported by 15N NMR spectroscopy, including natural abundance 15N NMR measurements using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) SSNMR. The Zr(NMe2)n@MSN material reacts with pinacolborane (HBpin) to provide Me2NBpin and the material ZrH/Bpin@MSN that is composed of interacting surface-bonded zirconium hydride and surface-bonded borane ≡SiOBpinmore » moieties in an approximately 1:1 ratio, as well as zirconium sites coordinated by dimethylamine. The ZrH/Bpin@MSN is characterized by 1H/2H and 11B SSNMR and infrared spectroscopy and through its reactivity with D2. The zirconium hydride material or the zirconium amide precursor Zr(NMe2)n@MSN catalyzes the selective hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones with HBpin in the presence of functional groups that are often reduced under hydroboration conditions or are sensitive to metal hydrides, including olefins, alkynes, nitro groups, halides, and ethers. Remarkably, this catalytic material may be recycled without loss of activity at least eight times, and air-exposed materials are catalytically active. These supported zirconium centers are robust catalytic sites for carbonyl reduction and that surface-supported, catalytically reactive zirconium hydride may be generated from zirconium-amide or zirconium alkoxide sites.« less

  11. Copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzahrani, Abeer Ahmed

    The click reaction concept, introduced in 2001, has since spurred the rapid development and reexamination of efficient, high yield reactions which proceed rapidly under mild conditions. Prior to the discovery of facile copper catalysis in 2002, the thermally activated azide-alkyne or Huisgen cycloaddition reaction was largely ignored following its discovery in large part due to its slow kinetics, requirement for elevated temperature and limited selectivity. Now, arguably, the most prolific and capable of the click reactions, the copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is extremely efficient and affords exquisite control of the reaction. The orthogonally and chemoselectivity of this reaction enable its wide utility across varied scientific fields. Despite numerous inherent advantages and widespread use for small molecule synthesis and solution-based polymer chemistry, it has only recently and rarely been utilized to form polymer networks. This work focuses on the synthesis, mechanisms, and unique attributes of the CuAAC reaction for the fabrication of functional polymer networks. The photo-reduction of a series of copper(II)/amine complexes via ligand metal charge transfer was examined to determine their relative efficiency and selectivity in catalyzing the CuAAC reaction. The aliphatic amine ligands were used as an electron transfer species to reduce Cu(II) upon irradiation with 365 nm light while also functioning as an accelerating agent and as protecting ligands for the Cu(I) that was formed. Among the aliphatic amines studied, tertiary amines such as triethylamine (TEA), tetramethyldiamine (TMDA), N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDTA), and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTETA) were found to be the most effective. The reaction kinetics were accelerated by increasing the PMDETA : Cu(II) ratio with a ratio of ligand to Cu(II) of 4:1 yielding the maximum conversion in the shortest time. The sequential and orthogonal nature of the photo

  12. Growth and characterization of gold catalyzed SiGe nanowires and alternative metal-catalyzed Si nanowires.

    PubMed

    Potié, Alexis; Baron, Thierry; Dhalluin, Florian; Rosaz, Guillaume; Salem, Bassem; Latu-Romain, Laurence; Kogelschatz, Martin; Gentile, Pascal; Oehler, Fabrice; Montès, Laurent; Kreisel, Jens; Roussel, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    The growth of semiconductor (SC) nanowires (NW) by CVD using Au-catalyzed VLS process has been widely studied over the past few years. Among others SC, it is possible to grow pure Si or SiGe NW thanks to these techniques. Nevertheless, Au could deteriorate the electric properties of SC and the use of other metal catalysts will be mandatory if NW are to be designed for innovating electronic. First, this article's focus will be on SiGe NW's growth using Au catalyst. The authors managed to grow SiGe NW between 350 and 400°C. Ge concentration (x) in Si1-xGex NW has been successfully varied by modifying the gas flow ratio: R = GeH4/(SiH4 + GeH4). Characterization (by Raman spectroscopy and XRD) revealed concentrations varying from 0.2 to 0.46 on NW grown at 375°C, with R varying from 0.05 to 0.15. Second, the results of Si NW growths by CVD using alternatives catalysts such as platinum-, palladium- and nickel-silicides are presented. This study, carried out on a LPCVD furnace, aimed at defining Si NW growth conditions when using such catalysts. Since the growth temperatures investigated are lower than the eutectic temperatures of these Si-metal alloys, VSS growth is expected and observed. Different temperatures and HCl flow rates have been tested with the aim of minimizing 2D growth which induces an important tapering of the NW. Finally, mechanical characterization of single NW has been carried out using an AFM method developed at the LTM. It consists in measuring the deflection of an AFM tip while performing approach-retract curves at various positions along the length of a cantilevered NW. This approach allows the measurement of as-grown single NW's Young modulus and spring constant, and alleviates uncertainties inherent in single point measurement.

  13. Investigating the mechanism of the selective hydrogenation reaction of cinnamaldehyde catalyzed by Ptn clusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Laicai; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CAL) belongs to the group of aromatic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes; the selective hydrogenation of CAL plays an important role in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Using Ptn clusters as catalytic models, we studied the selective hydrogenation reaction mechanism for CAL catalyzed by Ptn (n = 6, 10, 14, 18) clusters by means of B3LYP in density functional theory at the 6-31+ G(d) level (the LanL2DZ extra basis set was used for the Pt atom). The rationality of the transition state was proved by vibration frequency analysis and intrinsic reaction coordinate computation. Moreover, atoms in molecules theory and nature bond orbital theory were applied to discuss the interaction among orbitals and the bonding characteristics. The results indicate that three kinds of products, namely 3-phenylpropyl aldehyde, 3-phenyl allyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol, are produced in the selective hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by Ptn clusters; each pathway possesses two reaction channels. Ptn clusters are more likely to catalyze the activation and hydrogenation of the C = O bond in CAL molecules, eventually producing cinnamic alcohol, which proves that Ptn clusters have a strong reaction selectivity to catalyze CAL. The reaction selectivity of the catalyzer cluster is closely related to the size of the Ptn cluster, with Pt14 clusters having the greatest reaction selectivity. Graphical Abstract The reaction mechanism for the selective hydrogenation reaction ofcinnamaldehyde catalyzed by Ptn clusters was studied by densityfunctional theory. The reactionselectivity of cluster catalyzer was concluded to be closely related to the size of Ptn clusters, with Pt14 clusters having the greatest reaction selectivity. PMID:27444877

  14. Investigating the mechanism of the selective hydrogenation reaction of cinnamaldehyde catalyzed by Ptn clusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Laicai; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CAL) belongs to the group of aromatic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes; the selective hydrogenation of CAL plays an important role in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Using Ptn clusters as catalytic models, we studied the selective hydrogenation reaction mechanism for CAL catalyzed by Ptn (n = 6, 10, 14, 18) clusters by means of B3LYP in density functional theory at the 6-31+ G(d) level (the LanL2DZ extra basis set was used for the Pt atom). The rationality of the transition state was proved by vibration frequency analysis and intrinsic reaction coordinate computation. Moreover, atoms in molecules theory and nature bond orbital theory were applied to discuss the interaction among orbitals and the bonding characteristics. The results indicate that three kinds of products, namely 3-phenylpropyl aldehyde, 3-phenyl allyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol, are produced in the selective hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by Ptn clusters; each pathway possesses two reaction channels. Ptn clusters are more likely to catalyze the activation and hydrogenation of the C = O bond in CAL molecules, eventually producing cinnamic alcohol, which proves that Ptn clusters have a strong reaction selectivity to catalyze CAL. The reaction selectivity of the catalyzer cluster is closely related to the size of the Ptn cluster, with Pt14 clusters having the greatest reaction selectivity. Graphical Abstract The reaction mechanism for the selective hydrogenation reaction ofcinnamaldehyde catalyzed by Ptn clusters was studied by densityfunctional theory. The reactionselectivity of cluster catalyzer was concluded to be closely related to the size of Ptn clusters, with Pt14 clusters having the greatest reaction selectivity.

  15. Removal of emerging pollutants by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Xiong, Xinmei; Gao, Naiyun; Song, Weihua; Du, Erdeng; Guan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Gongming

    2014-10-15

    TiO2 supported ruthenium nanoparticles, Ru/TiO2 (0.94‰ as Ru), was synthesized to catalyze permanganate oxidation for degrading emerging pollutants (EPs) with diverse organic moieties. The presence of 1.0 g L(-1) Ru/TiO2 increased the second order reaction rate constants of bisphenol A, diclofenac, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, butylparaben, diclofenac, ciprofloxacin and aniline at mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) by permanganate oxidation at pH 7.0 by 0.3-119 times. The second order reaction rate constants of EPs with permanganate or Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation obtained at EPs concentration of mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) underestimated those obtained at EPs concentration of μg L(-1) level (0.050 μM). Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate could decompose a mixture of nine EPs at μg L(-1) level efficiently and the second order rate constant for each EP was not decreased due to the competition of other EPs. The toxicity tests revealed that Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was effective not only for elimination of EPs but also for detoxification. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation in ten successive cycles remained almost constant in ultrapure water and slightly decreased in Songhua river water since the sixth run, indicating the satisfactory stability of Ru/TiO2. Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was selective and could remove selected EPs spiked in real waters more efficiently than chlorination. Therefore, Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation is promising for removing EPs with electron-rich moieties. PMID:25016299

  16. Captan impairs CYP-catalyzed drug metabolism in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Paolini, M; Barillari, J; Trespidi, S; Valgimigli, L; Pedulli, G F; Cantelli-Forti, G

    1999-11-30

    To investigate whether the fungicide captan impairs CYP-catalyzed drug metabolism in murine liver, kidney and lung, the modulation of the regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylation of testosterone, including 6beta-(CYP3A), 6alpha-(CYP2A1 and CYP2B1) and 16alpha-(CYP2B9) oxidations was studied. Specific substrates as probes for different CYP isoforms such as p-nitrophenol (CYP2E1), pentoxyresorufin (CYP2B1), ethoxyresorufin (CYP1A1), aminopyrine (CYP3A), phenacetin and methoxyresorufin (CYP1A2), and ethoxycoumarin (mixed) were also considered. Daily doses of captan (7.5 or 15 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) were administered to different groups of Swiss Albino CD1 mice of both sexes for 1 or 3 consecutive days. While a single dose of this fungicide did not affect CYP-machinery, repeated treatment significantly impaired the microsomal metabolism; in the liver, for example, a general inactivating effect was observed, with the sole exception of testosterone 2alpha-hydroxylase activity which was induced up to 8.6-fold in males. In vitro studies showed that the mechanism-based inhibition was related to captan metabolites rather than the parental compound. In the kidney, both CYP3A- and CYP1A2-linked monooxygenases were significantly induced (2-fold) by this pesticide. Accelerated phenacetin and methoxyresorufin metabolism (CYP1A2) was also observed in the lung. Data on CYP3A (kidney) and CYP1A2 (kidney and lung) induction were corroborated by Western immunoblotting using rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP3A1/2 and CYP1A1/2 antibodies. By means of electron spin resonance (EPR) spectrometry coupled to a spin-trapping technique, it was found that the recorded induction generates a large amounts of the anion radical superoxide (O*2-) either in kidney or lung microsomes. These findings suggest that alterations in CYP-associated activities by captan exposure may result in impaired (endogenous) metabolism as well as of coadministered drugs with significant implications for their disposition. The

  17. Iridium-Catalyzed Selective Isomerization of Primary Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément

    2016-06-21

    This Account presents the development of the iridium-catalyzed isomerization of primary allylic alcohols in our laboratory over the past 8 years. Our initial interest was driven by the long-standing challenge associated with the development of a general catalyst even for the nonasymmetric version of this seemingly simple chemical transformation. The added value of the aldehyde products and the possibility to rapidly generate molecular complexity from readily accessible allylic alcohols upon a redox-economical isomerization reaction were additional sources of motivation. Certainly influenced by the success story of the related isomerization of allylic amines, most catalysts developed for the selective isomerization of allylic alcohols were focused on rhodium as a transition metal of choice. Our approach has been based on the commonly accepted precept that hydrogenation and isomerization are often competing processes, with the latter being usually suppressed in favor of the former. The cationic iridium complexes [(Cy3P)(pyridine)Ir(cod)]X developed by Crabtree (X = PF6) and Pfaltz (X = BArF) are usually considered as the most versatile catalysts for the hydrogenation of allylic alcohols. Using molecular hydrogen to generate controlled amounts of the active form of these complexes but performing the reaction in the absence of molecular hydrogen enabled deviation from the typical hydrogenation manifold and favored exclusively the isomerization of allylic alcohols into aldehydes. Isotopic labeling and crossover experiments revealed the intermolecular nature of the process. Systematic variation of the ligand on the iridium center allowed us to identify the structural features beneficial for catalytic activity. Subsequently, three generations of chiral catalysts have been investigated and enabled us to reach excellent levels of enantioselectivity for a wide range of 3,3-disubstituted aryl/alkyl and alkyl/alkyl primary allylic alcohols leading to β-chiral aldehydes. The

  18. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Amidozirconium-Catalyzed Carbonyl Hydroboration

    SciTech Connect

    Eedugurala, Naresh; Wang, Zhuoran; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas; Kandel, Kapil; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Slowing, Igor I.; Pruski, Marek; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-11-04

    The hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones using a silica-supported zirconium catalyst is reported. Reaction of Zr(NMe2)4 and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) provides the catalytic material Zr(NMe2)n@MSN. Exhaustive characterization of Zr(NMe2)n@MSN with solid-state (SS)NMR and infrared spectroscopy, as well as through reactivity studies, suggests its surface structure is primarily ≡SiOZr(NMe2)3. The presence of these nitrogen-containing zirconium sites is supported by 15N NMR spectroscopy, including natural abundance 15N NMR measurements using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) SSNMR. The Zr(NMe2)n@MSN material reacts with pinacolborane (HBpin) to provide Me2NBpin and the material ZrH/Bpin@MSN that is composed of interacting surface-bonded zirconium hydride and surface-bonded borane ≡SiOBpin moieties in an approximately 1:1 ratio, as well as zirconium sites coordinated by dimethylamine. The ZrH/Bpin@MSN is characterized by 1H/2H and 11B SSNMR and infrared spectroscopy and through its reactivity with D2. The zirconium hydride material or the zirconium amide precursor Zr(NMe2)n@MSN catalyzes the selective hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones with HBpin in the presence of functional groups that are often reduced under hydroboration conditions or are sensitive to metal hydrides, including olefins, alkynes, nitro groups, halides, and ethers. Remarkably, this catalytic material may be recycled without loss of activity at least eight times, and air-exposed materials are catalytically active. These supported zirconium centers are robust catalytic sites for carbonyl reduction and that surface-supported, catalytically reactive zirconium hydride may be generated from zirconium-amide or zirconium alkoxide sites.

  19. Theoretical study of water cluster catalyzed decomposition of formic acid.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Satoshi

    2014-04-24

    We have performed a number of quantum chemical simulations to examine water cluster catalyzed decomposition of formic acid. The decomposition of formic acid consists of two competing pathways, dehydration, and decarboxylation. We use the Gaussian 4 method of the Gaussian09 software to locate and optimize a transition state of the decomposition reaction and obtain the activation energy. The decomposition starts by transferring a proton of a formic acid to a water molecule. The de Broglie wavelength of a proton is similar to the width of the potential barrier of the decomposition reaction at low temperature. The tunneling, in which a proton penetrates the potential barrier, enhances the decomposition rate. Water molecules serve as the catalyst in the decomposition and reduce the activation energy. The relay of a proton from a water molecule to a neighboring water molecule is accomplished with little change of the geometry of a molecule, resulting in the reduction of the activation energy. Two water molecules are actively involved in the decomposition reaction to reduce the activation energy. We have also examined the effect of water clusters with three, four, and five water molecules on the decomposition reaction. The noncovalent distance between a hydrogen atom of a water molecule and an oxygen atom of a neighboring water molecule decreases in a water cluster due to the cooperative many-body interactions. A water molecule in a water cluster becomes a better proton donor as well as a better proton acceptor. The activation energy of the decomposition is further decreased by the catalytic effect of a water cluster. We calculate the reaction rate using the transition state theory corrected by the tunneling effect of a proton. The calculated reaction rate of the decarboxylation is smaller than that of the dehydration when less than three water molecules are included in the simulation. However, the major product of the decomposition of a formic acid becomes carbon dioxide

  20. Copper-Catalyzed Intermolecular Amidation and Imidation of Unactivated Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a set of rare copper-catalyzed reactions of alkanes with simple amides, sulfonamides, and imides (i.e., benzamides, tosylamides, carbamates, and phthalimide) to form the corresponding N-alkyl products. The reactions lead to functionalization at secondary C–H bonds over tertiary C–H bonds and even occur at primary C–H bonds. [(phen)Cu(phth)] (1-phth) and [(phen)Cu(phth)2] (1-phth2), which are potential intermediates in the reaction, have been isolated and fully characterized. The stoichiometric reactions of 1-phth and 1-phth2 with alkanes, alkyl radicals, and radical probes were investigated to elucidate the mechanism of the amidation. The catalytic and stoichiometric reactions require both copper and tBuOOtBu for the generation of N-alkyl product. Neither 1-phth nor 1-phth2 reacted with excess cyclohexane at 100 °C without tBuOOtBu. However, the reactions of 1-phth and 1-phth2 with tBuOOtBu afforded N-cyclohexylphthalimide (Cy-phth), N-methylphthalimide, and tert-butoxycyclohexane (Cy-OtBu) in approximate ratios of 70:20:30, respectively. Reactions with radical traps support the intermediacy of a tert-butoxy radical, which forms an alkyl radical intermediate. The intermediacy of an alkyl radical was evidenced by the catalytic reaction of cyclohexane with benzamide in the presence of CBr4, which formed exclusively bromocyclohexane. Furthermore, stoichiometric reactions of [(phen)Cu(phth)2] with tBuOOtBu and (Ph(Me)2CO)2 at 100 °C without cyclohexane afforded N-methylphthalimide (Me-phth) from β-Me scission of the alkoxy radicals to form a methyl radical. Separate reactions of cyclohexane and d12-cyclohexane with benzamide showed that the turnover-limiting step in the catalytic reaction is the C–H cleavage of cyclohexane by a tert-butoxy radical. These mechanistic data imply that the tert-butoxy radical reacts with the C–H bonds of alkanes, and the subsequent alkyl radical combines with 1-phth2 to form the corresponding N-alkyl imide product

  1. Branching Out: Rhodium-Catalyzed Allylation with Alkynes and Allenes.

    PubMed

    Koschker, Philipp; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-08-16

    We present a new and efficient strategy for the atom-economic transformation of both alkynes and allenes to allylic functionalized structures via a Rh-catalyzed isomerization/addition reaction which has been developed in our working group. Our methodology thus grants access to an important structural class valued in modern organic chemistry for both its versatility for further functionalization and the potential for asymmetric synthesis with the construction of a new stereogenic center. This new methodology, inspired by mechanistic investigations by Werner in the late 1980s and based on preliminary work by Yamamoto and Trost, offers an attractive alternative to other established methods for allylic functionalization such as allylic substitution or allylic oxidation. The main advantage of our methodology consists of the inherent atom economy in comparison to allylic oxidation or substitution, which both produce stoichiometric amounts of waste and, in case of the substitution reaction, require prefunctionalization of the starting material. Starting out with the discovery of a highly branched-selective coupling reaction of carboxylic acids with terminal alkynes using a Rh(I)/DPEphos complex as the catalyst system, over the past 5 years we were able to continuously expand upon this chemistry, introducing various (pro)nucleophiles for the selective C-O, C-S, C-N, and C-C functionalization of both alkynes and the double-bond isomeric allenes by choosing the appropriate rhodium/bidentate phosphine catalyst. Thus, valuable compounds such as branched allylic ethers, sulfones, amines, or γ,δ-unsaturated ketones were successfully synthesized in high yields and with a broad substrate scope. Beyond the branched selectivity inherent to rhodium, many of the presented methodologies display additional degrees of selectivity in regard to regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective transformations, with one example even proceeding via a dynamic kinetic resolution. Many advances

  2. Development of a second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation and its application to bioactive natural product synthesis.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative alkylation of unactivated olefins is described. This protocol was devised to solve one of the drawbacks of the original palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation that we developed. We call this new procedure the 'second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation'. This protocol has been applied to the total syntheses of cis-195A, trans-195A, boonein, scholareins A, C, D, and alpha-skytanthine.

  3. [Degradation of nitrobenzene in aqueous solution by modified ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-Zhong; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Jun

    2005-11-01

    Comparative experiments of modified ceramic honeycomb, ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation and ozonation alone were conducted with nitrobenzene as the model organic pollutant. It was found that the processes of modified ceramic honeycomb and ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation could increase the removal efficiency of nitrobenzene by 38.35% and 15.46%, respectively, compared with that achieved by ozonation alone. Under the conditions of this experiment, the degradation rate of modified ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation increased by 30.55% with the increase of amount of catalyst to 5 blocks. The degradation rate of three process all increased greatly with the increase of temperature and value of pH in the solution. But when raising the pH value of the solution to 10.00, the advantage of modified ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation processes lost. The experimental results indicate that in modified ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation, nitrobenzene is primarily oxidized by *OH free radical in aqueous solution. The adsorption of nitrobenzene is too limited to have any influence on the degradation efficiency of nitrobenzene. With the same total dosage of applied ozone, the multiple steps addition of ozone showed a much higher removal efficiency than that obtained by one step in three processes. Modified ceramic honeycomb had a relative longer lifetime.

  4. Mechanism of Boron-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amines with Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Fu, Ming-Chen; Yu, Hai-Zhu; Fu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    Mechanistic study has been carried out on the B(C6F5)3-catalyzed amine alkylation with carboxylic acid. The reaction includes acid-amine condensation and amide reduction steps. In condensation step, the catalyst-free mechanism is found to be more favorable than the B(C6F5)3-catalyzed mechanism, because the automatic formation of the stable B(C6F5)3-amine complex deactivates the catalyst in the latter case. Meanwhile, the catalyst-free condensation is constituted by nucleophilic attack and the indirect H2O-elimination (with acid acting as proton shuttle) steps. After that, the amide reduction undergoes a Lewis acid (B(C6F5)3)-catalyzed mechanism rather than a Brønsted acid (B(C6F5)3-coordinated HCOOH)-catalyzed one. The B(C6F5)3)-catalyzed reduction includes twice silyl-hydride transfer steps, while the first silyl transfer is the rate-determining step of the overall alkylation catalytic cycle. The above condensation-reduction mechanism is supported by control experiments (on both temperature and substrates). Meanwhile, the predicted chemoselectivity is consistent with the predominant formation of the alkylation product (over disilyl acetal product). PMID:27441997

  5. Cyclohexane oxidation catalyzed by titanium silicalite (TS-1): Overoxidation and comparison with other oxidation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spinace, E.V.; Pastore, H.O.; Schuchardt, U.

    1995-12-01

    At 1000{degrees}C cyclohexanone and cyclohexanone, obtained in the TS-1 catalyzed oxidation of cyclohexane, are further oxidized in uncatalyzed and TS-1 catalyzed reactions. Cyclohexanol is very selectively oxidized to cyclohexanone inside the porous system of TS-1 and unselectively oxidized to several oxidation products on the external surface. This unselective oxidation can be suppressed by the addition of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), which does not enter the molecular sieve pore system and which efficiently reduces uncatalyzed oxidation. Cyclohexanone oxidation is mostly uncatalyzed, forming pre-dominantly dicarboxylic acids, and is not influenced by BHT. The products of the TS-1 catalyzed cyclohexanone oxidation are partially retained in the porous system, thus explaining the deactivation of the catalyst. Comparison with other systems shows that the turnover frequency of the TS-1 catalyzed cyclohexane oxidation is very similar to that of the radical-chain process, thus suggesting that the rate-determining step of the TS-1 catalyzed reaction is also the homolytic cleavage of a C-H bond. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Contaminated Groundwater Remediation by Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide and Persulfate Oxidants System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, N.; Wang, Y.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    A binary oxidant system, catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) coupled with persulfate (S2O82-), was investigated for use in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) applications. Trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,4-dioxane were used as target contaminants. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the catalytic efficiency between ferrous ion (Fe2+) and base (NaOH), oxidant decomposition rates, and contaminant degradation efficiency. For the base-catalyzed H2O2-S2O82- system, oxidant release was moderate and sustained over the entire test period of 96 hours. Conversely, the oxidants were depleted within 24 hours for the Fe2+-catalyzed system. Solution pH decreased slightly for the Fe2+-catalyzed system, whereas the pH increased for the base-catalyzed system. The rates of degradation for TCE and 1,4-dioxane are compared as a function of system conditions. The results of this study indicate that the binary H2O2-S2O82- oxidant system is effective for oxidation of the tested contaminants.

  7. Tandem reactions initiated by copper-catalyzed cross-coupling: a new strategy towards heterocycle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Wan, Jie-Ping

    2011-10-21

    Copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions which lead to the formation of C-N, C-O, C-S and C-C bonds have been recognized as one of the most useful strategies in synthetic organic chemistry. During past decades, important breakthroughs in the study of Cu-catalyzed coupling processes demonstrated that Cu-catalyzed reactions are broadly applicable to a variety of research fields related to organic synthesis. Representatively, employing these coupling transformations as key steps, a large number of tandem reactions have been developed for the construction of various heterocyclic compounds. These tactics share the advantages of high atom economics of tandem reactions as well as the broad tolerance of Cu-catalyst systems. Therefore, Cu-catalyzed C-X (X = N, O, S, C) coupling transformation-initiated tandem reactions were quickly recognized as a strategy with great potential for synthesizing heterocyclic compounds and gained worldwide attention. In this review, recent research progress in heterocycle syntheses using tandem reactions initiated by copper-catalyzed coupling transformations, including C-N, C-O, C-S as well as C-C coupling processes are summarized. PMID:21879127

  8. Cysteine Oxidation Reactions Catalyzed by a Mononuclear Non-heme Iron Enzyme (OvoA) in Ovothiol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OvoA in ovothiol biosynthesis is a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzing the oxidative coupling between histidine and cysteine. It can also catalyze the oxidative coupling between hercynine and cysteine, yet with a different regio-selectivity. Due to the potential application of this reaction for industrial ergothioneine production, in this study, we systematically characterized OvoA by a combination of three different assays. Our studies revealed that OvoA can also catalyze the oxidation of cysteine to either cysteine sulfinic acid or cystine. Remarkably, these OvoA-catalyzed reactions can be systematically modulated by a slight modification of one of its substrates, histidine. PMID:24684381

  9. Palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed iodination of remote ortho-C-H bonds of arenes: Synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Nack, William A; Wang, Xinmou; Wang, Bo; He, Gang; Chen, Gong

    2016-01-01

    A new palladium-catalyzed picolinamide (PA)-directed ortho-iodination reaction of ε-C(sp(2))-H bonds of γ-arylpropylamine substrates is reported. This reaction proceeds selectively with a variety of γ-arylpropylamines bearing strongly electron-donating or withdrawing substituents, complementing our previously reported PA-directed electrophilic aromatic substitution approach to this transformation. As demonstrated herein, a three step sequence of Pd-catalyzed γ-C(sp(3))-H arylation, Pd-catalyzed ε-C(sp(2))-H iodination, and Cu-catalyzed C-N cyclization enables a streamlined synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines bearing diverse substitution patterns. PMID:27559375

  10. Alkene synthesis through transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of N-tosylhydrazones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, alkene synthesis based on the reaction of N-tosylhydrazones is described. The reactivity of tosylhydrazones is determined by either the acidity of α-proton and hydrazone proton or the electropositivity of the carbon of C=N bond. This leads to diverse reactivities and a series of N-tosylhydrazone-based olefination methodologies. Both non-catalytic and transition metal-catalyzed olefinations from N-tosylhydrazones are introduced in this chapter. Most of the transition metal-catalyzed reactions proceed via metal carbene transformations. The synthesis of alkenes through Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of N-tosylhydrazones is particularly attractive and will be discussed in detail.

  11. Primary product of the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Kazunga, C.; Aitken, M.D.; Gold, A.

    1999-05-01

    Peroxidases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various phenolic substrates by hydrogen peroxide. They are common enzymes in soil and are also available commercially, so that they have been proposed as agents of phenolic pollutant transformation both in the environment and in engineered systems. Previous research on the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) has suggested that tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (chloranil) is the principal product and that a considerable fraction of the PCP added to reaction mixtures appears to be resistant to oxidation. In experiments employing alternative methods of product separation and analysis, the authors found that both of these observations are artifacts of extraction and analytical methods used in previous studies. The major product of the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of pentachlorophenol from pH 4--7 was 2,3,4,5,6-pentachloro-4-pentachlorophenoxy-2,5-cyclohexadienone (PPCHD), which is formed by the coupling of two pentachlorophenoxyl radicals.

  12. Investigation of parameters critical to muon-catalyzed fusion: Annual performance report, 1986-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.; Palmer, E.P.; Thorne, J.M.; Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Anderson, A.N.

    1987-05-19

    It has been demonstrated (in conjunction with our colleagues) that muon catalysis cycling rates increase rapidly with increasing deuterium-tritium gas temperatures and densities. Furthermore, muon-capture losses are significantly smaller than predicted before the experiments began, although recent theoretical work narrows the gap between theory and observation. As a result of these effects, it was possible to achieve muon-catalyzed fusion yields of 150 fusions/muon (average). The fusion energy thereby released, nearly 3 GeV/muon, significantly exceeds theoretical expectations, and still higher yields are expected. Therefore, the limits of muon-catalyzed fusion are being explored to provide answers to questions regarding energy applications of muon-catalyzed fusion.

  13. Reactor prospects of muon-catalyzed fusion of deuterium and tritium concentrated in transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W.M. Jr. . Fusion Research Center )

    1989-09-01

    It is conjectured that the number of fusion events catalyzed by a single muon is orders of magnitude greater for deuterium and tritium concentrated in a transition metal than in gaseous form and that the recent observation of 2.5-MeV neutrons from a D/sub 2/O electrolytic cell with palladium and titanium cathodes can thereby be interpreted in terms of cosmic muon-catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fusion. This suggests a new fusion reactor reactor consisting of deuterium and tritium concentrated in transition metal fuel elements in a fusion core that surrounds an accelerator-produced muon source. The feasibility of net energy production in such a reactor is established in terms of requirements on the number of fusion events catalyzed per muon. The technological implications for a power reactor based on this concept are examined. The potential of such a concept as a neutron source for materials testing and tritium and plutonium production is briefly discussed.

  14. Continuous In Vitro Evolution of a Ribozyme that Catalyzes Three Successive Nucleotidyl Addition Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Wright, Martin C.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the class I ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes joining of the 3' end of a template bound oligonucleotide to its own 5' end, have been made to evolve in a continuous manner by a simple serial transfer procedure that can be carried out indefinitely. This process was expanded to allow the evolution of ribozymes that catalyze three successive nucleotidyl addition reactions, two template-directed mononucleotide additions followed by RNA ligation. During the development of this behavior, a population of ribozymes was maintained against an overall dilution of more than 10(exp 406). The resulting ribozymes were capable of catalyzing the three-step reaction pathway, with nucleotide addition occurring in either a 5' yieldig 3' or a 3' yielding 5' direction. This purely chemical system provides a functional model of a multi-step reaction pathway that is undergoing Darwinian evolution.

  15. Bulk Gold-Catalyzed Reactions of Isocyanides, Amines, and Amine N-Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Klobukowski, Erik; Angelici, Robert; Woo, Keith L.

    2012-01-26

    Bulk gold powder (5–50 μm particles) catalyzes the reactions of isocyanides with amines and amine N-oxides to produce ureas. The reaction of n-butyl isocyanide (nBu–N≡C) with di-n-propylamine and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide in acetonitrile, which was studied in the greatest detail, produced 3-butyl-1,1-dipropylurea (O═C(NHnBu)(NnPr2)) in 99% yield at 60 °C within 2 h. Sterically and electronically different isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides react successfully under these conditions. Detailed studies support a two-step mechanism that involves a gold-catalyzed reaction of adsorbed isocyanide with the amine N-oxide to form an isocyanate (RN═C═O), which rapidly reacts with the amine to give the urea product. These investigations show that bulk gold, despite its reputation for poor catalytic activity, is capable of catalyzing these reactions.

  16. RNA as an RNA Polymerase: Net Elongation of an RNA Primer Catalyzed by the Tetrahymena Ribozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Michael D.; Cech, Thomas R.

    1988-03-01

    A catalytic RNA (ribozyme) derived from an intervening sequence (IVS) RNA of Tetrahymena thermophila will catalyze an RNA polymerization reaction in which pentacytidylic acid (C5) is extended by the successive addition of mononucleotides derived from a guanylyl-(3', 5')-nucleotide (GpN). Cytidines or uridines are added to C5 to generate chain lengths of 10 to 11 nucleotides, with longer products being generated at greatly reduced efficiency. The reaction is analogous to that catalyzed by a replicase with C5 acting as the primer, GpNs as the nucleoside triphosphates, and a sequence in the ribozyme providing a template. The demonstration that an RNA enzyme can catalyze net elongation of an RNA primer supports theories of prebiotic RNA self-replication.

  17. Glucosamine condensation catalyzed by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: mechanistic insight from NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lingyu; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Qiao, Yan; Deng, Tiansheng; Zuo, Pingping; Ge, Wenzhi; Qin, Zhangfeng; Hou, Xianglin; Wang, Yingxiong

    2015-09-21

    The basic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) could efficiently catalyze the conversion of 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose (GlcNH2) into deoxyfructosazine (DOF) and fructosazine (FZ). Mechanistic investigation by NMR studies disclosed that [C2C1Im][OAc], exhibiting strong hydrogen bonding basicity, could coordinate with the hydroxyl and amino groups of GlcNH2via the promotion of hydrogen bonding in bifunctional activation of substrates and further catalyzing product formation, based on which a plausible reaction pathway involved in this homogeneous base-catalyzed reaction was proposed. Hydrogen bonding as an activation force, therefore, is responsible for the remarkable selectivity and rate enhancement observed. PMID:26278065

  18. First Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction in the presence of amides.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-03-01

    The first Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction with amides as co-catalyst was realized. Results showed that neither Novozym 435 nor amide can independently catalyze the reaction. This co-catalytic system that used a catalytic amount of Novozym 435 with a corresponding amount of amide was established and optimized. The MBH reaction strongly depended on the structure of aldehyde substrate, amide co-catalyst, and reaction additives. The optimized reaction yield (43.4%) was achieved in the Novozym 435-catalyzed MBH reaction of 2, 4-dinitrobenzaldehyde and cyclohexenone with isonicotinamide as co-catalyst and β-cyclodextrin as additive only in 2 days. Although enantioselectivity of Novozym 435 was not found, the results were still significant because an MBH reaction using lipase as biocatalyst was realized for the first time.

  19. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene catalyzed by hemoglobin and other hemoproteins in various aqueous-organic media

    SciTech Connect

    Klyachko, N.L. Klibanov, A.M. )

    1992-10-01

    Biocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene (a model of organic sulfur in coal) with hydrogen peroxide was investigated. It was found that various hemoproteins, both enzymic (e.g., horseradish peroxidase) and nonenzymic (e.g., bovine blood hemoglobin), readily oxidized dibensothiophene to its S-oxide and, to a minor extent, further to its S-dioxide (sulfone). This process catalyzed by hemoglobin was competent as an oxidation catalyst even in nearly dry organic solvents (with protic, acidic solvents being optimal), the highest conversions were observed in predominantly aqueous media. The hemoglobin-catalyzed oxidation of dibenzothiophene at low concentrations of the protein stopped long before all the substrate was oxidized. This phenomenon was caused by inactivation of hemoglobin by hydrogen peroxide that destroyed the heme moiety. The maximal degree of the hemoglobin-catalyzed dibenzothiophene oxidation was predicted, and found, to be strongly dependent on the reaction medium composition. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Iron-Catalyzed C-C Cross-Couplings Using Organometallics.

    PubMed

    Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine

    2016-08-01

    Over the last decades, iron-catalyzed cross-couplings have emerged as an important tool for the formation of C-C bonds. A wide variety of alkenyl, aryl, and alkyl (pseudo)halides have been coupled to organometallic reagents, the most currently used being Grignard reagents. Particular attention has been devoted to the development of iron catalysts for the functionalization of alkyl halides that are generally challenging substrates in classical cross-couplings. The high functional group tolerance of iron-catalyzed cross-couplings has encouraged organic chemists to use them in the synthesis of bioactive compounds. Even if some points remain obscure, numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the mechanism of iron-catalyzed cross-coupling and several hypotheses have been proposed. PMID:27573401