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Sample records for cambridge depersonalization scale

  1. RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, AND PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE GREEK TRANSLATION OF THE CAMBRIDGE DEPERSONALIZATION SCALE (CDS)

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Tsiori, Sofia; Poulakou, Garyfalia; Protopapas, Konstantinos; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Sakka, Vissaria; Kavatha, Dimitra; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale is meant to capture the frequency and duration of depersonalisation symptoms over the ‘last 6 months’. Methods: In order to develop a Greek version of CDS scale, the CDS scale was translated in Greek by 2 psychiatrists. Then, the Greek version of CDS scale was back-translated by a person who did not knew the original English version. The back-translated version was reviewed in order to establish whether is consistent with the original English version. After this procedure we administered the Greek version of CDS scale to a sample of 294 Greeks in order to assess the reliability and the validity of the Greek version of scale. Results: The five components solution accounted for 58.204% of the total variation. Initial eigenvalues of the five components were: factor 1=11.555, factor 2=1.564, factor 3=1.356, factor 4=1.247 and factor 5=1.157. Six items did not load on any factor. Correlations between factors were low ranged from 0.134 to 0.314 and no complex variables were found. Cronbach’s alpha and Guttman split-half coefficient were used to evaluate interval consistency of CDS scale in 294 individuals. The alpha coefficients and Guttman split-half coefficient of the CDS scale were 0.938 and 0.921, respectively. The test-retest reliability proved to be satisfactory. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the total CDS score was very good and equal to 0,883. The CDS scale correlated highly with the SCL-90 and all subscales (p-value<0.0001). Conclusion: The psychometric strength of CDS – Greek its reliable for its future use, particularly for screening for subjects with possible diagnosis of CDS. PMID:27999491

  2. Depersonalization in panic disorder: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Seguí, J; Márquez, M; García, L; Canet, J; Salvador-Carulla, L; Ortiz, M

    2000-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) has been hypothesized to be a heterogeneous entity, with distinct clinical subgroups. The presence of depersonalization during panic attacks may distinguish a specific subgroup of PD. We sought to analyze the differential features of a subgroup of PD patients with depersonalization. A total of 274 patients with PD were assessed and divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of depersonalization. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-UP-R) was used to assess PD and comorbid disorders. The clinical scales administered included the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scale (HARS and HDRS), the Marks and Mathews Fears and Phobia Scale, Panic-Associated Symptom Scale (PASS), and a panic attack symptoms inventory. A total of 66 patients (24.1%) exhibited depersonalization during the attacks. Patients with depersonalization appeared to be younger and had an earlier age at onset. PD was more severe in the depersonalization group (greater number of attacks, worse level of functioning, and higher scores on most self-rating scales). Also, depersonalization patients showed more comorbidity with specific phobia. Our results support the view that PD with depersonalization may be considered a distinct and more severe subcategory of PD.

  3. Depersonalization and basic symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea; Salvatore, Paola

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the classic psychopathologic notion of depersonalization in the light of the Basic Symptom paradigm. A sample of 57 chronic schizophrenics was cross-sectionally assessed with the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) and contextually with specific scales testing positive, negative, depressive and alexithymic dimensions. In order to categorize depersonalized vs. nondepersonalized patients three specific BSABS items explicitly identifying the allo-/auto-/somatopsychic domains of depersonalization were used, according to the wernickian threefold definition. Depersonalized schizophrenics showed a semiological profile that was distinct from that of nondepersonalized schizophrenics (as regards basic, positive, depressive symptoms and alexithymia); patients with multiple co-occurring forms of depersonalization revealed higher levels of cognitive disturbance, lowering of stress threshold and greater alexithymia. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  4. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depersonalization disorder: A consecutive case series.

    PubMed

    Jay, Emma-Louise; Nestler, Steffen; Sierra, Mauricio; McClelland, Jessica; Kekic, Maria; David, Anthony S

    2016-06-30

    Case reports and an open trial have reported promising responses to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to prefrontal and temporo-parietal sites in patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD). We recently showed that a single session of rTMS to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) was associated with a reduction in symptoms and increase in physiological arousal. Seven patients with medication-resistant DSM-IV DPD received up to 20 sessions of right-sided rTMS to the VLPFC for 10 weeks. Stimulation was guided using neuronavigation software based on participants' individual structural MRIs, and delivered at 110% of resting motor threshold. A session consisted of 1Hz repetitive TMS for 15min. The primary outcome measure was reduction in depersonalization symptoms on the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS). Secondary outcomes included scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). 20 sessions of rTMS treatment to right VLPFC significantly reduced scores on the CDS by on average 44% (range 2-83.5%). Two patients could be classified as "full responders", four as "partial" and one a non-responder. Response usually occurred within the first 6 sessions. There were no significant adverse events. A randomized controlled clinical trial of VLPFC rTMS for DPD is warranted.

  5. Testing a Neurobiological Model of Depersonalization Disorder Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation☆

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Emma-Louise; Sierra, Mauricio; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Rothwell, John C.; David, Anthony S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depersonalization disorder (DPD) includes changes in subjective experiencing of self, encompassing emotional numbing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has pointed to ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) inhibition of insula as a neurocognitive correlate of the disorder. Objective We hypothesized that inhibition to right VLPFC using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) would lead to increased arousal and reduced symptoms. Methods Patients with medication-resistant DSM-IV DPD (N = 17) and controls (N = 20) were randomized to receive one session of right-sided rTMS to VLPFC or temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). 1Hz rTMS was guided using neuronavigation and delivered for 15 min. Co-primary outcomes were: (a) maximum skin conductance capacity, and (b) reduction in depersonalization symptoms (Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS) [state version]). Secondary outcomes included spontaneous fluctuations (SFs) and event-related skin conductance responses. Results In patients with DPD, rTMS to VLPFC led to increased electrodermal capacity, namely maximum skin conductance deflections. Patients but not controls also showed increased SFs post rTMS. Patients who had either VLPFC or TPJ rTMS showed a similar significant reduction in symptoms. Event-related electrodermal activity did not change. Conclusions A single session of right-sided rTMS to VLPFC (but not TPJ) significantly increased physiological arousal capacity supporting our model regarding the relevance of increased VLPFC activity to emotional numbing in DPD. rTMS to both sites led to reduced depersonalization scores but since this was independent of physiological arousal, this may be a non-specific effect. TMS is a potential therapeutic option for DPD; modulation of VLPFC, if replicated, is a plausible mechanism. PMID:24439959

  6. Depersonalization, mindfulness, and childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Michal, Matthias; Beutel, Manfred E; Jordan, Jochen; Zimmermann, Michael; Wolters, Susanne; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Depersonalization (DP), i.e., feelings of being detached from one's own mental processes or body, can be considered as a form of mental escape from the full experience of reality. This mental escape is thought to be etiologically linked with maltreatment during childhood. The detached state of consciousness in DP contrasts with certain aspects of mindfulness, a state of consciousness characterized by being in touch with the present moment. Against this background, the present article investigates potential connections between DP severity, mindfulness, and childhood trauma in a mixed sample of nonpatients and chronic nonmalignant pain patients. We found a strong inverse correlation between DP severity and mindfulness in both samples, which persisted after partialing out general psychological distress. In the nonpatient sample, we additionally found significant correlations between emotional maltreatment on the one hand and DP severity (positive) and mindfulness (negative) on the other. We conclude that the results first argue for an antithetical relationship between DP and certain aspects of mindfulness and thus encourage future studies on mindfulness-based interventions for DP and second throw light on potential developmental factors contributing to mindfulness.

  7. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  8. Vestibular Function and Depersonalization/Derealization Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Renaud, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    Patients with an acquired sensory dysfunction may experience symptoms of detachment from self or from the environment, which are related primarily to nonspecific symptoms of common mental disorders and secondarily, to the specific sensory dysfunction. This is consistent with the proposal that sensory dysfunction could provoke distress and a discrepancy between the multi-sensory frame given by experience and the actual perception. Both vestibular stimuli and vestibular dysfunction can underlie unreal experiences. Vestibular afferents provide a frame of reference (linear and angular head acceleration) within which spatial information from other senses is interpreted. This paper reviews evidence that symptoms of depersonalization/derealization associated with vestibular dysfunction are a consequence of a sensory mismatch between disordered vestibular input and other sensory signals of orientation.

  9. Experiencing Entrepreneurship at Cambridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard A.; Puddick, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    In a pilot program, Cambridge University students undertook project-based work placements in entrepreneurial organizations. Although small and medium-sized businesses recognize the benefits of such collaborations, few had taken placements before. An efficient communication process with employers was critical. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  10. The RGO, Cambridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, N.

    1986-08-01

    Despite intense lobbying by astronomers, MPs, local government officers and peers of the realm, the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) has confirmed its decision to move the Royal Greenwich Observatory from Herstmonceux. They have chosen Cambridge as the RGO's new home.

  11. Interoceptive–reflective regions differentiate alexithymia traits in depersonalization disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lemche, Erwin; Brammer, Michael J.; David, Anthony S.; Surguladze, Simon A.; Phillips, Mary L.; Sierra, Mauricio; Williams, Steven C.R.; Giampietro, Vincent P.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear to what degree depersonalization disorder (DPD) and alexithymia share abnormal brain mechanisms of emotional dysregulation. We compared cerebral processing of facial expressions of emotion in individuals with DPD to normal controls (NC). We presented happy and sad emotion expressions in increasing intensities from neutral (0%) through mild (50%) to intense (100%) to DPD and non-referred NC subjects in an implicit event-related fMRI design, and correlated respective brain activations with responses on the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and its three subscales F1-F3. The TAS-20 predicts clinical diagnosis of DPD with a unique variance proportion of 38%. Differential regression analysis was utilized to ascertain brain regions for each alexithymia subscale. Differential regions of total alexithymia severity for happy emotion were the globus pallidus externus; for identifying feelings (TAS-20 F1 subscale), the right anterior insula; for description of feelings (F2), the right dorsal mid-anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24); and for externally oriented cognitive style (F3), the left paracingulate gyrus (BA 32). For sad emotion, the differential region for the total TAS-20 score was the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24); for TAS-20 F1, the left inferior anterior insula; for TAS-20 F2, the right PCC (BA 31); and for TAS-20 F3, the right orbital gyrus (BA 10). Supporting our hypotheses, the ascertained brain regions for TAS-20 subscales subserve interoception, monitoring and reflection of internal states and emotion. The presented analyses provide evidence that alexithymia plays a substantial role in emotional dysregulation in DPD, presumably based on restrictions in interoception. PMID:23932225

  12. Interoceptive Cue Exposure for Depersonalization: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Dean; Moretz, Melanie W.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder relies heavily on interoceptive exposure. Specifically, therapists induce physical symptoms associated with panic in order to produce habituation to those sensations. Many common symptoms of panic are easily induced, such as increased heart rate and dizziness. However, depersonalization is a…

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of Repeated Exposure for Depersonalization and Derealization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Elliot; McKay, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms including depersonalization and derealization are commonly experienced by individuals suffering from panic disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have been published investigating the specific treatment of these symptoms in individuals diagnosed with panic disorder or PTSD, despite evidence that the…

  14. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    PubMed

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  15. The Cambridge Structural Database

    PubMed Central

    Groom, Colin R.; Bruno, Ian J.; Lightfoot, Matthew P.; Ward, Suzanna C.

    2016-01-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal–organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface. PMID:27048719

  16. The Cambridge Experimentation Review Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reproduced is the report made by a citizens' group in Cambridge, Massachusetts and presented to the city council that outlines safety regulations for the conduct of recombinant DNA research at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (CS)

  17. Conditional reasoning in Asperger's syndrome and depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emma Jane; Dumigan, Rachael; Schoenberg, Poppy; Mauricio, Sierra; Murphy, Declan G; David, Anthony S

    2012-09-01

    Conditional reasoning premises can be systematically manipulated to elicit specific response patterns. This is useful for investigating the reasoning style of people who report clinical symptoms. We administered a standardized conditional reasoning task to 16 participants with a diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome (AS), 16 participants with a diagnosis of depersonalization disorder (DPD), and 32 intelligence-quotient-matched controls. Premises were manipulated for a) context, with some being embedded within extra statements, and b) content, neutral or emotional. Both the AS and DPD participants were less likely to incorporate exceptions to the given premises than the controls, indicating difficulties with mental flexibility, although this effect was less marked in the DPD group. It seems the AS participants were also less influenced than the controls by statements that highlight possible alternative consequences. However, this effect was less robust than that observed with statements detailing exceptions, suggesting it may be because of general problems with executive function rather than difficulties in processing contextual information. We did not observe the expected difference between the DPD participants and the controls when reasoning with emotional premises. Overall, these data suggest that the DPD and AS participants have distinct reasoning styles, which may be of use for interventions based on cognitive change.

  18. Revision Planned for the Cambridge Latin Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebesta, Judith Lynn

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes a discussion on the revision of the Cambridge Latin Course (CLC) held during the 1980 ACL Institute at the University of New Hampshire by CLC users and Cambridge University Press representatives. Emphasizes suggestions by users on grammar instruction strategies better suited to American students' needs. (MES)

  19. Striking Discrepancy of Anomalous Body Experiences with Normal Interoceptive Accuracy in Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Matthias; Reuchlein, Bettina; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Beutel, Manfred E.; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, Hartmut; Schulz, André

    2014-01-01

    Background Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD). Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. Methods We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA) of DPD patients (n = 24) as compared to healthy controls (n = 26) with two different heartbeat detection tasks (“Schandry heartbeat counting task” and “Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task”). Self-rated clearness of body perception was measured by questionnaire. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, DPD patients performed similarly to healthy controls on the two different heartbeat detection tasks, and they had equal scores regarding their self-rated clearness of body perception. There was no correlation of the severity of “anomalous body experiences” and depersonalization with measures of interoceptive accuracy. Only among healthy controls CA in the Schandry task was positively correlated with self-rated clearness of body perception. Depersonalization was unrelated to severity of depression or anxiety, while depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Anxiety and depression did not modify the associations of depersonalization with interoceptive accuracy. Conclusions Our main findings highlight a striking discrepancy of normal interoception with overwhelming experiences of disembodiment in DPD. This may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to integrate their visceral and bodily perceptions into a sense of their selves. This problem may be considered an important target for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches. PMID:24587061

  20. Depersonalization or Cynicism, Efficacy or Inefficacy: What Are the Dimensions of Teacher Burnout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simbula, Silvia; Guglielmi, Dina

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the dimensionality of the burnout syndrome. Specifically, its aims are: (1) to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and (2) to establish whether depersonalization and cynicism can be considered two different dimensions of…

  1. Ideologies of moral exclusion: a critical discursive reframing of depersonalization, delegitimization and dehumanization.

    PubMed

    Tileagă, Cristian

    2007-12-01

    This paper focuses on some of the issues that arise when one treats notions such as depersonalization, delegitimization and dehumanization as social practices. It emphasizes the importance of: (a) understanding depersonalizing, delegitimizing and dehumanizing constructions as embedded in descriptions of located spatial activities and moral standings in the world and (b) invoking and building a socio-moral order linked to notions of lesser humanity or non-humanity, (spatial) transgression and abjection. These concerns are illustrated by taking talk on Romanies as a case in point from interviews with Romanian middle-class professionals. It is argued that a focus on description rather than explanation might be more effective in understanding the dynamics of ideologies of moral exclusion.

  2. Prevalence and childhood antecedents of Depersonalization Syndrome in a UK Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, William E.; Kwok, Charlie H. T.; Hunter, Elaine C. M.; Richards, Marcus; David, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Depersonalization syndrome is characterised by a sense of unreality about the self (depersonalization: DP) and/or the outside world (derealization: DR). Prevalence estimates vary widely. Little is known about childhood antecedents of the disorder although emotional abuse is thought to play a role. Methods Longitudinal data from 3275 participants of a UK population based birth cohort (the MRC National Survey of Health and Development) were used to: i) assess the prevalence of DP syndrome at age 36, measured by the Present State Examination (PSE); and ii) examine the effects of a range of socio-demographic, childhood adversity and emotional responses as potential risk factors for DP. Results Thirty three survey members were classified with DP, yielding a prevalence of 0.95% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.56 to 1.34). There were no associations with socioeconomic status, parental death or divorce; self reported accidents, childhood depression, tendency to daydream or reactions to criticism. However, teacher-estimated childhood anxiety was a strong independent predictor of adult depersonalization, and there were strong cross-sectional relationships between DP and anxiety and depression caseness. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study assessing nationwide prevalence of the DP syndrome and uses longitudinal data to explore childhood risk factors for adult DP. The prevalence of adult DP was slightly lower than reported by other surveys. The study found that childhood anxiety was the only significant predictor of the adult DP syndrome, supporting the view that depersonalisation disorder forms part of the spectrum of responses to anxiety. PMID:21181112

  3. Cambridge Elementary students enjoy gift of computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Children at Cambridge Elementary School, Cocoa, Fla., eagerly unwrap computer equipment donated by Kennedy Space Center. Cambridge is one of 13 Brevard County schools receiving 81 excess contractor computers thanks to an innovative educational outreach project spearheaded by the Nasa k-12 Education Services Office at ksc. Behind the children is Jim Thurston, a school volunteer and retired employee of USBI, who shared in the project. The Astronaut Memorial Foundation, a strategic partner in the effort, and several schools in rural Florida and Georgia also received refurbished computers as part of the year-long project. Ksc employees put in about 3,300 volunteer hours to transform old, excess computers into upgraded, usable units. A total of $90,000 in upgraded computer equipment is being donated.

  4. 76 FR 13665 - Cambridge Tool & Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action Total Staffing, Cambridge, OH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... certification to include workers leased from Action Total Staffing working on-site at the Cambridge, Ohio... Employment and Training Administration Cambridge Tool & Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action Total Staffing, Cambridge, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  5. Alchemy in Cambridge. An Annotated Catalogue of Alchemical Texts and Illustrations in Cambridge Repositories.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Alchemy in Cambridge captures the alchemical content of 56 manuscripts in Cambridge, in particular the libraries of Trinity College, Corpus Christi College and St John's College, the University Library and the Fitzwilliam Museum. As such, this catalogue makes visible a large number of previously unknown or obscured alchemica. While extant bibliographies, including those by M.R. James a century ago, were compiled by polymathic bibliographers for a wide audience of researchers, Alchemy in Cambridge benefits from the substantial developments in the history of alchemy, bibliography, and related scholarship in recent decades. Many texts are here identified for the first time. Another vital feature is the incorporation of information on alchemical illustrations in the manuscripts, intended to facilitate research on the visual culture of alchemy. The catalogue is aimed at historians of alchemy and science, and of high interest to manuscript scholars, historians of art and historians of college and university libraries.

  6. Emotional memory and perception of emotional faces in patients suffering from depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Barbara; Sierra, Mauricio; Medford, Nick; Hunter, Elaine; Baker, Dawn; Kessels, Roy P C; de Haan, Edward H F; David, Anthony S

    2007-08-01

    Previous work has shown that patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) have reduced physiological responses to emotional stimuli, which may be related to subjective emotional numbing. This study investigated two aspects of affective processing in 13 patients with DPD according to the DSM-IV criteria and healthy controls: the perception of emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and memory for emotional stimuli. Results revealed a specific lack of sensitivity to facial expression of anger in patients, but normal enhancement of memory for peripheral aspects of arousing emotional material. The results are consistent with altered processing of threat-related stimuli but intact consolidation processes, at least when the stimuli involved are potently arousing.

  7. [Response of traumatized patients with depersonalization --from the perspective of attachment theory].

    PubMed

    Shoda, Mayumi; Kato, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    We recognized that several traumatized individuals re-lived the danger associated with trauma on recollecting the original traumatic event; moreover, some of them experienced a similar traumatic event. In this article, we report these cases and show that this tendency is exhibited more frequently in victims of sexual abuse. Van der Kolk, who treated veteran soldiers who served in Vietnam, became aware of the compulsion of patients to repeat their trauma through treatment. He expressed this repetition compulsion as re-enactment or re-victimization of past traumatic experiences, showing how the trauma was repeated at a behavioral level in his article. After their treatment, he published his research on traumatized people as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the 1980's. Nowadays, generally, this repetition compulsion behavior is not included as a symptom of PTSD in Japan. Van der Kolk insisted that these repetition compulsions caused further suffering for victims and their relations. We also thought that these repetition compulsions can disturb rehabilitation. In our article, we expressed the condition as active compulsion repetition. We considered that it should be distinguished from passive conditions including instructive symptoms such as repetitive nightmare and flashback. We also represented how active compulsion was repeated in our cases, which was not consistent with the concept of PTSD on DSM-IV. When the active repetition compulsion was acted, we noticed that patients showed depersonalization. We thought that an understanding of the depersonalization following reenactment and re-vicitimization was important in order to comprehend the mechanism of PTSD.

  8. Cognitive load and autonomic response patterns under negative priming demand in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    PubMed

    Lemche, Erwin; Sierra-Siegert, Mauricio; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L; Gasston, David; Williams, Steven C R; Giampietro, Vincent P

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have yielded evidence for cognitive processing abnormalities and alterations of autonomic functioning in depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD). However, multimodal neuroimaging and psychophysiology studies have not yet been conducted to test for functional and effective connectivity under cognitive stress in patients with DPRD. DPRD and non-referred control subjects underwent a combined Stroop/negative priming task, and the neural correlates of Stroop interference effect, negative priming effect, error rates, cognitive load span and average amplitude of skin conductance responses were ascertained for both groups. Evoked haemodynamic responses for basic Stroop/negative priming activations were compared. For basic Stroop to neutral contrast, patients with DPRD differed in the location (inferior vs. superior lobule) of the parietal region involved, but showed similar activations in the left frontal region. In addition, patients with DPRD also co-activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (BA9) and posterior cingulate cortex (BA31), which were also found to be the main between-group difference regions. These regions furthermore showed connectivity with frequency of depersonalization states. Evoked haemodynamic responses drawn from regions of interest indicated significant between-group differences in 30-40% of time points. Brain-behaviour correlations differed mainly in laterality, yet only slightly in regions. A reversal of autonomic patterning became evident in patients with DPRD for cognitive load spans, indicating less effective arousal suppression under cognitive stress - patients with DPRD showed positive associations of cognitive load with autonomic responses, whereas controls exhibit respective inverse association. Overall, the results of the present study show only minor executive cognitive peculiarities, but further support the notion of abnormalities in autonomic functioning in patients with DPRD.

  9. Depersonalization and derealization in self-report and clinical interview: The spectrum of borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorders, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze

    2016-09-28

    Depersonalization (DEP) and derealization (DER) were examined among college students with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs) by self-report and clinician assessment. The Steinberg Depersonalization Questionnaire (SDEPQ), the Steinberg Derealization Questionnaire (SDERQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 students. Those with BPD (n = 80) according to the SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders by a psychiatrist blind to the diagnosis. Of the participants, 19.7% reported SDEPQ (17.8%) and/or SDERQ (11.0%) scores above cutoff levels and impairment from these experiences. Principal component analysis of 26 items of both scales yielded 4 factors: cognitive-emotional self-detachment, perceptual detachment, bodily self-detachment, and detachment from reality. Participants with concurrent DD and BPD had the highest scores for DEP and DER in the clinical interview and self-report. The total number of BPD criteria was associated with the severity of childhood trauma and dissociation. Both BPD and DD were associated with clinician-assessed and self-reported DER, self-reported DEP, and the cognitive-emotional self-detachment factor. Unlike BPD, DD was associated with clinician-assessed DEP, and BPD was related to the self-reported detachment from reality factor. Although the latter was correlated with the total childhood trauma score, possibly because of dissociative amnesia, clinician-assessed DER was not. Being the closest factor to BPD, the factor of detachment from reality warrants further study.

  10. The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    2003-10-01

    The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System provides a comprehensive, funamental, and up-to-date description of the solar system. It is written in a concise, light and uniform style, without being unnecessarily weighted down with specialized materials or the variable writing of multiple authors. It is filled with vital facts and information for astronomers of all types and for anyone with a scientific interest in the Earth, our Moon, all the other planets and their satellites, and related topics such as asteroids, comets, meteorites and meteors. The language, style, ideas and profuse illustrations will attract the general reader as well as professionals. A thorough report for general readers, it includes much compact reference data. Metaphors, similes and analogies will be of immense help to the lay person or non-science student, and they add to the enjoyment of the material. Vignettes containing historical, literary and even artistic material make this book unusual and interesting, and enhance its scientific content. Kenneth Lang is professor of astronomy in the Physics and Astronomy Department at Tufts University. He is the author of several astrophysics books, including The Sun from Space (Springer Verlag, 2000), Astrophysical Formulae: Radiation, Gas Processes, and High Energy Physics (Springer Verlag, 1999), Sun, Earth and Sky (Copernicus Books, 1997), Astrophysical Data: Planets and Stars (Springer Verlag, 1993), and Wanderers in Space: Exploration and Discovery in the Solar System (Cambridge, 1991),

  11. The Whipple Museum and Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippard, Brian

    The Whipple Museum is part of the History and Philosophy of Science Department in the University of Cambridge. It is on your right as soon as you enter Free School Lane from Pembroke Street, and is normally open between 1:30 and 4:30 P.M. on weekdays. The main room, a hall with hammer-beam roof, is a relic of Stephen Perse’s school (1624) now flourishing elsewhere in the city. It houses a large collection of mathematical, physical and astronomical instruments — abaci, Napier’s bones, slide rules; sextants and other surveying instruments; telescopes, compasses and pocket sundials (especially of ivory from Nuremberg 1500-1700); and a Grand Orrery by George Adams (1750). The gallery of a second room is used for special exhibitions, often of items from the well-stocked store. Some specialist catalogues have been compiled and are on sale.

  12. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, Michael

    Expertly written and lavishly illustrated, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy offers a unique account of astronomical theory and practice from antiquity to the present day. How did Moslems of the Middle Ages use astronomy to calculate the direction of Mecca from far-flung corners of the Islamic world? Who was the only ancient Greek to suspect that the earth might revolve around the sun? How did Christopher Columbus abuse his knowledge of a lunar eclipse predicted by an astronomical almanac? Packed with anecdotes and intriguing detail, this book describes how we observed the sky and interpreted what we saw at different periods of history; how this influenced our beliefs and mythology; and how great astronomers contributed to what we now know. The result is a lively and highly visual history of astronomy - a compelling read for specialists and non-specialists alike.

  13. Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education. Cambridge Education Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Colleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education" is part of The Cambridge Education Research series, edited by senior colleagues at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education, which has a longstanding tradition of involvement in high quality, innovative teacher education and continuing professional development.…

  14. Teacher's Guide to Accompany the Cambridge Latin Course. Tentative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This guide is designed to assist teachers using the "Cambridge Latin Course," a multimedia instructional system developed in the United Kingdom which can be adapted to the needs of pupils of varying backgrounds, ages, and abilities. The Guide focuses on Unit I, the first level of the Cambridge materials. The materials are especially suited to…

  15. Differential Diagnosis of an Elderly Manic-Depressive Patient with Depersonalization and Other Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Shigehiro; Itohiya, Yu; Sakamoto, Yuri; Sato, Yuki; Suyama, Yudai; Atsuta, Hidenori; Iwata, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The case study of an elderly man having persecutory delusions and bizarre complaints at the first psychiatric interview is reported. The patient complained: “I have no sense of time” and “I have no sense of money.” He refused nursing care. He had delusions centered on himself including that of his own death, which were difficult to diagnose but suggested the possibility of Cotard's syndrome. We assumed that the man was depressed and treated him for depression. However, as a result of this treatment he became temporarily manic but finally recovered completely. After his recovery, we learnt the patient's past history of hospitalization for psychiatric problems, and based on that history he was diagnosed as suffering from a bipolar I disorder. The lack of typical symptoms of depression and the remarkable depersonalization and derealization in this patient made it difficult to infer a depressive state. Nevertheless, being attentive to his strange feelings related to the flow of time would have helped us to make an accurate diagnosis earlier. PMID:27293942

  16. A disembodied man: A case of somatopsychic depersonalization in schizotypal disorder.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Szymanski, Caroline; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Pechenkova, Ekaterina; Vlasova, Rosa; Wittmann, Marc

    2015-12-01

    In the general concept of self-disturbances in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, somatopsychic depersonalization (SPD) occupies a special place as it constitutes a syndrome that comprises feelings of detachment from one's own body and mental processes. However, apart from clinical descriptions, to date the pathophysiology of SPD is not fully understood due to the rareness of the syndrome and a lack of experimental studies. In a case study of one patient with schizotypal disorder, we applied a multimodal approach to understanding the SPD phenomena. The patient's clinical profile was identified as disruption of implicit bodily function, accompanied by depressive symptoms. On a neuropsychological level, the patient exhibited impairment in executive functioning, intact tactile perception and kinesthetic praxis. Behavioral tests revealed an altered sense of time but unimpaired self-agency. Furthermore, the patient exhibited a lack of empathy and he had autistic traits, although with a sufficient ability to verbalize his feelings. On the neurobiological level using an active and passive touch paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found a hyperconnectivity of the default-mode network and salience network and a hypoconnectivity of the central executive brain networks in the performance of the touch task as well as intact perceptual touch processing emerging from the direct comparisons of the touch conditions. Our data provide evidence for the important role of altered large-brain network functioning in SPD that corresponds to the specific behavioral and neurocognitive phenomena.

  17. 77 FR 64143 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope..., Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application by renewal to the... registration of Cambridge Isotope Lab to manufacture the listed basic class of controlled substance...

  18. Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013.

    PubMed

    Hovorka, R

    2015-08-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade.

  19. Emotional Experience and Awareness of Self: Functional MRI Studies of Depersonalization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Medford, Nick; Sierra, Mauricio; Stringaris, Argyris; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J.; David, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents functional MRI work on emotional processing in depersonalization disorder (DPD). This relatively neglected disorder is hallmarked by a disturbing change in the quality of first-person experience, almost invariably encompassing a diminished sense of self and an alteration in emotional experience such that the sufferer feels less emotionally reactive, with emotions experienced as decreased or “damped down,” so that emotional life seems to lack spontaneity and subjective validity. Here we explored responses to emotive visual stimuli to examine the functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing in DPD before and after pharmacological treatment. We also employed concurrent skin conductance measurement as an index of autonomic arousal. In common with previous studies we demonstrated that in DPD, there is attenuated psychophysiological response to emotional material, reflected in altered patterns of (i) regional brain response, (ii) autonomic responses. By scanning participants before and after treatment we were able to build on previous findings by examining the changes in functional MRI response in patients whose symptoms had improved at time 2. The attenuation of emotional experience was associated with reduced activity of the insula, whereas clinical improvement in DPD symptoms was associated with increased insula activity. The insula is known to be implicated in interoceptive awareness and the generation of feeling states. In addition an area of right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex emerged as particularly implicated in what may be “top-down” inhibition of emotional responses. The relevance of these findings to the wider study of emotion, self-related processes, and interoception is discussed. PMID:27313548

  20. Depersonalization experiences are strongly associated with dizziness and vertigo symptoms leading to increased health care consumption in the German general population.

    PubMed

    Tschan, Regine; Wiltink, Jörg; Adler, Julia; Beutel, Manfred E; Michal, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the association of depersonalization (DP) experiences with dizziness and its impact on subjective impairment and health care use. Trained interviewers surveyed a representative sample of 1287 persons using standardized self-rating questionnaires on dizziness, DP, and mental distress. Symptoms of dizziness were reported by 15.8% (n = 201). Thereof, 62.7% endorsed at least one symptom of DP, 40% reported impairment by symptoms of DP, and 8.5% reported clinically significant DP. Regression analyses identified DP as a significant, independent predictor for dizziness symptom severity, health care use, and impairment by dizziness. With regard to the Vertigo Symptom Scale, DP explained 34.1% (p < 0.001) of the variance for severity of symptoms of dysfunction in the balance system. In conclusion, symptoms of DP, highly prevalent in patients complaining of dizziness and vertigo, were independently associated with increased impairment and health care use. The presence of DP symptoms should actively be explored in patients complaining of dizziness.

  1. [The Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination. Study of interobserver reliability].

    PubMed

    Llinàs, J; Vilalta, J; López Pousa, S; Vidal, C; Amiel, J

    1990-04-01

    Three teams formed by psychologists with experience in the administration of structured interviews evaluated by the CAMDEX (The Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination) in a sample of 41 patients for the interrater reliability study. While a psychologist interview patient, the other one observes each patient. The CAMDEX were completed independently by each of the examiners. The results demonstrate an elevated level agreement both for the different scales (p less than 0.001) and for the different diagnostic criteria employed by the CAMDEX (kappa = 0.88 for the DSM-III-R and Kappa = 1 for the ICD-10).

  2. 76 FR 12729 - Cambridge Environmental Inc; Transfer of Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... AGENCY Cambridge Environmental Inc; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... evaluating assessments. This includes evaluating the applicability of the data and methods used in the... pesticide data or risk. The contractor may develop policy options for evaluation and consideration by...

  3. EVALUATION OF HEADSTART EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM IN CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PORTER, PHILIP J.; AND OTHERS

    BEGINNING WITH A REVIEW OF THE NURSERY SCHOOL MOVEMENT (FROEBEL, MONTESSORI, AND MCMILLAN,) THIS EVALUATION RELATES THE HISTORICAL MATERIAL TO HEAD START, SPECIFICALLY IN CAMBRIDGE MASS. DURING THE SUMMER OF 1965, MATCHED GROUPS OF 33 HEAD START CHILDREN AND 33 NON-HEAD START CHILDREN (CONTROL GROUP) WERE STUDIED. SCHOOL PRE-REGISTRATION LISTS…

  4. Cambridge Health's outreach earns alliance an AHA NOVA Award.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Cambridge Health Alliance, (CHA), Somerville, Mass., has been named for one of the five NOVA Awards given this year by the American Hospital Association. It is recognized for leading a program to improve community health by extending help to low-income and uninsured children and adults, as well as to the chronically ill and racial and ethnic minorities.

  5. The Cambridge Primary Review: A Reply to R. J. Campbell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The author was disappointed by R. J. Campbell's sour critique of the Cambridge Primary Review in "FORUM" Volume 52 Number 1 2010. His description of the Review's proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking, cumbersome and partial" is such a bizarre misjudgement that it calls for some response. The author comments in turn on R. J.…

  6. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab... 7, 2012, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  7. 78 FR 52802 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab... 01, 2013, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  8. The work of the Animal Research Station, Cambridge.

    PubMed

    Polge, Chris

    2007-06-01

    This paper traces the history of the Animal Research Station, Cambridge from its establishment in 1932 to its closure in 1986. The author worked there for forty years and was Director from 1979. Originally set up as a field station for Cambridge University's School of Agriculture, the Station was expanded after World War II as the Agricultural Research Council's Unit of Animal Reproduction. Beginning with semen and artificial insemination, research at the Station soon embraced superovulation and embryo transfer in farm animals. Many other technologies were also developed here, including IVF in pigs, cloning by nuclear transplantation of early embryonic cells, and the first genetically modified farm animals in Britain. This account recalls the Directors of the Station and their research teams together with details of their pioneering contribution to reproductive biology.

  9. Tracking Potentiating States of Dissociation: An Intensive Clinical Case Study of Sleep, Daydreaming, Mood, and Depersonalization/Derealization

    PubMed Central

    Poerio, Giulia L.; Kellett, Stephen; Totterdell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which “dream-like” mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation. We report the results of a unique intensive N = 1 study with an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for DDD. Using experience-sampling methodology, the participant rated (six times daily for 40 days) current daydreaming, mood, and dissociative symptoms. At the start of each day sleep quality and duration was also rated. Daydreaming was reported on 45% of occasions and significantly predicted greater dissociation, in particular when daydreams were repetitive and negative (but not fanciful) in content. These relationships were mediated by feelings of depression and anxiety. Sleep quality but not duration was a negative predictor of daily dissociation and also negatively predicted depression but not anxiety. Findings offer initial evidence that the occurrence and content of daydreams may act as potentiating states for heightened, in the moment, dissociation. The treatment implications of targeting sleep and daydreaming for dissociative disorders are discussed. PMID:27582722

  10. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education.

    PubMed

    Battle, Gary M; Ferrence, Gregory M; Allen, Frank H

    2010-10-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal-organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

  11. [Clinical usefulness and psychometric properties of the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Martinez, R; Kokoulina, E; Carballido-Araujo, E; Garcia-Fuertes, I; Gutierrez-Martinez, O; Santiago-Lopez, F; Vazquez-Batan, P

    2016-11-16

    Introduccion. Un area importante de la evaluacion neuropsicologica son los sintomas psicologicos y conductuales. El inventario conductual de CambridgeCambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI)– es una medida de autoinforme dirigida a allegados que recoge una amplia variedad de sintomas conductuales que pueden darse en el curso de las enfermedades neurologicas. El principal objetivo del estudio es comprobar la utilidad clinica de su adaptacion al castellano. Sujetos y metodos. El CBI fue cumplimentado por 215 allegados de pacientes remitidos desde los servicios de neurologia y psiquiatria. Se compararon los perfiles del CBI de cuatro grupos de pacientes formados sobre la base de sus principales caracteristicas clinicas, datos psicometricos, pruebas de imagen y juicio clinico del profesional solicitante del estudio neuropsicologico. Resultados. La mayoria de las escalas (10 de 13) del CBI tuvo valores de consistencia interna aceptables, y las escalas de memoria y atencion/orientacion, correlaciones elevadas con medidas objetivas de memoria y orientacion temporal. Los perfiles del CBI de los grupos de pacientes con distintas condiciones (trastorno organico de la memoria, trastorno funcional de la memoria, variante conductual de demencia frontotemporal y enfermedad de Alzheimer) fueron consistentes con sus principales caracteristicas. Conclusiones. El CBI es un instrumento psicometricamente fiable y con adecuada validez convergente y discriminante que puede ser util en el proceso de evaluacion neuropsicologica, aportando informacion relevante no solo sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo y las capacidades funcionales, sino tambien sobre los sintomas conductuales y psicologicos de los pacientes con trastornos cognitivos.

  12. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1

    PubMed Central

    Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout. PMID:20877495

  13. Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... up with a significantly impaired mentally ill parent Suicide or unexpected death of a close friend or family member Severe stress, such as relationship, financial or work-related problems Severe trauma, such as ...

  14. The Depersonalization of Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankl, Viktor E.

    1977-01-01

    Love is frequently interpreted in a reductionistic way as a mere sublimation of sexual drives and instincts which man shares with all the other animals. Such an interpretation blocks a true understanding of all the various human phenomena. (Author)

  15. Controlling Depersonalized Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balistrieri, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Outlines Gestalt therapy techniques to increase active listening and counselor/client involvement in career counseling. Discusses awareness through dialog, role playing or "presentizing," and experiential "presentizing." Presents a sample dialog as illustration. (RC)

  16. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  17. The Cambridge-Cambridge x-ray serendipity survey. 2: Classification of x-ray luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, B. J.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, Martin

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of an intermediate-resolution (1.5 A) spectroscopic study of 17 x-ray luminous narrow emission-line galaxies previously identified in the Cambridge-Cambridge ROSAT Serendipity Survey and the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Emission-line ratios reveal that the sample is composed of ten Seyfert and seven starburst galaxies. Measured linewidths for the narrow H alpha emission lines lie in the range 170 - 460 km s(exp -1). Five of the objects show clear evidence for asymmetry in the (OIII) lambda 5007 emission-line profile. Broad H alpha emission is detected in six of the Seyfert galaxies, which range in type from Seyfert 1.5 to 2. Broad H beta emission is only detected in one Seyfert galaxy. The mean full width at half maximum for the broad lines in the Seyfert galaxies is FWHM = 3900 +/- 1750 km s(exp -1). Broad (FWHM = 2200 +/- 600 km s(exp -1) H alpha emission is also detected in three of the starburst galaxies, which could originate from stellar winds or supernovae remnants. The mean Balmer decrement for the sample is H alpha / H beta = 3, consistent with little or no reddening for the bulk of the sample. There is no evidence for any trend with x-ray luminosity in the ratio of starburst galaxies to Seyfert galaxies. Based on our previous observations, it is therefore likely that both classes of object comprise approximately 10 percent of the 2 keV x-ray background.

  18. Dorothy Hodgkin Lecture 2013: Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hovorka, R.

    2015-01-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade. PMID:25819473

  19. 75 FR 38128 - Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known..., 2010, applicable to workers of Sansata Technologies MA, Incorporated, Power Controls Division, formerly... under the control of the Cambridge, Maryland location of Sensata Technologies MA, Incorporated,...

  20. Spectrofluorometric method for measuring tobacco smoke particulate matter on cigarette filters and Cambridge pads.

    PubMed

    Paszkiewicz, G M; Pauly, J L

    2008-09-01

    Almost all cigarettes sold have a filter (United States, >98%; worldwide, >95%). In the last 25 years cigarette manufacturers have introduced diverse filters designed to reduce components in tobacco smoke. Today, there exists a need to establish assays to assess the efficacy of cigarette filters to retain total particulate matter (TPM), particularly unique filters of cigarettes that are being marketed as potential reduced exposure products (PREPs). We report the results of studies that were undertaken to test the hypothesis that a technique could be established for dissolving cigarette filters, and that the TPM in the fluid could be quantified by spectrofluorometry. Described here are procedures for assaying TPM on both Cambridge filter pads (glass fibres) of smoking machines and on cigarette filters (cellulose acetate fibres). The principle of the assays is based upon the observation that there exists a direct correlation between the amount of tobacco product emission TPM and fluorescence. In the absence of a tobacco tar or TPM standard, the fluorescent dye acridine orange was confirmed as a useful surrogate. Filters assayed included those of Kentucky reference cigarettes 2R4F and popular US brand cigarettes. The proposed assays are inexpensive, expedient, reproducible and amendable for large-scale studies.

  1. Item response theory analyses of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT).

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Wilmer, Jeremy; Herzmann, Grit; McGugin, Rankin Williams; Fiset, Daniel; Van Gulick, Ana E; Ryan, Kaitlin F; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). First, we assessed the dimensionality of the test with a bifactor exploratory factor analysis (EFA). This EFA analysis revealed a general factor and 3 specific factors clustered by targets of CFMT. However, the 3 specific factors appeared to be minor factors that can be ignored. Second, we fit a unidimensional item response model. This item response model showed that the CFMT items could discriminate individuals at different ability levels and covered a wide range of the ability continuum. We found the CFMT to be particularly precise for a wide range of ability levels. Third, we implemented item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) analyses for each gender group and 2 age groups (age ≤ 20 vs. age > 21). This DIF analysis suggested little evidence of consequential differential functioning on the CFMT for these groups, supporting the use of the test to compare older to younger, or male to female, individuals. Fourth, we tested for a gender difference on the latent facial recognition ability with an explanatory item response model. We found a significant but small gender difference on the latent ability for face recognition, which was higher for women than men by 0.184, at age mean 23.2, controlling for linear and quadratic age effects. Finally, we discuss the practical considerations of the use of total scores versus IRT scale scores in applications of the CFMT.

  2. The German adaptation of the Cambridge pulmonary hypertension outcome review (CAMPHOR)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) experience severely impaired quality of life. A disease-specific outcome measure for PH, the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) was developed and validated in the UK and subsequently adapted for use in additional countries. The aim of this study was to translate and assess the reliability and validity of the CAMPHOR for German-speaking populations. Methods Three main adaptation stages involved; translation (employing bilingual and lay panels), cognitive debriefing interviews with patients and validation (assessment of the adaptation’s psychometric properties). The psychometric evaluation included 107 patients with precapillary PH (60 females; age mean (standard deviation) 60 (15) years) from 3 centres in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Results No major problems were found with the translation process with most items easily rendered into acceptable German. Participants in the cognitive debriefing interviews found the questionnaires relevant, comprehensive and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the adaptation was successful. The three CAMPHOR scales (symptoms, activity limitations and quality of life) had excellent test-retest reliability correlations (Symptoms = 0.91; Activity limitations = 0.91; QoL = 0.90) and internal consistency (Symptoms = 0.94; Activity limitations = 0.93; QoL = 0.94). Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the CAMPHOR scales. The CAMPHOR adaptation also showed known group validity in its ability to distinguish between participants based on perceived general health, perceived disease severity, oxygen use and NYHA classification. Conclusions The CAMPHOR has been shown to be valid and reliable in the German population and is recommend for use in clinical practice. PMID:22971041

  3. Water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, 2005-8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-8, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, measured concentrations of sodium and chloride, plant nutrients, commonly used pesticides, and caffeine in base-flow and stormwater samples collected from 11 tributaries in the Cambridge drinking-water source area. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, to establish a baseline for future comparisons, and to describe trends in surface-water quality. The data also were used to assess the effects of watershed characteristics on surface-water quality and to inform future watershed management.

  4. How do you feel when you can't feel your body? Interoception, functional connectivity and emotional processing in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    PubMed

    Sedeño, Lucas; Couto, Blas; Melloni, Margherita; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Yoris, Adrián; Baez, Sandra; Esteves, Sol; Velásquez, Marcela; Barttfeld, Pablo; Sigman, Mariano; Kichic, Rafael; Chialvo, Dante; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DD) typically manifests as a disruption of body self-awareness. Interoception -defined as the cognitive processing of body signals- has been extensively considered as a key processing for body self-awareness. In consequence, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are systematic differences in interoception between a patient with DD and controls that might explain the disembodiment symptoms suffered in this disease. To assess interoception, we utilized a heartbeat detection task and measures of functional connectivity derived from fMRI networks in interoceptive/exteroceptivo/mind-wandering states. Additionally, we evaluated empathic abilities to test the association between interoception and emotional experience. The results showed patient's impaired performance in the heartbeat detection task when compared to controls. Furthermore, regarding functional connectivity, we found a lower global brain connectivity of the patient relative to controls only in the interoceptive state. He also presented a particular pattern of impairments in affective empathy. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental research that assesses the relationship between interoception and DD combining behavioral and neurobiological measures. Our results suggest that altered neural mechanisms and cognitive processes regarding body signaling might be engaged in DD phenomenology. Moreover, our study contributes experimental data to the comprehension of brain-body interactions and the emergence of self-awareness and emotional feelings.

  5. How Do You Feel when You Can't Feel Your Body? Interoception, Functional Connectivity and Emotional Processing in Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sedeño, Lucas; Couto, Blas; Melloni, Margherita; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Yoris, Adrián; Baez, Sandra; Esteves, Sol; Velásquez, Marcela; Barttfeld, Pablo; Sigman, Mariano; Kichic, Rafael; Chialvo, Dante; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DD) typically manifests as a disruption of body self-awareness. Interoception −defined as the cognitive processing of body signals− has been extensively considered as a key processing for body self-awareness. In consequence, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are systematic differences in interoception between a patient with DD and controls that might explain the disembodiment symptoms suffered in this disease. To assess interoception, we utilized a heartbeat detection task and measures of functional connectivity derived from fMRI networks in interoceptive/exteroceptivo/mind-wandering states. Additionally, we evaluated empathic abilities to test the association between interoception and emotional experience. The results showed patient's impaired performance in the heartbeat detection task when compared to controls. Furthermore, regarding functional connectivity, we found a lower global brain connectivity of the patient relative to controls only in the interoceptive state. He also presented a particular pattern of impairments in affective empathy. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental research that assesses the relationship between interoception and DD combining behavioral and neurobiological measures. Our results suggest that altered neural mechanisms and cognitive processes regarding body signaling might be engaged in DD phenomenology. Moreover, our study contributes experimental data to the comprehension of brain-body interactions and the emergence of self-awareness and emotional feelings. PMID:24967634

  6. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  7. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  8. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  9. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a…

  10. Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

  11. What To Look for in ESL Admission Tests: Cambridge Certificate Exams, IELTS, and TOEFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Turner, Carolyn E.

    2000-01-01

    Familiarizes test users with issues to consider when employing assessments for screening and admission purposes. Examines the purpose, content, and scoring methods of three English-as-a-Second-Language admissions tests--the Cambridge certificate exams, International English Language Teaching System, and Test of English as a Foreign…

  12. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  13. Linguistic Turn and Gendering Language in the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimbi, Diah A.; Kwary, Deny A.

    2016-01-01

    Language constructs how humans perceive things. Since language is a human construction, it tends to be biased as it is mainly men's construction. Using gender perspectives, this paper attempts to discuss the imbalance in gender representations found in the examples given in an English learner's dictionary, that is, the "Cambridge Advanced…

  14. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  15. A Computerized Three-Dimensional Program Budget and Its Implementation at Cambridge School Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, S. Godwin

    This report describes the APL (Accountable unit, Program, and line item) budget system, a computerized three-dimensional program budget system that has been implemented in the Cambridge (Massachusetts) School Department. Various chapters discuss the differences between traditional budgeting and program budgeting, present an overview of te APL…

  16. The Cambridge Car Memory Test: a task matched in format to the Cambridge Face Memory Test, with norms, reliability, sex differences, dissociations from face memory, and expertise effects.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Tavashmi, Raka; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Edwards, Mark; Duchaine, Bradley

    2012-06-01

    Many research questions require a within-class object recognition task matched for general cognitive requirements with a face recognition task. If the object task also has high internal reliability, it can improve accuracy and power in group analyses (e.g., mean inversion effects for faces vs. objects), individual-difference studies (e.g., correlations between certain perceptual abilities and face/object recognition), and case studies in neuropsychology (e.g., whether a prosopagnosic shows a face-specific or object-general deficit). Here, we present such a task. Our Cambridge Car Memory Test (CCMT) was matched in format to the established Cambridge Face Memory Test, requiring recognition of exemplars across view and lighting change. We tested 153 young adults (93 female). Results showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .84) and a range of scores suitable both for normal-range individual-difference studies and, potentially, for diagnosis of impairment. The mean for males was much higher than the mean for females. We demonstrate independence between face memory and car memory (dissociation based on sex, plus a modest correlation between the two), including where participants have high relative expertise with cars. We also show that expertise with real car makes and models of the era used in the test significantly predicts CCMT performance. Surprisingly, however, regression analyses imply that there is an effect of sex per se on the CCMT that is not attributable to a stereotypical male advantage in car expertise.

  17. Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.

    1998-01-01

    This Grant was used to publish the Proceedings from the Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun held in Florence, Italy from 3 to 6 October 1995. The Proceedings were published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in their Conference Series, Volume 109 in 1996. This volume was edited by Roberto Pallavicini and Andrea K. Dupree. A copy of the title page and the Table of Contents of the volume is appended.

  18. PET/MRI in the infarcted mouse heart with the Cambridge split magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonincontri, Guido; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas; Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T.

    2013-02-01

    Chronic heart failure, as a result of acute myocardial infarction, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Combining diagnostic imaging modalities may aid the direct assessment of experimental treatments targeting heart failure in vivo. Here we present preliminary data using the Cambridge combined PET/MRI imaging system in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. The split-magnet design can deliver uncompromised MRI and PET performance, for better assessment of disease and treatment in a preclinical environment.

  19. Belimumab Human Genome Sciences/Cambridge Antibody Technology/GlaxoSmithKline.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changhai; Jones, Graeme

    2006-05-01

    Belimumab, the lead in a series of human monoclonal antibodies against the human protein B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), is under development by Human Genome Sciences, Cambridge Antibody Technology and GlaxoSmithKline for the potential treatment of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By January 2006, belimumab had completed phase II clinical trials in SLE and RA; a phase III clinical SLE trial is scheduled to begin later this year.

  20. Cambridge Homes Increases Energy Efficiency in a Mix of Housing Types

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.; Anderson, R.

    2001-06-12

    New houses designed by Cambridge Homes in Crest Hill, Illinois, with technical support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, save their homeowners money by applying the principles of ''whole-building'' design to the entire home product line. Regardless of the model chosen, home buyers can enjoy consistently high levels of comfort and performance with the added benefit of reduced operating costs.

  1. Sir Joseph Barcroft, Cambridge placental and fetal research (1933-1966) and inter-generational Science.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Robert; Boyd, C A Richard

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Cambridge (UK) placental and fetal research in the middle third of the twentieth century is reviewed on the basis of published literature and personal recollection. Joseph Barcroft is a central figure who came to fetal research late in an extremely productive career which is briefly sketched. Contemporaneous Cambridge academics in the field included J.D. Boyd (the authors father), J. Hammond, F.H.A. Marshall, R.A. McCance, J. Needham, A.S. Parkes and Elsie Widdowson. The then current Cambridge academic geography is explained and features of its scientific life such as funding, institutional structure and ethos, teaching and clinical duties, domestic and gender roles, and political context, including war and empire, are briefly considered. The testing of research findings against general principles and use of quantitative thinking are identified as important features. Intergenerational connections, often within individual families, are identified as a striking feature. The long-term impact of Cambridge work of this period; locally, in current trophoblast and feto-placental genetic research, in Oxford in probably influencing G.S. Dawes research leadership, and internationally, especially through D.H. Barron, and through him to the Denver School, is considered. That human placental and embryological specimens collected by J.D. Boyd have received a new lease of life as the "Boyd Collection", including use by Allen Enders is noted. Mechanisms for the maintenance of scientific quality and productivity during the period, mainly through the scientist himself relying on an internalised sense of "obligation", are contrasted with those current in the UK and more widely; formal peer-review at frequent intervals, with subsequent allocation of short-term funding. The strengths and weaknesses of each are considered.

  2. Adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) into French-Canadian and English-Canadian

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, Donna; Duval, Karine; Martel, Simon; Granton, John; Lefebvre, Marie-Claude; Meads, David M; Twiss, James; McKenna, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is the first disease-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning and quality of life (QoL) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). OBJECTIVES: To create and validate French-Canadian (FC) and English-Canadian (EC) language versions of the CAMPHOR. METHODS: A translation panel (for the FC version) and lay panels (for both versions) were convened to adapt the questionnaires (dual-panel methodology). Subsequently, these new questionnaires were field-tested in 15 FC PAH and 15 EC PAH patients. Finally, in a postal validation study, the new language versions of the CAMPHOR underwent psychometric evaluation in 41 FC and 52 EC PAH patients to test for reliability and validity. RESULTS: The FC and EC field-test interview participants found the questionnaires relevant, comprehensible and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the FC and EC adaptations were successful. High test-retest coefficients for the scales after controlling for change in respondent’s QoL (FC: 0.92 to 0.96; EC: 0.85 to 0.99) indicated a high degree of reliability. The FC and EC CAMPHOR scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients 0.90 to 0.92 and 0.88 to 0.92, respectively). Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the FC and EC scales. The FC and EC adaptations also showed known groups validity. CONCLUSIONS: The FC and EC adaptations of the CAMPHOR have been shown to be reliable and valid for measures of health-related QoL and QoL in PAH, and thus can be recommended for use in clinical studies and routine practice in PAH. PMID:18354747

  3. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  4. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  5. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  7. The factors influencing car use in a cycle-friendly city: the case of Cambridge.

    PubMed

    Carse, Andrew; Goodman, Anna; Mackett, Roger L; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2013-04-01

    Encouraging people out of their cars and into other modes of transport, which has major advantages for health, the environment and urban development, has proved difficult. Greater understanding of the influences that lead people to use the car, particularly for shorter journeys, may help to achieve this. This paper examines the predictors of car use compared with the bicycle to explore how it may be possible to persuade more people to use the bicycle instead of the car. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the socio-demographic, transport and health-related correlates of mode choice for work, shopping and leisure trips in Cambridge, a city with high levels of cycling by UK standards. The key findings are that commuting distance and free workplace parking were strongly associated with use of the car for work trips, and car availability and lower levels of education were associated with car use for leisure, shopping and short-distanced commuting trips. The case of Cambridge shows that more policies could be adopted, particularly a reduction in free car parking, to increase cycling and reduce the use of the car, especially over short distances.

  8. Color discrimination across four life decades assessed by the Cambridge Colour Test.

    PubMed

    Paramei, Galina V

    2012-02-01

    Color discrimination was estimated using the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) in 160 normal trichromats of four life decades, 20-59 years of age. For each age cohort, medians and tolerance limits of the CCT parameters are tabulated. Compared across the age cohorts (Kruskal-Wallis test), the Trivector test showed increases in the three vectors, Protan, Deutan, and Tritan, with advancing age; the Ellipses test revealed significant elongation of the major axes of all three ellipses but no changes in either the axis ratio or the angle of the ellipse major axis. Multiple comparisons (Mann-Whitney test) between the cohorts of four age decades (20+,…,50+) revealed initial benign deterioration of color discrimination in the 40+ decade, as an incremental loss of discrimination along the Deutan axis (Trivector test), and in the 50+ decade, as an elongation of the major axes of all three ellipses (Ellipses test).

  9. Floodplain management: Land acquisition versus preservation of historic buildings in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Wendy J.; Mitchell, Bruce

    1983-07-01

    Non-structural adjustments in floodplain management are often avoided because they are seen to infringe on personal rights, adversely affect property values and restrict local tax bases. Land acquisition programs in urban areas encounter a further problem when they lead to demolition of buildings and other structures considered to have historical or architectural value. An experience in Cambridge, Ontario demonstrates that the potential conflict between flood damage reduction and historical preservation objectives can be exacerbated as a result of uncoordinated planning efforts, inflexibility in interpreting mandates, unclear roles for participating agencies, and lack of cooperation Many of these dilemmas can be resolved through consultation and discussion early in the planning process as well as through a willingness to be flexible and to search for a compromise

  10. Reginald Crundall Punnett: first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A W F

    2012-09-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett's career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of "partial coupling" in the sweet pea (later "linkage") and to the diagram known as Punnett's square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described.

  11. Experience from two decades of the Cambridge Rapid Access Neurology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Axinte, Laura T; Fiddes, Barnaby D; Donaghy, Alastair; Whyte, Adam; Allen, Chris; Sawcer, Stephen J; Adam, Robert J; Stacpoole, Sybil R L

    2015-10-01

    We report on the evolution of the rapid access neurology clinic (established in 1995) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Annualised attendance data demonstrate an ever increasing demand, with primary headache disorders now accounting for more than 40% of referrals. Secondary causes of headache (including intracranial tumours, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, carotid or vertebral artery dissection and subdural haematomas) remain infrequent. In all such cases, there were additional diagnostic clues. The number of patients referred with problems related to chronic neurological diseases has fallen considerably, reflecting the roles of specialist nurses and clinics. Imaging investigation of choice shifted from computerised tomography scan (45 to 16%) towards magnetic resonance imaging (17 to 47%). Management is increasingly on an outpatient basis, often without the need for a follow-up appointment. The experience presented here should inform further development of rapid access neurology clinics across the UK and suggests the need for acute headache services, in line with those for transient ischaemic attack and first seizure.

  12. Reginald Crundall Punnett: First Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. W. F.

    2012-01-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett’s career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of “partial coupling” in the sweet pea (later “linkage”) and to the diagram known as Punnett’s square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described. PMID:22964834

  13. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  14. The long-term impact of urbanisation on aquatic plants: Cambridge and the River Cam.

    PubMed

    Preston, C D; Sheail, J; Armitage, P; Davy-Bowker, J

    2003-10-01

    Historical and contemporary records have been used to assess the impact of urbanisation on the aquatic plants of the River Cam and its narrow floodplain in Cambridge. Of the 62 native aquatic plant species which have been recorded in the study area since 1660, 40 (65%) were still present in the period 1985-1999 whereas 22 (35%) are apparently extinct. There is a striking relationship between the fate of species and their trophic requirements, with species of less eutrophic habitats having suffered disproportionately. Historical records demonstrate that the River Cam became grossly polluted by sewage from Cambridge in the 19th century, but the chemical and biological quality of the river improved from 1897 onwards. However, the majority of the species recorded from the river and nearby ditches persisted until after maximum incidence of sewage pollution, which may even have stimulated the growth of 'weed' in the river. Losses of aquatic plant species from two riparian commons, Coe Fen (35%) and Sheep's Green (50%), have been particularly great. The level of these and other areas of low-lying common land by the river has been systematically raised by the controlled tipping of waste in hollows, followed by levelling and resowing. The main effects of urbanisation on the flora therefore arose from the transformation of riparian pastures into suburban open spaces. Commons which are used purely for amenity purposes have lost almost all their aquatic plant species. Those which are still grazed retain more, and continuance of grazing is probably essential if a varied aquatic flora is to be maintained. The interpretation of botanical records in terms of recorded management history is likely to throw further light on the processes of urbanisation, although the number of sites with a sufficiently detailed botanical record may be limited.

  15. Healthy Living Cambridge Kids: a community-based participatory effort to promote healthy weight and fitness.

    PubMed

    Chomitz, Virginia R; McGowan, Robert J; Wendel, Josefine M; Williams, Sandra A; Cabral, Howard J; King, Stacey E; Olcott, Dawn B; Cappello, Maryann; Breen, Susan; Hacker, Karen A

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a community-based healthy weight intervention on child weight and fitness. Cambridge Public Schools (CPS) have monitored BMI and fitness annually since 2000. Annual increases of overweight and obesity from 2000 (37.0%) to 2004 (39.1%), triggered a multidisciplinary team of researchers, educators, health care, and public health professionals to mobilize environmental and policy interventions. Guided by the social-ecological model and community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, the team developed and implemented Healthy Living Cambridge Kids (HLCK), a multicomponent intervention targeting community, school, family, and individuals. The intervention included city policies and community awareness campaigns; physical education (PE) enhancements, food service reforms, farm-to-school-to-home programs; and family outreach and "BMI and fitness reports". Baseline (2004) to follow-up (2007) evaluation design assessed change in children's weight and fitness status. A cohort of 1,858 K-5th grade children participated: 37.3% black, 14.0% Hispanic, 37.1% white, 10.2% Asian, 1.7% other race; 43.3% were lower income. BMI z-score (0.67-0.63 P < 0.001) and proportion obese (20.2-18.0% P < 0.05) decreased, and mean number of fitness tests (0-5) passed increased (3.7-3.9 P < 0.001). Whereas black and Hispanic children were more likely to be obese at baseline (27.0 and 28.5%, respectively) compared with white (12.6%) and Asian (14.3%) children, obesity among all race/ethnicity groups declined. Concurrent with a 3-year community intervention, modest improvements in obesity and fitness were observed among CPS children from baseline to follow-up. The CBPR approach facilitated sustaining policies and program elements postintervention in this diverse community.

  16. A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo R K; Bandeira, Marcio L; Tsubota, Daniela; Oiwa, Nestor N; Costa, Marcelo F; Ventura, Dora F

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at providing conditions for the assessment of color discrimination in children using a modified version of the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT, Cambridge Research Systems Ltd., Rochester, UK). Since the task of indicating the gap of the Landolt C used in that test proved counterintuitive and/or difficult for young children to understand, we changed the target stimulus to a patch of color approximately the size of the Landolt C gap (about 7 degrees of visual angle at 50 cm from the monitor). The modifications were performed for the CCT Trivector test which measures color discrimination for the protan, deutan and tritan confusion lines. Experiment 1 sought to evaluate the correspondence between the CCT and the child-friendly adaptation with adult subjects (n = 29) with normal color vision. Results showed good agreement between the two test versions. Experiment 2 tested the child-friendly software with children 2 to 7 years old (n = 25) using operant training techniques for establishing and maintaining the subjects' performance. Color discrimination thresholds were progressively lower as age increased within the age range tested (2 to 30 years old), and the data--including those obtained for children--fell within the range of thresholds previously obtained for adults with the CCT. The protan and deutan thresholds were consistently lower than tritan thresholds, a pattern repeatedly observed in adults tested with the CCT. The results demonstrate that the test is fit for assessment of color discrimination in young children and may be a useful tool for the establishment of color vision thresholds during development.

  17. Assessing the Impact of the Cambridge International Acceleration Program on U.S. University Determinants of Success: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stuart; Warren, Jayne; Gill, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as other acceleration programs for continued study in U.S. colleges and universities. The study, which builds on previous freshman GPA data modeling work using data supplied…

  18. The Potential Impact of High-Speed Networking on Teaching and Learning: A Case Study from Cambridge University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aston, J.; Gienke, M.

    1995-01-01

    A report on the SuperJANET high-speed network included interviews conducted at Cambridge University (England) on the use of computers and audiovisual aids in university teaching and learning. Results indicated the emergence of two main uses of the technology: (1) as a means of communication between students and teachers, and (2) as a means of…

  19. M-DCPS Student Performance in International Baccalaureate and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education Programs. Research Brief. Volume 1102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    This Research Brief summarizes the performance of M-DCPS students participating in the International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education (AICE) programs. Outcome data are provided for the eight M-DCPS schools offering the two programs and corresponding examinations. Participation in international…

  20. State Control, Religious Deference and Cultural Reproduction: Some Problems with Theorising Curriculum and Pedagogy in the Cambridge Primary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the quality of theorising underlying proposals on curriculum and pedagogy in the Cambridge Primary Review. Despite its strengths, the review is seen as omitting consideration of three major areas in primary education: gifted pupils, teacher effectiveness research and the private sector. Questions are raised about…

  1. Source-Water Protection and Water-Quality Investigations in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Supply System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Norton, Chip; MacDonald, Timothy W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The Cambridge Water Department (CWD) supplies about 15 million gallons of water each day to more than 95,000 customers in the City of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Most of this water is obtained from a system of reservoirs located in Cambridge and in parts of five other suburban-Boston communities. The drainage basin that contributes water to these reservoirs includes several potential sources of drinking-water contaminants, including major highways, secondary roads, areas of commercial and industrial development, and suburban residential tracts. The CWD is implementing a comprehensive Source-Water Protection Plan to ensure that the highest quality water is delivered to the treatment plant. A key element of this plan is a program that combines systematic monitoring of the drainage basin with detailed investigations of the effects of nonpoint-source contaminants, such as highway-deicing chemicals, nutrients, oxygen-demanding organic compounds, bacteria, and trace metals arising from stormwater runoff. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the CWD and the Massachusetts Highway Department (MassHighway) to develop a better understanding of the sources, transport, and fate of many of these contaminants. This Fact Sheet describes source-water protection and water-quality investigations currently underway in the Cambridge drinking-water supply system. The investigations are designed to complement a national effort by the USGS to provide water suppliers and regulatory agencies with information on the vulnerability of water supplies and the movement and fate of source-water contaminants.

  2. Preparing for College Success: Exploring the Impact of the High School Cambridge Acceleration Program on U.S. University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stuart D.; Werno, Magda A.

    2016-01-01

    This case study sought to gain a better understanding of the impact of the Cambridge Acceleration Program on students' transition from high school to college at one American university. The findings from an online questionnaire indicate that many participants develop a range of skills that are perceived as important in the context of university…

  3. Towards the 1980s: Papers Presented at the BACIE Annual Conference at Trinity College, Cambridge, September 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education, London (England).

    The annual conference of the British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education (BACIE), held at Trinity College, Cambridge, England, in September 1968, was devoted to educational objectives for England for the 1980's. The three speeches presented were, "The Objectives of Society" (Sir Herbert Butterfield), "Industry in the…

  4. Swift observations of unidentified radio sources in the revised Third Cambridge Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, A.; Massaro, F.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Harris, D. E.; Paggi, A.; Liuzzo, E.; Tremblay, G. R.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated a group of unassociated radio sources included in the Third Cambridge Catalogue (3CR) to increase the multifrequency information on them and possibly obtain an identification. We have carried out an observational campaign with the Swift satellite to observe with the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) the field of view of 21 bright NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources within the positional uncertainty region of the 3CR sources. Furthermore, we have searched in the recent AllWISE Source Catalogue for infrared sources matching the position of these NVSS sources. We have detected significant emission in the soft X-ray band for nine of the investigated NVSS sources. To all of them, and in four cases with no soft X-ray association, we have associated a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared counterpart. Eight of these infrared candidates have not been proposed earlier in the literature. In the five remaining cases our candidate matches one among a few optical candidates suggested for the same 3CR source in previous studies. No source has been detected in the UVOT filters at the position of the NVSS objects, confirming the scenario that all of them are heavily obscured. With this in mind, a spectroscopic campaign, preferably in the infrared band, will be necessary to establish the nature of the sources that we have finally identified.

  5. Face recognition performance of individuals with Asperger syndrome on the Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2011-12-01

    Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance.

  6. The conquest of vitalism or the eclipse of organicism? The 1930s Cambridge organizer project and the social network of mid-twentieth-century biology.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Erik

    2014-06-01

    In the 1930s, two concepts excited the European biological community: the organizer phenomenon and organicism. This essay examines the history of and connection between these two phenomena in order to address the conventional 'rise-and-fall' narrative that historians have assigned to each. Scholars promoted the 'rise-and-fall' narrative in connection with a broader account of the devitalizing of biology through the twentieth century. I argue that while limited evidence exists for the 'fall of the organizer concept' by the 1950s, the organicism that often motivated the organizer work had no concomitant fall--even during the mid-century heyday of molecular biology. My argument is based on an examination of shifting social networks of life scientists from the 1920s to the 1970s, many of whom attended or corresponded with members of the Cambridge Theoretical Biology Club (1932-1938). I conclude that the status and cohesion of these social networks at the micro scale was at least as important as macro-scale conceptual factors in determining the relative persuasiveness of organicist philosophy.

  7. The Cambridge Face Tracker: Accurate, Low Cost Measurement of Head Posture Using Computer Vision and Face Recognition Software

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter B. M.; Baltrušaitis, Tadas; Robinson, Peter; Vivian, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. Methods The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods. Results The Cambridge Face Tracker achieved confident facial recognition in 92% of the approximately 38,000 frames of video from the three databases. The respective mean error in absolute head posture was 3.34°, 3.86°, and 2.81°, with a median error of 1.97°, 2.16°, and 1.96°. The accuracy decreased with more extreme head posture. Comparing The Cambridge Face Tracker to the Cervical Range of Motion Device gave correlation coefficients of 0.99 (P < 0.0001), 0.96 (P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. Conclusions The Cambridge Face Tracker performs well under real-world conditions and within the range of normally-encountered head posture. It allows useful quantification of head posture in real time or from precaptured video. Its performance is similar to that of a clinically validated mechanical device. It has significant advantages over other approaches in that subjects do not need to wear any apparatus, and it requires only low cost, easy-to-setup consumer electronics. Translational Relevance Noncontact assessment of head posture allows more complete clinical assessment of patients, and could benefit surgical planning in future. PMID:27730008

  8. Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Neuropsychological Tests in Differentiating Alzheimer's Disease from Mild Cognitive Impairment: Can the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Be Better than the Cambridge Cognitive Examination?

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, José Eduardo; Cecato, Juliana Francisca; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the lack of studies on measures that increase the diagnostic distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and on the role of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) in this, our study aims to compare the utility of the CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in helping to differentiate AD from MCI in elderly people with >4 years of schooling. Method A total of 136 elderly subjects – 39 normal controls as well as 52 AD patients and 45 MCI patients treated at the Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil – were assessed using the MMSE, CAMCOG, clock drawing test (CDT), verbal fluency test (VF), Geriatric Depression Scale and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. Results The results obtained by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MoCA is a better screening test for differentiating elderly subjects with AD from those with MCI than the CAMCOG and MMSE as well as other tests such as the CDT and VF. Conclusion The MoCA, more than the CAMCOG and the other tests, was shown to be able to differentiate AD from MCI, although, as Roalf et al. [Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:529-537] pointed out, further studies might lead to measures that will improve this differentiation. PMID:24987399

  9. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  10. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 3: Ellis, Reber and the Cambridge field station near Hobart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Martin; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Low frequency radio astronomy in Tasmania began with the arrival of Grote Reber to the State in 1954. After analysing ionospheric data from around the world, he concluded that Tasmania would be a very suitable place to carry out low frequency observations. Communications with Graeme Ellis in Tasmania, who had spent several years studying the ionosphere, led to a collaboration between the two in 1955 during which year they made observations at Cambridge, near Hobart. Their observations took place at four frequencies between 2.13 MHz and 0.52 MHz inclusive, with the results at the higher frequencies revealing a clear celestial component

  11. Relationship between childhood trauma, mindfulness, and dissociation in subjects with and without hallucination proneness.

    PubMed

    Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; García-Montes, José M; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan Francisco; López-Jiménez, Ana Ma; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Ductor-Recuerda, María Jesús; Benítez-Hernández, María del Mar; Arias-Velarde, Ma Ángeles; Gómez-Gómez, María Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood traumas, mindfulness, and dissociation (more specifically, absorption and depersonalization) in healthy subjects with and without hallucination proneness. A sample of 318 subjects was given the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-Revised (R. P. Bentall & P. Slade, 1985). From this sample, 2 groups were formed: one with high and the other with low hallucination proneness. Furthermore, all participants were given the Tellegen Absorption Scale (A. Tellegen & G. Atkinson, 1974), the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (M. Sierra & G. E. Berrios, 2000), the Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (P. D. J. Chadwick et al., 2008), and the Trauma Questionnaire (J. R. E. Davidson, D. Hughes, & D. G. Blazer, 1990). The results showed that in the group with high hallucination proneness, there were significantly more subjects with traumatic experiences than in the group with low predisposition, although no significant difference in the mean number of traumatic experiences undergone in childhood was found between the 2 groups, although there was a trend toward significance. A correlation analysis showed a significant negative association between mindfulness on the one hand and absorption and depersonalization on the other. A positive relationship was also found between childhood traumas and absorption and depersonalization. Finally, multiple mediation analysis showed that the absorption and depersonalization variables acted as mediators between childhood traumas and hallucination proneness. We discuss the importance of the relationship between the variables studied and hallucination proneness and suggest some approaches for their treatment.

  12. The Cambridge Face Memory Test for Children (CFMT-C): a new tool for measuring face recognition skills in childhood.

    PubMed

    Croydon, Abigail; Pimperton, Hannah; Ewing, Louise; Duchaine, Brad C; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition ability follows a lengthy developmental course, not reaching maturity until well into adulthood. Valid and reliable assessments of face recognition memory ability are necessary to examine patterns of ability and disability in face processing, yet there is a dearth of such assessments for children. We modified a well-known test of face memory in adults, the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006, Neuropsychologia, 44, 576-585), to make it developmentally appropriate for children. To establish its utility, we administered either the upright or inverted versions of the computerised Cambridge Face Memory Test - Children (CFMT-C) to 401 children aged between 5 and 12 years. Our results show that the CFMT-C is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate age-related gains in the recognition of unfamiliar upright and inverted faces, does not suffer from ceiling or floor effects, generates robust inversion effects, and is capable of detecting difficulties in face memory in children diagnosed with autism. Together, these findings indicate that the CFMT-C constitutes a new valid assessment tool for children's face recognition skills.

  13. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  14. Geotechnical Centrifuge Use at University of Cambridge Geotechnical Centre, August - September 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Celsius (C) temperature readings from Fahrenheit (F) readings, use the following formula: C - (5/9) (F - 32). To obtain Kelvin (K) read- ings, use: K...the stress due to self-weight), measurements of stress, deformation, pressure, and observed failure mechanism may be quite different in a small-scale...every aspect of soil behavior, but by testing models of the same prototype at different scaling ratios, factors determining certain features of soil

  15. MIT jar test of the natural polymer chitosan with fresh pond water from the Cambridge Water Department, November-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Murcott, S.; Harleman, D.R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) jar tests of chitosan using CWD (Cambridge Water Department Treatment Plant) water was to demonstrate the effectiveness of chitosan as a coagulant in drinking water applications. The approach was to compare the performance of the natural organic coagulant, chitosan, to the performance of alum and other chemical coagulants in terms of the parameters turbidity, color, pH and alkalinity. Twenty-five jar tests were conducted during November and December, 1992, at Parsons Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  16. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio

  17. [The Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination. Validation of the Spanish adaptation].

    PubMed

    Vilalta, J; Llinàs, J; López Pousa, S; Amiel, J; Vidal, C

    1990-04-01

    A neurologist and a psychiatrist diagnosed independently, according to DSM-III-R and ICD-10 criteria, to 15 subjects with dementia, 15 with depression and 15 without any of two previous diagnostics. Later, a psychologist held an interview with them by means of the structured interview CAMDEX. The lump levels of agreement between clinical diagnostic and DSM-III-R diagnostic obtained through CAMDEX is of Kappa = 0.63. These levels are increased to one Kappa = 0.76 if we compare the clinical diagnostic with CAMDEX diagnostic according to the ICD-10. On the other hand, we value the outputs of some instruments that are included in the CAMDEX: Mini Examen Cognoscitivo, Mini-Mental State, CAMCOG, Organicity Scale, Blessed Scale and Depressión Scale.

  18. Superpartner mass measurement technique using 1D orthogonal decompositions of the Cambridge transverse mass variable M(T2).

    PubMed

    Konar, Partha; Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T; Park, Myeonghun

    2010-07-30

    We propose a new model-independent technique for mass measurements in missing energy events at hadron colliders. We illustrate our method with the most challenging case of a single-step decay chain. We consider inclusive same-sign chargino pair production in supersymmetry, followed by leptonic decays to sneutrinos χ+ χ+ → ℓ+ ℓ'+ ν(ℓ)ν(ℓ') and invisible decays ν(ℓ) → ν(ℓ) χ(1)(0). We introduce two one-dimensional decompositions of the Cambridge MT2 variable: M(T2∥) and M(T2⊥), on the direction of the upstream transverse momentum P→T and the direction orthogonal to it, respectively. We show that the sneutrino mass Mc can be measured directly by minimizing the number of events N(Mc) in which MT2 exceeds a certain threshold, conveniently measured from the end point M(T2⊥)(max) (Mc).

  19. Anatomic variations of the pancreatic duct and their relevance with the Cambridge classification system: MRCP findings of 1158 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Adatepe, Mustafa; Imamoglu, Cetin; Esen, Ozgur Sipahi; Erkan, Nazif; Yildirim, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The study was conducted to evaluate the frequencies of the anatomic variations and the gender distributions of these variations of the pancreatic duct and their relevance with the Cambridge classification system as morphological sign of chronic pancreatitis using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 1312 consecutive patients who referred to our department for MRCP between January 2013 and August 2015. We excluded 154 patients from the study because of less than optimal results due to imaging limitations or a history of surgery on pancreas. Finally a total of 1158 patients were included in the study. Results Among the 1158 patients included in the study, 54 (4.6%) patients showed pancreas divisum, 13 patients (1.2%) were defined as ansa pancreatica. When we evaluated the course of the pancreatic duct, we found the prevalence 62.5% for descending, 30% for sigmoid, 5.5% for vertical and 2% for loop. The most commonly observed pancreatic duct configuration was Type 3 in 528 patients (45.6%) where 521 patients (45%) had Type 1 configuration. Conclusions Vertical course (p = 0.004) and Type 2 (p = 0.03) configuration of pancreatic duct were more frequent in females than males. There were no statistically significant differences between the gender for the other pancreatic duct variations such as pancreas divisium, ansa pancreatica and course types other than vertical course (p > 0.05 for all). Variants of pancreas divisum and normal pancreatic duct variants were not associated with morphologic findings of chronic pancreatitis by using the Cambridge classification system. The ansa pancreatica is a rare type of anatomical variation of the pancreatic duct, which might be considered as a predisposing factor to the onset of idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:27904444

  20. Individualized identification of euthymic bipolar disorder using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mon-Ju; Passos, Ives Cavalcante; Bauer, Isabelle E.; Lavagnino, Luca; Cao, Bo; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Mwangi, Benson; Soares, Jair C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) present with cognitive impairments during mood episodes as well as euthymic phase. However, it is still unknown whether reported neurocognitive abnormalities can objectively identify individual BD patients from healthy controls (HC). Methods A total of 21 euthymic BD patients and 21 demographically matched HC were included in the current study. Participants performed the computerized Cambridge Neurocognitive Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to assess cognitive performance. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) machine learning algorithm was implemented to identify neurocognitive signatures to distinguish individual BD patients from HC. Results The LASSO machine learning algorithm identified individual BD patients from HC with an accuracy of 71%, area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.7143 and significant at p = 0.0053. The LASSO algorithm assigned individual subjects with a probability score (0 – healthy, 1 – patient). Patients with rapid cycling (RC) were assigned increased probability scores as compared to patients without RC. A multivariate pattern of neurocognitive abnormalities comprising of affective Go/No-go and the Cambridge gambling task was relevant in distinguishing individual patients from HC. Limitations Our study sample was small as we only considered euthymic BD patients and demographically matched HC. Conclusion Neurocognitive abnormalities can distinguish individual euthymic BD patients from HC with relatively high accuracy. In addition, patients with RC had more cognitive impairments compared to patients without RC. The predictive neurocognitive signature identified in the current study can potentially be used to provide individualized clinical inferences on BD patients. PMID:26748737

  1. A comparison of three infant skinfold reference standards: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and WHO Child Growth Standards.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    As researchers increasingly focus on early infancy as a critical period of development, there is a greater need for methodological tools that can address all aspects of infant growth. Infant skinfold measures, in particular, are measurements in need of reliable reference standards that encompass all ages of infants and provide an accurate assessment of the relative fatness of a population. This report evaluates three published reference standards for infant skinfold measurements: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards. To assess these standards, triceps skinfolds from a population of rural Kenyan infants (n = 250) and triceps skinfolds and subscapular skinfolds from infants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 (NHANES; n = 1197) were calculated as z-scores from the lambda-mu-sigma curves provided by each reference population. The Tanner-Whitehouse standards represented both the Kenyan and US populations as lean, while the Cambridge standards represented both populations as overfat. The distribution of z-scores based on the WHO standards fell in the middle, but excluded infants from both populations who were below the age of 3 months. Based on these results, the WHO reference standard is the best skinfold reference standard for infants over the age of 3 months. For populations with infants of all ages, the Tanner-Whitehouse standards are recommended, despite representing both study populations as underfat. Ideally, the WHO will extend their reference standard to include infants between the ages of 0 and 3 months.

  2. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected in nearly all of the subbasins in the Cambridge drinking-water source area and from Fresh Pond during the study period. Discrete water samples were collected during base-flow conditions with an antecedent dry period of at least 3 days. Composite sampl

  3. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  4. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 2. Teaching Units that Utilize an Interactive Web-Accessible Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of online interactive teaching units have been developed that illustrate the use of experimentally measured three-dimensional (3D) structures to teach fundamental chemistry concepts. The units integrate a 500-structure subset of the Cambridge Structural Database specially chosen for their pedagogical value. The units span a number of key…

  5. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 4. Examples of Discovery-Based Learning Using the Complete Cambridge Structural Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

  6. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 3. The Cambridge Structural Database System: Information Content and Access Software in Educational Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

  7. Comparative Coh-Metrix Analysis of Reading Comprehension Texts: Unified (Russian) State Exam in English vs. Cambridge First Certificate in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solnyshkina, Marina I.; Harkova, Elena V.; Kiselnikov, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the results of the comparative study of Reading comprehension texts used in B2 level tests: Unified (Russia) State Exam in English (EGE) and Cambridge First Certificate in English (FCE). The research conducted was mainly focused on six parameters measured with the Coh-Metrix, a computational tool producing indices of the…

  8. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    PubMed

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.

  9. Discrimination thresholds of normal and anomalous trichromats: Model of senescent changes in ocular media density on the Cambridge Colour Test

    PubMed Central

    Shinomori, Keizo; Panorgias, Athanasios; Werner, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Age-related changes in chromatic discrimination along dichromatic confusion lines were measured with the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT). One hundred and sixty-two individuals (16 to 88 years old) with normal Rayleigh matches were the major focus of this paper. An additional 32 anomalous trichromats classified by their Rayleigh matches were also tested. All subjects were screened to rule out abnormalities of the anterior and posterior segments. Thresholds on all three chromatic vectors measured with the CCT showed age-related increases. Protan and deutan vector thresholds increased linearly with age while the tritan vector threshold was described with a bilinear model. Analysis and modeling demonstrated that the nominal vectors of the CCT are shifted by senescent changes in ocular media density, and a method for correcting the CCT vectors is demonstrated. A correction for these shifts indicates that classification among individuals of different ages is unaffected. New vector thresholds for elderly observers and for all age groups are suggested based on calculated tolerance limits. PMID:26974943

  10. Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test.

    PubMed

    Moura, Ana Laura de Araújo; Teixeira, Rosani Aparecida Antunes; Oiwa, Nestor N; Costa, Marcelo F; Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Hamer, Russell D; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2008-01-01

    We assessed chromatic discrimination in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients both with (ON) and without (no ON) a history of optic neuritis using the Cambridge color test (CCT). Our goal was to determine the magnitude and chromatic axes of any color vision losses in both patient groups, and to evaluate age-related changes in chromatic discrimination in both patient groups compared to normals. Using the CCT, we measured chromatic discrimination along the protan, deutan and tritan axes in 35 patients with MS (17 ON eyes) and 74 age matched controls. Color thresholds for both patient groups were significantly higher than controls' along the protan and tritan axes (p < 0.001). In addition, the ON and no-ON groups differed significantly along all three-color axes (p < 0.001). MS patients presented a progressive color discrimination impairment with age (along the deutan and tritan axes) that was almost two times faster than controls, even in the absence of ON. These findings suggest that demyelinating diseases reduce sensitivity to color vision in both red-green and blue-yellow axes, implying impairment in both parvocellular and koniocellular visual pathways. The CCT is a useful tool to help characterize vision losses in MS, and the relationship between these losses and degree of optic nerve involvement.

  11. Robust associations between the 20-item prosopagnosia index and the Cambridge Face Memory Test in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by lifelong face recognition deficits. Leading research groups diagnose the condition using complementary computer-based tasks and self-report measures. In an attempt to standardize the reporting of self-report evidence, we recently developed the 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20), a short questionnaire measure of prosopagnosic traits suitable for screening adult samples for DP. Strong correlations between scores on the PI20 and performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) appeared to confirm that individuals possess sufficient insight into their face recognition ability to complete a self-report measure of prosopagnosic traits. However, the extent to which people have insight into their face recognition abilities remains contentious. A lingering concern is that feedback from formal testing, received prior to administration of the PI20, may have augmented the self-insight of some respondents in the original validation study. To determine whether the significant correlation with the CFMT was an artefact of previously delivered feedback, we sought to replicate the validation study in individuals with no history of formal testing. We report highly significant correlations in two independent samples drawn from the general population, confirming: (i) that a significant relationship exists between PI20 scores and performance on the CFMT, and (ii) that this is not dependent on the inclusion of individuals who have previously received feedback. These findings support the view that people have sufficient insight into their face recognition abilities to complete a self-report measure of prosopagnosic traits.

  12. Discrimination thresholds of normal and anomalous trichromats: Model of senescent changes in ocular media density on the Cambridge Colour Test.

    PubMed

    Shinomori, Keizo; Panorgias, Athanasios; Werner, John S

    2016-03-01

    Age-related changes in chromatic discrimination along dichromatic confusion lines were measured with the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT). One hundred and sixty-two individuals (16 to 88 years old) with normal Rayleigh matches were the major focus of this paper. An additional 32 anomalous trichromats classified by their Rayleigh matches were also tested. All subjects were screened to rule out abnormalities of the anterior and posterior segments. Thresholds on all three chromatic vectors measured with the CCT showed age-related increases. Protan and deutan vector thresholds increased linearly with age while the tritan vector threshold was described with a bilinear model. Analysis and modeling demonstrated that the nominal vectors of the CCT are shifted by senescent changes in ocular media density, and a method for correcting the CCT vectors is demonstrated. A correction for these shifts indicates that classification among individuals of different ages is unaffected. New vector thresholds for elderly observers and for all age groups are suggested based on calculated tolerance limits.

  13. Conformer generation with OMEGA: algorithm and validation using high quality structures from the Protein Databank and Cambridge Structural Database.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Paul C D; Skillman, A Geoffrey; Warren, Gregory L; Ellingson, Benjamin A; Stahl, Matthew T

    2010-04-26

    Here, we present the algorithm and validation for OMEGA, a systematic, knowledge-based conformer generator. The algorithm consists of three phases: assembly of an initial 3D structure from a library of fragments; exhaustive enumeration of all rotatable torsions using values drawn from a knowledge-based list of angles, thereby generating a large set of conformations; and sampling of this set by geometric and energy criteria. Validation of conformer generators like OMEGA has often been undertaken by comparing computed conformer sets to experimental molecular conformations from crystallography, usually from the Protein Databank (PDB). Such an approach is fraught with difficulty due to the systematic problems with small molecule structures in the PDB. Methods are presented to identify a diverse set of small molecule structures from cocomplexes in the PDB that has maximal reliability. A challenging set of 197 high quality, carefully selected ligand structures from well-solved models was obtained using these methods. This set will provide a sound basis for comparison and validation of conformer generators in the future. Validation results from this set are compared to the results using structures of a set of druglike molecules extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). OMEGA is found to perform very well in reproducing the crystallographic conformations from both these data sets using two complementary metrics of success.

  14. Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test.

    PubMed

    Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Paramei, Galina V; Nishi, Mauro; Gualtieri, Mirella; Costa, Marcelo F; Ventura, Dora F

    2010-09-01

    Color vision impairment emerges at early stages of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and may precede diabetic retinopathy or the appearance of vascular alterations in the retina. The aim of the present study was to compare the evaluation of the color vision with two different tests - the Lanthony desaturated D-15d test (a traditional color arrangement test), and the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) (a computerized color discrimination test) - in patients diagnosed with DM2 without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and in sex- and age-matched control groups. Both color tests revealed statistically significant differences between the controls and the worst eyes of the DM2 patients. In addition, the degree of color vision impairment diagnosed by both tests correlated with the disease duration. The D-15d outcomes indicated solely tritan losses. In comparison, CCT outcomes revealed diffuse losses in color discrimination: 13.3% for best eyes and 29% for worst eyes. In addition, elevation of tritan thresholds in the DM2 patients, as detected by the Trivector subtest of the CCT, was found to correlate with the level of glycated hemoglobin. Outcomes of both tests confirm that subclinical losses of color vision are present in DM2 patients at an early stage of the disease, prior to signs of retinopathy. Considering the advantages of the CCT test compared to the D-15d test, further studies should attempt to verify and/or improve the efficiency of the CCT test.

  15. Highlights from SelectBio 2015: Academic Drug Discovery Conference, Cambridge, UK, 19-20 May 2015.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John; Coaker, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The SelectBio 2015: Academic Drug Discovery Conference was held in Cambridge, UK, on 19-20 May 2015. Building on the success of academic drug discovery events in the USA, this conference aimed to showcase the exciting new research emerging from academic drug discovery and to help bridge the gap between basic research and commercial application. At the event the authors heard from a number of speakers on a broad array of topics, from partnering models for academia and industry to novel drug discovery approaches across various therapeutic areas, with a few talks, such as those by Susanne Muller-Knapp (Structure Genomics Consortium, Oxford University, Oxford, UK) and Julian Blagg (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), covering both remits, by highlighting a number of such partnerships and then delving into some case studies. The conference concluded with a heated debate on whether phenotypic discovery should be favored over targeted discovery in academia and pharma, in a panel discussion chaired by Roland Wolkowicz (San Diego State University, USA).

  16. Concurrent Programming Using Actors: Exploiting Large-Scale Parallelism,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-07

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK* Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA Is WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square...D-R162 422 CONCURRENT PROGRMMIZNG USING f"OS XL?ITP TEH l’ LARGE-SCALE PARALLELISH(U) NASI AC E Al CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE L. G AGHA ET AL...RESOLUTION TEST CHART N~ATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDA.RDS - -96 A -E. __ _ __ __’ .,*- - -- •. - MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL

  17. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2008-09-01

    It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic

  18. Dielectrophoresis of particles on the nanometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Michael

    2003-03-01

    Dielectrophoresis is the phenomenon of force induced on particles suspended in non-uniform electric fields, the magnitude and direction of that force being dependent on such factors as the dielectric properties of particle and medium, and the frequency and magnitude of the applied electric field (Pohl 1978). Dielectrophoresis has been well-characterised over many years for particles on the micrometer scale such as cells. However, as the size of the particle is reduced below the micrometer scale, so other effects begin to dominate the dielectrophoretic response. In fact, for many years, manipulation of nanoparticles was presumed impossible because of the influence of effects such as the action of Brownian motion, electrohydrodynamic forces, high electric field gradients, the dominance of the motion of charges across the surface of the particle and the dielectric properties of the electrical double layer. However, experimental work in the last decade has shown that in fact, dielectrophoresis can be performed on particles down to molecular scale. By understanding the physics underlying the dielectrophoresis of nanoparticles, it is possible to determine the surface properties of such particles, as well as to separate them and manipulate them for particle detection (Hughes 2002). This technology may ultimately have a range of applications, from enhancing biosensors to detect viral bioterrorist attack, to the manipulation of molecules and DNA, and the ultimate goal of single molecule manipulation for nanotechnology. REFERENCES: Pohl, H. A. (1978) Dielectrophoresis (Cambridge; Cambridge University Press) Hughes, M. P (2002) Nanoelectromechanics in Engineering and Biology (Boca Raton; CRC Press)

  19. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  20. Scales, scales and more scales.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  1. Shuttle Astronauts Visit NASA's X-Ray Observatory Operations Control Center in Cambridge to Coordinate Plans for Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    CAMBRIDGE, MASS.-- June 25, 1998 Eileen Collins, the first U.S. woman commanderof a Space Shuttle mission and her fellow astronauts for NASA s STS-93 mission toured the Operations Control Center (OCC) for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) today. AXAF is scheduled for launch on January 26, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. They met with the staff of the OCC and discussed how the status of the observatory will be monitored while in the shuttle bay and during deployment. "We are honored to have this historic shuttle crew visit us and familiarize themselves with the OCC," said Harvey Tananbaum, director of the AXAF Science Center, which operates the OCC for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory through a contract with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. "It is appropriate that a pathbreaking shuttle mission will deploy the premier X-ray observatory of this century." AXAF is the third of NASA s Great Observatories along with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. It will observe in greater detail than ever before the hot, violent regions of the universe that cannot be seen with optical telescopes. Exploding stars, black holes and vast clouds of gas in galaxy clusters are among the fascinating objects that AXAF is designed to study. The satellite is currently in the final stages of testing at TRW Space and Electronics Group,the prime contractor, in Redondo Beach, California. In late August it will be flown aboard a specially-outfitted Air Force C-5 aircraft to Kennedy Space Center in Florida where it will be integrated with a Boeing booster and then installed in the Shuttle bay. The shuttle crew that will take AXAF into space includes Collins (Col., USAF), Jeffrey Ashby (Cmdr., USN), pilot; Steven Hawley, Ph.D., mission specialist; Catherine Cady Coleman, Ph.D. (Major, USAF), mission specialist; and Michel Tognini (Col., French Air Force), mission specialist. While visiting the OCC the crew learned how critical data

  2. Solar and interplanetary dynamics; Proceedings of the Symposium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., August 27-31, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, M. (Editor); Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1980-01-01

    The symposium focuses on solar phenomena as the source of transient events propagating through the solar system, and theoretical and observational assessments of the dynamic processes involved in these events. The topics discussed include the life history of coronal structures and fields, coronal and interplanetary responses to long time scale phenomena, solar transient phenomena affecting the corona and interplanetary medium, coronal and interplanetary responses to short time scale phenomena, and future directions.

  3. Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zoback, Mark D; Gorelick, Steven M

    2012-06-26

    Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO(2) emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO(2) [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185-5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO(2) into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO(2) repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Zoback, Mark D.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO2 emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO2 [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185–5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO2 into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO2 repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:22711814

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 28 (CAMBTH00460028) on Town Highway 46, crossing the Seymour River, Cambridge, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CAMBTH00460028 on Town Highway 46 crossing the Seymour River, Cambridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 9.94-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the Seymour River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 81 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 62.0 mm (0.204 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 11, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 46 crossing of the Seymour River is a 38-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 33-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30.6 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 10 degrees. A scour hole 0.2 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 53 (CAMBTH00750053) on Town Highway 75, crossing the Brewster River, Cambridge, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CAMBTH00750053 on Town Highway 75 crossing the Brewster River, Cambridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 4.30-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest, except for the downstream right overbank area which has a barn surrounded by grass and shrubs. In the study area, the Brewster River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.05 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 62 ft and an average bank height of 12 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 84.4 mm (0.277 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 11, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 75 crossing of the Brewster River is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 24-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 22.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 40 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway as surveyed is 10 degrees. A scour hole 1 ft

  7. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster – randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

    PubMed Central

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Barling, Roslyn S; Prevost, A Toby; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i) a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii) intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care. 63 practices in the East Anglia region participated. Three undertook the pilot study, 33 were allocated to three groups: no screening (control), screening followed by intensive treatment (IT) and screening plus routine care (RC) in an unbalanced (1:3:3) randomisation. The remaining 27 practices were randomly allocated to IT and RC. A risk score incorporating routine practice data was used to identify people aged 40–69 years at high-risk of undiagnosed diabetes. In the screening practices, high-risk individuals were invited to take part in a stepwise screening programme. In the IT group, diabetes treatment is optimised through guidelines, target-led multifactorial treatment, audit, feedback, and academic detailing for practice teams, alongside provision of educational materials for newly diagnosed participants. Primary endpoints are modelled cardiovascular risk at one year, and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity at five years after diagnosis of diabetes. Secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, development of renal and visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, health service costs, self-reported quality of life, functional status and health utility. Impact of the screening programme at the population level is also assessed through measures of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, health status and health service use among high-risk individuals. Discussion ADDITION-Cambridge is conducted in a defined high-risk group accessible through primary

  8. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  9. Technical note: the effect of refractive blur on colour vision evaluated using the Cambridge Colour Test, the Ishihara Pseudoisochromatic Plates and the Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Test.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Sri; Moradi, Philip; Membrey, Luke; Alistair, D; Laidlaw, H

    2007-05-01

    The results of a prospective study examining the effect of refractive blur on colour vision performance in normal subjects measured with three different colour vision tests are reported. The Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue (FM100) and Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) results were significantly affected at +6 D of spherical refractive blur, whereas those from the Ishihara Pseudoisochromatic Plate (IPP) test were not. In a clinical setting, correction of refractive error up to 3 D for colour vision testing with these tests may not be required. Poor colour vision should not be attributed solely to refractive causes of poor visual acuity (Snellen equivalent: >6/36). Fastest test times were achieved using IPP, followed by CCT.

  10. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-05-17

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed.

  11. Notes on the genus Harmonicon F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896 (Araneae, Dipluridae) with description of a new species from French Guyana

    PubMed Central

    Drolshagen, Bastian; Bäckstam, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Information on the genus Harmonicon F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896, a key to the species and a new diagnosis differing from the one in Maréchal and Marty (1998) are provided. A new species is described: Harmonicon oiapoqueae differing from other species of the genus by the morphology of the posterior sternal sigilla, the more recurved, inverted U–shaped fovea, the amount and arrangement of maxillary cuspules, a single row of teeth on the claws of the palpal tarsus, longer and more slender legs III and IV in females, longer embolus, thinner bulb, and longer, more slender legs in males. The status of the putative junior synonyms of Harmonicon, Pseudohermachura Mello-Leitão, 1927 and Prosharmonicon Mello-Leitão, as well as the two species formerly assigned to Harmonicon, Harmonicon nigridorsi Mello-Leitão, 1924 and Harmonicon riveti Simon, 1903, is discussed. PMID:21976989

  12. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Fourth Cambridge Radio Survey Catalogue (4C) (Pilkington, Gower, Scott and Wills 1965, 1967)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The machine readable catalogue contains survey data from the papers of Pilkington and Scott and Gower, Scott and Wills. These data result from a survey of radio sources between declinations -07 deg and +80 deg using the large Cambridge interferometer at 178 MHz. The computerized catalog contains for each source the 4C number, 1950 position, measured flux density, and accuracy class. For some sources miscellaneous brief comments such as cross identifications to the 3C catalog or remarks on contamination from nearby sources are given at the ends of the data records. A detailed description of the machine readable catalog as it is currently being distributed by the Astronomical Data Center is given to enable users to read and process the data.

  13. Comparability: manufacturing, characterization and controls, report of a UK Regenerative Medicine Platform Pluripotent Stem Cell Platform Workshop, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 14-15 September 2015.

    PubMed

    Williams, David J; Archer, Richard; Archibald, Peter; Bantounas, Ioannis; Baptista, Ricardo; Barker, Roger; Barry, Jacqueline; Bietrix, Florence; Blair, Nicholas; Braybrook, Julian; Campbell, Jonathan; Canham, Maurice; Chandra, Amit; Foldes, Gabor; Gilmanshin, Rudy; Girard, Mathilde; Gorjup, Erwin; Hewitt, Zöe; Hourd, Paul; Hyllner, Johan; Jesson, Helen; Kee, Jasmin; Kerby, Julie; Kotsopoulou, Nina; Kowalski, Stanley; Leidel, Chris; Marshall, Damian; Masi, Louis; McCall, Mark; McCann, Conor; Medcalf, Nicholas; Moore, Harry; Ozawa, Hiroki; Pan, David; Parmar, Malin; Plant, Anne L; Reinwald, Yvonne; Sebastian, Sujith; Stacey, Glyn; Thomas, Robert J; Thomas, Dave; Thurman-Newell, Jamie; Turner, Marc; Vitillo, Loriana; Wall, Ivan; Wilson, Alison; Wolfrum, Jacqueline; Yang, Ying; Zimmerman, Heiko

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes the proceedings of a workshop held at Trinity Hall, Cambridge to discuss comparability and includes additional information and references to related information added subsequently to the workshop. Comparability is the need to demonstrate equivalence of product after a process change; a recent publication states that this 'may be difficult for cell-based medicinal products'. Therefore a well-managed change process is required which needs access to good science and regulatory advice and developers are encouraged to seek help early. The workshop shared current thinking and best practice and allowed the definition of key research questions. The intent of this report is to summarize the key issues and the consensus reached on each of these by the expert delegates.

  14. Book review: Modern Plasma Physics, Vol. I: Physical Kinetics of Turbulent Plasmas, by Patrick H. Diamond, Sanae-I. Itoh and Kimitaka Itoh, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), 2010, IX, 417 p., ISBN 978-0-521-86920-1 (Hardback)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somov, B. V.

    If you want to learn not only the most fundamental things about the physics of turbulent plasmas but also the current state of the problem including the most recent results in theoretical and experimental investigations - and certainly many physicists and astrophysicists do - this series of three excellent monographs is just for you. The first volume "Physical Kinetics of Turbulent Plasmas" develops the kinetic theory of turbulence through a focus on quasi-particle models and dynamics. It discusses the concepts and theoretical methods for describing weak and strong fluid and phase space turbulence in plasma systems far from equilibrium. The core material includes fluctuation theory, self-similar cascades and transport, mean field theory, resonance broadening and nonlinear wave-particle interaction, wave-wave interaction and wave turbulence, strong turbulence theory and renormalization. The book gives readers a deep understanding of the fields under consideration and builds a foundation for future applications to multi-scale processes of self-organization in tokamaks and other confined plasmas. In spite of a short pedagogical introduction, the book is addressed mainly to well prepared readers with a serious background in plasma physics, to researchers and advanced graduate students in nonlinear plasma physics, controlled fusions and related fields such as cosmic plasma physics

  15. Laser research and development in the Northeast; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 16, 17, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, D.W.; Chicklis, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The development and scaling of excimer lasers with emphasis on both electron-beam and discharge pumpings; a chemical means of generating laser action in the visible region; the use of stimulated Raman techniques to improve the beam quality output of systems employing excimer lasers; the research and development of CO/sub 2/ lasers; a CO/sub 2/ laser amplifier for radar applications; medical laser usage; and laser monitors for trace species in environmental and industrial processes are examined. Consideration is given to high power laser research and development for laser energetics; linear and nonlinear frequency converters; 450 nm laser operation in Tm(3+):YLF; alexandrite lasers and their applications; and the performance limitations of vibronic lasers. Topics discussed include the laser ignition of oil spills; the application of laser rangers to submunitions; the design and application of laser intensity stabilizers; and a 535 nm active atomic line filter that uses the Tl metastable state as an absorbing medium.

  16. Scale-dependent entrainment velocity and scale-independent net entrainment in a turbulent axisymmetric jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Jimmy; Mistry, Dhiren; Dawson, James; Marusic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    The net entrainment in a jet is the product of the mean surface area (S ̲) and the mean entrainment velocity, V ̲ S ̲ , where, V ̲ = αUc with α the entrainment coefficient and Uc the mean centreline velocity. Instantaneously, however, entrainment velocity (v) at a point on the interface is the difference between the interface and the fluid velocities, and the total entrainment ∫ vds = VS , where S is the corrugated interface surface area and V the area averaged entrainment velocity. Using time-resolved multi-scale PIV/PLIF measurements of velocity and scalar in an axisymmetric jet at Re = 25000 , we evaluate V and S directly at the smallest resolved scales, and by filtering the data at different scales (Δ) we find their multi-scales counterparts, VΔ and SΔ. We show that V ̲ S ̲ =VΔ SΔ = V S , independent of the scale. Furthermore, S is found to have a fractal dimension D3 2 . 32 +/- 0 . 1 . Independently, we find that VΔ Δ 0 . 31 , indicating increasing entrainment velocity with increasing length scale. This is consistent with a constant net entrainment across scales, and suggests α as a scale-dependent quantity. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (research Grant No. EP/I005879/1), David Crighton Fellowship from the DAMTP, Univ of Cambridge, and the Australian Research Council.

  17. An analysis of infection control of varicella-zoster virus infections in Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge over a 5-year period, 1987-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wreghitt, T. G.; Whipp, J.; Redpath, C.; Hollingworth, W.

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study analyses infections with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge during 1987-92 and examines the spread of infection. In total, 93 patients and staff experienced VZV infection. Twenty-one patients had varicella and 49 experienced zoster. None of 101 patients and 1 of 625 staff members in contact with varicella cases acquired infection. By contrast, 2 of 227 patients, and 5 of 1039 staff in contact with zoster cases acquired varicella. One out of 28 (3.6%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with varicella acquired infection, compared with 5 out of 29 (17.2%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with zoster. Thus, zoster was found to be a more frequent cause of nosocomial infection than varicella. Fourteen members of staff had VZV infection during the study period. One of 99 patients and none of 389 staff members in contact with these cases developed varicella. The cost of dealing with infection control for VZV infections in our hospital is estimated to be Pounds 714 per patient case and a total of Pounds 13,204 per year. PMID:8760965

  18. An investigation into the impact of question structure on the performance of first year physics undergraduate students at the University of Cambridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Valerie; Jardine-Wright, Lisa; Bateman, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    We describe a study of the impact of exam question structure on the performance of first year Natural Sciences physics undergraduates from the University of Cambridge. The results show conclusively that a student’s performance improves when questions are scaffolded compared with university style questions. In a group of 77 female students we observe that the average exam mark increases by 13.4% for scaffolded questions, which corresponds to a 4.9 standard deviation effect. The equivalent observation for 236 male students is 9% (5.5 standard deviations). We also observe a correlation between exam performance and A2-level marks for UK students, and that students who receive their school education overseas, in a mixed gender environment, or at an independent school are more likely to receive a first class mark in the exam. These results suggest a mis-match between the problem-solving skills and assessment procedures between school and first year university and will provide key input into the future teaching and assessment of first year undergraduate physics students.

  19. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study: An experimental medicine platform for evaluating new drugs for relapse prevention in addiction. Part A: Study description.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Louise M; Flechais, Remy S A; Murphy, Anna; Reed, Laurence J; Abbott, Sanja; Boyapati, Venkataramana; Elliott, Rebecca; Erritzoe, David; Ersche, Karen D; Faluyi, Yetunde; Faravelli, Luca; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Kalk, Nicola J; Kuchibatla, Shankar S; McGonigle, John; Metastasio, Antonio; Mick, Inge; Nestor, Liam; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Smith, Dana G; Suckling, John; Tait, Roger; Taylor, Eleanor M; Waldman, Adam D; Robbins, Trevor W; Deakin, J F William; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2015-09-01

    Drug and alcohol dependence are global problems with substantial societal costs. There are few treatments for relapse prevention and therefore a pressing need for further study of brain mechanisms underpinning relapse circuitry. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study is an experimental medicine approach to this problem: using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and selective pharmacological tools, it aims to explore the neuropharmacology of putative relapse pathways in cocaine, alcohol, opiate dependent, and healthy individuals to inform future drug development. Addiction studies typically involve small samples because of recruitment difficulties and attrition. We established the platform in three centres to assess the feasibility of a multisite approach to address these issues. Pharmacological modulation of reward, impulsivity and emotional reactivity were investigated in a monetary incentive delay task, an inhibitory control task, and an evocative images task, using selective antagonists for µ-opioid, dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors (naltrexone, GSK598809, vofopitant/aprepitant), in a placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover design. In two years, 609 scans were performed, with 155 individuals scanned at baseline. Attrition was low and the majority of individuals were sufficiently motivated to complete all five sessions (n=87). We describe herein the study design, main aims, recruitment numbers, sample characteristics, and explain the test hypotheses and anticipated study outputs.

  20. The case for the continuing use of the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) and the standardization of notation in human mitochondrial DNA studies.

    PubMed

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Richards, Martin B; Yao, Yong-Gang; Logan, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Since the determination in 1981 of the sequence of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome, the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), has been used as the reference sequence to annotate mtDNA in molecular anthropology, forensic science and medical genetics. The CRS was eventually upgraded to the revised version (rCRS) in 1999. This reference sequence is a convenient device for recording mtDNA variation, although it has often been misunderstood as a wild-type (WT) or consensus sequence by medical geneticists. Recently, there has been a proposal to replace the rCRS with the so-called Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS). Even if it had been estimated accurately, the RSRS would be a cumbersome substitute for the rCRS, as the new proposal fuses--and thus confuses--the two distinct concepts of ancestral lineage and reference point for human mtDNA. Instead, we prefer to maintain the rCRS and to report mtDNA profiles by employing the hitherto predominant circumfix style. Tree diagrams could display mutations by using either the profile notation (in conventional short forms where appropriate) or in a root-upwards way with two suffixes indicating ancestral and derived nucleotides. This would guard against misunderstandings about reporting mtDNA variation. It is therefore neither necessary nor sensible to change the present reference sequence, the rCRS, in any way. The proposed switch to RSRS would inevitably lead to notational chaos, mistakes and misinterpretations.

  1. Face ethnicity and measurement reliability affect face recognition performance in developmental prosopagnosia: evidence from the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Australian.

    PubMed

    McKone, Elinor; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Palermo, Romina; Wilkinson, Ross B; Rivolta, Davide; Yovel, Galit; Davis, Joshua M; O'Connor, Kirsty B

    2011-03-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT, Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006) provides a validated format for testing novel face learning and has been a crucial instrument in the diagnosis of developmental prosopagnosia. Yet, some individuals who report everyday face recognition symptoms consistent with prosopagnosia, and are impaired on famous face tasks, perform normally on the CFMT. Possible reasons include measurement error, CFMT assessment of memory only at short delays, and a face set whose ethnicity is matched to only some Caucasian groups. We develop the "CFMT-Australian" (CFMT-Aus), which complements the CFMT-original by using ethnicity better matched to a different European subpopulation. Results confirm reliability (.88) and validity (convergent, divergent using cars, inversion effects). We show that face ethnicity within a race has subtle but clear effects on face processing even in normal participants (includes cross-over interaction for face ethnicity by perceiver country of origin in distinctiveness ratings). We show that CFMT-Aus clarifies diagnosis of prosopagnosia in 6 previously ambiguous cases. In 3 cases, this appears due to the better ethnic match to prosopagnosics. We also show that face memory at short (<3-min), 20-min, and 24-hr delays taps overlapping processes in normal participants. There is some suggestion that a form of prosopagnosia may exist that is long delay only and/or reflects failure to benefit from face repetition.

  2. Specific Features of Executive Dysfunction in Alzheimer-Type Mild Dementia Based on Computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmickienė, Jurgita; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is decline in memory. Dysexecutive symptoms have tremendous impact on functional activities and quality of life. Data regarding frontal-executive dysfunction in mild AD are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and specific features of executive dysfunction in mild AD based on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) results. Material/Methods Fifty newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, mild, late-onset AD patients (MMSE ≥20, AD group) and 25 control subjects (CG group) were recruited in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The CANTAB tests CRT, SOC, PAL, SWM were used for in-depth cognitive assessment. Comparisons were performed using the t test or Mann--Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlations were evaluated by Pearson r or Spearman R. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results AD and CG groups did not differ according to age, education, gender, or depression. Few differences were found between groups in the SOC test for performance measures: Mean moves (minimum 3 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2227), CG (Rank Sum=623), p<0.001. However, all SOC test time measures differed significantly between groups: SOC Mean subsequent thinking time (4 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2406), CG (Rank Sum=444), p<0.001. Correlations were weak between executive function (SOC) and episodic/working memory (PAL, SWM) (R=0.01–0.38) or attention/psychomotor speed (CRT) (R=0.02–0.37). Conclusions Frontal-executive functions are impaired in mild AD patients. Executive dysfunction is highly prominent in time measures, but minimal in performance measures. Executive disorders do not correlate with a decline in episodic and working memory or psychomotor speed in mild AD. PMID:27717954

  3. The Cambridge Companion to Dewey. Cambridge Companions to Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Molly

    2010-01-01

    John Dewey (1859-1952) was a major figure of the American cultural and intellectual landscape in the first half of the twentieth century. While not the originator of American pragmatism, he was instrumental to its articulation as a philosophy and the spread of its influence beyond philosophy to other disciplines. His prolific writings encompass…

  4. Investigation of Prolific Sheep from UK and Ireland for Evidence on Origin of the Mutations in BMP15 (FecXG, FecXB) and GDF9 (FecGH) in Belclare and Cambridge Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael P.; Hanrahan, James P.; Howard, Dawn J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the likely origin of three mutations with large effects on ovulation rate identified in the Belclare and Cambridge sheep breeds; two in the BMP15 gene (FecXG and FecXB) and the third (FecGH) in GDF9. All three mutations segregate in Belclare sheep while one, FecXB, has not been found in the Cambridge. Both Belclare and Cambridge breeds are relatively recently developed composites that have common ancestry through the use of genetic material from the Finnish Landrace and Lleyn breeds. The development of both composites also involved major contributions from exceptionally prolific ewes screened from flocks in Ireland (Belclare) and Britain (Cambridge) during the 1960s. The objective of the current study was to establish the likely origin of the mutations (FecXG, FecXB and FecGH) through analysis of DNA from Finnish Landrace and Lleyn sheep, and Galway and Texel breeds which contributed to the development of the Belclare breed. Ewes with exceptionally high prolificacy (hyper-prolific ewes) in current flocks on Irish farms were identified to simulate the screening of ewes from Irish flocks in the 1960s. DNA was obtained from: prolific ewes in extant flocks of Lleyn sheep (n = 44) on the Lleyn peninsula in Wales; hyper-prolific ewes (n = 41); prolific Galway (n = 41) ewes; Finnish Landrace (n = 124) and Texel (n = 19) ewes. The FecXG mutation was identified in Lleyn but not in Finnish Landrace, Galway or Texel sheep; FecXB was only found among the hyper-prolific ewes. The FecGH mutation was identified in the sample of Lleyn sheep. It was concluded from these findings that the Lleyn breed was the most likely source of the FecXG and FecGH mutations in Belclare and Cambridge sheep and that the FecXB mutation came from the High Fertility line that was developed using prolific ewes selected from commercial flocks in Ireland in the 1960′s and subsequently used in the genesis of the Belclare. PMID:23301039

  5. Water-quality conditions, and constituent loads and yields in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2005–07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of ongoing development in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply has the potential to be affected by a wide variety of contaminants. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1997) through continuous monitoring and discrete sample collection and, since 2004, through systematic collection of streamwater samples during base-flow and stormflow conditions at five primary sampling stations in the drinking-water source area. Four primary sampling stations are on small tributaries in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins; the fifth primary sampling station is on the main stem of Stony Brook and drains about 93 percent of the Cambridge drinking-water source area. Water samples also were collected at six secondary sampling stations, including Fresh Pond Reservoir, the final storage reservoir for the raw water supply. Storm runoff and base-flow concentrations of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of streamflow and specific conductance for six monitoring stations, which include the five primary sampling stations. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. These data also were used to describe how streamwater quality is affected by various watershed characteristics and provide information to guide future watershed management. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP

  6. Scale and scaling in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  7. Scaling transitions during the thinning of viscous dripping droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Castrejon-Pita, J. Rafael; Thete, Sumeet S.; Sambath, Krishnaraj; Hinch, E. John; Hutchings, Ian M.; Lister, John R.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of filament thinning during the formation of viscous Newtonian drops is studied experimentally and numerically. High speed shadowgraph imaging and sub-pixelar image analysis are used to extract the minimum neck diameter in terms of the time τ to breakup. Aqueous solutions of glycerol with viscosities ranging from 20 to 360 mPa s are used as the working fluids. In addition, nozzles of different diameters were used to vary the initial dynamic conditions. High resolution numerical simulations were performed to extract the instantaneous Reynolds number to understand the transition between different scaling regimes (presented in detail in a complementary presentation). Our results seem to suggest that, under some conditions, the transition from Potential Flow (PF) to an inertial-viscous (IV) regime is intertwined by a viscous regime (V). This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/G029458/1), the KACST-Cambridge Centre and the Royal Society.

  8. Disturbed Experience of Self: Psychometric Analysis of the Self-Experience Lifetime Frequency Scale (SELF)

    PubMed Central

    Heering, Henriëtte Dorothée; Goedhart, Saskia; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S.; Meijer, Carin J.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is characterized by positive and negative symptoms, but recently anomalous self-experiences, e.g. exaggerated self-consciousness (hyperreflectivity), receive more attention as an important symptom domain in schizophrenia patients. The semi-structured interview, the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE) [Psychopathology 2005;38:236-258], examines experiences of a disturbed sense of self in a sophisticated but time-consuming manner. Therefore, we proposed the Self-Experience Lifetime Frequency scale (SELF), an instrument intended to screen for self-disturbance phenomena. Here we compared scores of patients, their siblings and healthy controls on the SELF. Methods and Sampling The SELF is composed of a validated screener for symptoms of depersonalization complemented by questions covering several other domains of self-disturbance. A total of 426 patients with a psychotic disorder, 526 of their unaffected siblings, and 297 healthy controls completed the SELF. Patients' scores on the 12 items of the SELF were subjected to an explorative principal axis factor analysis (PAF); composite scores on factor components were compared between the three participant groups. Results The PAF revealed two components, explaining 43.9 and 9.5% of variance, respectively. The first component represents a disturbance of self-awareness; the second component reflects (milder forms of) diminished self-affection or depersonalization. The two components of the SELF revealed good internal consistency (component 1, α = 0.88; component 2, α = 0.79; ρ = 0.85). Patients showed significantly higher scores on both factor components in comparison with both siblings and controls. No significant differences were found between siblings and controls. Conclusions The findings of the current study suggest that the SELF comprises two components of self-disturbance. Patients reported more (severe) symptoms of self-disturbance on both components, suggesting that it is

  9. Maslowian Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  10. The Filistatidae in the Caribbean region, with a description of the new genus Antilloides, revision of the genus Filistatoides F. O. P.-Cambridge and notes on Kukulcania Lehtinen (Arachnida, Araneae).

    PubMed

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Garcia, Giraldo Alayón

    2016-07-07

    A synopsis of Caribbean filistatid diversity is recorded herein. A new genus, Antilloides, is proposed for five new species exclusively found in the Antilles: A. abeli n. sp., A. cubitas n. sp., and A. mesoliticus n. sp. from Cuba; A. haitises n. sp. from the Dominican Republic; and A. zozo n. sp. from the U. S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. The genus Filistatoides is revised and includes four species: the type species F. insignis F.O.P. Cambridge, which occurs only in Guatemala; the female is described here for the first time; F. polita Franganillo sp. reval., comb. nov., which occurs only in Cuba; F. xichu n. sp. described from Mexico; and F. milloti (Zapfe) which does not appear to belong to the genus based on morphological structures. Additionally, Kukulcania isolinae Alayón is synonymized with Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz), and new records of its distribution are included for the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

  11. Prevalence and implications of Truman symptoms in subjects at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Luis; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Rocchetti, Matteo; Brandizzi, Martina; Samson, Carly; Azis, Matilda; Queen, Beverly; Bossong, Matthijs; Allen, Paul; Perez, Jesus; Howes, Oliver D; McGuire, Philip; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2016-04-30

    Preliminary qualitative research has suggested that patients with early stages of psychosis and those at Ultra High Risk (UHR) may experience "Truman symptoms" (TS). This study is an exploratory investigation of TS in a sample of 26 UHR subjects and 14 matched controls (HC) recruited from three prodromal and early intervention clinics and its relation with clinical features, depersonalization and basic self-disturbances. The UHR were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS) and the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences (EASE) checklist. In our sample, TS were specific (TS absent in HC) and highly prevalent (50%) in UHR subjects. We found a significant difference in EASE total scores across HC, UHR with TS and without TS but post-hoc analyses showed similar scores in the two latter groups. The presence of TS in our UHR sample was associated with significant higher PANSS general psychopathology but with non-significant difference in the CAARMS, CDS and SOFAS scores. This study of TS in UHR subjects suggested that they might be prevalent and specific of this population.

  12. [Adaptation and validation of CAMDEX-DS (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down's Syndrome and others with intellectual disabilities) in Spanish population with intellectual disabilities].

    PubMed

    Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Ribas-Vidal, Núria; Vilà-Alsina, Marta; Novell-Alsina, Ramon; García-Alba, Javier

    2013-10-16

    Introduccion. La demencia causada por la enfermedad de Alzheimer afecta comunmente a la poblacion adulta con sindrome de Down. Esta poblacion presenta dos rasgos clinicos caracteristicos: la presencia de demencia con semiologia distinta a la enfermedad de Alzheimer tipica y deficits intelectuales previos que pueden confundir el diagnostico clinico. Existe una evidente necesidad de validar instrumentos especificos en castellano adaptados a esta poblacion. Objetivo. Adaptar y validar el Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down's Syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities (CAMDEX-DS) en poblacion española. Pacientes y metodos. Se consideraron 146 pacientes con discapacidad intelectual (leve-moderada). Se realizo un estudio de validacion de tipo observacional, transversal y multicentrico. Se administraron los siguientes tests: CAMDEX-DS, test breve de inteligencia de Kaufman y Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Mental Retardation. Se calculo la fiabilidad test-retest, la fiabilidad interjueces, la concordancia del CAMDEX-DS para el diagnostico clinico y la validez. Resultados. La fiabilidad test-retest e interjueces obtuvo un coeficiente kappa de 0,92 y 0,91, respectivamente. El indice kappa del CAMDEX-DS para el diagnostico clinico respecto al resto de los criterios clinicos utilizados fue alto: CAMDEX-DS frente a DSM-IV (kappa = 0,95; p < 0,001); CAMDEX-DS frente a Clasificacion Internacional de Enfermedades, decima revision (kappa = 0,97; p = 0,000). Todas las correlaciones item-test oscilaban entre 0,31 y 0,69. La fiabilidad interna calculada mediante el alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,93. Conclusiones. La version española del CAMDEX-DS es un instrumento valido, de alta aplicabilidad a personas con discapacidad intelectual, que muestra buenas propiedades psicometricas. El Cambridge Cognitive Examination for Older Adults with Down's Syndrome (CAMCOG-DS) permite establecer dos puntos de corte para la sospecha de deterioro

  13. Multidimensional scaling

    PubMed Central

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of similarity, or a sense of "sameness" among things, is pivotal to theories in the cognitive sciences and beyond. Similarity, however, is a difficult thing to measure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a tool by which researchers can obtain quantitative estimates of similarity among groups of items. More formally, MDS refers to a set of statistical techniques that are used to reduce the complexity of a data set, permitting visual appreciation of the underlying relational structures contained therein. The current paper provides an overview of MDS. We discuss key aspects of performing this technique, such as methods that can be used to collect similarity estimates, analytic techniques for treating proximity data, and various concerns regarding interpretation of the MDS output. MDS analyses of two novel data sets are also included, highlighting in step-by-step fashion how MDS is performed, and key issues that may arise during analysis. PMID:23359318

  14. A combined theoretical and Cambridge Structural Database study of π-hole pnicogen bonding complexes between electron rich molecules and both nitro compounds and inorganic bromides (YO2Br, Y = N, P, and As).

    PubMed

    Bauzá, Antonio; Ramis, Rafael; Frontera, Antonio

    2014-04-17

    Quantum calculations at the DFT-D3/def2-TZVPD level of theory have been used to examine complexes between O2YBr (Y═N, P, and As) molecules and several Lewis bases, that is, NH3, H2O, and HF. The interactions of the lone pair of the ammonia, water, and hydrogen fluoride with the σ-hole and π-hole of O2YBr molecules have been considered. In general, the complexes where the Lewis base lone pair interacts with the π-hole are more favorable than those with σ-hole. The nature of the interactions has been characterized with the Bader theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). We have also studied the ability of trifluoronitromethane and nitromethane to interact with anions using their π-hole along with an analysis the Cambridge Structural Database. We have found a large number of hits that provide strong experimental support for ability of the nitryl (-NO2) group to interact with anions and Lewis bases. In some X-ray structures, the π-hole interaction is crucial in the crystal packing and has a strong influence in the solid state architecture of the complexes. Finally, due to the relevance in atmospheric chemistry, we have studied noncovalent σ/π-hole complexes of nitryl bromide with ozone.

  15. Mutations in the genes for oocyte-derived growth factors GDF9 and BMP15 are associated with both increased ovulation rate and sterility in Cambridge and Belclare sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, James P; Gregan, Scott M; Mulsant, Philippe; Mullen, Michael; Davis, George H; Powell, Richard; Galloway, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Belclare and Cambridge are prolific sheep breeds, the origins of which involved selecting ewes with exceptionally high litter size records from commercial flocks. The variation in ovulation rate in both breeds is consistent with segregation of a gene (or genes) with a large effect on this trait. Sterile ewes, due to a failure of normal ovarian follicle development, occur in both breeds. New naturally occurring mutations in genes for the oocyte-derived growth factors growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are described. These mutations are associated with increased ovulation rate in heterozygous carriers and sterility in homozygous carriers in both breeds. This is the first time that a mutation in the gene for GDF9 has been found that causes increased ovulation rate and infertility in a manner similar to inactivating mutations in BMP15, and shows that GDF9 is essential for normal folliculogenesis in sheep. Furthermore, it is shown, for the first time in any species, that individuals with mutations in both GDF9 and BMP15 have a greater ovulation rate than sheep with either of the mutations separately.

  16. Reconstruction of the inventory of materia medica used by members of the Jewish community of medieval Cairo according to prescriptions found in the Taylor-Schechter Genizah collection, Cambridge.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim; Amar, Zohar

    2006-12-06

    The Taylor-Schechter (T-S) collection at Cambridge University Library is the biggest of all Cairo Genizah collections in the world. The importance and the potential of research into the medical aspects of the Genizah documents were clear to researcher since the early 1960s. A few works have been published since, usually focusing on one subject, or even important single manuscripts. The current research concerned mainly with one aspect of the history of medicine of the Jewish community of Cairo (as a reflection of Eastern medieval societies), namely the practical uses of natural substances for medicine. The most interesting and original information is undoubtedly to be found in the 141 prescriptions, as they reflect the medical reality that actually existed. And indeed, 242 substances were recorded in the prescriptions identified: 195 substances of plants origin (80.6%), 27 inorganic materials (11.2%) and 20 substances of animal origin (8.2%) were recorded as being in practical used for medicinal purposes. The most frequently mentioned substances were the rose, myrobalan, sugar, almonds, and endive. The most prevalent ailments: eye diseases, headache, constipations (purgative), cough, skin diseases, stomach, fever, gynaecological problems, haemorrhoids, liver ailments, lice, swellings, dental trouble, ulcers, and problems of the urinary tract.

  17. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Gillian C.; West, Catharine M.L.; Coles, Charlotte E.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Talbot, Christopher J.; Elliott, Rebecca M.; Tanteles, George A.; Symonds, R. Paul; Wilkinson, Jennifer S.; Dunning, Alison M.; Burnet, Neil G.; Bentzen, Soren M.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  18. Fractionaly Integrated Flux model and Scaling Laws in Weather and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, Daniel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    The Fractionaly Integrated Flux model (FIF) has been extensively used to model intermittent observables, like the velocity field, by defining them with the help of a fractional integration of a conservative (i.e. strictly scale invariant) flux, such as the turbulent energy flux. It indeed corresponds to a well-defined modelling that yields the observed scaling laws. Generalised Scale Invariance (GSI) enables FIF to deal with anisotropic fractional integrations and has been rather successful to define and model a unique regime of scaling anisotropic turbulence up to planetary scales. This turbulence has an effective dimension of 23/9=2.55... instead of the classical hypothesised 2D and 3D turbulent regimes, respectively for large and small spatial scales. It therefore theoretically eliminates a non plausible "dimension transition" between these two regimes and the resulting requirement of a turbulent energy "mesoscale gap", whose empirical evidence has been brought more and more into question. More recently, GSI-FIF was used to analyse climate, therefore at much larger time scales. Indeed, the 23/9-dimensional regime necessarily breaks up at the outer spatial scales. The corresponding transition range, which can be called "macroweather", seems to have many interesting properties, e.g. it rather corresponds to a fractional differentiation in time with a roughly flat frequency spectrum. Furthermore, this transition yields the possibility to have at much larger time scales scaling space-time climate fluctuations with a much stronger scaling anisotropy between time and space. Lovejoy, S. and D. Schertzer (2013). The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades. Cambridge Press (in press). Schertzer, D. et al. (1997). Fractals 5(3): 427-471. Schertzer, D. and S. Lovejoy (2011). International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos 21(12): 3417-3456.

  19. Earth History databases and visualization - the TimeScale Creator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogg, James; Lugowski, Adam; Gradstein, Felix

    2010-05-01

    The "TimeScale Creator" team (www.tscreator.org) and the Subcommission on Stratigraphic Information (stratigraphy.science.purdue.edu) of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (www.stratigraphy.org) has worked with numerous geoscientists and geological surveys to prepare reference datasets for global and regional stratigraphy. All events are currently calibrated to Geologic Time Scale 2004 (Gradstein et al., 2004, Cambridge Univ. Press) and Concise Geologic Time Scale (Ogg et al., 2008, Cambridge Univ. Press); but the array of intercalibrations enable dynamic adjustment to future numerical age scales and interpolation methods. The main "global" database contains over 25,000 events/zones from paleontology, geomagnetics, sea-level and sequence stratigraphy, igneous provinces, bolide impacts, plus several stable isotope curves and image sets. Several regional datasets are provided in conjunction with geological surveys, with numerical ages interpolated using a similar flexible inter-calibration procedure. For example, a joint program with Geoscience Australia has compiled an extensive Australian regional biostratigraphy and a full array of basin lithologic columns with each formation linked to public lexicons of all Proterozoic through Phanerozoic basins - nearly 500 columns of over 9,000 data lines plus hot-curser links to oil-gas reference wells. Other datapacks include New Zealand biostratigraphy and basin transects (ca. 200 columns), Russian biostratigraphy, British Isles regional stratigraphy, Gulf of Mexico biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy, high-resolution Neogene stable isotope curves and ice-core data, human cultural episodes, and Circum-Arctic stratigraphy sets. The growing library of datasets is designed for viewing and chart-making in the free "TimeScale Creator" JAVA package. This visualization system produces a screen display of the user-selected time-span and the selected columns of geologic time scale information. The user can change the

  20. The Cambridge encyclopedia of space (revised edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Allest, Frederic; Arets, Jean; Baker, Phillip J.; Balmino, Georges; Barth, Hans; Benson, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive and intensively illustrated development history is presented for spaceflight, ranging over its basic concepts' speculative and fictional origins, the historical roots of rocket-related technologies, and the scientific accomplishments of earth orbit and interplanetary missions to date. Attention is given to propulsion systems, spaceflight launch centers, satellite systems, and solar system exploration by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Current space-related activities encompass the meteorology, remote sensing, telecommunications and direct broadcasting, and navigation functions of unmanned satellites, as well as such manned spacecraft roles as medical and materials science research. The military uses of space, and increasingly important space industrialization concepts, are discussed as well.

  1. The Cambridge Dictionary of Space Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Preface and user's guide; Acknowledgements; The dictionary; Classified list of dictionary entries: 1. Spacecraft technology; 2. Communications technology; 3. Propulsion technology; 4. Launch vehicle technology; 5. Space Shuttle; 6. Manned spaceflight; 7. Unmanned spacecraft; 8. Materials; 9. Propellants; 10. Orbits; 11. Physics and astronomy; 12. Space centres and organisations; 13. Miscellaneous.

  2. And Now What about Reforming Cambridge Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    After its recent Assurance visit from HEFCE, Oxford went through a high profile public debate at the end of which its academic community voted against moving to a governance structure which would have given Oxford a majority of external members on its Council. The Higher Education Funding Council asked Oxford to answer eight questions justifying…

  3. A Grammar of Kham. Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, David E.

    This book presents a grammatical documentation of Kham, a previously undescribed language from west-central Nepal which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family. Its verb morphology has implications for understanding the history of the entire Tibeto-Burman family. The book, based on extensive fieldwork, deals with all major aspects of the…

  4. The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju

    This book describes the phonological and grammatical structure of the whole-Dravidian language family from different aspects, examining its history and writing system, structure and typology, lexicon, and recent contacts between Dravidian and other language groups. The 11 chapters highlight the following: (1) "Introduction" (e.g., the…

  5. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories balloon operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danaher, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    The establishment and functions of the AFCRL balloon operations facility are discussed. The types of research work conducted by the facility are defined. The facilities which support the balloon programs are described. The free balloon and tethered balloon capabilities are analyzed.

  6. How scaling fluctuation analyses can transform our view of the climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    remaining simple to interpret [Lovejoy and Schertzer, 2012]. It has lead for example to the discovery of the new "macroweather" regime between weather (Δt <≈ 10days) and climate (Δt ≈> 30 yrs) in which fluctuations decrease rather than increase with scale [Lovejoy, 2013]. We illustrate the transformative power of combining such fluctuation analysis with scaling by giving numerous examples from instrumental data, multiproxies, ice core proxies, corals, speleothems and GCM outputs [Lovejoy and Schertzer, 2013]. References: Lovejoy, S. (2013), What is climate?, EOS, 94, (1), 1 January, p1-2. Lovejoy, S., and D. Schertzer (2012), Haar wavelets, fluctuations and structure functions: convenient choices for geophysics, Nonlinear Proc. Geophys. , 19, 1-14 doi: 10.5194/npg-19-1-2012. Lovejoy, S., and D. Schertzer (2013), The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades, 480 pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  7. Are changes in glycaemic control associated with diabetes-specific quality of life and health status in screen-detected type 2 diabetes patients? Four-year follow up of the ADDITION-Cambridge cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, L; Long, G H; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions that improve HbA1c levels do not necessarily improve health-related quality of life (QoL). This issue may be particularly relevant in asymptomatic diabetes patients detected earlier in the course of the disease. Methods HbA1c, diabetes-specific QoL (ADDQoL) and health status were measured in 510 screen-detected diabetes patients from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial at 1 and 5 years post diagnosis. Multivariable logistic/linear regression was used to quantify the longitudinal association between change in HbA1c from 1 to 5 years and ADDQoL and health status at 5 years, adjusting for age, sex, education and trial group; alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, plasma vitamin C, HbA1c, ADDQoL or health status at 1 year, and glucose-lowering medication at 5 years. Results From 1 to 5 years, median HbA1c interquartile range increased from 6.3% (5.9–6.8) to 6.8% (6.4–7.4); the median ADDQoL score and mean health status physical health summary score decreased from -0.4 (-1 to -0.08) to -0.5 (-1.08 to -0.09) (suggesting an adverse impact of diabetes on QoL) and by -0.79 (8.94) points, respectively. Increases in HbA1c were independently associated with reporting a negative impact of diabetes on QoL (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.85) but not with the health status summary scores. Conclusions Increases in HbA1c from 1 to 5 years post-diagnosis were independently associated with increased odds of reporting a negative impact of diabetes on QoL. While our results suggest that efforts to reduce HbA1c do not adversely affect health-related QoL, large numbers of participants still report a negative impact of diabetes on their QoL 5 years post-diagnosis. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817063

  8. Climate and weather across scales: singularities and stochastic Levy-Clifford algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia

    2016-04-01

    There have been several attempts to understand and simulate the fluctuations of weather and climate across scales. Beyond mono/uni-scaling approaches (e.g. using spectral analysis), this was done with the help of multifractal techniques that aim to track and simulate the scaling singularities of the underlying equations instead of relying on numerical, scale truncated simulations of these equations (Royer et al., 2008, Lovejoy and Schertzer, 2013). However, these techniques were limited to deal with scalar fields, instead of dealing directly with a system of complex interactions and non trivial symmetries. The latter is unfortunately indispensable to answer to the challenging question of being able to assess the climatology of (exo-) planets based on first principles (Pierrehumbert, 2013) or to fully address the question of the relevance of quasi-geostrophic turbulence and to define an effective, fractal dimension of the atmospheric motions (Schertzer et al., 2012). In this talk, we present a plausible candidate based on the combination of Lévy stable processes and Clifford algebra. Together they combine stochastic and structural properties that are strongly universal. They therefore define with the help of a few physically meaningful parameters a wide class of stochastic symmetries, as well as high dimensional vector- or manifold-valued fields respecting these symmetries (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2015). Lovejoy, S. & Schertzer, D., 2013. The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades. Cambridge U.K. Cambridge Univeristy Press. Pierrehumbert, R.T., 2013. Strange news from other stars. Nature Geoscience, 6(2), pp.81-83. Royer, J.F. et al., 2008. Multifractal analysis of the evolution of simulated precipitation over France in a climate scenario. C.R. Geoscience, 340(431-440). Schertzer, D. et al., 2012. Quasi-geostrophic turbulence and generalized scale invariance, a theoretical reply. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, pp.327-336. Schertzer, D

  9. Glazer Narrative Composition Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Joan

    Designed to assess the quality of children's narrative compositions, the Glazer Narrative Composition Scale (GNCS) consists of eighteen scales outlined under plot, theme, setting, characterization, and style. Each scale is scored 1, 2, or 3, depending on how much of the scale element is present in the narrative, with the highest possible score…

  10. Scaling: An Items Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Ye; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    "Scaling" is the process of constructing a score scale that associates numbers or other ordered indicators with the performance of examinees. Scaling typically is conducted to aid users in interpreting test results. This module describes different types of raw scores and scale scores, illustrates how to incorporate various sources of…

  11. The efficacy of lamotrigine in a resistant case of depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Rosagro-Escámez, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Noelia; Gómez-Merino, Patricia; de la Vega, Irene; Carrasco, José L

    2011-01-01

    The individuals with depersonalizattion disorder suffer from a painful feeling that their body and mental experiences or the experiences of the environment seem become unreal, distant or mechanical. This phenomenon is often associated with other mental disorders, as in the case presented. Among the many psychoactive drugs studied, none of them has been shown to be the treatment of choice. Among those with which the best results are obtained are opioid receptor antagonists, the combination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with lamotrigine and clorimipramine. We are presenting a resistant case that responded to lamotrigine.

  12. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  13. A Sense of Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Jones, M. Gail

    2003-01-01

    Points out the importance of an understanding of a sense of scale and presents an activity that uses distance or time as a measure. The activity illustrates for students what the universe would look like at various scales. (DDR)

  14. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  15. Cross-scale morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Holling, Crawford S.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; El-Shaarawi, Abdel H.; Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    The scaling of physical, biological, ecological and social phenomena is a major focus of efforts to develop simple representations of complex systems. Much of the attention has been on discovering universal scaling laws that emerge from simple physical and geometric processes. However, there are regular patterns of departures both from those scaling laws and from continuous distributions of attributes of systems. Those departures often demonstrate the development of self-organized interactions between living systems and physical processes over narrower ranges of scale.

  16. Civilian PTSD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapinsky, Alicia C.; Rapport, Lisa J.; Henderson, Melinda J.; Axelrod, Bradley N.

    2005-01-01

    Strong associations between civilian posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scales and measures of general psychological distress suggest that the scales are nonspecific to PTSD. Three common PTSD scales were administered to 122 undergraduates who had experienced an emotionally salient, nontraumatic event: a college examination. Results indicated…

  17. Classroom Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    Nine scales were developed to measure a series of classroom behavior variables derived from a factor analytic study of five observation systems. The scales are multipoint check lists which are behaviorally referenced by different amounts and types of classroom behaviors. The scales measure such aspects of classroom behavior as teacher-initiated…

  18. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  19. Educational Scale-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the complexities of educational scale-making. "Educational scales" are defined as the spatial and temporal orders generated as pupils and teachers move and are moved through educational systems; scales are "envelopes of spacetime" into which certain schoolbased identities (and not others) can be folded.…

  20. Reading Graduated Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lucien T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)

  1. Schroeder Composition Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Thomas S.

    Designed to describe the writing behaviors of elementary and junior high school children, the Schroeder Composition Scale is an analytic scale. For eleven of the criteria in the scale, the scoring is simply "yes" or "no" indicating whether the writing does or does not have the characteristic. Five other items identify…

  2. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of…

  3. The Cambridge-Cambridge X-ray Serendipity Survey: I X-ray luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, B. J.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the first results obtained from a new optical identification program of 123 faint X-ray sources with S(0.5-2 keV) greater than 2 x 10(exp -14) erg/s/sq cm serendipitously detected in ROSAT PSPC pointed observations. We have spectroscopically identified the optical counterparts to more than 100 sources in this survey. Although the majority of the sample (68 objects) are QSO's, we have also identified 12 narrow emission line galaxies which have extreme X-ray luminosities (10(exp 42) less than L(sub X) less than 10(exp 43.5) erg/s). Subsequent spectroscopy reveals them to be a mixture of star-burst galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies in approximately equal numbers. Combined with potentially similar objects identified in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey, these X-ray luminous galaxies exhibit a rate of cosmological evolution, L(sub X) varies as (1 + z)(exp 2.5 +/- 1.0), consistent with that derived for X-ray QSO's. This evolution, coupled with the steep slope determined for the faint end of the X-ray luminosity function (Phi(L(sub X)) varies as L(sub X)(exp -1.9)), implies that such objects could comprise 15-35% of the soft (1-2 keV) X-ray background.

  4. 77 FR 3118 - Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... safeguard human life, vessels, and waterfront facilities while still sustaining the flow of commerce. The... protect life, property and the environment, therefore, a 30-day notice period is impracticable. Delaying... to safeguard life, property, and the environment on or near the navigable waters. Discussion of...

  5. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  6. Salzburger State Reactance Scale (SSR Scale)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This paper describes the construction and empirical evaluation of an instrument for measuring state reactance, the Salzburger State Reactance (SSR) Scale. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported a hypothesized three-factor structure: experience of reactance, aggressive behavioral intentions, and negative attitudes. Correlations with divergent and convergent measures support the validity of this structure. The SSR Subscales were strongly related to the other state reactance measures. Moreover, the SSR Subscales showed modest positive correlations with trait measures of reactance. The SSR Subscales correlated only slightly or not at all with neighboring constructs (e.g., autonomy, experience of control). The only exception was fairness scales, which showed moderate correlations with the SSR Subscales. Furthermore, a retest analysis confirmed the temporal stability of the scale. Suggestions for further validation of this questionnaire are discussed. PMID:27453806

  7. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  8. Recursive scaled DCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hsieh-Sheng

    1991-12-01

    Among the various image data compression methods, the discrete cosine transform (DCT) has become the most popular in performing gray-scale image compression and decomposition. However, the computational burden in performing a DCT is heavy. For example, in a regular DCT, at least 11 multiplications are required for processing an 8 X 1 image block. The idea of the scaled-DCT is that more than half the multiplications in a regular DCT are unnecessary, because they can be formulated as scaling factors of the DCT coefficients, and these coefficients may be scaled back in the quantization process. A fast recursive algorithm for computing the scaled-DCT is presented in this paper. The formulations are derived based on practical considerations of applying the scaled-DCT algorithm to image data compression and decompression. These include the considerations of flexibility of processing different sizes of DCT blocks and the actual savings of the required number of arithmetic operations. Due to the recursive nature of this algorithm, a higher-order scaled-DCT can be obtained from two lower-order scaled DCTs. Thus, a scaled-DCT VLSI chip designed according to this algorithm may process different sizes of DCT under software control. To illustrate the unique properties of this recursive scaled-DCT algorithm, the one-dimensional formulations are presented with several examples exhibited in signal flow-graph forms.

  9. Why do Scale-Free Networks Emerge in Nature? From Gradient Networks to Transport Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toroczkai, Zoltan

    2004-03-01

    It has recently been recognized [1,2,3] that a large number of complex networks are scale-free (having a power-law degree distribution). Examples include citation networks [4], the internet [5], the world-wide-web [6], cellular metabolic networks [7], protein interaction networks [8], the sex-web [9] and alliance networks in the U.S. biotechnology industry [10]. The existence of scale-free networks in such diverse systems suggests that there is a simple underlying common reason for their development. Here, we propose that scale-free networks emerge because they ensure efficient transport of some entity. We show that for flows generated by gradients of a scalar "potential'' distributed on a network, non scale-free networks, e.g., random graphs [11], will become maximally congested, while scale-free networks will ensure efficient transport in the large network size limit. [1] R. Albert and A.-L. Barabási, Rev.Mod.Phys. 74, 47 (2002). [2] M.E.J. Newman, SIAM Rev. 45, 167 (2003). [3] S.N. Dorogovtsev and J.F.F. Mendes, Evolution of Networks: From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2003. [4] S. Redner, Eur.Phys.J. B, 4, 131 (1998). [5] M. Faloutsos, P. Faloutsos and C. Faloutsos Comp.Comm.Rev. 29, 251 (1999). [6] R. Albert, H. Jeong, and A.L. Barabási, Nature 401, 130 (1999). [7] H. Jeong et.al. Nature 407, 651 (2000). [8] H. Jeong, S. Mason, A.-L. Barabási and Z. N. Oltvai, Nature 411, 41 (2001). [9] F. Liljeros et. al. Nature 411 907 (2000). [10] W. W. Powell, D. R. White, K. W. Koput and J. Owen-Smith Am.J.Soc. in press. [11] B. Bollobás, Random Graphs, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press (2001).

  10. PULSE SCALING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Kandiah, K.

    1954-06-01

    Pulse scaling systems embodying multi-electrode gaseous-discharge tubes of the type having a plurality of stable discharge paths are described. The novelty of this particular system lies in the simplification of the stepping arrangement between successive tubes. In one form the invention provides a multistage scaler comprising a pulse generator, a first multi-electrode scaling tube of the type set forth coupled to said generator to receive transfer pulses therefrom and one or more succeeding multi-electrode scaling tubes each deriving its transfer pulses from preceding scaling tubes.

  11. Poetry Methods Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for…

  12. Memorial symptom assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Hwang, Shirley S; Thaler, Howard T; Kasimis, Basil S; Portenoy, Russell K

    2004-04-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses often have multiple symptoms. As interest in palliative care and interventions for symptom control increase, the ability to assess multiple symptoms has become more important. A number of instruments have been developed to meet this need in cancer patients. This article reviews the development and applications of a multidimensional instrument, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has 32 symptoms and three dimensions of frequency, severity, and distress. Shorter versions - The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (32 symptoms with one dimension) and the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (14 symptoms with one dimension), and a version for children aged 7-12 years, have also been developed. A distinctive feature is the summary subscales for physical distress, psychological distress, and The Global Distress Index. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has proven useful in description of symptom epidemiology, the role of symptoms in pain, fatigue, and spirituality; as a predictor of survival, and in proxy assessments of pain. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has been used in studies of cancer and AIDS patients, and patients with advanced medical illnesses. Possible future roles of instruments such as the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale include use in clinical trials, for pharmacoeconomic analyses, definition of symptom clusters and symptom burden, the development of symptom outcome measures, symptom monitoring, and improving care for patients. Continued research is needed for the versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and other symptom instruments in different populations and applications.

  13. Modelling Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    Determination of the intentions of the test developer is fundamental to the choice of the analytical model for a rating scale. For confirmatory analysis, the developer's intentions inform the choice of the general form of the model, representing the manner in which the respondent interacts with the scale; these intentions also inform the choice of…

  14. Pre-Kindergarten Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Tim

    This 25-item scale for rating prekindergarten children concerns personal and cognitive skills. Directions for using the scale are provided. Personal skills include personal hygiene, communication skills, eating habits, relationships with the teacher, peer relations, and personal behavior. Cognitive skills rated are verbal skills, object…

  15. Basic Structure Content Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; Helmes, Edward

    1979-01-01

    A basic structure approach is proposed for obtaining multidimensional scale values for attitude, achievement, or personality items from response data. The technique permits the unconfounding of scale values due to response bias and content and partitions item indices of popularity or difficulty among a number of relevant dimensions. (Author/BH)

  16. Teaching Satisfaction Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Chung-Lim; Au, Wing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    The present study proposes a teaching satisfaction measure and examines the validity of its scores. The measure is based on the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Scores on the five-item Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS) were validated on a sample of 202 primary and secondary school teachers and favorable psychometric properties were found. As…

  17. The Family Constellation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemire, David

    The Family Constellation Scale (FC Scale) is an instrument that assesses perceived birth order in families. It can be used in counseling to help initiate conversations about various traits and assumptions that tend to characterize first-born, middle-born children, youngest-born, and only children. It provides both counselors and clients insights…

  18. Teacher Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Observation Scales include four instruments: Observer Rating Scale (ORS), Reading Strategies Check List, Arithmetic Strategies Check List, and Classroom Description. These instruments utilize trained observers to describe the teaching behavior, instructional strategies and physical characteristics in each classroom. On the ORS, teacher…

  19. Scaling up as Catachresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The metaphor of scaling up is the wrong one to use for describing and prescribing educational change. Many of the strategies being employed to achieve scaling up are counter-productive: they conceive of practitioners as delivery agents or consumers, rather than as co-constructors of change. An approach to educational innovation based on the…

  20. Thoughts on Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    This essay reflects on the challenges of thinking about scale--of making sense of phenomena such as continuous professional development (CPD) at the system level, while holding on to detail at the finer grain size(s) of implementation. The stimuli for my reflections are three diverse studies of attempts at scale--an attempt to use ideas related to…

  1. Commitment to Health Scale.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2005-01-01

    The Commitment to Health Scale (CHS) was developed to predict likelihood of clients being able to permanently adopt new health-promoting behaviors. Commitment is based on the association between starting new health behaviors and long-term performance of those behaviors. The CHS evolved from an examination of Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Algorithm, Decisional Balance Scale, and Strong and Weak Principle (Velicer, Rossi, Prochaska, & DiClemente, 1996). Scale items were assessed by classical and Rasch measurement methods. The research was performed in three separate studies at various locations in the United States and included approximately 1100 subjects. A new unidimensional variable was identified called Commitment to Health. Internal consistency reliability of the scale was .94 (Cronbach's alpha). External validity and reliability were assessed based on expected and observed ordering and between known groups. Scale scores predicted self-reported health behaviors and body mass index.

  2. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Williams, Mark L; Bowman, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  3. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  4. Quadratic Generalized Scale Invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Addor, J. B.

    Nearly twenty years ago, two of us argued that in order to account for the scaling strat- ification of the atmosphere, that an anisotropic "unified scaling model" of the atmo- sphere was required with elliptical dimension 23/9=2.555... "in between" the standard 3-D (small scale) and 2-D large scale model. This model was based on the formal- ism of generalized scale invariance (GSI). Physically, GSI is justified by arguing that various conserved fluxes (energy, buoyancy force variance etc.) should define the ap- propriate notion of scale. In a recent large scale satellite cloud image analysis, we directly confirmed this model by studying the isotropic (angle averaged) horizontal cloud statistics. Mathematically, GSI is based on a a group of scale changing opera- tors and their generators but to date, both analyses (primarily of cloud images) and nu- merical (multifractal) simulations, have been limited to the special case of linear GSI. This has shown that cloud texture can plausibly be associated with local linearizations. However realistic morphologies involve spatially avarying textures; the full non linear GSI is clearly necessary. In this talk, we first show that the observed angle averaged (multi)scaling statistics only give a realtively weak constraint on the nonlinear gner- ator: that the latter can be expressed by self-similar (isotropic) part, and a deviatoric part described (in two dimensions) by an arbitrary scalar potential which contains all the information about the cloud morphology. We then show (using a theorem due to Poincaré) how to reduce nonlinear GSI to linear GSI plus a nonlinear coordinate trans- formation numerically, using this to take multifractal GSI modelling to the next level of approximation: quadratic GSI. We show many examples of the coresponding simu- lations which include transitions from various morphologies (including cyclones) and we discuss the results in relation to satellite cloud images.

  5. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  6. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  7. Clinical rating scales.

    PubMed

    Relja, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), rating scales are used to assess the degree of disease-related disability and to titrate long-term treatment to each phase of the disease. Recognition of non-motor symptoms required modification of existing widely used scales to integrate non-motor elements. In addition, new scales have been developed for the assessment of non-motor symptoms. In this article, assessment of PD patients will be discussed, particularly for non-motor symptoms such as pain and fatigue.

  8. On nature's scaling effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Dick J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches for aircraft were also reviewed for comparison with similitude laws. Finally, some historical evidence for the use of Weibull scaling in composites was reviewed.

  9. Scaling the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Norman E.

    2014-04-01

    A model is presented for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe and their Mass-Radius scaling law. The physics is conventional, orthodox, but it is used to fashion a highly unorthodox model of the origin of the galaxies, their groups, clusters, super-clusters, and great walls. The scaling law fits the observational results and the model offers new suggestions and predictions. These include a largest, a supreme, cosmic structure, and possible implications for the recently observed pressing cosmological anomalies.

  10. Pulsar time scale

    SciTech Connect

    Il'in, V.G.; Llyasov, Yu.P.; Kuz'min, A.D.; Pushkin, S.B.; Palii, G.N.; Shabanova, T.V.; Shchitov, Yu.P.

    1984-05-01

    In this article a new time scale is proposed, that of pulsar time PT which is based on the regular sequence of time intervals between pulses of a pulsar's radio emissions. In discussing variations in the arrival times of pulsar radio emissions, three kinds of variations in the radiation periods are described. PSR 0834 + 06 is used as the basic reference pulsar. Time scales are also determined for reference pulsars PSR 0905 + 08 and 1919 + 21. The initial parameters for the three reference pulsars needed for managing a PT scale are presented. The basic PT scale is defined as the continuous sequence of time intervals between radio-emission pulses of the basic reference pulsar.

  11. Large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolin, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    Classes of large scale dynamic systems were discussed in the context of modern control theory. Specific examples discussed were in the technical fields of aeronautics, water resources and electric power.

  12. Digital scale converter

    DOEpatents

    Upton, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    A digital scale converter is provided for binary coded decimal (BCD) conversion. The converter may be programmed to convert a BCD value of a first scale to the equivalent value of a second scale according to a known ratio. The value to be converted is loaded into a first BCD counter and counted down to zero while a second BCD counter registers counts from zero or an offset value depending upon the conversion. Programmable rate multipliers are used to generate pulses at selected rates to the counters for the proper conversion ratio. The value present in the second counter at the time the first counter is counted to the zero count is the equivalent value of the second scale. This value may be read out and displayed on a conventional seven-segment digital display.

  13. Scaling the Geologic Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerritts, Mary

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction of a Geologic Time Scale on a 100 foot roll of paper and suggests activities concerning its use. Includes information about fossils and suggestions for conducting a fossil field trip with students. (BR)

  14. Scaling in sensitivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2002-01-01

    Population matrix models allow sets of demographic parameters to be summarized by a single value 8, the finite rate of population increase. The consequences of change in individual demographic parameters are naturally measured by the corresponding changes in 8; sensitivity analyses compare demographic parameters on the basis of these changes. These comparisons are complicated by issues of scale. Elasticity analysis attempts to deal with issues of scale by comparing the effects of proportional changes in demographic parameters, but leads to inconsistencies in evaluating demographic rates. We discuss this and other problems of scaling in sensitivity analysis, and suggest a simple criterion for choosing appropriate scales. We apply our suggestions to data for the killer whale, Orcinus orca.

  15. Critical Problems in Very Large Scale Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    SYSTEMS Semiannual Technical Report for the period April 1, 1988 to September 30, 1988 Massachusetts Institute of Technology D T 1C Cambridge...4 System s Software...1988. Also, MIT VLSI Memo No. 88-465, August 1988. *Paul Y. Song, Design of a Network for Concurrent Message Passing Systems M. S. Thesis, Department of

  16. Infrastructure for Large-Scale Tests in Marine Autonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Department of Mechanical Engineering,Cambridge,MA,02139 8. PERFORMING

  17. The Improbability scale

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

  18. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  19. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. S.; Gao, Y. P.; Zhao, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observational data are not evenly sampled, and the internals between data points range from several hours to more than half a month. What's more, these data sets are sparse. And all these make it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, we use cubic spline interpolation to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points even. Then, we employ the Vondrak filter to smooth the data set, and get rid of high-frequency noise, finally adopt the weighted average method to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The pulsar timing residuals represent clock difference between the pulsar time and atomic time, and the high precision pulsar timing data mean the clock difference measurement between the pulsar time and atomic time with a high signal to noise ratio, which is fundamental to generate pulsar time. We use the latest released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set is from the newest NANOGRAV data release, which includes 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars using the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and 305-meter Arecibo telescope. We find that the algorithm used in this paper can lower the influence caused by noises in timing residuals, and improve long-term stability of pulsar time. Results show that the long-term (> 1 yr) frequency stability of the pulsar time is better than 3.4×10-15.

  20. Delusion assessment scales.

    PubMed

    Forgácová, L'ubica

    2008-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 19th century, delusions have been classified mainly by their content or theme. Clinical psychopathological investigation requires additional variables that will allow investigators to describe the structure of delusional experience more accurately. Delusions are multidimensional constructs that may change across the various mental disorders. Several authors have developed rating scales with the aim to measure individual dimensions of delusional structure. In this paper, common rating scales are mentioned and the main characteristics of the Simple Delusional Syndrome Scale (SDSS) are summarized. The SDSS scale consists of 7 items (logical organization, systemization, stability, conviction, influence on the action, extension, and insertion), scored from 1 to 5. Results of the statistical analysis confirm good psychometric characteristics of the scale, Cronbach coefficient alpha=0.8327. The SDSS may contribute to a better understanding and diagnostics of delusional disorders and, using statistical methods, can help quantify the relationship between the delusional syndrome and the primary disease process. The SDSS scale may also be utilized in the assessment of changes occurring in delusional syndromes depending on the therapeutic effect of psychopharmacological drugs.

  1. Hierarchical random additive process and logarithmic scaling of generalized high order, two-point correlations in turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. I. A.; Marusic, I.; Meneveau, C.

    2016-06-01

    Townsend [Townsend, The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1976)] hypothesized that the logarithmic region in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows consists of space-filling, self-similar attached eddies. Invoking this hypothesis, we express streamwise velocity fluctuations in the inertial layer in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows as a hierarchical random additive process (HRAP): uz+=∑i=1Nzai . Here u is the streamwise velocity fluctuation, + indicates normalization in wall units, z is the wall normal distance, and ai's are independently, identically distributed random additives, each of which is associated with an attached eddy in the wall-attached hierarchy. The number of random additives is Nz˜ln(δ /z ) where δ is the boundary layer thickness and ln is natural log. Due to its simplified structure, such a process leads to predictions of the scaling behaviors for various turbulence statistics in the logarithmic layer. Besides reproducing known logarithmic scaling of moments, structure functions, and correlation function [" close="]3/2 uz(x ) uz(x +r ) >, new logarithmic laws in two-point statistics such as uz4(x ) > 1 /2, 1/3, etc. can be derived using the HRAP formalism. Supporting empirical evidence for the logarithmic scaling in such statistics is found from the Melbourne High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel measurements. We also show that, at high Reynolds numbers, the above mentioned new logarithmic laws can be derived by assuming the arrival of an attached eddy at a generic point in the flow field to be a Poisson process [Woodcock and Marusic, Phys. Fluids 27, 015104 (2015), 10.1063/1.4905301]. Taken together, the results provide new evidence supporting the essential ingredients of the attached eddy hypothesis to describe streamwise velocity fluctuations of large, momentum transporting eddies in wall-bounded turbulence, while

  2. Fire toxicity scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Levin, B.C.; Paabo, M.; Gurman, J.; Holt, T.

    1987-02-01

    The toxicity of the thermal-decomposition products from two flexible polyurethane foams (with and without a fire retardant) and a cotton upholstery fabric was evaluated by a series of small-scale and large-scale tests single mock-up upholstery chair tests during smoldering or flaming decomposition. In addition other fire property data such as rates of heat release, effective heats of combustion, specific gas species yields, and smoke obscuration were measured. The degree of toxicity observed during and following the flaming tests (both large-scale room burns and the NBS Toxicity Tests) could be explained by a 3-Gas Model which includes the combined toxicological effects of CO, CO/sub 2/, and HCN. Essentially, no animal deaths were noted during the thirty minute exposures to the non-flaming or smoldering combustion products produced in the NBS Toxicity Test Method or the large-scale room test. In the large-scale room tests, little toxicological difference was noted between decomposition products from the burn room and a second room 12 meters away.

  3. Development of scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    During the last fifty years, scale inhibition has gone from an art to a science. Scale inhibition has changed from simple pH adjustment to the use of optimized dose of designer polymers from multiple monomers. The water-treatment industry faces many challenges due to the need to conserve water, availability of only low quality water, increasing environmental regulations of the water discharge, and concern for human safety when using acid. Natural materials such as starch, lignin, tannin, etc., have been replaced with hydrolytically stable organic phosphates and synthetic polymers. Most progress in scale inhibition has come from the use of synergistic mixtures and copolymerizing different functionalities to achieve specific goals. Development of scale inhibitors requires an understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and its inhibition. This paper discusses the historic perspective of scale inhibition and the development of new inhibitors based on the understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and the use of powerful tools like molecular modeling to visualize crystal-inhibitor interactions.

  4. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level.

  5. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  6. Spatial ecology across scales.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  7. Scale of dark QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Schwaller, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    Most of the mass of ordinary matter has its origin from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A similar strong dynamics, dark QCD, could exist to explain the mass origin of dark matter. Using infrared fixed points of the two gauge couplings, we provide a dynamical mechanism that relates the dark QCD confinement scale to our QCD scale, and hence provides an explanation for comparable dark baryon and proton masses. Together with a mechanism that generates equal amounts of dark baryon and ordinary baryon asymmetries in the early Universe, the similarity of dark matter and ordinary matter energy densities can be naturally explained. For a large class of gauge group representations, the particles charged under both QCD and dark QCD, necessary ingredients for generating the infrared fixed points, are found to have masses at 1-2 TeV, which sets the scale for dark matter direct detection and novel collider signatures involving visible and dark jets.

  8. Generalized scale invariant theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Antonio; Stefanyszyn, David; Tsoukalas, Minas

    2014-03-01

    We present the most general actions of a single scalar field and two scalar fields coupled to gravity, consistent with second-order field equations in four dimensions, possessing local scale invariance. We apply two different methods to arrive at our results. One method, Ricci gauging, was known to the literature and we find this to produce the same result for the case of one scalar field as a more efficient method presented here. However, we also find our more efficient method to be much more general when we consider two scalar fields. Locally scale invariant actions are also presented for theories with more than two scalar fields coupled to gravity and we explain how one could construct the most general actions for any number of scalar fields. Our generalized scale invariant actions have obvious applications to early Universe cosmology and include, for example, the Bezrukov-Shaposhnikov action as a subset.

  9. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  10. Irreversibility time scale.

    PubMed

    Gallavotti, G

    2006-06-01

    Entropy creation rate is introduced for a system interacting with thermostats (i.e., for a system subject to internal conservative forces interacting with "external" thermostats via conservative forces) and a fluctuation theorem for it is proved. As an application, a time scale is introduced, to be interpreted as the time over which irreversibility becomes manifest in a process leading from an initial to a final stationary state of a mechanical system in a general nonequilibrium context. The time scale is evaluated in a few examples, including the classical Joule-Thompson process (gas expansion in a vacuum).

  11. Fundamentals of Zoological Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    The following animal characteristics are considered to determine how properties and characteristics of various systems change with system size (scaling): skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing-flapping, and maximum sizes of flying and hovering…

  12. SCALING UNDERWATER EXPLODING WIRES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    heat of detonation of TNT in calories per gram. This scaling behavior extends the law of similarity six decades in terms of weight, from pounds to micropounds. The peak pressure for exploding-wire phenomena has been obtained from data and is emprically expressed as pm = 26,800 (cube root of W/R) to

  13. Scaling up Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains several projects, each addressing different questions with different techniques. In chapter 1, I argue that they are unified thematically by their goal of "scaling up psycholinguistics"; they are all aimed at analyzing large data-sets using tools that reveal patterns to propose and test mechanism-neutral hypotheses about…

  14. Scale, Composition, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Scale (gross domestic product), composition (goods and services), and technology (impacts per unit of goods and services) in combination are the proximate determinants in an economy of the resources used, wastes generated, and land transformed. In this article, we examine relationships among these determinants to understand better the contribution…

  15. Student Descriptor Scale Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Lori; And Others

    The Student Descriptor Scale (SDS) was developed as a validation measure to determine whether students described and counted by states as "severely handicapped" were, indeed, students with severe disabilities. The SDS addresses nine characteristics: intellectual disability, health impairment, need for toileting assistance, upper torso motor…

  16. The Spiritual Competency Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which was based on the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's original Spiritual Competencies. Participants were 662 counseling students from religiously based and secular universities nationwide. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 22-item,…

  17. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  18. The Social Integration Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan M.; Straus, Murray A.

    The Social Integration Scale (SIS) is intended to facilitate empirical research on the applicability of control theory to many types of adult crime, including "street crime," white collar crime, and physical assaults on spouses. There are five subscales: (1) belief (belief in law and social control); (2) commitment (psychological…

  19. Bristol Stool Form Scale

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stool Form Scale Type Description Type 1 Separate hard lumps, like nuts Image Type 2 Sausage-shaped but lumpy Type 3 Like a sausage or snake but with cracks on its surface Type 4 Like a sausage or snake, smooth and soft ...

  20. Scaling School Turnaround

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the research on turning around low performing schools to summarize what we know, what we don't know, and what this means for scaling school turnaround efforts. "School turnaround" is defined here as quick, dramatic gains in academic achievement for persistently low performing schools. The article first considers the…

  1. Allometric scaling of countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Tongkui

    2010-11-01

    As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, and urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with the GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic (labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to the population between countries and cities were pointed out. First, population increases sub-linearly with area in countries. Second, the GDP increases linearly in countries but not super-linearly as in cities. Finally, electricity or oil consumption per capita increases with population faster than cities.

  2. Scaling Relation of Mega-fault Systems for Strong Ground Motion Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irikura, K.; Awata, Y.; Miyake, H.; Kagawa, T.; Miyakoshi, K.; Sato, T.; Dan, K.; Matsushima, S.

    2006-12-01

    We are studying scaling relations between fault length (L) and seismic moment (Mo) for mega-fault systems such as the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 2002 Denali earthquake. Scholz (2002) proposed an idea that the scaling relation changes from L-model to W-model for extra large earthquakes. According to the idea, Ikikura et al. (2004) proposed three-stage scaling relations between fault rupture area (S) and seismic moment; i.e., Mo is in proportion with S^{2/3} for Mo<7.5x1018Nm, S^{1/2} for Mo <7.5x1020, S for extra large earthquakes. Meanwhile, Somerville et al. (1999) proposed an uniform scaling, Mo is in proportion with S^{2/3}, even for larger earthquakes. We consider that the difference of the two scaling relations causes from their treatments of fault width (W). Irikura et al. (2004) introduces saturation of fault width considering thickness of seismogenic zone. However, fault widths are not observed values but estimated from aftershock distributions. We have to carefully evaluate S-Mo relationship considering uncertainty of fault widths. We try to estimate fault width from two empirical relationships, fault length vs. fault displacement (D) and seismic moment Mo vs fault length (L). The relationship L vs D is from certain data based on geological and geomorphological investigations. As for fault displacement, Awata (2006) proposes liner relationship between behavioral fault segment length and its maximum displacement. He also proposed saturation of fault displacement in case of mega-fault system. We here propose and demonstrate new scaling relations between fault length and seismic moment for mega-fault systems compiling past earthquake data (introducing field data about behavioral fault segments). We compare the derived fault width with carefully validated fault width from waveform and geodetic inversions to develop scaling relation for strong ground motion estimation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: A portion of this study was supported by the JNES research topic

  3. Scaling Applications in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2010-05-01

    Besides downscaling applications, scaling properties of hydrological fields can be used to address a variety of research questions. In this presentation, we will use scaling properties to address questions related to satellite evapotranspiration algorithms, precipitation-streamflow relationships, and hydrological model calibration. Most of the existing satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms have been developed using fine-resolution Landsat TM and ASTER data. However, these algorithms are often applied to coarse-resolution MODIS data. Our results show that applying the satellite-based algorithms, which are developed at ASTER resolution, to MODIS resolution leads to ET estimates that (1) preserve the overall spatial pattern (spatial correlation in excess of 0.90), (2) increase the spatial standard deviation and maximum value, (3) have modest conditional bias: underestimate low ET rates (< 1 mm/day) and overestimate high ET rates; the overestimation is within 20%. The results emphasize the need for exploring alternatives for estimation of ET from MODIS. Understanding the relationship between the scaling properties of precipitation and streamflow is important in a number of applications. We present the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River basin in Georgia in the United States with focus on effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 22 km2 to 19,606 km2. Results show that large watersheds have more persistent flow fluctuations and stronger long-term (time greater than scale break point) memory than small watersheds while precipitation time series shows weak long-term correlation. We conclude that a watershed acts as a 'filter' for a 'white noise' precipitation with more significant filtering in case of large watersheds. Finally, we compare the scaling properties of simulated and observed spatial soil

  4. Scales of mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Akber-Knutson, S.; Konter, J.; Kellogg, J.; Hart, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing question in mantle dynamics concerns the scale of heterogeneity in the mantle. Mantle convection tends to both destroy (through stirring) and create (through melt extraction and subduction) heterogeneity in bulk and trace element composition. Over time, these competing processes create variations in geochemical composition along mid-oceanic ridges and among oceanic islands, spanning a range of scales from extremely long wavelength (for example, the DUPAL anomaly) to very small scale (for example, variations amongst melt inclusions). While geochemical data and seismic observations can be used to constrain the length scales of mantle heterogeneity, dynamical mixing calculations can illustrate the processes and timescales involved in stirring and mixing. At the Summer 2004 CIDER workshop on Relating Geochemical and Seismological Heterogeneity in the Earth's Mantle, an interdisciplinary group evaluated scales of heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a combined analysis of geochemical data, seismological data and results of numerical models of mixing. We mined the PetDB database for isotopic data from glass and whole rock analyses for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR), projecting them along the ridge length. We examined Sr isotope variability along the East Pacific rise by looking at the difference in Sr ratio between adjacent samples as a function of distance between the samples. The East Pacific Rise exhibits an overall bowl shape of normal MORB characteristics, with higher values in the higher latitudes (there is, however, an unfortunate gap in sampling, roughly 2000 km long). These background characteristics are punctuated with spikes in values at various locations, some, but not all of which are associated with off-axis volcanism. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced data was utilized to construct a power spectrum of the scale lengths of heterogeneity along both ridges. Using the same isotopic systems (Sr, Nd

  5. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  6. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  7. Large-Scale Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    "Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

  8. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  9. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  10. Fundamentals of zoological scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain—a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple physical ideas. We consider the following animal characteristics: skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing flapping, and maximum sizes of animals that fly and hover. These relationships are compared to zoological data and everyday experience, and match reasonably well.

  11. The Extragalactic Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Donahue, Megan; Panagia, Nino

    1997-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Early history of the distance scale problem, S. van den Bergh; Cosmology: From Hubble to HST, M. S. Turner; Age constraints nucleocosmochronology, J. Truran; The ages of globular clusters, P. Demarque; The linearity of the Hubble flow M. Postman; Gravitational lensing and the extragalactic distance scale, R. D. Blandford andT . Kundic; Using the cosmic microwave background to constrain the Hubble constant A. Lasenby and T M. Jones; Cepheids as distance indicators, N. R. Tanvir; The I-band Tully-Fisher relation and the Hubble constant, R. Giovanell; The calibration of type 1a supernovae as standard candles, A. Saha; Focusing in on the Hubble constant, G. A. Tammann & M. Federspiel; Interim report on the calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation in the HST Key Project to measure the Hubble constant, J. Mould et al.; Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale, W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore and T R. C. Kennicutt; Novae as distance indicators, M. Livio; Verifying the planetary nebula luminosity function method, G. H. Jacoby; On the possible use of radio supernovae for distance determinations, K. W. Weiler et al.; Post-AGB stars as standard candles, H. Bond; Helium core flash at the tip of the red giant branch: a population II distance indicator, B. F. Madore, W. L. Freedman and T S. Sakai; Globular clusters as distance indicators, B. C. Whitmore; Detached eclipsing binaries as primary distance and age indicators, B. Paczynski; Light echoes: geometric measurement of galaxy distances, W. B. Sparks; The SBF survey of galaxy distances J. L. Tonry; Extragalactic distance scales: The long and short of it, V. Trimble.

  12. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of motor fairing for the fan motors of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The motors and their supporting structures were enclosed in aerodynamically smooth fairings to minimize resistance to the air flow. Close examination of this photograph reveals the complicated nature of constructing a wind tunnel. This motor fairing, like almost every other structure in the FST, represents a one-of-a-kind installation.

  13. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼xβ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)–(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764

  14. Urban scaling in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  15. Urban scaling in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system.

  16. Global Scale Solar Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A. M.; Schrijver, C. J.; DeRosa, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The combination of the STEREO and SDO missions have allowed for the first time imagery of the entire Sun. This coupled with the high cadence, broad thermal coverage, and the large dynamic range of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on SDO has allowed discovery of impulsive solar disturbances that can significantly affect a hemisphere or more of the solar volume. Such events are often, but not always, associated with M and X class flares. GOES C and even B class flares are also associated with these large scale disturbances. Key to the recognition of the large scale disturbances was the creation of log difference movies. By taking the log of images before differencing events in the corona become much more evident. Because such events cover such a large portion of the solar volume their passage can effect the dynamics of the entire corona as it adjusts to and recovers from their passage. In some cases this may lead to a another flare or filament ejection, but in general direct causal evidence of 'sympathetic' behavior is lacking. However, evidence is accumulating these large scale events create an environment that encourages other solar instabilities to occur. Understanding the source of these events and how the energy that drives them is built up, stored, and suddenly released is critical to understanding the origins of space weather. Example events and comments of their relevance will be presented.

  17. Advanced scale conditioning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jeff; Battaglia, Philip J.

    2004-06-01

    A technical description of Advanced Scale Conditioning Agents (ASCA) technology was published in the May-June 2003 edition of the Nuclear Plant Journal. That article described the development of programs of advanced scale conditioning agents and specific types to maintain the secondary side of steam generators within a pressurized water reactor free of deposited corrosion products and corrosion-inducing contaminants to ensure their long-term operation. This article describes the first two plant applications of advanced scale conditioning agents implemented at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Vogtle Units 1 and 2 during their 2002 scheduled outages to minimize tube degradation and maintain full power operation using the most effective techniques while minimizing outage costs. The goal was to remove three to four fuel cycles of deposits from each steam generator so that after future chemical cleaning activities, ASCAs could be used to maintain the cleanliness of the steam generators without the need for additional chemical cleaning efforts. The goal was achieved as well as several other benefits that resulted in cost savings to the plant.

  18. Micro-Scale Thermoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offner, Avshalom; Ramon, Guy Z.

    2016-11-01

    Thermoacoustic phenomena - conversion of heat to acoustic oscillations - may be harnessed for construction of reliable, practically maintenance-free engines and heat pumps. Specifically, miniaturization of thermoacoustic devices holds great promise for cooling of micro-electronic components. However, as devices size is pushed down to micro-meter scale it is expected that non-negligible slip effects will exist at the solid-fluid interface. Accordingly, new theoretical models for thermoacoustic engines and heat pumps were derived, accounting for a slip boundary condition. These models are essential for the design process of micro-scale thermoacoustic devices that will operate under ultrasonic frequencies. Stability curves for engines - representing the onset of self-sustained oscillations - were calculated with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions, revealing improvement in the performance of engines with slip at the resonance frequency range applicable for micro-scale devices. Maximum achievable temperature differences curves for thermoacoustic heat pumps were calculated, revealing the negative effect of slip on the ability to pump heat up a temperature gradient. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  19. Color quality scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

    2010-03-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

  20. Estimation of local spatial scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of local scale asserts that for a given class of psychophysical measurements, performance at any two visual field locations is equated by magnifying the targets by the local scale associated with each location. Local scale has been hypothesized to be equal to cortical magnification or alternatively to the linear density of receptors or ganglion cells. Here, it is shown that it is possible to estimate local scale without prior knowledge about the scale or its physiological basis.

  1. Mechanism for salt scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  2. Comparing the theoretical versions of the Beaufort scale, the T-Scale and the Fujita scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaden, G. Terence; Kochev, S.; Kolendowicz, L.; Kosa-Kiss, A.; Marcinoniene, Izolda; Sioutas, Michalis; Tooming, Heino; Tyrrell, John

    2007-02-01

    2005 is the bicentenary of the Beaufort Scale and its wind-speed codes: the marine version in 1805 and the land version later. In the 1920s when anemometers had come into general use, the Beaufort Scale was quantified by a formula based on experiment. In the early 1970s two tornado wind-speed scales were proposed: (1) an International T-Scale based on the Beaufort Scale; and (2) Fujita's damage scale developed for North America. The International Beaufort Scale and the T-Scale share a common root in having an integral theoretical relationship with an established scientific basis, whereas Fujita's Scale introduces criteria that make its intensities non-integral with Beaufort. Forces on the T-Scale, where T stands for Tornado force, span the range 0 to 10 which is highly useful world wide. The shorter range of Fujita's Scale (0 to 5) is acceptable for American use but less convenient elsewhere. To illustrate the simplicity of the decimal T-Scale, mean hurricane wind speed of Beaufort 12 is T2 on the T-Scale but F1.121 on the F-Scale; while a tornado wind speed of T9 (= B26) becomes F4.761. However, the three wind scales can be uni-fied by either making F-Scale numbers exactly half the magnitude of T-Scale numbers [i.e. F'half = T / 2 = (B / 4) - 4] or by doubling the numbers of this revised version to give integral equivalence with the T-Scale. The result is a decimal formula F'double = T = (B / 2) - 4 named the TF-Scale where TF stands for Tornado Force. This harmonious 10-digit scale has all the criteria needed for world-wide practical effectiveness.

  3. Nestedness across biological scales.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Mauricio; Pires, Mathias M; Marquitti, Flavia M D; Raimundo, Rafael L G; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P; Perez, S Ivan; Barneche, Diego R; Brandt, Débora Y C; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G; Floeter, Sergio R; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2017-01-01

    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  4. Nestedness across biological scales

    PubMed Central

    Marquitti, Flavia M. D.; Raimundo, Rafael L. G.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P.; Perez, S. Ivan; Brandt, Débora Y. C.; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2017-01-01

    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  5. Reconsidering Fault Slip Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.; Wech, A.; Creager, K. C.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The scaling of fault slip events given by the relationship between the scalar moment M0, and duration T, potentially provides key constraints on the underlying physics controlling slip. Many studies have suggested that measurements of M0 and T are related as M0=KfT3 for 'fast' slip events (earthquakes) and M0=KsT for 'slow' slip events, in which Kf and Ks are proportionality constants, although some studies have inferred intermediate relations. Here 'slow' and 'fast' refer to slip front propagation velocities, either so slow that seismic radiation is too small or long period to be measurable or fast enough that dynamic processes may be important for the slip process and measurable seismic waves radiate. Numerous models have been proposed to explain the differing M0-T scaling relations. We show that a single, simple dislocation model of slip events within a bounded slip zone may explain nearly all M0-T observations. Rather than different scaling for fast and slow populations, we suggest that within each population the scaling changes from M0 proportional to T3 to T when the slipping area reaches the slip zone boundaries and transitions from unbounded, 2-dimensional to bounded, 1-dimensional growth. This transition has not been apparent previously for slow events because data have sampled only the bounded regime and may be obscured for earthquakes when observations from multiple tectonic regions are combined. We have attempted to sample the expected transition between bounded and unbounded regimes for the slow slip population, measuring tremor cluster parameters from catalogs for Japan and Cascadia and using them as proxies for small slow slip event characteristics. For fast events we employed published earthquake slip models. Observations corroborate our hypothesis, but highlight observational difficulties. We find that M0-T observations for both slow and fast slip events, spanning 12 orders of magnitude in M0, are consistent with a single model based on dislocation

  6. Soil organic carbon across scales.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sharon M; Angers, Denis A; Holden, Nicholas M; McBratney, Alex B

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic understanding of scale effects is important for interpreting the processes that control the global carbon cycle. Greater attention should be given to scale in soil organic carbon (SOC) science so that we can devise better policy to protect/enhance existing SOC stocks and ensure sustainable use of soils. Global issues such as climate change require consideration of SOC stock changes at the global and biosphere scale, but human interaction occurs at the landscape scale, with consequences at the pedon, aggregate and particle scales. This review evaluates our understanding of SOC across all these scales in the context of the processes involved in SOC cycling at each scale and with emphasis on stabilizing SOC. Current synergy between science and policy is explored at each scale to determine how well each is represented in the management of SOC. An outline of how SOC might be integrated into a framework of soil security is examined. We conclude that SOC processes at the biosphere to biome scales are not well understood. Instead, SOC has come to be viewed as a large-scale pool subjects to carbon flux. Better understanding exists for SOC processes operating at the scales of the pedon, aggregate and particle. At the landscape scale, the influence of large- and small-scale processes has the greatest interaction and is exposed to the greatest modification through agricultural management. Policy implemented at regional or national scale tends to focus at the landscape scale without due consideration of the larger scale factors controlling SOC or the impacts of policy for SOC at the smaller SOC scales. What is required is a framework that can be integrated across a continuum of scales to optimize SOC management.

  7. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    PubMed

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  8. Spectral multidimensional scaling

    PubMed Central

    Aflalo, Yonathan; Kimmel, Ron

    2013-01-01

    An important tool in information analysis is dimensionality reduction. There are various approaches for large data simplification by scaling its dimensions down that play a significant role in recognition and classification tasks. The efficiency of dimension reduction tools is measured in terms of memory and computational complexity, which are usually a function of the number of the given data points. Sparse local operators that involve substantially less than quadratic complexity at one end, and faithful multiscale models with quadratic cost at the other end, make the design of dimension reduction procedure a delicate balance between modeling accuracy and efficiency. Here, we combine the benefits of both and propose a low-dimensional multiscale modeling of the data, at a modest computational cost. The idea is to project the classical multidimensional scaling problem into the data spectral domain extracted from its Laplace–Beltrami operator. There, embedding into a small dimensional Euclidean space is accomplished while optimizing for a small number of coefficients. We provide a theoretical support and demonstrate that working in the natural eigenspace of the data, one could reduce the process complexity while maintaining the model fidelity. As examples, we efficiently canonize nonrigid shapes by embedding their intrinsic metric into , a method often used for matching and classifying almost isometric articulated objects. Finally, we demonstrate the method by exposing the style in which handwritten digits appear in a large collection of images. We also visualize clustering of digits by treating images as feature points that we map to a plane. PMID:24108352

  9. Scaling the Kondo lattice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-feng; Fisk, Zachary; Lee, Han-Oh; Thompson, J D; Pines, David

    2008-07-31

    The origin of magnetic order in metals has two extremes: an instability in a liquid of local magnetic moments interacting through conduction electrons, and a spin-density wave instability in a Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons. This dichotomy between 'local-moment' magnetism and 'itinerant-electron' magnetism is reminiscent of the valence bond/molecular orbital dichotomy present in studies of chemical bonding. The class of heavy-electron intermetallic compounds of cerium, ytterbium and various 5f elements bridges the extremes, with itinerant-electron magnetic characteristics at low temperatures that grow out of a high-temperature local-moment state. Describing this transition quantitatively has proved difficult, and one of the main unsolved problems is finding what determines the temperature scale for the evolution of this behaviour. Here we present a simple, semi-quantitative solution to this problem that provides a basic framework for interpreting the physics of heavy-electron materials and offers the prospect of a quantitative determination of the physical origin of their magnetic ordering and superconductivity. It also reveals the difference between the temperature scales that distinguish the conduction electrons' response to a single magnetic impurity and their response to a lattice of local moments, and provides an updated version of the well-known Doniach diagram.

  10. Scaling in Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about subway systems and more than railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

  11. Scale in Education Research: Towards a Multi-Scale Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article explores some theoretical and methodological problems concerned with scale in education research through a critique of a recent mixed-method project. The project was framed by scale metaphors drawn from the physical and earth sciences and I consider how recent thinking around scale, for example, in ecosystems and human geography might…

  12. A Validity Scale for the Sharp Consumer Satisfaction Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Barry A.; Stacy, Webb, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A validity scale for the Sharp Consumer Satisfaction Scale was developed and used in experiments to assess patients' satisfaction with community mental health centers. The scale discriminated between clients who offered suggestions and those who did not. It also improved researcher's ability to predict true scores from obtained scores. (DWH)

  13. Returns to Scale and Economies of Scale: Further Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Gregory M.; Mitchell, Douglas W.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that most economics textbooks continue to repeat past mistakes concerning returns to scale and economies of scale under assumptions of constant and nonconstant input prices. Provides an adaptation for a calculus-based intermediate microeconomics class that demonstrates the pointwise relationship between returns to scale and economies of…

  14. Pitch-Scale Modification using the Modulated Aspiration Noise Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-21

    processing tool Praat , which arrives at a periodicity measure by a forward cross-correlation analysis [12]. The pitch value is also needed in the...cussion. 8. References K. N. Stevens, Acoustic Phonetics . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998. Y. Stylianou, J. Laroche, and E. Moulines, "High...components in speech," IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 713-726, 2001. ] " Praat ," version 4.4.04. P. Boersma and D. Weenink.

  15. Global scale precipitation from monthly to centennial scales: empirical space-time scaling analysis, anthropogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to

  16. Scaling laws in cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Kello, Christopher T; Brown, Gordon D A; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Holden, John G; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Rhodes, Theo; Van Orden, Guy C

    2010-05-01

    Scaling laws are ubiquitous in nature, and they pervade neural, behavioral and linguistic activities. A scaling law suggests the existence of processes or patterns that are repeated across scales of analysis. Although the variables that express a scaling law can vary from one type of activity to the next, the recurrence of scaling laws across so many different systems has prompted a search for unifying principles. In biological systems, scaling laws can reflect adaptive processes of various types and are often linked to complex systems poised near critical points. The same is true for perception, memory, language and other cognitive phenomena. Findings of scaling laws in cognitive science are indicative of scaling invariance in cognitive mechanisms and multiplicative interactions among interdependent components of cognition.

  17. Earthquake impact scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  18. Westside Test Anxiety Scale Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…

  19. The Rapid Induction Susceptibility Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Roger A.; Handley, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Developed Rapid Induction Susceptibility Scale using Chiasson induction to produce hypnotic susceptibility scale which is quickly administered and yields scores comparable to the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C). Found that validation study with college students (N=100) produced a correlation of .88 with the SHSS:C and…

  20. Micromechanical silicon precision scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oja, Aarne S.; Sillanpaa, Teuvo; Seppae, H.; Kiihamaki, Jyrki; Seppala, P.; Karttunen, Jani; Riski, Kari

    2000-04-01

    A micro machined capacitive silicon scale has been designed and fabricated. It is intended for weighing masses on the order of 1 g at the resolution of about 1 ppm and below. The device consists of a micro machined SOI chip which is anodically bonded to a glass chip. The flexible electrode is formed in the SOI device layer. The other electrode is metallized on the glass and is divided into three sections. The sections are used for detecting tilting of the top electrode due to a possible off-centering of the mass load. The measuring circuit implements electrostatic force feedback and keeps the top electrode at a constant horizontal position irrespective of its mass loading. First measurements have demonstrated the stability allowing measurement of 1 g masses at an accuracy of 2...3 ppm.

  1. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  2. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  3. The Children's Loneliness Scale.

    PubMed

    Maes, Marlies; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Vanhalst, Janne; Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined the factor structure and construct validity of the Children's Loneliness Scale (CLS), a popular measure of childhood loneliness, in Belgian children. Analyses were conducted on two samples of fifth and sixth graders in Belgium, for a total of 1,069 children. A single-factor structure proved superior to alternative solutions proposed in the literature, when taking item wording into account. Construct validity was shown by substantial associations with related constructs, based on both self-reported (e.g., depressive symptoms and low social self-esteem), and peer-reported variables (e.g., victimization). Furthermore, a significant association was found between the CLS and a peer-reported measure of loneliness. Collectively, these findings provide a solid foundation for the continuing use of the CLS as a measure of childhood loneliness.

  4. In Brief: Scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Here's one for Guinness or maybe Ripley: The Worlds's largest scale model of the solar system begins at a museum in Peoria, Ill., and extends geographically as far away as Ecuador and the South Pole. In the model, which was developed by the museum's deputy director Sheldon Schafer, 42 feet equal about 1 million miles. The Sun, which is 36-feet wide, is painted on the dome of the Lakeview Museum's planetarium in Peoria. Mercury, which is 1.5 inches across, can be found at a nearby store; Venus sits in a local bank lobby; Earth is lodged at a gas station; and Mars at a radio station. "The idea is that people will encounter a little bit of astronomy in the walks of their daily lives," Schafer says.

  5. In Brief: Scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Here's one for Guinness or maybe Ripley: The Worlds's largest scale model of the solar system begins at a museum in Peoria, Ill., and extends geographically as far away as Ecuador and the South Pole. In the model, which was developed by the museum's deputy director Sheldon Schafer, 42 feet equal about 1 million miles. The Sun, which is 36-feet wide, is painted on the dome of the Lakeview Museum's planetarium in Peoria. Mercury, which is 1.5 inches across, can be found at a nearby store; Venus sits in a local bank lobby; Earth is lodged at a gas station; and Mars at a radio station. “The idea is that people will encounter a little bit of astronomy in the walks of their daily lives,” Schafer says.

  6. Extreme Scale Computational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-11-01

    We live in extraordinary times. With increasingly sophisticated observatories opening up new vistas on the universe, astrophysics is becoming more complex and data-driven. The success in understanding astrophysical systems that are inherently multi-physical, nonlinear systems demands realism in our models of the phenomena. We cannot hope to advance the realism of these models to match the expected sophistication of future observations without extreme-scale computation. Just one example is the advent of gravitational wave astronomy. Detectors like LIGO are about to make the first ever detection of gravitational waves. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. I will discuss the computational and theoretical challenges ahead in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.

  7. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  8. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  9. A Case Report of Dissociative Neurosis (Depersonalization Disorder) in an Adolescent Treated with Family Therapy and Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollinger, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of behavioral procedures as part of systems-oriented family therapy for the treatment of an adolescent girl's functional blackouts. Treatment successfully eliminated blackouts without directly addressing clear psychosexual issues. Discusses the case in terms of conceptualizing etiology and treatments and advocates working with…

  10. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  11. Solar system to scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  12. Tipping the scales.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    In the US, the October 1998 murder of a physician who performed abortions was an outward manifestation of the insidious battle against legal abortion being waged by radical Christian social conservatives seeking to transform the US democracy into a theocracy. This movement has been documented in a publication entitled, "Tipping the Scales: The Christian Right's Legal Crusade Against Choice" produced as a result of a 4-year investigation conducted by The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. This publication describes how these fundamentalists have used sophisticated legal, lobbying, and communication strategies to further their goals of challenging the separation of church and state, opposing family planning and sexuality education that is not based solely on abstinence, promoting school prayer, and restricting homosexual rights. The movement has resulted in the introduction of more than 300 anti-abortion bills in states, 50 of which have passed in 23 states. Most Christian fundamentalist groups provide free legal representation to abortion clinic terrorists, and some groups solicit women to bring specious malpractice claims against providers. Sophisticated legal tactics are used by these groups to remove the taint of extremism and mask the danger posed to US constitutional principles being posed by "a well-financed and zealous brand of radical lawyers and their supporters."

  13. Turbulent scaling in fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, R.; Li, Ning; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yuanming

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a study of turbulence in fluids that are subject to different body forces and to external temperature gradients. Our focus was on the recent theoretical prediction that the Kolomogorov picture of turbulence may need to be modified for turbulent flows driven by buoyancy and subject to body forces such as rotational accelerations. Models arising from this research are important in global climate modeling, in turbulent transport problems, and in the fundamental understanding of fluid turbulence. Experimentally, we use (1) precision measurements of heat transport and local temperature; (2) flow visualization using digitally- enhanced optical shadowgraphs, particle-image velocimetry, thermochromic liquid-crystal imaging, laser-doppler velocimetry, and photochromic dye imaging; and (3) advanced image- processing techniques. Our numerical simulations employ standard spectral and novel lattice Boltzmann algorithms implemented on parallel Connection Machine computers to simulate turbulent fluid flow. In laboratory experiments on incompressible fluids, we measure probability distribution functions and two-point spatial correlations of temperature T and velocity V (both T-T and V-T correlations) and determine scaling relations for global heat transport with Rayleigh number. We also explore the mechanism for turbulence in thermal convection and the stability of the thermal boundary layer.

  14. Lightning Scaling Laws Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, D. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Scaling laws relating storm electrical generator power (and hence lightning flash rate) to charge transport velocity and storm geometry were originally posed by Vonnegut (1963). These laws were later simplified to yield simple parameterizations for lightning based upon cloud top height, with separate parameterizations derived over land and ocean. It is demonstrated that the most recent ocean parameterization: (1) yields predictions of storm updraft velocity which appear inconsistent with observation, and (2) is formally inconsistent with the theory from which it purports to derive. Revised formulations consistent with Vonnegut's original framework are presented. These demonstrate that Vonnegut's theory is, to first order, consistent with observation. The implications of assuming that flash rate is set by the electrical generator power, rather than the electrical generator current, are examined. The two approaches yield significantly different predictions about the dependence of charge transfer per flash on storm dimensions, which should be empirically testable. The two approaches also differ significantly in their explanation of regional variability in lightning observations.

  15. UltraScale Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, , Jr.

    1997-08-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Information Technology Office (DARPA/ITO) supports research in technology for defense-critical applications. Defense Applications are always insatiable consumers of computing. Futuristic applications such as automated image interpretation/whole vehicle radar-cross-section/real-time prototyping/faster-than-real-time simulation will require computing capabilities orders-of-magnitude beyond the best performance that can be projected from contemporary scalable parallel processors. To reach beyond the silicon digital paradigm, DARPA has initiated a program in UltraScale Computing to explore the domain of innovative computational models, methods, and mechanisms. The objective is to encourage a complete re-thinking of computing. Novel architectures, program synthesis, and execution environments are needed as well as alternative underlying physical mechanisms including molecular, biological, optical and quantum mechanical processes. Development of these advanced computing technologies will offer spectacular performance and cost improvements beyond the threshold of traditional materials and processes. The talk will focus on novel approaches for employing vastly more computational units than shrinking transistors will enable and exploration of the biological options for solving computationally difficult problems.

  16. Large scale traffic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Barrett, C.L. |; Rickert, M. |

    1997-04-01

    Large scale microscopic (i.e. vehicle-based) traffic simulations pose high demands on computational speed in at least two application areas: (i) real-time traffic forecasting, and (ii) long-term planning applications (where repeated {open_quotes}looping{close_quotes} between the microsimulation and the simulated planning of individual person`s behavior is necessary). As a rough number, a real-time simulation of an area such as Los Angeles (ca. 1 million travellers) will need a computational speed of much higher than 1 million {open_quotes}particle{close_quotes} (= vehicle) updates per second. This paper reviews how this problem is approached in different projects and how these approaches are dependent both on the specific questions and on the prospective user community. The approaches reach from highly parallel and vectorizable, single-bit implementations on parallel supercomputers for Statistical Physics questions, via more realistic implementations on coupled workstations, to more complicated driving dynamics implemented again on parallel supercomputers. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Scaling of structural failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chen, Er-Ping

    1997-01-01

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  18. Large scale tracking algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  19. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    SciTech Connect

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  20. Fractionating the unitary notion of dissociation: disembodied but not embodied dissociative experiences are associated with exocentric perspective-taking

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Jason J.; James, Kelly; Dewe, Hayley; Medford, Nick; Takahashi, Chie; Kessler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that hallucinations which appear to involve shifts in egocentric perspective (e.g., the out-of-body experience, OBE) reflect specific biases in exocentric perspective-taking processes. Via a newly devised perspective-taking task, we examined whether such biases in perspective-taking were present in relation to specific dissociative anomalous body experiences (ABE) – namely the OBE. Participants also completed the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; Sierra and Berrios, 2000) which provided measures of additional embodied ABE (unreality of self) and measures of derealization (unreality of surroundings). There were no reliable differences in the level of ABE, emotional numbing, and anomalies in sensory recall reported between the OBE and control group as measured by the corresponding CDS subscales. In contrast, the OBE group did provide significantly elevated measures of derealization (“alienation from surroundings” CDS subscale) relative to the control group. At the same time we also found that the OBE group was significantly more efficient at completing all aspects of the perspective-taking task relative to controls. Collectively, the current findings support fractionating the typically unitary notion of dissociation by proposing a distinction between embodied dissociative experiences and disembodied dissociative experiences – with only the latter being associated with exocentric perspective-taking mechanisms. Our findings – obtained with an ecologically valid task and a homogeneous OBE group – also call for a re-evaluation of the relationship between OBEs and perspective-taking in terms of facilitated disembodied experiences. PMID:24198776

  1. Fractionating the unitary notion of dissociation: disembodied but not embodied dissociative experiences are associated with exocentric perspective-taking.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jason J; James, Kelly; Dewe, Hayley; Medford, Nick; Takahashi, Chie; Kessler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that hallucinations which appear to involve shifts in egocentric perspective (e.g., the out-of-body experience, OBE) reflect specific biases in exocentric perspective-taking processes. Via a newly devised perspective-taking task, we examined whether such biases in perspective-taking were present in relation to specific dissociative anomalous body experiences (ABE) - namely the OBE. Participants also completed the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; Sierra and Berrios, 2000) which provided measures of additional embodied ABE (unreality of self) and measures of derealization (unreality of surroundings). There were no reliable differences in the level of ABE, emotional numbing, and anomalies in sensory recall reported between the OBE and control group as measured by the corresponding CDS subscales. In contrast, the OBE group did provide significantly elevated measures of derealization ("alienation from surroundings" CDS subscale) relative to the control group. At the same time we also found that the OBE group was significantly more efficient at completing all aspects of the perspective-taking task relative to controls. Collectively, the current findings support fractionating the typically unitary notion of dissociation by proposing a distinction between embodied dissociative experiences and disembodied dissociative experiences - with only the latter being associated with exocentric perspective-taking mechanisms. Our findings - obtained with an ecologically valid task and a homogeneous OBE group - also call for a re-evaluation of the relationship between OBEs and perspective-taking in terms of facilitated disembodied experiences.

  2. Environmental complexity across scales: mechanism, scaling and the phenomenological fallacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Van Leeuwenhoek used a microscope to discover "new worlds in a drop of water" we have become used to the idea that "zooming in" - whether in space or in time - will reveal new processes, new phenomena. Yet in the natural environment - geosystems - this is often wrong. For example, in the temporal domain, a recent publication has shown that from hours to hundreds of millions of years the conventional scale bound view of atmospheric variability was wrong by a factor of over a quadrillion (10**15). Mandelbrot challenged the "scale bound" ideology and proposed that many natural systems - including many geosystems - were instead better treated as fractal systems in which the same basic mechanism acts over potentially huge ranges of scale. However, in its original form Mandelbrot's isotropic scaling (self-similar) idea turned out to be too naïve: geosystems are typically anisotropic so that shapes and morphologies (e.g. of clouds landmasses) are not the same at different resolutions. However it turns out that the scaling idea often still applies on condition that the notion of scale is generalized appropriately (using the framework of Generalized Scale Invariance). The overall result is that unique processes, unique dynamical mechanisms may act over huge ranges of scale even though the morphologies systematically change with scale. Therefore the common practice of inferring mechanism from shapes, forms, morphologies is unjustified, the "phenomenological fallacy". We give examples of the phenomenological fallacy drawn from diverse areas of geoscience.

  3. Cryptic individual scaling relationships and the evolution of morphological scaling.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Austin P; Saleh Ziabari, Omid; Swanson, Eli M; Chawla, Akshita; Frankino, W Anthony; Shingleton, Alexander W

    2016-08-01

    Morphological scaling relationships between organ and body size-also known as allometries-describe the shape of a species, and the evolution of such scaling relationships is central to the generation of morphological diversity. Despite extensive modeling and empirical tests, however, the modes of selection that generate changes in scaling remain largely unknown. Here, we mathematically model the evolution of the group-level scaling as an emergent property of individual-level variation in the developmental mechanisms that regulate trait and body size. We show that these mechanisms generate a "cryptic individual scaling relationship" unique to each genotype in a population, which determines body and trait size expressed by each individual, depending on developmental nutrition. We find that populations may have identical population-level allometries but very different underlying patterns of cryptic individual scaling relationships. Consequently, two populations with apparently the same morphological scaling relationship may respond very differently to the same form of selection. By focusing on the developmental mechanisms that regulate trait size and the patterns of cryptic individual scaling relationships they produce, our approach reveals the forms of selection that should be most effective in altering morphological scaling, and directs researcher attention on the actual, hitherto overlooked, targets of selection.

  4. Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lydia

    This book examines how the underlying linguistic competence of second language (L2) learners is constrained by the same universal principals governing natural language. It is assumed that there is an innately given universal grammar (UG) which constrains L1 grammars, limiting the kinds of hypotheses that L1 acquirers entertain about the nature of…

  5. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

    A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing: A…

  6. The "elephant man" of Cambridge. a case report of neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Rai, G S; Coni, N K

    1981-03-01

    The case is presented of a 65-year-old man with neurofibromatosis manifesting facial and skeletal features resembling those of the "elephant man" described by Sir Frederick Treves. Autopsy revealed not only a pheochromocytoma (a common accompaniment of neurofibromatosis), but an enlarged infarcted spleen and a subphrenic abscess. These findings have not been described previously in a patient with neurofibromatosis.

  7. Imitation in Infancy. Cambridge Studies in Cognitive and Perceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadel, Jacqueline, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Modern research has suggested that imitation is a natural mechanism of learning and communication, yet the possibility of imitation in newborn humans has been controversial. This book looks at evidence for innate imitation in babies. The chapters in the first section of the book reassess the Piagetian tradition, especially concerning the relation…

  8. The Cambridge Dictionary of Space Technology, Second Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Mark

    2001-03-01

    Preface and user's guide; Acknowledgements; The dictionary; Classified list of dictionary entries: 1. Spacecraft technology; 2. Communications technology; 3. Propulsion technology; 4. Launch vehicle technology; 5. Space Shuttle; 6. Manned spaceflight; 7. Unmanned spacecraft; 8. Materials; 9. Propellants; 10. Orbits; 11. Physics and astronomy; 12. Space centres and organisations; 13. Miscellaneous.

  9. Managing Organization Vitality. M.S. Thesis - MIT, Cambridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, G. P., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The three major objectives are: (1) to measure the extent to which the organization renewal techniques have been adopted by organizations in both the private and public sectors; (2) to determine the overall results of these applications; and (3) to test a number of specific hypotheses regarding situational determinants of the success of this approach. It appears that top management involvement is the single most crucial determinant of the success of organization renewal. Organization renewal has considerable potential for increasing the commitment of individuals, and can have a significant positive influence on the results of the organization.

  10. The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    This book explores the development of creoles and other new languages, highlighting conceptual and methodological issues for genetic linguistics and discussing the significance of ecologies that influence language evolution. It presents examples of changes in the structure, function, and vitality of languages, suggesting that similar ecologies…

  11. Learning about Intermolecular Interactions from the Cambridge Structural Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    A clear understanding and appreciation of noncovalent interactions, especially hydrogen bonding, are vitally important to students of chemistry and the life sciences, including biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The opportunities afforded by the IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions to enhance the…

  12. Language and the Brain. Cambridge Approaches to Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obler, Loraine K.; Gjerlow, Kris

    This book examines how the brain enables people to speak creatively and build up an understanding of language. The discussion looks at the linguistic and neuro-anatomical underpinnings of language and considers how language skills can systematically break down in individuals with different types of brain damage. By studying children with language…

  13. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  14. How the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre Obtains its Information

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the acquisition of supplementary information, both hard-copy and electronic. Special arrangements with major journals are discussed and plans announced for the deposition of private communications using an electronic deposition form. PMID:27805173

  15. Assessment of Cognitive Scales to Examine Memory, Executive Function and Language in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Implications of a 6-month Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liogier d'Ardhuy, Xavier; Edgin, Jamie O.; Bouis, Charles; de Sola, Susana; Goeldner, Celia; Kishnani, Priya; Nöldeke, Jana; Rice, Sydney; Sacco, Silvia; Squassante, Lisa; Spiridigliozzi, Gail; Visootsak, Jeannie; Heller, James; Khwaja, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identifiable genetic form of intellectual disability. Individuals with DS have considerable deficits in intellectual functioning (i.e., low intellectual quotient, delayed learning and/or impaired language development) and adaptive behavior. Previous pharmacological studies in this population have been limited by a lack of appropriate endpoints that accurately measured change in cognitive and functional abilities. Therefore, the current longitudinal observational study assessed the suitability and reliability of existing cognitive scales to determine which tools would be the most effective in future interventional clinical studies. Subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool-2 (CELF-P-2), and the Observer Memory Questionnaire-Parent Form (OMQ-PF), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®–Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised were assessed. The results reported here have contributed to the optimization of trial design and endpoint selection for the Phase 2 study of a new selective negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor α5-subtype (Basmisanil), and can be applied to other studies in the DS population. PMID:26635554

  16. Scaling behaviour in the number of criminal acts committed by individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Will; Ormerod, Paul; Cooper, Ellie

    2004-07-01

    We examine the distribution of the extent of criminal activity by individuals in two widely cited data bases. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development records criminal convictions amongst a group of working class youths in the UK over a 14 year period. The Pittsburgh Youth Study measures self-reported criminal acts over intervals of six months or a year in three groups of boys in the public school system in Pittsburgh, PA. The range of the data is very substantially different between these two measures of criminal activity, one of which is convictions and the other self-reported acts. However, there are many similarities between the characteristics of the data sets. A power law relationship between the frequency and rank of the number of criminal acts describes the data well in both cases, and fits the data better than an exponential relationship. Power law distributions of macroscopic observables are ubiquitous in both the natural and social sciences. They are indicative of correlated, cooperative phenomena between groups of interacting agents at the microscopic level. However, there is evidence of a bimodal distribution, again in each case. Excluding the frequency with which zero crimes are committed or reported reduces the absolute size of the estimated exponent in the power law relationship. The exponent is virtually identical in both cases. A better fit is obtained for the tail of the distribution. In other words, there appears to be a subtle deviation from straightforward power law behaviour. The description of the data when the number of boys committing or reporting zero crimes are excluded is different from that when they are included. The crucial step in the criminal progress of an individual appears to be committing the first act. Once this happens, the number of criminal acts committed by an individual can take place on all scales.

  17. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Full Scale Tunnel (FST) power plant. Virginia Public Service Company could not supply adequate electricity to run the wind tunnels being built at Langley. (The Propeller Research Tunnel was powered by two submarine diesel engines.) This led to the consideration of a number of different ideas for generating electric power to drive the fan motors in the FST. The main proposition involved two 3000 hp and two 1000 hp diesel engines with directly connected generators. Another, proposition suggested 30 Liberty motors driving 600 hp DC generators in pairs. For a month, engineers at Langley were hopeful they could secure additional diesel engines from decommissioned Navy T-boats but the Navy could not offer a firm commitment regarding the future status of the submarines. By mid-December 1929, Virginia Public Service Company had agreed to supply service to the field at the north end of the King Street Bridge connecting Hampton and Langley Field. Thus, new plans for FST powerplant and motors were made. Smith DeFrance described the motors in NACA TR No. 459: 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the FST it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed.'

  18. Excitable scale free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copelli, M.; Campos, P. R. A.

    2007-04-01

    When a simple excitable system is continuously stimulated by a Poissonian external source, the response function (mean activity versus stimulus rate) generally shows a linear saturating shape. This is experimentally verified in some classes of sensory neurons, which accordingly present a small dynamic range (defined as the interval of stimulus intensity which can be appropriately coded by the mean activity of the excitable element), usually about one or two decades only. The brain, on the other hand, can handle a significantly broader range of stimulus intensity, and a collective phenomenon involving the interaction among excitable neurons has been suggested to account for the enhancement of the dynamic range. Since the role of the pattern of such interactions is still unclear, here we investigate the performance of a scale-free (SF) network topology in this dynamic range problem. Specifically, we study the transfer function of disordered SF networks of excitable Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. We observe that the dynamic range is maximum when the coupling among the elements is critical, corroborating a general reasoning recently proposed. Although the maximum dynamic range yielded by general SF networks is slightly worse than that of random networks, for special SF networks which lack loops the enhancement of the dynamic range can be dramatic, reaching nearly five decades. In order to understand the role of loops on the transfer function we propose a simple model in which the density of loops in the network can be gradually increased, and show that this is accompanied by a gradual decrease of dynamic range.

  19. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-12-08

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  20. Plague and climate: scales matter.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Ben Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Gage, Kenneth L; Kreppel, Katharina; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-09-01

    Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts) of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations.

  1. Tracing pyrogenic carbon suspended in rivers on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemeier, Daniel B.; Haghipour, Negar; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2016-04-01

    al. 2015. Aromaticity and degree of aromatic condensation of char. Organic Geochemistry 78, 135-143. Mitra, S. et al. 2013. Black carbon in coastal and large river systems. In: Biogeochemical Dynamics at Major River-Coastal Interfaces: Linkages with Global Change, pp. 200-234. Cambridge University Press. Wiedemeier, D.B. et al. 2013. Improved assessment of pyrogenic carbon quantity and quality in environmental samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 1304, 246-250. Gierga, M. et al. 2014. Purification of fire-derived markers for μg scale isotope analysis (δ13C, Δ14C) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Organic Geochemistry 70, 1-9.

  2. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal. PMID:28374825

  3. Contradictory correlations between derived scales.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M J; Hand, D J; Everitt, B S

    1991-08-01

    In a clinical trial one scale of pain relief is scored backwards relative to another (high on one corresponding to low on the other), with a consequent large negative correlation. But two derived scales of total pain, obtained by multiplying average pain relief on each scale by duration of pain (common to both pain relief measurements) gave an almost zero correlation. This apparent contradiction is explained by the inverse relationship between the pain relief scales and the large differences in duration of pain experienced by the patients.

  4. Time scale independent signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltin, L.

    1980-05-01

    The paper presents a method which permits the conversion of time scale variations occurring during signal transmission into time shifts proportionally related to these variations. It is demonstrated that the method can be used to reject the adverse effects of the time scale variations (such as wow and flutter in magnetic tape recordings) and/or to determine the scale change exactly (such as would be required in Doppler signal processing). Finally, it is noted that since the system performance degrades with rising frequency of the time scale distortions, an upper bound for this frequency is derived.

  5. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  6. Mechanically reliable scales and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Alexander, K.B.

    1995-07-01

    As the first stage in examining the mechanical reliability of protective surface oxides, the behavior of alumina scales formed on iron-aluminum alloys during high-temperature cyclic oxidation was characterized in terms of damage and spallation tendencies. Scales were thermally grown on specimens of three iron-aluminum composition using a series of exposures to air at 1000{degrees}C. Gravimetric data and microscopy revealed substantially better integrity and adhesion of the scales grown on an alloy containing zirconium. The use of polished (rather than just ground) specimens resulted in scales that were more suitable for subsequent characterization of mechanical reliability.

  7. Extended scaling in high dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, B.; Chatelain, C.; Dhall, C.; Kenna, R.; Low, R.; Walter, J.-C.

    2008-11-01

    We apply and test the recently proposed 'extended scaling' scheme in an analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of Ising systems above the upper critical dimension. The data are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations using both the conventional Wolff cluster algorithm and the Prokof'ev-Svistunov worm algorithm. As already observed for other models, extended scaling is shown to extend the high-temperature critical scaling regime over a range of temperatures much wider than that achieved conventionally. It allows for an accurate determination of leading and sub-leading scaling indices, critical temperatures and amplitudes of the confluent corrections.

  8. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH SIX DIFFERENT MATERIALS. MIX SIFTED DOWN FROM SILOS ABOVE. INGREDIENTS: SAND, SODA ASH, DOLOMITE LIMESTONE, NEPHELINE SYENITE, SALT CAKE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. Validating Large Scale Networks Using Temporary Local Scale Networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA NRCS Soil Climate Analysis Network and NOAA Climate Reference Networks are nationwide meteorological and land surface data networks with soil moisture measurements in the top layers of soil. There is considerable interest in scaling these point measurements to larger scales for validating ...

  10. Drift Scale THM Model

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist

    2004-10-07

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a

  11. Scale invariance vs conformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this review article, we discuss the distinction and possible equivalence between scale invariance and conformal invariance in relativistic quantum field theories. Under some technical assumptions, we can prove that scale invariant quantum field theories in d = 2 space-time dimensions necessarily possess the enhanced conformal symmetry. The use of the conformal symmetry is well appreciated in the literature, but the fact that all the scale invariant phenomena in d = 2 space-time dimensions enjoy the conformal property relies on the deep structure of the renormalization group. The outstanding question is whether this feature is specific to d = 2 space-time dimensions or it holds in higher dimensions, too. As of January 2014, our consensus is that there is no known example of scale invariant but non-conformal field theories in d = 4 space-time dimensions under the assumptions of (1) unitarity, (2) Poincaré invariance (causality), (3) discrete spectrum in scaling dimensions, (4) existence of scale current and (5) unbroken scale invariance in the vacuum. We have a perturbative proof of the enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance based on the higher dimensional analogue of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem, but the non-perturbative proof is yet to come. As a reference we have tried to collect as many interesting examples of scale invariance in relativistic quantum field theories as possible in this article. We give a complementary holographic argument based on the energy-condition of the gravitational system and the space-time diffeomorphism in order to support the claim of the symmetry enhancement. We believe that the possible enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance reveals the sublime nature of the renormalization group and space-time with holography. This review is based on a lecture note on scale invariance vs conformal invariance, on which the author gave lectures at Taiwan Central University for the 5th Taiwan School on Strings and

  12. Disparity Gradients and Depth Scaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    points. This depth scaling effect is discussed in a computational framework of stereo based on a Baysian (continued on back)_ D D F~~ 14 73 EDTION 01 1NOV...stimuli than for points. This depth scaling effect is discussed in a computational framework of stereo based on a Baysian approach ’which allows to

  13. Children's Scale Errors with Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Krista; Eshleman, Angelica; Greene, Kimberly; Terziyan, Treysi

    2011-01-01

    Children sometimes make "scale errors," attempting to interact with tiny object replicas as though they were full size. Here, we demonstrate that instrumental tools provide special insight into the origins of scale errors and, moreover, into the broader nature of children's purpose-guided reasoning and behavior with objects. In Study 1, 1.5- to…

  14. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Adams, Cheryll M.; Cross, Tracy L.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the…

  15. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  16. Spiritual Competency Scale: Further Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…

  17. Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

  18. The Callier-Azusa Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, Robert D., Ed.

    Presented is the Callier-Azusa Scale designed to aid in the assessment of deaf-blind and multihandicapped children in the areas of motor development, perceptual abilities, daily living skills, language development, and socialization. The scale is said to be predicated on the assumption that given the appropriate environment all children follow the…

  19. A Scale of Mobbing Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop the Mobbing Impacts Scale and to examine its validity and reliability analyses. The sample of study consisted of 509 teachers from Sakarya. In this study construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities and item analysis of the scale were examined. As a result of factor analysis for…

  20. Profile Analysis: Multidimensional Scaling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody S.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines an exploratory multidimensional scaling-based approach to profile analysis called Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) (M. Davison, 1994). The PAMS model has the advantages of being applied to samples of any size easily, classifying persons on a continuum, and using person profile index for further hypothesis studies, but…

  1. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  2. Chip-scale microscopy imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoan

    2012-08-01

    Chip-scale microscopy imaging platforms are pivotal for improving the efficiency of modern biomedical and bioscience experiments. Their integration with other lab-on-a-chip techniques would allow rapid, reliable and high-throughput sample analysis for applications in diverse disciplines. In typical chip-scale microscopy imaging platforms, the light path can be generalized to the following steps: photons leave the light source, interact with the sample and finally are detected by the sensor. Based on the light path of these platforms, the current review aims to provide some insights on design strategies for chip-scale microscopy. Specifically, we analyze current chip-scale microscopy approaches from three aspects: illumination design, sample manipulation and substrate/imager modification. We also discuss some opportunities for future developments of chip-scale microscopy, such as time multiplexed structured illumination and hydrodynamic focusing for high throughput sample manipulation.

  3. Rasch rating scale analysis of the Attitudes Toward Research Scale.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Elena C; Schumacker, Randall

    2014-01-01

    College students may view research methods courses with negative attitudes, however, few studies have investigated this issue due to the lack of instruments that measure the students' attitudes towards research. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Attitudes Toward Research Scale using Rasch rating scale analysis. Assessment of attitudes toward research is essential to determine if students have negative attitudes towards research and assist instructors in better facilitation of learning research methods in their courses. The results of this study have shown that a thirty item Attitudes Toward Research Scale yielded scores with high person and item reliability.

  4. Important Scaling Parameters for Testing Model-Scale Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the effects of aerodynamic and aeroelastic scaling parameters on model scale helicopter rotors has been conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The effect of varying Reynolds number, blade Lock number, and structural elasticity on rotor performance has been studied and the performance results are discussed herein for two different rotor blade sets at two rotor advance ratios. One set of rotor blades were rigid and the other set of blades were dynamically scaled to be representative of a main rotor design for a utility class helicopter. The investigation was con-densities permits the acquisition of data for several Reynolds and Lock number combinations.

  5. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  6. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  7. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  8. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  9. Weyl current, scale-invariant inflation, and Planck scale generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2017-02-01

    Scalar fields, ϕi, can be coupled nonminimally to curvature and satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, including MP=0 ; (ii) the ϕi have arbitrary values and gradients, but undergo a general expansion and relaxation to constant values that satisfy a nontrivial constraint, K (ϕi)=constant; (iii) this constraint breaks scale symmetry spontaneously, and the Planck mass is dynamically generated; (iv) there can be adequate inflation associated with slow roll in a scale-invariant potential subject to the constraint; (v) the final vacuum can have a small to vanishing cosmological constant; (vi) large hierarchies in vacuum expectation values can naturally form; (vii) there is a harmless dilaton which naturally eludes the usual constraints on massless scalars. These models are governed by a global Weyl scale symmetry and its conserved current, Kμ. At the quantum level the Weyl scale symmetry can be maintained by an invariant specification of renormalized quantities.

  10. Scale-dependent halo bias from scale-dependent growth

    SciTech Connect

    Parfrey, Kyle; Hui, Lam; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2011-03-15

    We derive a general expression for the large-scale halo bias, in theories with a scale-dependent linear growth, using the excursion set formalism. Such theories include modified-gravity models, and models in which the dark energy clustering is non-negligible. A scale dependence is imprinted in both the formation and evolved biases by the scale-dependent growth. Mergers are accounted for in our derivation, which thus extends earlier work which focused on passive evolution. There is a simple analytic form for the bias for those theories in which the nonlinear collapse of perturbations is approximately the same as in general relativity. As an illustration, we apply our results to a simple Yukawa modification of gravity, and use Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the clustering of luminous red galaxies to constrain the theory's parameters.

  11. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) balance. Smith DeFrance described the 6-component type balance in NACA TR No. 459 (which also includes a schematic diagram of the balance and its various parts). 'Ball and socket fittings at the top of each of the struts hod the axles of the airplane to be tested; the tail is attached to the triangular frame. These struts are secured to the turntable, which is attached to the floating frame. This frame rests on the struts (next to the concrete piers on all four corners), which transmit the lift forces to the scales (partially visible on the left). The drag linkage is attached to the floating frame on the center line and, working against a known counterweight, transmits the drag force to the scale (center, face out). The cross-wind force linkages are attached to the floating frame on the front and rear sides at the center line. These linkages, working against known counterweights, transmit the cross-wind force to scales (two front scales, face in). In the above manner the forces in three directions are measured and by combining the forces and the proper lever arms, the pitching, rolling, and yawing moments can be computed. The scales are of the dial type and are provided with solenoid-operated printing devices. When the proper test condition is obtained, a push-button switch is momentarily closed and the readings on all seven scales are recorded simultaneously, eliminating the possibility of personal errors.'

  12. Scaling limits of a model for selection at two scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shishi; Mattingly, Jonathan C.

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of a population undergoing selection is a central topic in evolutionary biology. This question is particularly intriguing in the case where selective forces act in opposing directions at two population scales. For example, a fast-replicating virus strain outcompetes slower-replicating strains at the within-host scale. However, if the fast-replicating strain causes host morbidity and is less frequently transmitted, it can be outcompeted by slower-replicating strains at the between-host scale. Here we consider a stochastic ball-and-urn process which models this type of phenomenon. We prove the weak convergence of this process under two natural scalings. The first scaling leads to a deterministic nonlinear integro-partial differential equation on the interval [0,1] with dependence on a single parameter, λ. We show that the fixed points of this differential equation are Beta distributions and that their stability depends on λ and the behavior of the initial data around 1. The second scaling leads to a measure-valued Fleming–Viot process, an infinite dimensional stochastic process that is frequently associated with a population genetics.

  13. Geometric scaling as traveling waves.

    PubMed

    Munier, S; Peschanski, R

    2003-12-05

    We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale.

  14. Scaling relations for magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landeros, P.; Escrig, J.; Altbir, D.; Laroze, D.; D'Albuquerque E Castro, J.; Vargas, P.

    2005-03-01

    A detailed investigation of the scaling relations recently proposed [J. d’Albuquerque e Castro, D. Altbir, J. C. Retamal, and P. Vargas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 237202 (2002)] to study the magnetic properties of nanoparticles is presented. Analytical expressions for the total energy of three characteristic internal configurations of the particles are obtained, in terms of which the behavior of the magnetic phase diagram for those particles upon scaling of the exchange interaction is discussed. The exponent η in scaling relations is shown to be dependent on the geometry of the vortex core, and results for specific cases are presented.

  15. Generic dynamic scaling in kinetic roughening

    PubMed

    Ramasco; Lopez; Rodriguez

    2000-03-06

    We study the dynamic scaling hypothesis in invariant surface growth. We show that the existence of power-law scaling of the correlation functions (scale invariance) does not determine a unique dynamic scaling form of the correlation functions, which leads to the different anomalous forms of scaling recently observed in growth models. We derive all the existing forms of anomalous dynamic scaling from a new generic scaling ansatz. The different scaling forms are subclasses of this generic scaling ansatz associated with bounds on the roughness exponent values. The existence of a new class of anomalous dynamic scaling is predicted and compared with simulations.

  16. A scaling theory for linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of scaling for rational (transfer) functions in terms of transformation groups is developed. Two different four-parameter scaling groups which play natural roles in studying linear systems are identified and the effect of scaling on Fisher information and related statistical measures in system identification are studied. The scalings considered include change of time scale, feedback, exponential scaling, magnitude scaling, etc. The scaling action of the groups studied is tied to the geometry of transfer functions in a rather strong way as becomes apparent in the examination of the invariants of scaling. As a result, the scaling process also provides new insight into the parameterization question for rational functions.

  17. Fluid dynamics: Swimming across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Johannes; Friedrich, Benjamin M.

    2014-10-01

    The myriad creatures that inhabit the waters of our planet all swim using different mechanisms. Now, a simple relation links key physical observables of underwater locomotion, on scales ranging from millimetres to tens of metres.

  18. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  19. Scaling behavior of threshold epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2012-05-01

    We study the classic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model for the spread of an infectious disease. In this stochastic process, there are two competing mechanism: infection and recovery. Susceptible individuals may contract the disease from infected individuals, while infected ones recover from the disease at a constant rate and are never infected again. Our focus is the behavior at the epidemic threshold where the rates of the infection and recovery processes balance. In the infinite population limit, we establish analytically scaling rules for the time-dependent distribution functions that characterize the sizes of the infected and the recovered sub-populations. Using heuristic arguments, we also obtain scaling laws for the size and duration of the epidemic outbreaks as a function of the total population. We perform numerical simulations to verify the scaling predictions and discuss the consequences of these scaling laws for near-threshold epidemic outbreaks.

  20. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws.

    PubMed

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-06

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably.

  1. Gallium Arsenide wafer scale integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, J. F.; Taylor, G.; Steinvorth, R.; Donlan, B.; Bergendahl, A. S.

    1985-08-01

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) digital MESFET technology has recently begun to appear in the semiconductor marketplace. The initial commercial offerings are at the small to medium scale integration levels. The high speed of these parts would seem to be very attractive for designers of high performance signal processing equipment. Persistent yield problems, however, have prevented the appearance of large scale integrated circuits. As a result, intrapackage and interpackage signal propagation problems such as coupling, parasitics and delay are likely to negate much of the benefits of the fast MESFET logic devices for large systems constructed with such small scale building blocks. An early packaging concept, Wafer Scale Integration (WSI), which could possibly be used to address some of these limitations is reexamined.

  2. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Rick L.; Fox, Don T.; Archiblad, Kip E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  3. Physical capability scale: psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Boltz, Marie; Galik, Elizabeth; Wells, Chris

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric testing of the Basic Physical Capability Scale. The study was a secondary data analysis of combined data sets from three studies. Study participants included 93 older adults, recruited from 2 acute-care settings and 110 older adults living in long-term care facilities. Rasch analysis was used for the testing of the measurement model. There was some support for construct validity based on the fit of the items to the scale across both samples. In addition, there was support for hypothesis testing as physical function was significantly associated with physical capability. There was evidence for internal consistency (Alpha coefficients of .77-.83) and interrater reliability based on an intraclass correlation of .81. This study provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Basic Physical Capability Scale, and guidance for scale revisions and continued use.

  4. Scaling of graphene integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Massimiliano; Guerriero, Erica; Fiocco, Marco; Alberti, Ruggero; Polloni, Laura; Behnam, Ashkan; Carrion, Enrique A.; Pop, Eric; Sordan, Roman

    2015-04-01

    The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing.The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Discussions on the cutoff frequency fT, the maximum frequency of oscillation fmax, and the intrinsic gate delay CV/I. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01126d

  5. Interspecies Scaling in Blast Neurotrauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    in vivo animal model research, and the effects of interspecies scaling on current and future in vivo animal model experimentation for blast trauma...and gut. To improve FE modeling capabilities, brain tissue mechanics in common blast TBI animal model species were investigated experimentally and...importance of interspecies scaling for investigation of blast neurotrauma. This work looks at existing in vivo animal model data to derive appropriate

  6. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  7. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). Construction of balance housing. Smith DeFrance noted the need for this housing in his NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire floating frame and scale assembly is enclosed in a room for protection from air currents and the supporting struts are shielded by streamlined fairings which are secured to the roof of the balance room and free from the balance.'

  8. Inflation in the scaling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Matarrese, S.; Ortolan, A.; Lucchin, F.

    1989-07-15

    We investigate the stochastic dynamics of the/ital inflaton/ for a wide class of potentials leading either tochaotic or to power-law inflation.At late times the system enters a /ital scaling/ /ital regime/where macroscopic order sets in: the field distribution sharply peaksaround the classical slow-rollover configuration and curvature perturbationsoriginate with a non-Gaussian scale-invariant statistics.

  9. Fundamental Scaling Laws in Nanophotonics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Sun, Shuai; Majumdar, Arka; Sorger, Volker J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of information technology has clearly demonstrated that miniaturization often leads to unprecedented performance, and unanticipated applications. This hypothesis of “smaller-is-better” has motivated optical engineers to build various nanophotonic devices, although an understanding leading to fundamental scaling behavior for this new class of devices is missing. Here we analyze scaling laws for optoelectronic devices operating at micro and nanometer length-scale. We show that optoelectronic device performance scales non-monotonically with device length due to the various device tradeoffs, and analyze how both optical and electrical constrains influence device power consumption and operating speed. Specifically, we investigate the direct influence of scaling on the performance of four classes of photonic devices, namely laser sources, electro-optic modulators, photodetectors, and all-optical switches based on three types of optical resonators; microring, Fabry-Perot cavity, and plasmonic metal nanoparticle. Results show that while microrings and Fabry-Perot cavities can outperform plasmonic cavities at larger length-scales, they stop working when the device length drops below 100 nanometers, due to insufficient functionality such as feedback (laser), index-modulation (modulator), absorption (detector) or field density (optical switch). Our results provide a detailed understanding of the limits of nanophotonics, towards establishing an opto-electronics roadmap, akin to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. PMID:27869159

  10. Fundamental Scaling Laws in Nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke; Sun, Shuai; Majumdar, Arka; Sorger, Volker J.

    2016-11-01

    The success of information technology has clearly demonstrated that miniaturization often leads to unprecedented performance, and unanticipated applications. This hypothesis of “smaller-is-better” has motivated optical engineers to build various nanophotonic devices, although an understanding leading to fundamental scaling behavior for this new class of devices is missing. Here we analyze scaling laws for optoelectronic devices operating at micro and nanometer length-scale. We show that optoelectronic device performance scales non-monotonically with device length due to the various device tradeoffs, and analyze how both optical and electrical constrains influence device power consumption and operating speed. Specifically, we investigate the direct influence of scaling on the performance of four classes of photonic devices, namely laser sources, electro-optic modulators, photodetectors, and all-optical switches based on three types of optical resonators; microring, Fabry-Perot cavity, and plasmonic metal nanoparticle. Results show that while microrings and Fabry-Perot cavities can outperform plasmonic cavities at larger length-scales, they stop working when the device length drops below 100 nanometers, due to insufficient functionality such as feedback (laser), index-modulation (modulator), absorption (detector) or field density (optical switch). Our results provide a detailed understanding of the limits of nanophotonics, towards establishing an opto-electronics roadmap, akin to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  11. Distributional Scaling in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsinelli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    An investigation is undertaken into the fractal scaling properties of the piezometric head in a heterogeneous unconfined aquifer. The governing equations for the unconfined flow are derived from conservation of mass and the Darcy law. The Dupuit approximation will be used to model the dynamics. The spatially varying nature of the tendency to conduct flow (e.g. the hydraulic conductivity) is represented as a stochastic process. Experimental studies in the literature have indicated that the conductivity belongs to a class of non-stationary stochastic fields, called H-ss fields. The uncertainty in the soil parameters is imparted onto the flow variables; in groundwater investigations the potentiometric head will be a random function. The structure of the head field will be analyzed with an emphasis on the scaling properties. The scaling scheme for the modeling equations and the simulation procedure for the saturated hydraulic conductivity process will be explained, then the method will be validated through numerical experimentation using the USGS Modflow-2005 software. The results of the numerical simulations demonstrate that the head will exhibit multi-fractal scaling if the hydraulic conductivity exhibits multi-fractal scaling and the differential equations for the groundwater equation satisfy a particular set of scale invariance conditions.

  12. Fundamental Scaling Laws in Nanophotonics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Sun, Shuai; Majumdar, Arka; Sorger, Volker J

    2016-11-21

    The success of information technology has clearly demonstrated that miniaturization often leads to unprecedented performance, and unanticipated applications. This hypothesis of "smaller-is-better" has motivated optical engineers to build various nanophotonic devices, although an understanding leading to fundamental scaling behavior for this new class of devices is missing. Here we analyze scaling laws for optoelectronic devices operating at micro and nanometer length-scale. We show that optoelectronic device performance scales non-monotonically with device length due to the various device tradeoffs, and analyze how both optical and electrical constrains influence device power consumption and operating speed. Specifically, we investigate the direct influence of scaling on the performance of four classes of photonic devices, namely laser sources, electro-optic modulators, photodetectors, and all-optical switches based on three types of optical resonators; microring, Fabry-Perot cavity, and plasmonic metal nanoparticle. Results show that while microrings and Fabry-Perot cavities can outperform plasmonic cavities at larger length-scales, they stop working when the device length drops below 100 nanometers, due to insufficient functionality such as feedback (laser), index-modulation (modulator), absorption (detector) or field density (optical switch). Our results provide a detailed understanding of the limits of nanophotonics, towards establishing an opto-electronics roadmap, akin to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  13. Chemical Measurement and Fluctuation Scaling.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Quentin S

    2016-12-20

    Fluctuation scaling reports on all processes producing a data set. Some fluctuation scaling relationships, such as the Horwitz curve, follow exponential dispersion models which have useful properties. The mean-variance method applied to Poisson distributed data is a special case of these properties allowing the gain of a system to be measured. Here, a general method is described for investigating gain (G), dispersion (β), and process (α) in any system whose fluctuation scaling follows a simple exponential dispersion model, a segmented exponential dispersion model, or complex scaling following such a model locally. When gain and dispersion cannot be obtained directly, relative parameters, GR and βR, may be used. The method was demonstrated on data sets conforming to simple, segmented, and complex scaling. These included mass, fluorescence intensity, and absorbance measurements and specifications for classes of calibration weights. Changes in gain, dispersion, and process were observed in the scaling of these data sets in response to instrument parameters, photon fluxes, mathematical processing, and calibration weight class. The process parameter which limits the type of statistical process that can be invoked to explain a data set typically exhibited 0 < α < 1, with α > 4 possible. With two exceptions, calibration weight class definitions only affected β. Adjusting photomultiplier voltage while measuring fluorescence intensity changed all three parameters (0 < α < 0.8; 0 < βR < 3; 0 < GR < 4.1). The method provides a framework for calibrating and interpreting uncertainty in chemical measurement allowing robust comparison of specific instruments, conditions, and methods.

  14. Mineral Dissolution Rates at the Pore Scale: Scaling Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C. I.; Yang, L.

    2006-12-01

    Mineral dissolution reactions play an important role in various physical, chemical and biological processes in nature. Although rates of these reactions have been extensively studied in laboratories, they have been found to be orders of magnitude faster than those measured in the natural systems. This work examines some of the mechanisms that can produce such a discrepancy at the pore scale, while quantifying the conditions under which the discrepancy becomes significant. This work used the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to examine the dissolution rates of three minerals, calcite, labradorite, and iron hydroxide, in a single pore. Pores were assumed to be cylindrical, with axisymmetric flow given by the analytical solution for Poiseuille flow in a cylinder. Mineral dissolution occurs only at the pore wall, with the reactive surface area of the dissolving phase specified geometrically. The average dissolution rates in the pore (R_D) for various flow velocities is determined by the flux-weighted change in concentration over the length of the pore and is compared to the rates that assume complete mixing (R_M). The differences in rates between the two models, quantified by the ratio of R_D over R_M, provide a measure of the scaling effect. The modeling results were validated by a microfluidic reactive flow experiment using a cylindrical pore in calcite. Modeling results show that the scaling effect arises due to the development of large concentration gradients caused by incomplete mixing within a pore when transport and reaction rates are comparable. The magnitude of the scaling effect depends on the reaction kinetics, flow velocity, and pore size. For labradorite and iron hydroxide, the scaling effect is negligible under all conditions due to their slow dissolution rates, thus limiting the development of any intra-pore concentration gradients. For calcite dissolution at low (smaller than 0.1 cm/s) and high (larger than 1000 cm/s) flow velocities the scaling

  15. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) scale: A methodological review

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Klaas; Ruebig, Alexander; Potthoff, Peter; Schneider, Hermann PG; Strelow, Frank; Heinemann, Lothar AJ; Thai, Do Minh

    2004-01-01

    Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a) to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b) to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c) to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages). Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents) from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability) were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9) but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7). This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association has been shown

  16. Scaling of extreme rainfall areas at a planetary scale.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Naresh; Lall, Upmanu; Xi, Chen; Ward, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Event magnitude and area scaling relationships for rainfall over different regions of the world have been presented in the literature for relatively short durations and over relatively small areas. In this paper, we present the first ever results on a global analysis of the scaling characteristics of extreme rainfall areas for durations ranging from 1 to 30 days. Broken power law models are fit in each case. The past work has been focused largely on the time and space scales associated with local and regional convection. The work presented here suggests that power law scaling may also apply to planetary scale phenomenon, such as frontal and monsoonal systems, and their interaction with local moisture recycling. Such features may have persistence over large areas corresponding to extreme rain and regional flood events. As a result, they lead to considerable hazard exposure. A caveat is that methods used for empirical power law identification have difficulties with edge effects due to finite domains. This leads to problems with robust model identification and interpretability of the underlying relationships. We use recent algorithms that aim to address some of these issues in a principled way. Theoretical research that could explain why such results may emerge across the world, as analyzed for the first time in this paper, is needed.

  17. Data-Driven Scale Extrapolation: Application on Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, L.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale hydrological models and land surface models are so far the only tools for assessing current and future water resources. Those models estimate discharge with large uncertainties, due to the complex interaction between climate and hydrology, the limited availability and quality of data, as well as model uncertainties. A new purely data-driven scale-extrapolation method to estimate discharge for a large region solely from selected small sub-basins, which are typically 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the large region, has been developed. When tested in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, the method was able to provide accurate discharge estimation for the gauged area with sub-basins that cover 5% of the gauged area. There exist multiple sets of sub-basins whose climate and hydrology resemble those of the gauged area equally well. Those multiple sets estimate annual discharge for the gauged area consistently well with 6 % average error. The scale-extrapolation method is completely data-driven; therefore it does not force any modelling error into the prediction. The scale-extrapolation method is now further tested at continent scale in Europe and North America to exam its potential for climate change studies.

  18. Feasibility of scaling from pilot to process scale.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Svetlana; Wood, Philip; Hawes, David; Janaway, Lee; Keay, David; Sutherland, Ian

    2007-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is looking for new technology that is easy to scale up from analytical to process scale and is cheap and reliable to operate. Large scale counter-current chromatography is an emerging technology that could provide this advance, but little was known about the key variables affecting scale-up. This paper investigates two such variables: the rotor radius and the tubing bore. The effect of rotor radius was studied using identical: length, beta-value, helix angle and tubing bore coils for rotors of different radii (50 mm, 110 mm and 300 mm). The effect of bore was researched using identical: length, helix angle and mean beta-value coils on the Maxi-DE centrifuge (R=300 mm). The rotor radius results show that there is very little difference in retention and resolution as rotor radius increases at constant bore. The tubing bore results show that good retention is maintained as bore increases and resolution only decrease slightly, but at the highest bore (17.5 mm) resolution can be maintained at very high flow rates making it possible for process scale centrifuges to be designed with throughputs exceeding 25 kg/day.

  19. Large-scale sequencing trials begin

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1990-12-07

    As genome sequencing gets under way, investigators are grappling not just with new techniques but also with questions about what is acceptable accuracy and when data should be released. Four groups are embarking on projects that could make or break the human genome project. They are setting out to sequence the longest stretches of DNA ever tackled-several million bases each-and to do it faster and cheaper than anyone has before. If these groups can't pull it off, then prospects for knocking off the entire human genome, all 3 billion bases, in 15 years and for $3 billion will look increasingly unlikely. Harvard's Walter Gilbert, is first tackling the genome of Mycoplasma capricolum. At Stanford, David Botstein and Ron Davis are sequencing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a collaborative effort, Robert Waterson at Washington University and John Sulston at the Medical Research Council lab in Cambridge, England, have already started on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. And in the only longstanding project of the bunch, University of Wisconsin geneticist Fred Blattner is already several hundred kilobases into the Escherichia coli genome.

  20. Copper atomic-scale transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kavalenka, Maryna N; Röger, Moritz; Albrecht, Daniel; Hölscher, Hendrik; Leuthold, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO4 + H2SO4) in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate). The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and −170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices. Both sign and amplitude of the voltage applied across the source and drain electrodes (U bias) influence the switching rate of the transistor and the copper deposition on the electrodes, and correspondingly shift the electrochemical operation potential. The copper atomic-scale transistors can be switched using a function generator without a computer-controlled feedback switching mechanism. The copper atomic-scale transistors, with only one or two atoms at the narrowest constriction, were realized to switch between 0 and 1G 0 (G 0 = 2e2/h; with e being the electron charge, and h being Planck’s constant) or 2G 0 by the function generator. The switching rate can reach up to 10 Hz. The copper atomic-scale transistor demonstrates volatile/non-volatile dual functionalities. Such an optimal merging of the logic with memory may open a perspective for processor-in-memory and logic-in-memory architectures, using copper as an alternative working material besides silver for fully metallic atomic-scale transistors. PMID:28382242

  1. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Gentile, Douglas A

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The main aim of the current study was to test the reliability and validity of 4 survey instruments to measure IGD on the basis of the 9 criteria from the DSM-5: a long (27-item) and short (9-item) polytomous scale and a long (27-item) and short (9-item) dichotomous scale. The psychometric properties of these scales were tested among a representative sample of 2,444 Dutch adolescents and adults, ages 13-40 years. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the structural validity (i.e., the dimensional structure) of all scales was satisfactory. Both types of assessment (polytomous and dichotomous) were also reliable (i.e., internally consistent) and showed good criterion-related validity, as indicated by positive correlations with time spent playing games, loneliness, and aggression and negative correlations with self-esteem, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction. The dichotomous 9-item IGD scale showed solid psychometric properties and was the most practical scale for diagnostic purposes. Latent class analysis of this dichotomous scale indicated that 3 groups could be discerned: normal gamers, risky gamers, and disordered gamers. On the basis of the number of people in this last group, the prevalence of IGD among 13- through 40-year-olds in the Netherlands is approximately 4%. If the DSM-5 threshold for diagnosis (experiencing 5 or more criteria) is applied, the prevalence of disordered gamers is more than 5%.

  2. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  3. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or PNL noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10 exp 6 based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  4. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-05-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or perceived noise level (PNL) noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10(exp 6) based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using a small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  5. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or PNL noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10 exp 6 based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  6. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or perceived noise level (PNL) noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10(exp 6) based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using a small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  7. 30 CFR 57.3202 - Scaling tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scaling tools. 57.3202 Section 57.3202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Scaling and Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3202 Scaling tools. Where manual scaling is performed, a scaling...

  8. 30 CFR 56.3202 - Scaling tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scaling tools. 56.3202 Section 56.3202 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Scaling and Support § 56.3202 Scaling tools. Where manual scaling is performed, a scaling bar shall be provided. This...

  9. Galaxy clustering on large scales.

    PubMed Central

    Efstathiou, G

    1993-01-01

    I describe some recent observations of large-scale structure in the galaxy distribution. The best constraints come from two-dimensional galaxy surveys and studies of angular correlation functions. Results from galaxy redshift surveys are much less precise but are consistent with the angular correlations, provided the distortions in mapping between real-space and redshift-space are relatively weak. The galaxy two-point correlation function, rich-cluster two-point correlation function, and galaxy-cluster cross-correlation function are all well described on large scales ( greater, similar 20h-1 Mpc, where the Hubble constant, H0 = 100h km.s-1.Mpc; 1 pc = 3.09 x 10(16) m) by the power spectrum of an initially scale-invariant, adiabatic, cold-dark-matter Universe with Gamma = Omegah approximately 0.2. I discuss how this fits in with the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite detection of large-scale anisotropies in the microwave background radiation and other measures of large-scale structure in the Universe. PMID:11607400

  10. Multi-scale brain networks.

    PubMed

    Betzel, Richard F; Bassett, Danielle S

    2016-11-11

    The network architecture of the human brain has become a feature of increasing interest to the neuroscientific community, largely because of its potential to illuminate human cognition, its variation over development and aging, and its alteration in disease or injury. Traditional tools and approaches to study this architecture have largely focused on single scales-of topology, time, and space. Expanding beyond this narrow view, we focus this review on pertinent questions and novel methodological advances for the multi-scale brain. We separate our exposition into content related to multi-scale topological structure, multi-scale temporal structure, and multi-scale spatial structure. In each case, we recount empirical evidence for such structures, survey network-based methodological approaches to reveal these structures, and outline current frontiers and open questions. Although predominantly peppered with examples from human neuroimaging, we hope that this account will offer an accessible guide to any neuroscientist aiming to measure, characterize, and understand the full richness of the brain's multiscale network structure-irrespective of species, imaging modality, or spatial resolution.

  11. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  12. Scaling Effect In Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Lin, X.; Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Reimer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling is an important issue in the physical sciences. Economic trade is increasingly of interest to the scientific community due to the natural resources (e.g. water, carbon, nutrients, etc.) embodied in traded commodities. Trade refers to the spatial and temporal redistribution of commodities, and is typically measured annually between countries. However, commodity exchange networks occur at many different scales, though data availability at finer temporal and spatial resolution is rare. Exchange networks may prove an important adaptation measure to cope with future climate and economic shocks. As such, it is essential to understand how commodity exchange networks scale, so that we can understand opportunities and roadblocks to the spatial and temporal redistribution of goods and services. To this end, we present an empirical analysis of trade systems across three spatial scales: global, sub-national in the United States, and county-scale in the United States. We compare and contrast the network properties, the self-sufficiency ratio, and performance of the gravity model of trade for these three exchange systems.

  13. Allometric scaling in-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Arti

    2017-01-01

    About two decades ago, West and coworkers established a model which predicts that metabolic rate follows a three quarter power relationship with the mass of an organism, based on the premise that tissues are supplied nutrients through a fractal distribution network. Quarter power scaling is widely considered a universal law of biology and it is generally accepted that were in-vitro cultures to obey allometric metabolic scaling, they would have more predictive potential and could, for instance, provide a viable substitute for animals in research. This paper outlines a theoretical and computational framework for establishing quarter power scaling in three-dimensional spherical constructs in-vitro, starting where fractal distribution ends. Allometric scaling in non-vascular spherical tissue constructs was assessed using models of Michaelis Menten oxygen consumption and diffusion. The models demonstrate that physiological scaling is maintained when about 5 to 60% of the construct is exposed to oxygen concentrations less than the Michaelis Menten constant, with a significant concentration gradient in the sphere. The results have important implications for the design of downscaled in-vitro systems with physiological relevance. PMID:28169362

  14. Featured Invention: Laser Scaling Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    In September 2003, NASA signed a nonexclusive license agreement with Armor Forensics, a subsidiary of Armor Holdings, Inc., for the laser scaling device under the Innovative Partnerships Program. Coupled with a measuring program, also developed by NASA, the unit provides crime scene investigators with the ability to shoot photographs at scale without having to physically enter the scene, analyzing details such as bloodspatter patterns and graffiti. This ability keeps the scene's components intact and pristine for the collection of information and evidence. The laser scaling device elegantly solved a pressing problem for NASA's shuttle operations team and also provided industry with a useful tool. For NASA, the laser scaling device is still used to measure divots or damage to the shuttle's external tank and other structures around the launchpad. When the invention also met similar needs within industry, the Innovative Partnerships Program provided information to Armor Forensics for licensing and marketing the laser scaling device. Jeff Kohler, technology transfer agent at Kennedy, added, "We also invited a representative from the FBI's special photography unit to Kennedy to meet with Armor Forensics and the innovator. Eventually the FBI ended up purchasing some units. Armor Forensics is also beginning to receive interest from DoD [Department of Defense] for use in military crime scene investigations overseas."

  15. Visions of Atomic Scale Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T. F.; Miller, Michael K; Rajan, Krishna; Ringer, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    A microscope, by definition, provides structural and analytical information about objects that are too small to see with the unaided eye. From the very first microscope, efforts to improve its capabilities and push them to ever-finer length scales have been pursued. In this context, it would seem that the concept of an ultimate microscope would have received much attention by now; but has it really ever been defined? Human knowledge extends to structures on a scale much finer than atoms, so it might seem that a proton-scale microscope or a quark-scale microscope would be the ultimate. However, we argue that an atomic-scale microscope is the ultimate for the following reason: the smallest building block for either synthetic structures or natural structures is the atom. Indeed, humans and nature both engineer structures with atoms, not quarks. So far as we know, all building blocks (atoms) of a given type are identical; it is the assembly of the building blocks that makes a useful structure. Thus, would a microscope that determines the position and identity of every atom in a structure with high precision and for large volumes be the ultimate microscope? We argue, yes. In this article, we consider how it could be built, and we ponder the answer to the equally important follow-on questions: who would care if it is built, and what could be achieved with it?

  16. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Steam pile driver for foundation of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Located just a few feet from the Back River, pilings to support the massive building's foundation had to be driven deep into the earth. This work began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22

  17. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Pile driving for foundation of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Located just a few feet from the Back River, pilings to support the massive building's foundation had to be driven deep into the earth. This work began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22.

  18. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    General view of concrete column base for Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Work on the foundation began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22.

  19. Allometric scaling in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Arti

    2017-02-01

    About two decades ago, West and coworkers established a model which predicts that metabolic rate follows a three quarter power relationship with the mass of an organism, based on the premise that tissues are supplied nutrients through a fractal distribution network. Quarter power scaling is widely considered a universal law of biology and it is generally accepted that were in-vitro cultures to obey allometric metabolic scaling, they would have more predictive potential and could, for instance, provide a viable substitute for animals in research. This paper outlines a theoretical and computational framework for establishing quarter power scaling in three-dimensional spherical constructs in-vitro, starting where fractal distribution ends. Allometric scaling in non-vascular spherical tissue constructs was assessed using models of Michaelis Menten oxygen consumption and diffusion. The models demonstrate that physiological scaling is maintained when about 5 to 60% of the construct is exposed to oxygen concentrations less than the Michaelis Menten constant, with a significant concentration gradient in the sphere. The results have important implications for the design of downscaled in-vitro systems with physiological relevance.

  20. Urban Transfer Entropy across Scales

    PubMed Central

    Murcio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of urban agglomeration is studied here in the context of information exchange between different spatio-temporal scales. Urban migration to and from cities is characterised as non-random and following non-random pathways. Cities are multidimensional non-linear phenomena, so understanding the relationships and connectivity between scales is important in determining how the interplay of local/regional urban policies may affect the distribution of urban settlements. In order to quantify these relationships, we follow an information theoretic approach using the concept of Transfer Entropy. Our analysis is based on a stochastic urban fractal model, which mimics urban growing settlements and migration waves. The results indicate how different policies could affect urban morphology in terms of the information generated across geographical scales. PMID:26207628

  1. An environmentally friendly scale inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, J.B.; Brown, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes a method of inhibiting the formation of scales such as barium and strontium sulfate in low pH aqueous systems, and calcium carbonate in systems containing high concentrations of dissolved iron. The solution, chemically, involves treating the aqueous system with an inhibitor designed to replace organic-phosphonates. Typical low pH aqueous systems where the inhibitor is particularly useful are oilfield produced-water, resin bed water softeners that form scale during low pH, acid regeneration operations. Downhole applications are recommended where high concentrations of dissolved iron are present in the produced water. This new approach to inhibition replaces typical organic phosphonates and polymers with a non-toxic, biodegradable scale inhibitor that performs in harsh environments.

  2. Large-scale structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems encountered by aerospace designers in attempting to optimize whole aircraft are discussed, along with possible solutions. Large scale optimization, as opposed to component-by-component optimization, is hindered by computational costs, software inflexibility, concentration on a single, rather than trade-off, design methodology and the incompatibility of large-scale optimization with single program, single computer methods. The software problem can be approached by placing the full analysis outside of the optimization loop. Full analysis is then performed only periodically. Problem-dependent software can be removed from the generic code using a systems programming technique, and then embody the definitions of design variables, objective function and design constraints. Trade-off algorithms can be used at the design points to obtain quantitative answers. Finally, decomposing the large-scale problem into independent subproblems allows systematic optimization of the problems by an organization of people and machines.

  3. The Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    PubMed

    Diener, E; Emmons, R A; Larsen, R J; Griffin, S

    1985-02-01

    This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

  4. Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior: II. Scales of Social Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior II (BSAB-II) provides a system for program development and evaluation and for social behavior assessment of profoundly and severely mentally retarded individuals as well as of the younger less retarded and emotionally disturbed individuals. The specimen set consists of six parts: a Manual, a Tally Sheet…

  5. Critical Multicultural Education Competencies Scale: A Scale Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar-Ciftci, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scale in order to identify the critical mutlicultural education competencies of teachers. For this reason, first of all, drawing on the knowledge in the literature, a new conceptual framework was created with deductive method based on critical theory, critical race theory and critical multicultural…

  6. Fiber optic probe augmented sonic scaling versus conventional sonic scaling.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G K; Reinhardt, R A; Tussing, G J; Krejci, R F

    1989-03-01

    Several factors, including access and visualization problems, make total deposit removal during scaling and root planing procedures extremely difficult. This study examined the effectiveness of a mode of therapy designed to improve access and visualization for sonic scaling compared to closed sonic instrumentation. Teeth with moderate to deep probing depths in six patients scheduled to receive immediate dentures were divided into three experimental groups: Group I, sonic scaling with access augmented by interdental papilla reflection and fiber optic illumination/transillumination (34 surfaces); Group II, closed sonic scaling (34 surfaces); and Group III, untreated controls (35 surfaces). Immediately after treatment the experimental teeth were extracted, stained with toluidine blue, and interproximal areas evaluated for remaining accretions with a microscope-digitizing pad-computer system. Group I had a significantly lower percentage (P less than 0.01) of remaining subgingival accretion coverage than Group II (1.30 +/- 0.25% vs 6.35 +/- 1.08%), and both Group I and II demonstrated significantly (P less than 0.01) fewer deposits than the control surfaces (46.61 +/- 4.32%). These findings suggest that minimal tissue reflection and fiber optic illumination/transillumination are beneficial adjuncts to deposit removal in moderate to deep periodontal pockets.

  7. IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

  8. Continuously-Variable Vernier Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Irvin M.

    1989-01-01

    Easily fabricated device increases precision in reading graphical data. Continuously-variable vernier scale (CV VS) designed to provide greater accuracy to scientists and technologists in reading numerical values from graphical data. Placed on graph and used to interpolate coordinate value of point on curve or plotted point on figure within division on each coordinate axis. Requires neither measurement of line segments where projection of point intersects division nor calculation to quantify projected value. Very flexible device constructed with any kind of scale. Very easy to use, requiring no special equipment of any kind, and saves considerable amount of time if numerous points to be evaluated.

  9. TeV-Scale Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenstein, David

    2014-10-01

    This review discusses the status of string physics where the string tension is around the TeV scale. It covers model-building basics for perturbative strings, based on D-brane configurations. The effective low-energy physics description of such string constructions is analyzed: how anomaly cancellation is implemented, how fast proton decay is avoided, and how D-brane models lead to additional Z' particles. This review also discusses direct search bounds for strings at the TeV scale, as well as theoretical issues with model building related to flavor physics and axions.

  10. The Clinical Global Impressions Scale

    PubMed Central

    Targum, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper reviews the potential value in daily clinical practice of an easily applied research tool, the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Scale, for the nonresearcher clinician to quantify and track patient progress and treatment response over time. Method: The instrument is described and sample patient scenarios are provided with scoring rationales and a practical charting system. Conclusion: The CGI severity and improvement scales offer a readily understood, practical measurement tool that can easily be administered by a clinician in a busy clinical practice setting. PMID:20526405

  11. Cavitation erosion size scale effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Size scaling in cavitation erosion is a major problem confronting the design engineers of modern high speed machinery. An overview and erosion data analysis presented in this paper indicate that the size scale exponent n in the erosion rate relationship as a function of the size or diameter can vary from 1.7 to 4.9 depending on the type of device used. There is, however, a general agreement as to the values of n if the correlations are made with constant cavitation number.

  12. Dynamics of convective scale interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdom, James F. W.; Sinclair, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Several of the mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic aspects of convective scale interaction are examined. An explanation of how sounding data can be coupled with satellite observed cumulus development in the warm sector and the arc cloud line's time evolution to develop a short range forecast of expected convective intensity along an arc cloud line. The formative, mature and dissipating stages of the arc cloud line life cycle are discussed. Specific properties of convective scale interaction are presented and the relationship between arc cloud lines and tornado producing thunderstorms is considered.

  13. Scaling of sand flux over bedforms- experiments to field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, B. J.; Mahon, R. C.; Ashley, T.; Alexander, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bed forms are one of the few geomorphic phenomena whose field and laboratory geometric scales have significant overlap. This is similarly true for scales of sediment transport. Whether in the lab or field, at low transport stages and high Rouse numbers where suspension is minimal, sand fluxes scale nonlinearly with transport stage. At high transport stages, and low Rouse numbers where suspension is substantial, sand transport scales with rouse number. In intermediate cases deformation of bed forms is a direct result of the exchange of sediment between the classically suspended and bed load volumes. These parameters are straightforwardly measured in the laboratory. However, practical difficulties and cost ineffectiveness often exclude bed-sediment measurements from studies and monitoring efforts aimed at estimating sediment loads in rivers. An alternative to direct sampling is through the measurement of evolution of bed topography constrained by sediment-mass conservation. Historically, the topographic-evolution approach has been limited to systems with negligible transport of sand in suspension. As was shown decades ago, pure bed load transport is responsible for the mean migration of trains of bed forms when no sediment is exchanged between individual bed forms. In contrast, the component of bed-material load that moves in suspension is responsible for changes in the size, shape, and spacing of evolving bed forms; collectively this is called deformation. The difference between bed-load flux and bed-material-load flux equals the flux of suspended bed material. We give a partial demonstration of this using available field and laboratory data and comparing them across geometric and sediment transport scales.

  14. Scaling of pressurized fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Guralnik, S.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1994-10-01

    The project has two primary objectives. The first is to verify a set of hydrodynamic scaling relationships for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors (PFBC). The second objective is to investigate solids mixing in pressurized bubbling fluidized beds. American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd combined-cycle demonstration plant will provide time-varying pressure drop data to serve as the basis for the scaling verification. The verification will involve demonstrating that a properly scaled cold model and the Tidd PFBC exhibit hydrodynamically similar behavior. An important issue in PFBC design is the spacing of fuel feed ports. The feed spacing is dictated by the fuel distribution and the mixing characteristics within the bed. After completing the scaling verification, the cold model will be used to study the characteristics of PFBCs. A thermal tracer technique will be utilized to study mixing both near the fuel feed region and in the far field. The results allow the coal feed and distributor to be designed for optimal heating.

  15. The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…

  16. Multidimensional Scaling of Video Surrogates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Abby A.

    2001-01-01

    Four types of video surrogates were compared under two tasks. Multidimensional scaling was used to map dimensional dispersions of users' judgments of similarity between videos and surrogates. Congruence between these maps was used to evaluate representativeness of each surrogate type. Congruence was greater for image-based than for text-based…

  17. Primary Childhood School Success Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seagraves, Margaret C.

    The purpose of this research study was to build and pilot a psychometric instrument, the Primary Childhood School Success Scale (PCSSS), to identify behaviors needed for children to be successful in first grade. Fifty-two teacher responses were collected. The instrument had a reliability coefficient (Alpha) of 0.95, a mean of 13.26, and a variance…

  18. Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paulette J.

    1990-01-01

    Designed for use with individuals ages 3 months to 44 years, the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) measure adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in such areas as motor skills, social interaction, language, personal self-care, punctuality, destructiveness, and inattention. This paper describes the SIB's administration, scoring,…

  19. An Assertiveness Scale for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong Yul; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Developed a 33-item, situation-specific instrument that measures assertiveness of adolescents. Based on data from 682 elementary and secondary school students, adequate reliability and validity of the Assertiveness Scale for Adolescents (ASA) were obtained when tested against several variables about which predictions could be made. (BH)

  20. A Feminist Family Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Leora; Piercy, Fred P.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on development and psychometric properties of Feminist Family Therapy Scale (FFTS), a 17-item instrument intended to reflect degree to which family therapists conceptualize process of family therapy from feminist-informed perspective. Found that the instrument discriminated between self-identified feminists and nonfeminists, women and men,…

  1. Tumor detection at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Robin N.; Hahn, Hee I.

    1993-06-01

    We describe detectors capable of locating small tumors of variable size in the highly textured anatomic backgrounds typical of gamma-ray images. The problem of inhomogeneous background noise is solved using a spatially adaptive statistical scaling operation, which effectively pre-whitens the data and leads to a very simple form of adaptive matched filter. Detecting tumors of variable size is accomplished by processing the images formed in a Laplacian pyramid, each of which contains a narrower range of tumor scales. We compare the performance of this pyramid technique with our earlier nonlinear detector, which detects small tumors according to their signature in curvature feature space, where 'curvature' is the local curvature of the image data when viewed as a relief map. Computed curvature values are mapped to a normalized significance space using a windowed t-statistic. The resulting test statistic is thresholded at a chosen level of significance to give a positive detection. Nonuniform anatomic background activity is effectively suppressed. This curvature detector works quite well over a large range of tumor scales, although not as well as the pyramid/adaptive matched filter scheme. None of the multiscale techniques tested perform at the level of the fixed scale detectors. Tests are performed using simulated tumors superimposed on clinical gamma-ray images.

  2. Global scale predictability of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerts, Albrecht; Gijsbers, Peter; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek

    2016-04-01

    Flood (and storm surge) forecasting at the continental and global scale has only become possible in recent years (Emmerton et al., 2016; Verlaan et al., 2015) due to the availability of meteorological forecast, global scale precipitation products and global scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models. Deltares has setup GLOFFIS a research-oriented multi model operational flood forecasting system based on Delft-FEWS in an open experimental ICT facility called Id-Lab. In GLOFFIS both the W3RA and PCRGLOB-WB model are run in ensemble mode using GEFS and ECMWF-EPS (latency 2 days). GLOFFIS will be used for experiments into predictability of floods (and droughts) and their dependency on initial state estimation, meteorological forcing and the hydrologic model used. Here we present initial results of verification of the ensemble flood forecasts derived with the GLOFFIS system. Emmerton, R., Stephens, L., Pappenberger, F., Pagano, T., Weerts, A., Wood, A. Salamon, P., Brown, J., Hjerdt, N., Donnelly, C., Cloke, H. Continental and Global Scale Flood Forecasting Systems, WIREs Water (accepted), 2016 Verlaan M, De Kleermaeker S, Buckman L. GLOSSIS: Global storm surge forecasting and information system 2015, Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, 15-18 September 2015,Auckland, New Zealand.

  3. Hydrodynamic aspects of shark scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschi, W. G.; Musick, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Ridge morphometrices on placoid scales from 12 galeoid shark species were examined in order to evaluate their potential value for frictional drag reduction. The geometry of the shark scales is similar to longitudinal grooved surfaces (riblets) that have been previously shown to give 8 percent skin-friction reduction for turbulent boundary layers. The present study of the shark scales was undertaken to determine if the physical dimensions of the ridges on the shark scales are of the right magnitude to be used by the sharks for drag reduction based on previous riblet work. The results indicate that the ridge heights and spacings are normally maintained between the predicted optimal values proposed for voluntary and burst swimming speeds throughout the individual's ontogeny. Moreover, the species which might be considered to be the faster posses smaller and more closely spaced ridges that based on the riblet work would suggest a greater frictional drag reduction value at the high swimming speeds, as compared to their more sluggish counterparts.

  4. Citizen Science Data and Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Wasser, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is rapid growth in the collection of environmental data by non experts. So called ';citizen scientists' are collecting data on plant phenology, precipitation patterns, bird migration and winter feeding, mating calls of frogs in the spring, and numerous other topics and phenomena related to environmental science. This data is generally submitted to online programs (e.g Project BudBurst, COCORaHS, Project Feederwatch, Frogwatch USA, etc.)and is freely available to scientists, educators, land managers, and decisions makers. While the data is often used to address specific science questions, it also provides the opportunity to explore its utility in the context of ecosystem scaling. Citizen science data is being collected and submitted at an unprecedented rate and is of a spatial and temporal scale previously not possible. The amount of citizen science data vastly exceeds what scientists or land managers can collect on their own. As such, it provides opportunities to address scaling in the environmental sciences. This presentation will explore data from several citizen science programs in the context of scaling.

  5. Children's Social Relations Interview Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Richard

    The Children's Social Relations Interview Scale (CSRIS) was developed to assess the role expectations and role behaviors associated with physical disabilities, namely low status and independence. Three traits are assessed: succorance, the seeking of help and support; restraint, physical and social limitation and circumscription by others; and…

  6. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  7. Dynamic scaling in chemical ecology.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Richard K; Zimmer, Cheryl Ann

    2008-07-01

    Natural rates of chemical production, release, and transport of fluid-borne molecules drive fundamental biological responses to these stimuli. The scaling of the field signaling environment to laboratory conditions recreates essential features of the dynamics and establishes ecological relevance. If appropriately scaled, laboratory simulations of physical regimes, coupled with natural rates of chemical cue/signal emission, facilitate interpretation of field results. From a meta-analysis of papers published in 11 journals over the last 22 years (1984-1986, 1994-1996, 2004-2006), complete dynamic scaling was rare in both field and laboratory studies. Studies in terrestrial systems often involved chemical determinations, but rarely simulated natural aerodynamics in laboratory wind tunnels. Research in aquatic (marine and freshwater) systems seldom scaled either the chemical or physical environments. Moreover, nearly all research, in all environments, focused on organism-level processes without incorporating the effects of individual-based behavior on populations, communities, and ecosystems. As a result, relationships between chemosensory-mediated behavior and ecological function largely remain unexplored. Outstanding exceptions serve as useful examples for guiding future research. Advanced conceptual frameworks and refined techniques offer exciting opportunities for identifying the ecological significance of chemical cues/signals in behavioral interactions and for incorporating individual effects at higher levels of biological organization.

  8. Convergence methods on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turan, Ceylan; Duman, Oktay

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concepts of lacunary statistical convergence and strongly lacunary Cesàro summability of delta measurable functions on time scales and obtain some inclusion results between them. We also display some examples containing discrete and continuous cases.

  9. Nanotribology: Rubbing on Small Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Nanometer-scale investigations offer the potential of providing first-principles understanding of tribo-systems in terms of fundamental intermolecular forces. Some of the basic issues and motivation for use of scanning probes in the area of nanotribology is presented.

  10. Optimal scaling in ductile fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokoua Djodom, Landry

    This work is concerned with the derivation of optimal scaling laws, in the sense of matching lower and upper bounds on the energy, for a solid undergoing ductile fracture. The specific problem considered concerns a material sample in the form of an infinite slab of finite thickness subjected to prescribed opening displacements on its two surfaces. The solid is assumed to obey deformation-theory of plasticity and, in order to further simplify the analysis, we assume isotropic rigid-plastic deformations with zero plastic spin. When hardening exponents are given values consistent with observation, the energy is found to exhibit sublinear growth. We regularize the energy through the addition of nonlocal energy terms of the strain-gradient plasticity type. This nonlocal regularization has the effect of introducing an intrinsic length scale into the energy. We also put forth a physical argument that identifies the intrinsic length and suggests a linear growth of the nonlocal energy. Under these assumptions, ductile fracture emerges as the net result of two competing effects: whereas the sublinear growth of the local energy promotes localization of deformation to failure planes, the nonlocal regularization stabilizes this process, thus resulting in an orderly progression towards failure and a well-defined specific fracture energy. The optimal scaling laws derived here show that ductile fracture results from localization of deformations to void sheets, and that it requires a well-defined energy per unit fracture area. In particular, fractal modes of fracture are ruled out under the assumptions of the analysis. The optimal scaling laws additionally show that ductile fracture is cohesive in nature, i.e., it obeys a well-defined relation between tractions and opening displacements. Finally, the scaling laws supply a link between micromechanical properties and macroscopic fracture properties. In particular, they reveal the relative roles that surface energy and microplasticity

  11. Structural Similitude and Scaling Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, George J.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft and spacecraft comprise the class of aerospace structures that require efficiency and wisdom in design, sophistication and accuracy in analysis and numerous and careful experimental evaluations of components and prototype, in order to achieve the necessary system reliability, performance and safety. Preliminary and/or concept design entails the assemblage of system mission requirements, system expected performance and identification of components and their connections as well as of manufacturing and system assembly techniques. This is accomplished through experience based on previous similar designs, and through the possible use of models to simulate the entire system characteristics. Detail design is heavily dependent on information and concepts derived from the previous steps. This information identifies critical design areas which need sophisticated analyses, and design and redesign procedures to achieve the expected component performance. This step may require several independent analysis models, which, in many instances, require component testing. The last step in the design process, before going to production, is the verification of the design. This step necessitates the production of large components and prototypes in order to test component and system analytical predictions and verify strength and performance requirements under the worst loading conditions that the system is expected to encounter in service. Clearly then, full-scale testing is in many cases necessary and always very expensive. In the aircraft industry, in addition to full-scale tests, certification and safety necessitate large component static and dynamic testing. Such tests are extremely difficult, time consuming and definitely absolutely necessary. Clearly, one should not expect that prototype testing will be totally eliminated in the aircraft industry. It is hoped, though, that we can reduce full-scale testing to a minimum. Full-scale large component testing is necessary in

  12. Earthquake Scaling, Simulation and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Michael Karl

    Earthquakes are among the most devastating natural events faced by society. In 2011, just two events, the magnitude 6.3 earthquake in Christcurch New Zealand on February 22, and the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake off the coast of Japan on March 11, caused a combined total of $226 billion in economic losses. Over the last decade, 791,721 deaths were caused by earthquakes. Yet, despite their impact, our ability to accurately predict when earthquakes will occur is limited. This is due, in large part, to the fact that the fault systems that produce earthquakes are non-linear. The result being that very small differences in the systems now result in very big differences in the future, making forecasting difficult. In spite of this, there are patterns that exist in earthquake data. These patterns are often in the form of frequency-magnitude scaling relations that relate the number of smaller events observed to the number of larger events observed. In many cases these scaling relations show consistent behavior over a wide range of scales. This consistency forms the basis of most forecasting techniques. However, the utility of these scaling relations is limited by the size of the earthquake catalogs which, especially in the case of large events, are fairly small and limited to a few 100 years of events. In this dissertation I discuss three areas of earthquake science. The first is an overview of scaling behavior in a variety of complex systems, both models and natural systems. The focus of this area is to understand how this scaling behavior breaks down. The second is a description of the development and testing of an earthquake simulator called Virtual California designed to extend the observed catalog of earthquakes in California. This simulator uses novel techniques borrowed from statistical physics to enable the modeling of large fault systems over long periods of time. The third is an evaluation of existing earthquake forecasts, which focuses on the Regional

  13. Incorporating Pore-Scale Data in Field-Scale Uncertainty Quantification: A Multi-Scale Bayesian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icardi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Pore-scale modeling is recently become an important tool for a deeper understanding of complex transport phenomena in porous media. However its direct usage for field-scale processes is still hindered by limited predictive capabilities. This is due to the large uncertainties in the micro-scale parameters, in the pore geometries, in the limited number of available samples, and in the numerical errors. These issues are often overlooked because it is usually thought that the computational cost of pore-scale simulation prohibits an extensive uncertainty quantification study with large number of samples. In this work we propose an computational tool to estimate statistics of pore-scale quantities. The algorithm is based on (i) an efficient automatic CFD solver for pore-scale simulations, (ii) a multi-scale Bayesian theoretical framework, and (iii) a generalized multilevel Monte Carlo to speed up the statistical computations. Exploiting the variance reduction of the multi-level and multi-scale representation, we demonstrate the feasibility of the forward and inverse uncertainty quantification problems. The former consists in quantifying the effect of micro-scale heterogeneities and parametric uncertainties on macro-scale upscaled quantities. Given some prior information on the pore-scale structures, the latter can be applied to (i) assess the validity and estimate uncertainties of macro-scale models for a wide range of micro-scale properties, (ii) match macro-scale results with the underlying pore-scale properties.

  14. 21 CFR 880.2720 - Patient scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Patient scale. 880.2720 Section 880.2720 Food and... Patient scale. (a) Identification. A patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to measure the weight of a patient who cannot stand on a scale. This generic device includes...

  15. 21 CFR 880.2720 - Patient scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Patient scale. 880.2720 Section 880.2720 Food and... Patient scale. (a) Identification. A patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to measure the weight of a patient who cannot stand on a scale. This generic device includes...

  16. 21 CFR 880.2720 - Patient scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Patient scale. 880.2720 Section 880.2720 Food and... Patient scale. (a) Identification. A patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to measure the weight of a patient who cannot stand on a scale. This generic device includes...

  17. 21 CFR 880.2720 - Patient scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Patient scale. 880.2720 Section 880.2720 Food and... Patient scale. (a) Identification. A patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to measure the weight of a patient who cannot stand on a scale. This generic device includes...

  18. 21 CFR 880.2720 - Patient scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient scale. 880.2720 Section 880.2720 Food and... Patient scale. (a) Identification. A patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to measure the weight of a patient who cannot stand on a scale. This generic device includes...

  19. 27 CFR 19.276 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package scales. 19.276... Package scales. Proprietors shall ensure the accuracy of scales used for weighing packages of spirits through tests conducted at intervals of not more than 6 months or whenever scales are adjusted or...

  20. 30 CFR 57.3202 - Scaling tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scaling tools. 57.3202 Section 57.3202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3202 Scaling tools. Where manual scaling is performed, a scaling...

  1. 30 CFR 56.3202 - Scaling tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scaling tools. 56.3202 Section 56.3202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 56.3202 Scaling tools. Where manual scaling is performed, a scaling bar shall be provided. This...

  2. Simple scale interpolator facilitates reading of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, A.; Henry, B.; Hood, D.

    1966-01-01

    Set of cards with scale divisions and a scale finder permits accurate reading of the coordinates of points on linear or logarithmic graphs plotted on rectangular grids. The set contains 34 different scales for linear plotting and 28 single cycle scales for log plots.

  3. Mokken Scale Analysis Using Hierarchical Clustering Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Abswoude, Alexandra A. H.; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Hemker, Bas T.; van der Ark, L. Andries

    2004-01-01

    Mokken scale analysis (MSA) can be used to assess and build unidimensional scales from an item pool that is sensitive to multiple dimensions. These scales satisfy a set of scaling conditions, one of which follows from the model of monotone homogeneity. An important drawback of the MSA program is that the sequential item selection and scale…

  4. Stability of Rasch Scales over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine S.; Lee, Yoonsun

    2010-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) methods are generally used to create score scales for large-scale tests. Research has shown that IRT scales are stable across groups and over time. Most studies have focused on items that are dichotomously scored. Now Rasch and other IRT models are used to create scales for tests that include polytomously scored items.…

  5. Metabolic scaling in solid tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milotti, E.; Vyshemirsky, V.; Sega, M.; Stella, S.; Chignola, R.

    2013-06-01

    Tumour metabolism is an outstanding topic of cancer research, as it determines the growth rate and the global activity of tumours. Recently, by combining the diffusion of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolites in the extracellular environment, and the internal motions that mix live and dead cells, we derived a growth law of solid tumours which is linked to parameters at the cellular level. Here we use this growth law to obtain a metabolic scaling law for solid tumours, which is obeyed by tumours of different histotypes both in vitro and in vivo, and we display its relation with the fractal dimension of the distribution of live cells in the tumour mass. The scaling behaviour is related to measurable parameters, with potential applications in the clinical practice.

  6. The scale of cosmic isotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Marinoni, C.; Bel, J.; Buzzi, A. E-mail: Julien.Bel@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2012-10-01

    The most fundamental premise to the standard model of the universe states that the large-scale properties of the universe are the same in all directions and at all comoving positions. Demonstrating this hypothesis has proven to be a formidable challenge. The cross-over scale R{sub iso} above which the galaxy distribution becomes statistically isotropic is vaguely defined and poorly (if not at all) quantified. Here we report on a formalism that allows us to provide an unambiguous operational definition and an estimate of R{sub iso}. We apply the method to galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, finding that R{sub iso} ∼ 150h{sup −1}Mpc. Besides providing a consistency test of the Copernican principle, this result is in agreement with predictions based on numerical simulations of the spatial distribution of galaxies in cold dark matter dominated cosmological models.

  7. Scale invariance in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2⩽α⩽2.4 , and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent α and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  8. Emerging universe from scale invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Del Campo, Sergio; Herrera, Ramón; Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Labraña, Pedro E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il E-mail: plabrana@ubiobio.cl

    2010-06-01

    We consider a scale invariant model which includes a R{sup 2} term in action and show that a stable ''emerging universe'' scenario is possible. The model belongs to the general class of theories, where an integration measure independent of the metric is introduced. To implement scale invariance (S.I.), a dilaton field is introduced. The integration of the equations of motion associated with the new measure gives rise to the spontaneous symmetry breaking (S.S.B) of S.I. After S.S.B. of S.I. in the model with the R{sup 2} term (and first order formalism applied), it is found that a non trivial potential for the dilaton is generated. The dynamics of the scalar field becomes non linear and these non linearities are instrumental in the stability of some of the emerging universe solutions, which exists for a parameter range of the theory.

  9. Scaling Aspects of Lymphocyte Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Perelson, Alan S.; Wiegel, Frederik W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the long lived pool of B and T cells that recirculate through blood, tissues and the lymphatic system of an animal with body mass M. We derive scaling rules (allometric relations) for: (1) the rate of production of mature lymphocytes; (2) the accumulation of lymphocytes in the tissues; (3) the flux of lymphocytes through the lymphatic system; (4) the number of lymph nodes, (5) the number of lymphocytes per clone within a lymph node, and (6) the total number of lymphocytes within a lymph node. Mass-dependent aspects of immune learning and of the immunological self are shown to be not very significant. Our treatment is somewhat heuristic and aims at a combination of immunological data with recent progress in biological scaling. PMID:19084024

  10. Metabolic scaling in solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Milotti, E.; Vyshemirsky, V.; Sega, M.; Stella, S.; Chignola, R.

    2013-01-01

    Tumour metabolism is an outstanding topic of cancer research, as it determines the growth rate and the global activity of tumours. Recently, by combining the diffusion of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolites in the extracellular environment, and the internal motions that mix live and dead cells, we derived a growth law of solid tumours which is linked to parameters at the cellular level1. Here we use this growth law to obtain a metabolic scaling law for solid tumours, which is obeyed by tumours of different histotypes both in vitro and in vivo, and we display its relation with the fractal dimension of the distribution of live cells in the tumour mass. The scaling behaviour is related to measurable parameters, with potential applications in the clinical practice. PMID:23727729

  11. Latest Developments in SLD Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Anderson, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Scaling methods have been shown previously to work well for super cooled large droplet (SLD) main ice shapes. However, feather sizes for some conditions have not been well represented by scale tests. To determine if there are fundamental differences between the development of feathers for appendix C and SLD conditions, this study used time-sequenced photographs, viewing along the span of the model during icing sprays. An airspeed of 100 kt, cloud water drop MVDs of 30 and 140 microns, and stagnation freezing fractions of 0.30 and 0.50 were tested in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel using an unswept 91-cm-chord NACA0012 airfoil model mounted at 0deg AOA. The photos indicated that the feathers that developed in a distinct region downstream of the leading-edge ice determined the horn location and angle. The angle at which feathers grew from the surface were also measured; results are shown for an airspeed of 150 kt, an MVD of 30 microns, and stagnation freezing fractions of 0.30 to 0.60. Feather angles were found to depend strongly on the stagnation freezing fraction, and were independent of either chordwise position on the model or time into the spray. Feather angles also correlated well with horn angles. For these tests, there did not appear to be fundamental differences between the physics of SLD and appendix C icing; therefore, for these conditions similarity parameters used for appendix C scaling appear to be valid for SLD scaling as well. Further investigation into the cause for the large feather structures observed for some SLD conditions will continue.

  12. Small-Scale-Field Dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzinov, A.; Cowley, S.; Sudan, R. ||

    1996-11-01

    Generation of magnetic field energy, without mean field generation, is studied. Isotropic mirror-symmetric turbulence of a conducting fluid amplifies the energy of small-scale magnetic perturbations if the magnetic Reynolds number is high, and the dimensionality of space {ital d} satisfies 2.103{lt}{ital d}{lt}8.765. The result does not depend on the model of turbulence, incompressibility, and isotropy being the only requirements. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Scaling properties of lithographic VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Abdullah; Zhao, Guowei; Freisem, Sabine; Liu, Xiaohang; Deppe, Dennis G.

    2011-03-01

    Data are presented demonstrating lithographic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and their scaling properties. Lithographic VCSELs have simultaneous mode- and current-confinement defined only by lithography and epitaxial crystal growth. The lithographic process of these devices allows getting uniform device size throughout a wafer and easy scaling to manufacture very small lasers. The semiconductor's high thermal conductivity enables the small lithographic VCSEL to have lower thermal resistance than an oxide-aperture VCSEL, while the lithographic fabrication produces high VCSEL uniformity even at small size. Very dense packing is also possible. Devices of 3 μm to 20 μm diameters are fabricated and scaling properties are characterized. 3 μm lithographic VCSELs produce output power of 4.1 mW, with threshold current of 260 μA and slope efficiency of 0.76 W/A at emission wavelength of ~980 nm. These VCSELs also have single-mode single-polarization lasing without the use of a surface grating, and have >25 dB sidemode- suppression-ratio up to 1 mW of output power. Lifetime tests demonstrate that 3 μm VCSEL operates for hundreds of hours at high injection current level of 85 kA/cm2 with 3.7 mW output power without degradation. Scaling properties and low thermal resistance of the lithographic VCSELs can extend the VCSEL technology to manufacturable and reliable small size lasers and densely packed arrays with long device lifetime.

  14. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    revenue. Among respondents to the IAAR survey, 86% of companies certified in quality management realized a positive return on investment (ROI). An...SCALe undertakes. Testing and calibration laboratories that comply with ISO /IEC 17025 also operate in accordance with ISO 9001 . • NIST National...17025:2005 accredited and ISO 9001 :2008 registered. 4.3 SAIC Accreditation and Certification Services SAIC (Science Applications International

  15. Noisy scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Jan; Dejori, Mathäus; Stetter, Martin; Greiner, Martin

    2005-05-01

    The impact of observational noise on the analysis of scale-free networks is studied. Various noise sources are modeled as random link removal, random link exchange and random link addition. Emphasis is on the resulting modifications for the node-degree distribution and for a functional ranking based on betweenness centrality. The implications for estimated gene-expressed networks for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia are discussed.

  16. Shift and Scale Invariant Preprocessor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    1982 THESIS D V SHIFT AND SCALE INVARIANT ?PREPROCESSOR by Norman E. Huston, Jr. December 1981 0 Thesis Advisor: L. A. Wilson Approved for public...SCHOOL December 1981 Author: - . 4 ,/ A pp ro0ved by: rYY. ( Thesis Advisor Co-Ad isor Chairman, De artment of 4n n eing Dean of Science and...large range of problems/disciplines. Fields where it is particularly common include optical imagery, acoustic signal processing , radiology, radio

  17. Multi-Scale Autoregressive Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    rationnelles et leurs langages," Mas- son 1984, Collection "Etudes et Recherches en Informatique". [12] J.L. DUNAU, "Etude d’une classe de marches...June 1989 LIDS-P-1880 Multi-Scale Autoregressive Processes Michele Basseville’ Albert Benveniste’ Institut de Recherche en Informatique et Systemes...Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and A.B. is also with Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA). The

  18. Development of a Facebook Addiction Scale.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-04-01

    The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS), initially a pool of 18 items, three reflecting each of the six core elements of addiction (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse), was constructed and administered to 423 students together with several other standardized self-report scales (Addictive Tendencies Scale, Online Sociability Scale, Facebook Attitude Scale, NEO-FFI, BIS/BAS scales, and Sleep questions). That item within each of the six addiction elements with the highest corrected item-total correlation was retained in the final scale. The factor structure of the scale was good (RMSEA = .046, CFI = .99) and coefficient alpha was .83. The 3-week test-retest reliability coefficient was .82. The scores converged with scores for other scales of Facebook activity. Also, they were positively related to Neuroticism and Extraversion, and negatively related to Conscientiousness. High scores on the new scale were associated with delayed bedtimes and rising times.

  19. An investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for the combined purposes of determining the relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and for determining the mathematical relationships whereby subjective data are transformed from one scale to other scales. There were 16 category scales analyzed representing various parametric combinations of polarity, that is, unipolar and bipolar, scale type, and number of scalar points. Results indicated that unipolar continuous-type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points provide the greatest reliability and discriminability. Transformations of subjective data between category scales were found to be feasible with unipolar scales of a larger number of scalar points providing the greatest accuracy of transformation. The results contain coefficients for transformation of subjective data between the category scales investigated. A result of particular interest was that the comfort half of a bipolar scale was seldom used by subjects to describe their subjective reaction to vibration.

  20. A Lab-Scale CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Mark E.; Finn, Cory K.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Sun, Sidney; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that prohibitive resupply costs for extended-duration manned space flight missions will demand that a high degree of recycling and in situ food production be implemented. A prime candidate for in situ food production is the growth of higher level plants. Research in the area of plant physiology is currently underway at many institutions. This research is aimed at the characterization and optimization of gas exchange, transpiration and food production of higher plants in order to support human life in space. However, there are a number of unresolved issues involved in making plant chambers an integral part of a closed life support system. For example, issues pertaining to the integration of tightly coupled, non-linear systems with small buffer volumes will need to be better understood in order to ensure successful long term operation of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has embarked on a program to explore some of these issues and demonstrate the feasibility of the CELSS concept. The primary goal of the Laboratory Scale CELSS Project is to develop a fully-functioning integrated CELSS on a laboratory scale in order to provide insight, knowledge and experience applicable to the design of human-rated CELSS facilities. Phase I of this program involves the integration of a plant chamber with a solid waste processor. This paper will describe the requirements, design and some experimental results from Phase I of the Laboratory Scale CELSS Program.

  1. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter spacemore » that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.« less

  2. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  3. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter space that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.

  4. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-12-23

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community.

  5. Mechanically reliable scales and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Alexander, K.B.

    1995-06-01

    In many high-temperature fossil energy systems, corrosion and deleterious environmental effects arising from reactions with reactive gases and condensible products often compromise materials performance and, as a consequence, degrade operating efficiencies. Protection of materials from such reactions is best afforded by the formation of stable surface oxides (either as deposited coatings or thermally grown scales) that are slowly reacting, continuous, dense, and adherent to the substrate. However, the ability of normally brittle ceramic films and coatings to provide such protection has long been problematical, particularly for applications involving numerous or severe high-temperature thermal cycles or very aggressive (for example, sulfidizing) environments. A satisfactory understanding of how scale and coating integrity and adherence are improved by compositional, microstructural, and processing modifications is lacking. Therefore, to address this issue, the present work is intended to define the relationships between substrate characteristics (composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior) and the structure and protective properties of deposited oxide coatings and/or thermally grown scales. Such information is crucial to the optimization of the chemical, interfacial, and mechanical properties of the protective oxides on high-temperature materials through control of processing and composition and directly supports the development of corrosion-resistant, high-temperature materials for improved energy and environmental control systems.

  6. Transition physics and scaling overview

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, T.N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent experimental progress towards understanding H-mode transition physics and scaling. Terminology and techniques for studying H-mode are reviewed and discussed. The model of shear E x B flow stabilization of edge fluctuations at the L-H transition is gaining wide acceptance and is further supported by observations of edge rotation on a number of new devices. Observations of poloidal asymmetries of edge fluctuations and dephasing of density and potential fluctuations after the transition pose interesting challenges for understanding H-mode physics. Dedicated scans to determine the scaling of the power threshold have now been performed on many machines. A dear B{sub t} dependence is universally observed but dependence on the line averaged density is complicated. Other dependencies are also reported. Studies of the effect of neutrals and error fields on the power threshold are under investigation. The ITER threshold database has matured and offers guidance to the power threshold scaling issues relevant to next-step devices.

  7. Temporal scaling in information propagation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-18

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  8. The scaling of secondary craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Secondary craters are common features around fresh planetary-scale primary impact craters throughout most of the Solar System. They derive from the ejection phase of crater formation, thus secondary scaling relations provide constraints on parameters affecting ejection processes. Secondary crater fields typically begin at the edge of the continuous ejecta blankets (CEB) and extend out several crater radii. Secondaries tend to have rounded rims and bilateral symmetry about an axis through the primary crater's center. Prominent secondary chains can extend inward across the CEB close to the rim. A simple method for comparing secondary crater fields was employed: averaging the diameters and ranges from the center of the primary crater of the five largest craters in a secondary crater field. While not as much information is obtained about individual crater fields by this method as in more complete secondary field mapping, it facilitates rapid comparison of many secondary fields. Also, by quantifying a few specific aspects of the secondary crater field, this method can be used to construct scaling relations for secondary craters.

  9. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H.A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Results Thirty six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving twenty-eight scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be “recommended”: the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two “recommended” scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for “suggested” and seven scales met criteria for “listed”. All the scales are individually reviewed in the online appendix. Conclusion The task force recommends five specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate in dystonia two recommended generic voice-disorder scales. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. PMID:23893443

  10. ESA's Hipparcos satellite revises the scale of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    This ruler relies on the brightnesses of winking stars called Cepheids, but the distances of the nearest examples, which calibrate the ruler, could only be estimated. Direct measurements by Hipparcos imply that the Cepheids are more luminous and more distant than previously imagined. The brightnesses of Cepheids seen in other galaxies are used as a guide to their distances. All of these galaxies may now be judged to lie farther away. At the same time the Hipparcos Cepheid scale drastically reduces the ages of the oldest stars, to about 11 billion years. By a tentative interpretation the Universe is perhaps 12 billion years old. Michael Feast from the University of Cape Town, South Africa, announces his conclusion about the Cepheids at a meeting devoted to Hipparcos at the Royal Astronomical Society in London today (14 February 1997). It will provoke much comment and controversy, because the scale and age of the Universe is the touchiest issue in cosmology. The best hope for confirming or modifying the result now rests with studies using Hipparcos data on other kinds of variable stars. An investigation of the variables called Miras, by Floor van Leeuwen of Royal Greenwich Observatory, Cambridge, and his colleagues, is described at the same London meeting. Full scientific reports on both the Cepheids and Miras have been accepted for publication in a leading journal, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. European teams of scientists and engineers conceived and launched the unique Hipparcos satellite, which operated from 1989 to 1993. Hipparcos fixed precise positions in the sky of 120,000 stars (Hipparcos Catalogue) and logged a million more with a little less accuracy (Tycho Catalogue). Since 1993 the largest computations in the history of astronomy have reconciled the observations, to achieve a hundredfold improvement in the accuracy of star positions compared with previous surveys. Slight seasonal shifts in stellar positions as the Earth orbits the

  11. Patch scales in coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broitman, Bernardo R.

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological processes are coupled to environmental variability is a major challenge for ecologists. Here, I assimilate patterns of oceanographic variability with ecological field studies in an attempt to quantify spatial and temporal scales of coupling. Using coastal time series of chlorophyll-a concentration from remote sensing, the first chapter examines the alongshore extent of coastal regions subject to similar temporal patterns of oceanographic variability in Western North America (WNA) and North-Central Chile (Chile). I found striking interhemispherical differences in the length of coastal sections under similar oceanographic regimes, with the Chile region showing longshore coherency over much smaller spatial scales (˜60 km) than on the coast of WNA (˜140 km). Through a spatial analysis of coastal orientation I suggest that the characteristic length scales may be traced to the geomorphologic character of the ocean margins. The second chapter examines spatial patterns of primary production through long-term means of coastal chlorophyll-a concentration and kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) cover and explores their relationship with coastal geomorphology and sea surface temperature (SST). Spatial analyses showed a striking match in length scales around 180--250 km. Strong anticorrelations at small spatial lags and positive correlations at longer distances suggest little overlap between patches of kelp and coastal chlorophyll-a. In agreement with findings from the previous chapter, I found that coastal patches could be traced back to spatial patterns of coastal geomorphology. Through SST time series and long-term datasets of larval recruitment in Santa Cruz Island, California, the third chapter examines temporal patterns of oceanographic variability as determinants of ecological patterns. SST time series from sites experiencing low larval recruitment rates were dominated by strong temporal variability. These sites

  12. Evaluating the impact of farm scale innovation at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breda, Phelia; De Clercq, Willem; Vlok, Pieter; Querner, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological modelling lends itself to other disciplines very well, normally as a process based system that acts as a catalogue of events taking place. These hydrological models are spatial-temporal in their design and are generally well suited for what-if situations in other disciplines. Scaling should therefore be a function of the purpose of the modelling. Process is always linked with scale or support but the temporal resolution can affect the results if the spatial scale is not suitable. The use of hydrological response units tends to lump area around physical features but disregards farm boundaries. Farm boundaries are often the more crucial uppermost resolution needed to gain more value from hydrological modelling. In the Letaba Catchment of South Africa, we find a generous portion of landuses, different models of ownership, different farming systems ranging from large commercial farms to small subsistence farming. All of these have the same basic right to water but water distribution in the catchment is somewhat of a problem. Since water quantity is also a problem, the water supply systems need to take into account that valuable production areas not be left without water. Clearly hydrological modelling should therefore be sensitive to specific landuse. As a measure of productivity, a system of small farmer production evaluation was designed. This activity presents a dynamic system outside hydrological modelling that is generally not being considered inside hydrological modelling but depends on hydrological modelling. For sustainable development, a number of important concepts needed to be aligned with activities in this region, and the regulatory actions also need to be adhered to. This study aimed at aligning the activities in a region to the vision and objectives of the regulatory authorities. South Africa's system of socio-economic development planning is complex and mostly ineffective. There are many regulatory authorities involved, often with unclear

  13. Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotzek, Nikolai

    A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of an E-scale. Aside from its foundation in physical quantities which allow for a calibration of the scales, the E-scale concept can help to overcome the present plethora of scales for winds in the range from gale to hurricane intensity. A procedure to convert existing data based on the Fujita-scale or other scales (Saffir-Simpson, TORRO, Beaufort) to their corresponding E-scales is outlined. Even for the large US tornado record, the workload of conversion in case of an adoption of the E-scale would in principle remain manageable (if the necessary metadata to do so were available), as primarily the F5 events would have to be re-rated. Compared to damage scales like the "Enhanced Fujita" or EF-scale concept recently implemented in the USA, the E-scales are based on first principles. They can consistently be applied all over the world for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. To account for international variations in building characteristics, one should not adapt wind speed scale thresholds to certain national building characteristics. Instead, one worldwide applicable wind speed scale based on physical principles should rather be complemented by nationally-adapted damage descriptions. The E-scale concept can provide the basis for such a standardised wind speed scale.

  14. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  15. Global scale deposition of radioactivity from a large scale exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.

    1983-10-01

    The global impact of radioactivity pertains to the continental scale and planetary scale deposition of the radioactivity in a delayed mode; it affects all peoples. Global deposition is distinct and separate from close-in fallout. Close-in fallout is delivered in a matter of a few days or less and is much studied in the literature of civilian defense. But much less studied is the matter of global deposition. The global deposition of radioactivity from the reference strategic exchange (5300 MT) leads to an estimated average whole body, total integrated dose of 20 rem for the latitudes of 30 to 50/sup 0/ in the Northern Hemisphere. Hotspots of deposited radioactivity can occur with doses of about 70 rem (winter) to 40 to 110 rem (summer) in regions like Europe, western Asia, western North Pacific, southeastern US, northeastern US, and Canada. The neighboring countries within a few hundred kilometers of areas under strategic nuclear attack can be impacted by the normal (termal close-in) fallout due to gravitational sedimentation with lethal radiation doses to unsheltered populations. In regard to the strategic scenario about 40% of the megatonage is assumed to be in a surface burst mode and the rest in the free air burst mode.

  16. Mineral scale in gravel packed wells

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Soereide, F.

    1994-12-31

    Mineral scales of barium, strontium and calcium sulphate are well known to the oil industry. The most common scale is calcium carbonate. However carbonate, unlike the three other scales mentioned, is acid soluble and it is perhaps the sulphate scales which gives the greatest problems. One additional feature of the sulphate scales is that they very often coprecipitate radium sulphate which is radioactive and difficult to dispose of and troublesome to work with from a health and safety aspect. This paper presents the production history of gravel packed wells which have experienced the deposition and removal of mainly strontium sulphate (SrSO{sub 4}) scale. A scale prediction program is used to analyze the scale tendencies under both equilibrium and kinetic controlled conditions. The flow and scale characteristics of gravel packed and naturally completed wells are compared.

  17. Dimensional Review of Scales for Forensic Photography.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Massimiliano; Doiron, Theodore D; Thompson, Robert M; Jones, John P; Freeman, Adam J; Neiman, Janice A

    2016-03-01

    Scales for photography provide a geometrical reference in the photographic documentation of a crime scene, pattern, or item of evidence. The ABFO No. 2 Standard Reference Scale (1) is used by the forensic science community as an accurate reference scale. We investigated the overall accuracy of the major centimeter graduations, internal/external diameters of the circles, error in placement of the circle centers, and leg perpendicularity. Four vendors were selected for the scales, and the features were measured on a vision-based coordinate measurement system. The scales were well within the specified tolerance for the length graduations. After 4 years, the same scales were measured to determine what change could be measured. The scales demonstrated acceptable stability in the scale length and center-to-center measurements; however, the perpendicularity exhibited change. The study results indicate that scale quality checks using certified metal rulers are good practice.

  18. Scaling on a limestone flooring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Natural stone can be use on nearly every surface, inside and outside buildings, but decay is more commonly reported from the ones exposed to outdoor aggressively conditions. This study instead, is an example of limestone weathering of uncertain origin in the interior of a residential building. The stone, used as flooring, started to exhibit loss of material in the form of scaling. These damages were observed before the building, localized in the South of Spain (Málaga), was inhabited. Moreover, according to the company the limestone satisfies the following European standards UNE-EN 1341: 2002, UNE-EN 1343: 2003; UNE-EN 12058: 2004 for floorings. Under these circumstances the main objective of this study was to assess the causes of this phenomenon. For this reason the composition of the mortar was determined and the stone was characterized from a mineralogical and petrological point of view. The last material, which is a fossiliferous limestone from Egypt with natural fissure lines, is mainly composed of calcite, being quartz, kaolinite and apatite minor phases. Moreover, under different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques (FTIR, micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, etc) samples of the weathered, taken directly from the buildings, and unweathered limestone tiles were examined and a new mineralogical phase, trona, was identified at scaled areas which are connected with the natural veins of the stone. In fact, through BSE-mapping the presence of sodium has been detected in these veins. This soluble sodium carbonate would was dissolved in the natural waters from which limestone was precipitated and would migrate with the ascendant capilar humidity and crystallized near the surface of the stone starting the scaling phenomenon which in historic masonry could be very damaging. Therefore, the weathering of the limestone would be related with the hygroscopic behaviour of this salt, but not with the constructive methods used. This makes the limestone unable to be used on restoration

  19. Optimal Scaling of Digital Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Glusman, Gustavo; Caballero, Juan; Robinson, Max; Kutlu, Burak; Hood, Leroy

    2013-01-01

    Deep sequencing of transcriptomes has become an indispensable tool for biology, enabling expression levels for thousands of genes to be compared across multiple samples. Since transcript counts scale with sequencing depth, counts from different samples must be normalized to a common scale prior to comparison. We analyzed fifteen existing and novel algorithms for normalizing transcript counts, and evaluated the effectiveness of the resulting normalizations. For this purpose we defined two novel and mutually independent metrics: (1) the number of “uniform” genes (genes whose normalized expression levels have a sufficiently low coefficient of variation), and (2) low Spearman correlation between normalized expression profiles of gene pairs. We also define four novel algorithms, one of which explicitly maximizes the number of uniform genes, and compared the performance of all fifteen algorithms. The two most commonly used methods (scaling to a fixed total value, or equalizing the expression of certain ‘housekeeping’ genes) yielded particularly poor results, surpassed even by normalization based on randomly selected gene sets. Conversely, seven of the algorithms approached what appears to be optimal normalization. Three of these algorithms rely on the identification of “ubiquitous” genes: genes expressed in all the samples studied, but never at very high or very low levels. We demonstrate that these include a “core” of genes expressed in many tissues in a mutually consistent pattern, which is suitable for use as an internal normalization guide. The new methods yield robustly normalized expression values, which is a prerequisite for the identification of differentially expressed and tissue-specific genes as potential biomarkers. PMID:24223126

  20. Proposing a tornado watch scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Jonathan Brock

    This thesis provides an overview of language used in tornado safety recommendations from various sources, along with developing a rubric for scaled tornado safety recommendations, and subsequent development and testing of a tornado watch scale. The rubric is used to evaluate tornado refuge/shelter adequacy responses of Tuscaloosa residents gathered following the April 27, 2011 Tuscaloosa, Alabama EF4 tornado. There was a significant difference in the counts of refuge adequacy for Tuscaloosa residents when holding the locations during the April 27th tornado constant and comparing adequacy ratings for weak (EF0-EF1), strong (EF2-EF3) and violent (EF4-EF5) tornadoes. There was also a significant difference when comparing future tornado refuge plans of those same participants to the adequacy ratings for weak, strong and violent tornadoes. The tornado refuge rubric is then revised into a six-class, hierarchical Tornado Watch Scale (TWS) from Level 0 to Level 5 based on the likelihood of high-impact or low-impact severe weather events containing weak, strong or violent tornadoes. These levels represent maximum expected tornado intensity and include tornado safety recommendations from the tornado refuge rubric. Audio recordings similar to those used in current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radio communications were developed to correspond to three levels of the TWS, a current Storm Prediction Center (SPC) tornado watch and a particularly dangerous situation (PDS) tornado watch. These were then used in interviews of Alabama residents to determine how changes to the information contained in the watch statements would affect each participant's tornado safety actions and perception of event danger. Results from interview participants (n=38) indicate a strong preference (97.37%) for the TWS when compared to current tornado watch and PDS tornado watch statements. Results also show the TWS elicits more adequate safety decisions from participants