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Sample records for camellia sinensis tea

  1. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  2. Draft genome sequence of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis provides insights into the evolution of the tea genome and tea quality

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chaoling; Yang, Hua; Wang, Songbo; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Enhua; Lu, Ying; Tai, Yuling; She, Guangbiao; Sun, Jun; Cao, Haisheng; Tong, Wei; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yeyun; Deng, Weiwei; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenzhao; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shihua; Li, Haijing; Wu, Junlan; Wang, Ping; Li, Penghui; Shi, Chengying; Zheng, Fengya; Jian, Jianbo; Huang, Bei; Shan, Dai; Shi, Mingming; Fang, Congbing; Yue, Yi; Li, Fangdong; Li, Daxiang; Wei, Shu; Han, Bin; Jiang, Changjun; Yin, Ye; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Shancen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Tea, one of the world’s most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ∼0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred ∼30 to 40 and ∼90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties. PMID:29678829

  3. SOME ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF SHELLED AND KERNEL TEA (Camellia sinensis) SEEDS.

    PubMed

    Altuntas, Ebubekir; Yildiz, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Camellia sinensis is the source of tea leaves and it is an economic crop now grown around the World. Tea seed oil has been used for cooking in China and other Asian countries for more than a thousand years. Tea is the most widely consumed beverages after water in the world. It is mainly produced in Asia, central Africa, and exported throughout the World. Some engineering properties (size dimensions, sphericity, volume, bulk and true densities, friction coefficient, colour characteristics and mechanical behaviour as rupture force of shelled and kernel tea ( Camellia sinensis ) seeds were determined in this study. This research was carried out for shelled and kernel tea seeds. The shelled tea seeds used in this study were obtained from East-Black Sea Tea Cooperative Institution in Rize city of Turkey. Shelled and kernel tea seeds were characterized as large and small sizes. The average geometric mean diameter and seed mass of the shelled tea seeds were 15.8 mm, 10.7 mm (large size); 1.47 g, 0.49 g (small size); while the average geometric mean diameter and seed mass of the kernel tea seeds were 11.8 mm, 8 mm for large size; 0.97 g, 0.31 g for small size, respectively. The sphericity, surface area and volume values were found to be higher in a larger size than small size for the shelled and kernel tea samples. The shelled tea seed's colour intensity (Chroma) were found between 59.31 and 64.22 for large size, while the kernel tea seed's chroma values were found between 56.04 68.34 for large size, respectively. The rupture force values of kernel tea seeds were higher than shelled tea seeds for the large size along X axis; whereas, the rupture force values of along X axis were higher than Y axis for large size of shelled tea seeds. The static coefficients of friction of shelled and kernel tea seeds for the large and small sizes higher values for rubber than the other friction surfaces. Some engineering properties, such as geometric mean diameter, sphericity, volume, bulk

  4. Spontaneously Assembled Nano-aggregates in Clear Green Tea Infusions from Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaorong; Gao, Xiong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Bin

    2017-05-10

    Tea nano-aggregates spontaneously assembled in clear tea infusions are considered as the precursors of tea cream, although their molecular basis remains obscure. Here, we characterized nano-aggregates in green tea infusions from Camellia ptilophylla, a peculiar tea variety with 6.0% of theobromine, and Camellia sinensis as the control for comparative purpose. Numerous negatively charged spherical colloidal particles of 50-100 nm in diameter were primarily found in both green tea infusions. Catechins, proteins, and carbohydrates were confirmed as the dominant components in green tea nano-aggregates. In addition, iron, copper, nickel, proteins, and gallated catechins exhibited higher aggregating affinity than other components, whereas methylxanthines and calcium contributed to the transformation of nano-aggregates into tea cream. Green tea nano-aggregates were partly destroyed by simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and removing theses peculiar particles dramatically attenuated the bioaccessibility of methylxanthines, theanine, and some catechin monomers in green tea infusions. This study enhanced our knowledge of molecular interactions in the formation of green tea cream and provided insight into physicochemical profiles, phytochemical nature, and functional effects of green tea nano-aggregates.

  5. Draft genome sequence of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis provides insights into the evolution of the tea genome and tea quality.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chaoling; Yang, Hua; Wang, Songbo; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Enhua; Lu, Ying; Tai, Yuling; She, Guangbiao; Sun, Jun; Cao, Haisheng; Tong, Wei; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yeyun; Deng, Weiwei; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenzhao; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shihua; Li, Haijing; Wu, Junlan; Wang, Ping; Li, Penghui; Shi, Chengying; Zheng, Fengya; Jian, Jianbo; Huang, Bei; Shan, Dai; Shi, Mingming; Fang, Congbing; Yue, Yi; Li, Fangdong; Li, Daxiang; Wei, Shu; Han, Bin; Jiang, Changjun; Yin, Ye; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Zhao, Shancen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-05-01

    Tea, one of the world's most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ∼0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred ∼30 to 40 and ∼90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...

  7. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Moore, Rosalind J; Jackson, Kim G; Minihane, Anne M

    2009-12-01

    The health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins are becoming increasingly recognised. Amongst the proposed benefits are the maintenance of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis and an associated reduction in atherogenesis and CVD risk. The mounting evidence for the influential effect of green tea catechins on vascular function from epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies is subject to review together with exploration of the potential mechanistic pathways involved. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, one of the most abundant and widely studied catechin found in green tea, will be prominent in the present review. Since there is a substantial inconsistency in the published data with regards to the impact of green tea catechins on vascular function, evaluation and interpretation of the inter- and intra-study variability is included. In conclusion, a positive effect of green tea catechins on vascular function is becoming apparent. Further studies in animal and cell models using physiological concentrations of catechins and their metabolites are warranted in order to gain some insight into the physiology and molecular basis of the observed beneficial effects.

  8. Contents and compositions of policosanols in green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol Ji; Park, Su Yeon; Park, Ji Su; Park, Sang-Kyu; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2016-08-01

    Policosanol (PC) is a mixture of health promoting bioactive long-chain aliphatic alcohols. Here, we report that green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves are the exceptionally rich plant-sources of PC. Young and tender leaves and old and turf leaves of C. sinensis were hand-picked in spring and autumn. The total contents of PC in the leaves were in the range of 726.2-1363.6mg/kg as determined by a GC-MS/MS. The compositions of PC in the leaves were different with harvest season and types. The total contents of PC in commercial green tea leaves were found to be in the range of 856.7-1435.1mg/kg. Interestingly, the infused green tea leaves contained the higher PC than the non-infused green tea product, reaching to 1629.4mg/kg. This represents the first report on the contents and compositions of PC in green tea leaves, showing unambiguous evidence of their potential as rich sources of PC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-10-26

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis.

  10. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis. PMID:27782129

  11. Formation of (E)-nerolidol in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gui, Jiadong; Mei, Xin; Fu, Xiumin; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jingchi; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-09-15

    (E)-Nerolidol is a volatile sesquiterpene that contributes to the floral aroma of teas (Camellia sinensis). The unique manufacturing process for oolong tea involves multiple stresses, resulting in a high content of (E)-nerolidol, which is not known to form in tea leaves. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of (E)-nerolidol in tea exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacture. C. sinensis (E)-nerolidol synthase (CsNES) recombinant protein, found in the cytosol, was found to transform farnesyl diphosphate into (E)-nerolidol. CsNES was highly expressed during the oolong tea turn over process, resulting in (E)-nerolidol accumulation. Continuous mechanical damage, simulating the turn over process, significantly enhanced CsNES expression level and (E)-nerolidol content. The combination of low temperature stress and mechanical damage had a synergistic effect on (E)-nerolidol formation. This is the first evidence of (E)-nerolidol formation mechanism in tea leaves and a characteristic example of plant volatile formation in response to dual stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative analysis of chemical compositions in Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara, a novel Chinese tea, by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Fang; Ouyang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yi-Qun; Wang, Ting-Mei; Li, Wei-Xi; Tian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Hong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara (Puan tea) is a kind of ancient tea plant newly found in Jiangxipo and the surrounding areas of Puan County (Guizhou, China). People there always believe that drinking Puan tea is beneficial to the promotion of health and prevention of diseases. However, detailed information on its compositions has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids and polyphenols in Puan tea were identified and determined by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Our results showed that theacrine, but not caffeine, was the dominated purine alkaloid detected in Puan tea. Meanwhile, Puan tea contained B-type procyanidin dimer, trimer and dimer monogallate, which were not detected in Camellia sinensis, Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia assamica var. kucha. The obtained results could support the local uses of Puan tea in health and nutrition and contribute to the research of tea variety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating Biochemical Parameters of Tea (camellia Sinensis (L.)) Using Hyperspectral Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, T.

    2012-07-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of the most successful empirical approach, was performed to establish the relationship between reflectance and biochemical concentration across six tea varieties in the field. Moreover, a novel integrated approach involving successive projections algorithms as band selection method and neural networks was developed and applied to detect the concentration of total tea polyphenols for one tea variety, in order to explore and model complex nonlinearity relationships between independent (wavebands) and dependent (biochemicals) variables. The good prediction accuracies (r2 > 0.8 and relative RMSEP < 10 %) achieved for tea plants using both linear (partial lease squares regress) and nonlinear (artificial neural networks) modelling approaches in this study demonstrates the feasibility of using airborne and spaceborne sensors to cover wide areas of tea plantation for in situ monitoring of tea quality cheaply and rapidly.

  14. Development of CAPS markers based on three key genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, and differentiation between assamica and sinensis varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2003-02-01

    The genetic diversity of tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, including the two main cultivated sinensis and assamica varieties, was investigated based on PCR-RFLP analysis of PAL, CHS2 and DFR, three key genes involved in catechin and tannin synthesis and directly responsible for tea taste and quality. Polymorphisms were of two types: amplicon length polymorphism (ALP) due to the presence of indels in two introns of PAL and DFR, and point mutations detected after restriction of amplified fragments with appropriate enzymes. A progeny test showed that all markers segregated in a Mendelian fashion and that polymorphisms were exclusively co-dominant. CHS2, which belongs to a multi-gene family, allowed for greater variation than the single-copy PAL gene. Based on Nei's gene diversity index, var. sinensis was revealed to be more variable than var. assamica, and that a higher proportion of overall diversity resided within varieties as compared to between varieties. Even though no specific DNA profile was found for either tea varieties following any single PCR-RFLP analysis, a factorial correspondence analysis carried out on all genotypes and markers separated the tea samples into two distinct groups according to their varietal status. This reflects the large difference between var. sinensis and var. assamica in their polyphenolic profiles. The STS-based markers developed in this study will be very useful in future mapping, population genetics and fingerprinting studies of this important crop species and other Camellia species, as the primers have also proven successful in the three other subgenera of this genus.

  15. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric W C; Soh, Eu Ying; Tie, Pei Pei; Law, Yon Peng

    2011-10-01

    The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70-81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1-11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.

  16. Formation and emission of linalool in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves infested by tea green leafhopper (Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda).

    PubMed

    Mei, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Li, Jianlong; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    Famous oolong tea (Oriental Beauty), which is manufactured by tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) infected with tea green leafhoppers, contains characteristic volatile monoterpenes derived from linalool. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of linalool in tea exposed to tea green leafhopper attack. The tea green leafhopper responsible for inducing the production of characteristic volatiles was identified as Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. E. (M.) onukii attack significantly induced the emission of linalool from tea leaves (p<0.05) as a result of the up-regulation of the linalool synthases (CsLIS1 and CsLIS2) (p<0.05). Continuous mechanical damage significantly enhanced CsLIS1 and CsLIS2 expression levels and linalool emission (p<0.05). Therefore, continuous wounding was a key factor causing the formation and emission of linalool from tea leaves exposed to E. (M.) onukii attack. This information should prove helpful for the future use of stress responses of plant secondary metabolism to improve quality components of agricultural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic phenotyping of various tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars and understanding of their intrinsic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hyang-Gi; Lee, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Kyeong Hwan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Park, Jun Seong; Hong, Young-Shick

    2017-10-15

    Recently, we selected three tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivars that are rich in taste, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3″Me) and then cultivated them through asexual propagation by cutting in the same region. In the present study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR)-based metabolomics was applied to characterize the metabotype and to understand the metabolic mechanism of these tea cultivars including wild type tea. Of the tea leaf metabolite variations, reverse associations of amino acid metabolism with catechin compound metabolism were found in the rich-taste, and EGCG- and EGCG3″Me-rich tea cultivars. Indeed, the metabolism of individual catechin compounds in the EGCG3″Me-rich cultivar differed from those of other tea cultivars. The current study highlights the distinct metabolism of various tea cultivars newly selected for cultivation and the important role of metabolomics in understanding the metabolic mechanism. Thus, comprehensive metabotyping is a useful method to assess and then develop a new plant cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. NMR Metabolic profiling of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves grown at Kemuning, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Kristanti, M. W.; Putri, R. K.; Rinanto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) has been famous as a beverage and natural medicine. It contains a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites i.e. polyphenols. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been widely used for metabolic profiling in medicinal plants. It provides a very fast and detailed analysis of the biomolecular composition of crude extracts. Moreover, an NMR spectrum is a physical characteristic of a compound and thus highly reproducible. Therefore, this study aims to profile metabolites of three different varieties of green tea C. Sinensis grown in Kemuning, Middle Java. Three varieties of green tea collected on Kemuning (TR1 2025, Gambung 4/5, and Chiaruan 143) were used in this study. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 230C on a 400 MHz Agilent WB (Widebore). The analysis was performed on dried green tea leaves and analyzed by 1H-NMR, 2D-J-resolved and 1H-1H correlated spectroscopy (COSY). MestRenova version 11.0.0 applied to identify metabolites in samples. A 1H-NMR spectrum of tea showed amino acids and organic acids signal at the area δ 0.8-4.0. These were theanine, alanine, threonine, succinic acid, aspartic acid, lactic acid. Anomeric protons of carbohydrate were shown by the region of β-glucose, α-glucose, fructose and sucrose. The phenolic region was depicted at area δ 5.5-8.5. Epigallocatechin derivates and caffeine were detected in the tea leaves. The detail compound identification was observed and discussed in the text.

  19. Potential anthelmintics: polyphenols from the tea plant Camellia sinensis L. are lethally toxic to Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Daisuke; Matsuda, Noriko; Yoshioka, Yu; Sato, Masashi; Yamasaki, Toru

    2008-04-01

    A novel gallate of tannin, (-)-epigallocatechin-(2 beta-->O-->7',4 beta-->8')-epicatechin-3'-O-gallate (8), together with (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (4), (-)-epigallocatechin (5), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (6), and (+)-gallocatechin-(4 alpha-->8')-epigallocatechin (7), were isolated from the tea plant Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze var. sinensis (cv., Yabukita). The structure of 8, including stereochemistry, was elucidated by spectroscopic methods and hydrolysis. The compounds, along with commercially available pyrogallol (1), (+)-catechin (2), and (-)-epicatechin (3), were examined for toxicity towards egg-bearing adults of Caenorhabditis elegans. The anthelmintic mebendazole (9) was used as a positive control. Neither 2 nor 3 were toxic but the other compounds were toxic in the descending order 8, 7 approximately 6, 9, 4, 5, 1. The LC(50) (96 h) values of 8 and 9 were evaluated as 49 and 334 micromol L(-1), respectively. These data show that many green tea polyphenols may be potential anthelmintics.

  20. Essential and toxic metals in tea (Camellia sinensis) imported and produced in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ashenef, Ayenew

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen samples of packed tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) were purchased from supermarkets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for metal analysis. Elements were measured by FAAS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) employing external calibration curves. The levels in mg/kg dried weight basis varied from Cu: 4.7-12.9; Cd: 0.02-2.83; Pb: <0.01-2.29; Zn: 8.6-198.3; Mn: 81.7-962.2; Al: 3376.4-10,369.3; K: 7667.7-10,775; Li: 0.2-0.62; Ba: 9.4-1407.1; Mg: 1145.6-1834.1; Fe: 286.4-880.9; Ca: 1414.2-2646.0; Na: 147.1-557.7. Levels of exposure to the investigated metals by drinking tea were checked with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of the WHO/FAO. Considering the average daily consumption rate of tea alone, the possible daily intakes of Al, Ba and Mn surpass the amenability to the side effects associated with these elements like Alzheimer's disease, kidney damage and Parkinson's disease, respectively, for which drinking tea should cause awareness. The other investigated elements are in the acceptable range.

  1. Metabolomic unveiling of a diverse range of green tea (Camellia sinensis) metabolites dependent on geography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Hak-Nam; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jung, Sungheuk; Lee, Hyosang; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2015-05-01

    Numerous factors such as geographical origin, cultivar, climate, cultural practices, and manufacturing processes influence the chemical compositions of tea, in the same way as growing conditions and grape variety affect wine quality. However, the relationships between these factors and tea chemical compositions are not well understood. In this study, a new approach for non-targeted or global analysis, i.e., metabolomics, which is highly reproducible and statistically effective in analysing a diverse range of compounds, was used to better understand the metabolome of Camellia sinensis and determine the influence of environmental factors, including geography, climate, and cultural practices, on tea-making. We found a strong correlation between environmental factors and the metabolome of green, white, and oolong teas from China, Japan, and South Korea. In particular, multivariate statistical analysis revealed strong inter-country and inter-city relationships in the levels of theanine and catechin derivatives found in green and white teas. This information might be useful for assessing tea quality or producing distinct tea products across different locations, and highlights simultaneous identification of diverse tea metabolites through an NMR-based metabolomics approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunjian; Li, Chunying; Liu, Shuaihua; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82–32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34–24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging test. Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacity decreased in the following order: green > oolong > black > dark tea. A positive correlation existed between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content (R 2 = 0.67–0.87). The antioxidant capacities of five major catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin) were determined by online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging; the antioxidant activity of tea was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins (EGCG or ECG). PMID:25243234

  3. Biosynthesis of Jasmine Lactone in Tea ( Camellia sinensis) Leaves and Its Formation in Response to Multiple Stresses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lanting; Zhou, Ying; Fu, Xiumin; Liao, Yinyin; Yuan, Yunfei; Jia, Yongxia; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-04-18

    Jasmine lactone has a potent odor that contributes to the fruity, sweet floral aroma of tea ( Camellia sinensis). Our previous study demonstrated that jasmine lactone was mostly accumulated at the turnover stage of the oolong tea manufacturing process. This study investigates the previously unknown mechanism of formation of jasmine lactone in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses occurring during the growth and manufacturing processes. Both continuous mechanical damage and the dual stress of low temperature and mechanical damage enhanced jasmine lactone accumulation in tea leaves. In addition, only one pathway, via hydroperoxy fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acid, including linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, under the action of lipoxygenases (LOXs), especially CsLOX1, was significantly affected by these stresses. This is the first evidence of the mechanism of jasmine lactone formation in tea leaves and is a characteristic example of plant volatile formation in response to dual stress.

  4. Aluminum induced physiological and proteomic responses in tea (Camellia sinensis) roots and leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingshan; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Fan, Kai; Ma, Dexin; Zhang, Yongliang; Yin, Qi

    2017-06-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), is an aluminum (Al) hyperaccumulator and grows well in acid soils. Although Al-induced growth of tea plant has been studied, the proteomic profiles of tea plants in response to Al are unclear. In the present study, the proteomic profiles in tea roots and leaves under Al stress were investigated using iTRAQ proteomics approach. In total, 755 and 1059 differentially expressed proteins were identified in tea roots and leaves, respectively. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins in roots were mainly involved in 11 pathways whereas those from leaves were mainly involved in 9 pathways. Abundance of most protein functions in glycolytic metabolism were enhanced in tea roots, and proteins involved in photosynthesis were stimulated in tea leaves. The protein ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) in lignin biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated in both roots and leaves. Furthermore, antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase) and citrate synthesis were accumulated in tea roots in response to Al. The results indicated that active photosynthesis and glycolysis as well as increased activities of antioxidant enzymes can be considered as a possible reason for the stimulatory effects of Al on the growth of tea plants. Additionally, the down-regulation of F5H and the binding of Al and phenolic acids may reduce the accumulation of lignin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metal content in tea soils and their distribution in different parts of tea plants, Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Anderson, Todd Alan; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2016-07-01

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals may pose a threat to environment and human health if metals enter the food chain over and above threshold levels. In general, there is a lack of information on the presence of heavy metals in tea [Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze] plants and the soils in which they are grown. Therefore, an attempt was made to establish a database on the important heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). For an initial survey on heavy metals, soil samples were collected randomly from tea-growing areas of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka, India. Parallel studies were conducted in the greenhouse on uptake of Pb, Cd, and Ni from soils supplemented with these metals at different concentrations. Finally, metal distribution in the tea plants under field conditions was also documented to assess the accumulation potential and critical limit of uptake by plants.

  6. Genetic Divergence between Camellia sinensis and Its Wild Relatives Revealed via Genome-Wide SNPs from RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Wei, Chao-Ling; Liu, Hong-Wei; Wu, Jun-Lan; Li, Zheng-Guo; Zhang, Liang; Jian, Jian-Bo; Li, Ye-Yun; Tai, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Jiang, Chang-Jun; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages across the world and is made exclusively from cultivars of Camellia sinensis. Many wild relatives of the genus Camellia that are closely related to C. sinensis are native to Southwest China. In this study, we first identified the distinct genetic divergence between C. sinensis and its wild relatives and provided a glimpse into the artificial selection of tea plants at a genome-wide level by analyzing 15,444 genomic SNPs that were identified from 18 cultivated and wild tea accessions using a high-throughput genome-wide restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) approach. Six distinct clusters were detected by phylogeny inferrence and principal component and genetic structural analyses, and these clusters corresponded to six Camellia species/varieties. Genetic divergence apparently indicated that C. taliensis var. bangwei is a semi-wild or transient landrace occupying a phylogenetic position between those wild and cultivated tea plants. Cultivated accessions exhibited greater heterozygosity than wild accessions, with the exception of C. taliensis var. bangwei. Thirteen genes with non-synonymous SNPs exhibited strong selective signals that were suggestive of putative artificial selective footprints for tea plants during domestication. The genome-wide SNPs provide a fundamental data resource for assessing genetic relationships, characterizing complex traits, comparing heterozygosity and analyzing putatitve artificial selection in tea plants.

  7. Hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties of a new fermented tea product obtained by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazunari; Tamaru, Shizuka; Nishizono, Shoko; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Matsui, Toshiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Echizen, Yoshie; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    We manufactured a new fermented tea by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves. The mixed fermented tea extract inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and effectively suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in rats. Rats fed a diet containing 1% freeze-dried fermented tea extract for 4 weeks had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol concentration and white adipose tissue weight than those fed the control diet lacking fermented tea extract. The activity of fatty acid synthase in hepatic cytosol markedly decreased in the fermented tea extract group as compared to the control group. The serum and liver triacylglycerol- and body fat-lowering effects of the mixed fermented tea extract were strong relative to the level of dietary supplementation. These results suggest that the new fermented tea product exhibited hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties through suppression of both liver fatty acid synthesis and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by inhibition of pancreatic lipase.

  8. iTRAQ-based proteomics monitors the withering dynamics in postharvest leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Ma, Hong-Yu; Zhuang, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a typical leaf-type beverage crop. Many secondary metabolites, such as tea polyphenols, theanine, and caffeine that accumulated in tea leaves are beneficial to human health. The fresh leaves of tea plant are harvested and timely processed into tea products with different flavors. The withering of fresh tea leaves is the first step in tea processing and directly affects tea color, taste, and fragrance. To understand the molecular mechanism that influences tea quality during withering, we investigated the dynamic changes in the proteome of postharvest tea leaves in four withering stages (0, 1, 4, and 12 h treatments). A total of 863 unique differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by iTRAQ. The up- and down-regulated DEPs and the protein-protein interaction networks in different samples presented dynamic changes in their characteristics. The results of the functional annotation revealed that the molecular characteristics of tea withering are similar to leaf senescence. The biosynthesis of main tea-specific compounds that constitute tea color, taste, and fragrance of tea is restricted during withering. The substance transformation and degradation may have positive contributions to tea quality in withering technology. The proteome dynamics can be a useful aid for understanding the withering mechanisms and providing available information for functional discovery of proteins in the future.

  9. Conventional and Accelerated-Solvent Extractions of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) for Metabolomics-based Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Joshua J.; Wallace, Emily D.; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2018-01-01

    Metabolomics has emerged as an important analytical technique for multiple applications. The value of information obtained from metabolomics analysis depends on the degree to which the entire metabolome is present and the reliability of sample treatment to ensure reproducibility across the study. The purpose of this study was to compare methods of preparing complex botanical extract samples prior to metabolomics profiling. Two extraction methodologies, accelerated solvent extraction and a conventional solvent maceration, were compared using commercial green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae)] products as a test case. The accelerated solvent protocol was first evaluated to ascertain critical factors influencing extraction using a D-optimal experimental design study. The accelerated solvent and conventional extraction methods yielded similar metabolite profiles for the green tea samples studied. The accelerated solvent extraction yielded higher total amounts of extracted catechins, was more reproducible, and required less active bench time to prepare the samples. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of accelerated solvent as an efficient methodology for metabolomics studies. PMID:28787673

  10. Functional Characterization of Tea (Camellia sinensis) MYB4a Transcription Factor Using an Integrative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingzhuo; Li, Yanzhi; Guo, Lili; Gong, Niandi; Pang, Yongzheng; Jiang, Wenbo; Liu, Yajun; Jiang, Xiaolan; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yunsheng; Xie, De-Yu; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis, Cs) abundantly produces a diverse array of phenylpropanoid compounds benefiting human health. To date, the regulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in tea remains to be investigated. Here, we report a cDNA isolated from leaf tissues, which encodes a R2R3-MYB transcription factor. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that it is a member of the MYB4-subgroup and named as CsMYB4a. Transcriptional and metabolic analyses show that the expression profile of CsMYB4a is negatively correlated to the accumulation of six flavan-3-ols and other phenolic acids. GFP fusion analysis shows CsMYB4a’s localization in the nucleus. Promoters of five tea phenylpropanoid pathway genes are isolated and characterized to contain four types of AC-elements, which are targets of MYB4 members. Interaction of CsMYB4a and five promoters shows that CsMYB4a decreases all five promoters’ activity. To further characterize its function, CsMYB4a is overexpressed in tobacco plants. The resulting transgenic plants show dwarf, shrinking and yellowish leaf, and early senescence phenotypes. A further genome-wide transcriptomic analysis reveals that the expression levels of 20 tobacco genes involved in the shikimate and the phenylpropanoid pathways are significantly downregulated in transgenic tobacco plants. UPLC-MS and HPLC based metabolic profiling reveals significant reduction of total lignin content, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and phenylalanine in CsMYB4a transgenic tobacco plants. Promoter sequence analysis of the 20 tobacco genes characterizes four types of AC-elements. Further CsMYB4a-AC element and CsMYB4a-promoter interaction analyses indicate that the negative regulation of CsMYB4a on the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways in tobacco is via reducing promoter activity. Taken together, all data indicate that CsMYB4a negatively regulates the phenylpropanoid and shikimate pathways. Highlight: A tea (Camellia sinensis) MYB4a is

  11. The Effect of Camellia sinensis on Wound Healing Potential in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kanthimathi, M. S.; Sanusi, Junedah

    2013-01-01

    Camellia sinensis (tea) is reported to have health benefits, including the building of healthy skin. This study evaluated the effects of topical application of Camellia sinensis extract on the rate of wound closure and the histology of wound area. A uniform area of 2.00 cm in diameter was excised from the neck of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were topically treated with 0.2 mL of vehicle (CMC), Intrasite gel (positive control), or 200 and 400 mg/mL of extract. Wounds dressed with the extract and Intrasite gel healed significantly earlier than those with vehicle. Histological analysis of the wound area after 10 days showed that wounds dressed with the extract had less scar width when compared to the control. The tissue contained less inflammatory cells and more collagen and angiogenesis, compared to wounds dressed with vehicle. In this study, Camellia sinensis showed high potential in wound healing activity. PMID:23864889

  12. Transcriptomic analysis between self- and cross-pollinated pistils of tea plants (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingping; Chen, Changsong; Zeng, Zhongping; Zou, Zhongwei; Li, Huan; Zhou, Qiongqiong; Chen, Xuan; Sun, Kang; Li, Xinghui

    2018-04-25

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a major barrier that obstructs the breeding process in most horticultural plants including tea plants (Camellia sinensis). The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of SI in tea plants through a high throughput transcriptome analysis. In this study, the transcriptomes of self- and cross-pollinated pistils of two tea cultivars 'Fudingdabai' and 'Yulv' were compared to elucidate the SI mechanism of tea plants. In addition, the ion components and pollen tube growth in self- and cross-pollinated pistils were investigated. Our results revealed that both cultivars had similar pollen activities and cross-pollination could promote the pollen tube growth. In tea pistils, the highest ion content was potassium (K + ), followed by calcium (Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ) and phosphorus (P 5+ ). Ca 2+ content increased after self-pollination but decreased after cross-pollination, while K + showed reverse trend with Ca 2+ . A total of 990 and 3 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in un-pollinated vs. pollinated pistils and self- vs. cross-pollinated groups after 48 h, respectively. Function annotation indicated that three genes encoding UDP-glycosyltransferase 74B1 (UGT74B1), Mitochondrial calcium uniporter protein 2 (MCU2) and G-type lectin S-receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase (G-type RLK) might play important roles during SI process in tea plants. Ca 2+ and K + are important signal for SI in tea plants, and three genes including UGT74B1, MCU2 and G-type RLK play essential roles during SI signal transduction.

  13. Does oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) made from a combination of leaf and stem smell more aromatic than leaf-only tea? Contribution of the stem to oolong tea aroma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lanting; Zhou, Ying; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Cheng, Sihua; Gui, Jiadong; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jinchi; Ma, Shengzhou; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    The raw materials used to make oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) are a combination of leaf and stem. Oolong tea made from leaf and stem is thought to have a more aromatic smell than leaf-only tea. However, there is no available evidence to support the viewpoint. In this study, sensory evaluation and detailed characterization of emitted and internal volatiles (not readily emitted, but stored in samples) of dry oolong teas and infusions indicated that the presence of stem did not significantly improve the total aroma characteristics. During the enzyme-active processes, volatile monoterpenes and theanine were accumulated more abundantly in stem than in leaf, while jasmine lactone, indole, and trans-nerolidol were lower in stem than in leaf. Tissue-specific aroma-related gene expression and availability of precursors of aroma compounds resulted in different aroma distributions in leaf and stem. This study presents the first determination of the contribution of stem to oolong tea aroma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in selenium accumulation in tea plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanli; Ma, Linlong; Jin, Xiaofang; Guo, Guiyi; Tan, Rongrong; Liu, Zheng; Zheng, Lin; Ye, Fei; Liu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) has strong enrichment ability for selenium (Se). Selenite is the main form of Se absorbed and utilized by tea plant. However, the mechanism of selenite absorption and accumulation in tea plant is still unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to perform transcriptomic analysis on the molecular mechanism of selenite absorption and accumulation in tea plant. 397.98 million high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 168,212 unigenes, 89,605 of which were extensively annotated. There were 60,582 and 1,362 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and leaves, respectively. RNA-seq results were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Based on GO terms, the unigenes were mainly involved in cell, binding and metabolic process. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that predominant pathways included ribosome and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. Further analysis revealed that sulfur metabolism, glutathione metabolism, selenocompound metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction responded to selenite in tea plant. Additionally, a large number of genes of higher expressions associated with phosphate transporters, sulfur assimilation, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant substances and responses to ethylene and jasmonic acid were identified. Stress-related plant hormones might play a signaling role in promoting sulfate/selenite uptake and assimilation in tea plant. Moreover, some other Se accumulation mechanisms of tea plant were found. Our study provides a possibility for controlling Se accumulation in tea plant through bio-technologies and will be helpful for breeding new tea cultivars. PMID:29856771

  15. Conventional and accelerated-solvent extractions of green tea (camellia sinensis) for metabolomics-based chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Joshua J; Wallace, Emily D; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2017-10-25

    Metabolomics has emerged as an important analytical technique for multiple applications. The value of information obtained from metabolomics analysis depends on the degree to which the entire metabolome is present and the reliability of sample treatment to ensure reproducibility across the study. The purpose of this study was to compare methods of preparing complex botanical extract samples prior to metabolomics profiling. Two extraction methodologies, accelerated solvent extraction and a conventional solvent maceration, were compared using commercial green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae)] products as a test case. The accelerated solvent protocol was first evaluated to ascertain critical factors influencing extraction using a D-optimal experimental design study. The accelerated solvent and conventional extraction methods yielded similar metabolite profiles for the green tea samples studied. The accelerated solvent extraction yielded higher total amounts of extracted catechins, was more reproducible, and required less active bench time to prepare the samples. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of accelerated solvent as an efficient methodology for metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Transcriptome and metabolite analysis identifies nitrogen utilization genes in tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xiang, Fen; Zhong, Micai; Zhou, Lingyun; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Saijun; Wang, Xuewen

    2017-05-10

    Applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer significantly increases the leaf yield. However, most N is not utilized by the plant, negatively impacting the environment. To date, little is known regarding N utilization genes and mechanisms in the leaf production. To understand this, we investigated transcriptomes using RNA-seq and amino acid levels with N treatment in tea (Camellia sinensis), the most popular beverage crop. We identified 196 and 29 common differentially expressed genes in roots and leaves, respectively, in response to ammonium in two tea varieties. Among those genes, AMT, NRT and AQP for N uptake and GOGAT and GS for N assimilation were the key genes, validated by RT-qPCR, which expressed in a network manner with tissue specificity. Importantly, only AQP and three novel DEGs associated with stress, manganese binding, and gibberellin-regulated transcription factor were common in N responses across all tissues and varieties. A hypothesized gene regulatory network for N was proposed. A strong statistical correlation between key genes' expression and amino acid content was revealed. The key genes and regulatory network improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of N usage and offer gene targets for plant improvement.

  17. Identification of epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3''Me) and amino acid profiles in various tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hyang-Gi; Lee, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Kyeng Hwan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Park, Jun Seong; Hong, Young-Shick

    2017-10-01

    This article includes experimental data on the identification of epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3''Me) by 2-dimensional (2D) proton ( 1 H) NMR analysis and on the information of amino acid and catechin compound profiles by HPLC analysis in leaf extracts of various tea cultivars. These data are related to the research article " Metabolic phenotyping of various tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars and understanding of their intrinsic metabolism " (Ji et al., 2017) [1]. The assignment for EGCG3x''Me by 1 H NMR analysis was also confirmed with spiking experiment of its pure chemical.

  18. New biofunctional effects of the flower buds of Camellia sinensis and its bioactive acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi; Nakamura, Seikou; Morikawa, Toshio; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2016-10-01

    We review the biofunctional effects of the flower buds of Camellia sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica, such as antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, and gastroprotective effects in vivo, and antiallergic, pancreatic lipase inhibitory, and amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation inhibitory activities in vitro. Although the biofunctional effects of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention has been given to those of the flowers and seeds of the tea plant. Our studies focused on the saponin constituents of the extracts of the flower buds of C. sinensis cultivated in Japan and China, and C. sinensis var. assamica cultivated in India, and we review their beneficial biofunctions for health promotion.

  19. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    PubMed

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep sequencing of the Camellia sinensis transcriptome revealed candidate genes for major metabolic pathways of tea-specific compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, CY; Yang, H; Wei, CL

    Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq, the transcriptome from poly (A){sup +} RNA of C. sinensis was analyzed at an unprecedented depth (2.59 gigabase pairs). Approximate 34.5 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled intomore » 127,094 unigenes, with an average length of 355 bp and an N50 of 506 bp, which consisted of 788 contig clusters and 126,306 singletons. This number of unigenes was 10-fold higher than existing C. sinensis sequences deposited in GenBank (as of August 2010). Sequence similarity analyses against six public databases (Uniprot, NR and COGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) found 55,088 unigenes that could be annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Some of the unigenes were assigned to putative metabolic pathways. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with several primary metabolic pathways and natural product pathways that are important to tea quality, such as flavonoid, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis pathways. Novel candidate genes of these secondary pathways were discovered. Comparisons with four previously prepared cDNA libraries revealed that this transcriptome dataset has both a high degree of consistency with previous EST data and an approximate 20 times increase in coverage. Thirteen unigenes related to theanine and flavonoid synthesis were validated. Their expression patterns in different organs of the tea plant were analyzed by RT-PCR and

  1. Deep sequencing of the Camellia sinensis transcriptome revealed candidate genes for major metabolic pathways of tea-specific compounds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Results Using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq, the transcriptome from poly (A)+ RNA of C. sinensis was analyzed at an unprecedented depth (2.59 gigabase pairs). Approximate 34.5 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 127,094 unigenes, with an average length of 355 bp and an N50 of 506 bp, which consisted of 788 contig clusters and 126,306 singletons. This number of unigenes was 10-fold higher than existing C. sinensis sequences deposited in GenBank (as of August 2010). Sequence similarity analyses against six public databases (Uniprot, NR and COGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) found 55,088 unigenes that could be annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Some of the unigenes were assigned to putative metabolic pathways. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with several primary metabolic pathways and natural product pathways that are important to tea quality, such as flavonoid, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis pathways. Novel candidate genes of these secondary pathways were discovered. Comparisons with four previously prepared cDNA libraries revealed that this transcriptome dataset has both a high degree of consistency with previous EST data and an approximate 20 times increase in coverage. Thirteen unigenes related to theanine and flavonoid synthesis were validated. Their expression patterns in different organs of the tea plant were analyzed by RT-PCR and

  2. Transition rates of selected metals determined in various types of teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) and herbal/fruit infusions.

    PubMed

    Schulzki, Grit; Nüßlein, Birgit; Sievers, Hartwig

    2017-01-15

    Teas and raw materials used as ingredients of herbal and fruit infusions (HFI) were analysed by means of ICP-MS for their content of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and mercury in the dry product and in the infusion. Samples of tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) were selected to include different origins, types (black, green), leaf grades (whole leaf, broken, fannings, dust) and manufacturing techniques (orthodox, "crush, tear, curl"). The selected HFI raw materials (chamomile, elderberries, fennel, hibiscus, mate, peppermint, rooibos and rose hip) cover the most important matrices (flower, fruit, seed, herb, leaf) and reflect the economic significance of these HFI materials in trade. Infusions were prepared under standardised conditions representing typical household brewing. Transition rates for the investigated metals vary significantly but are mostly well below 100%. We propose default transition rates for metals to avoid overestimation of exposure levels from tea/HFI consumption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Comparison of Metabolomics Approaches for Evaluating the Variability of Complex Botanical Preparations: Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Joshua J; Graf, Tyler N; Paine, Mary F; McCune, Jeannine S; Kvalheim, Olav M; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2017-05-26

    A challenge that must be addressed when conducting studies with complex natural products is how to evaluate their complexity and variability. Traditional methods of quantifying a single or a small range of metabolites may not capture the full chemical complexity of multiple samples. Different metabolomics approaches were evaluated to discern how they facilitated comparison of the chemical composition of commercial green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] products, with the goal of capturing the variability of commercially used products and selecting representative products for in vitro or clinical evaluation. Three metabolomic-related methods-untargeted ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), targeted UPLC-MS, and untargeted, quantitative 1 HNMR-were employed to characterize 34 commercially available green tea samples. Of these methods, untargeted UPLC-MS was most effective at discriminating between green tea, green tea supplement, and non-green-tea products. A method using reproduced correlation coefficients calculated from principal component analysis models was developed to quantitatively compare differences among samples. The obtained results demonstrated the utility of metabolomics employing UPLC-MS data for evaluating similarities and differences between complex botanical products.

  4. Comparison of Metabolomics Approaches for Evaluating the Variability of Complex Botanical Preparations: Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A challenge that must be addressed when conducting studies with complex natural products is how to evaluate their complexity and variability. Traditional methods of quantifying a single or a small range of metabolites may not capture the full chemical complexity of multiple samples. Different metabolomics approaches were evaluated to discern how they facilitated comparison of the chemical composition of commercial green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] products, with the goal of capturing the variability of commercially used products and selecting representative products for in vitro or clinical evaluation. Three metabolomic-related methods—untargeted ultraperformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), targeted UPLC-MS, and untargeted, quantitative 1HNMR—were employed to characterize 34 commercially available green tea samples. Of these methods, untargeted UPLC-MS was most effective at discriminating between green tea, green tea supplement, and non-green-tea products. A method using reproduced correlation coefficients calculated from principal component analysis models was developed to quantitatively compare differences among samples. The obtained results demonstrated the utility of metabolomics employing UPLC-MS data for evaluating similarities and differences between complex botanical products. PMID:28453261

  5. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed oil extracted by optimized supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20-90 min), temperature (35-45 °C) and pressure (50-90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO(2) extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO(2) is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  6. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  7. Adsorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon produced from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells: kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Jie; Qin, Ye-Bo; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Dong-Dong; Xu, Ping; Hochstetter, Danielle; Wang, Yue-Fei

    2013-07-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells, the main byproduct of the manufacture of tea seed oil, were used as precursors for the preparation of tea activated carbon (TAC) in the present study. A high yield (44.1%) of TAC was obtained from tea seed shells via a one-step chemical method using ZnCl2 as an agent. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and the total pore volumes of the obtained TAC were found to be 1530.67 mg(2)/g and 0.7826 cm(3)/g, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption results were complied with Langmuir isotherm model and its maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 324.7 mg/g for methylene blue. Adsorption kinetics studies indicated that the pseudo-second-order model yielded the best fit for the kinetic data. An intraparticle diffusion model suggested that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Thermodynamics studies revealed the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption process. These results indicate that tea seed shells could be utilized as a renewable resource to develop activated carbon which is a potential adsorbent for methylene blue.

  8. Adsorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon produced from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells: kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics studies*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun-jie; Qin, Ye-bo; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Dong-dong; Xu, Ping; Hochstetter, Danielle; Wang, Yue-fei

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed shells, the main byproduct of the manufacture of tea seed oil, were used as precursors for the preparation of tea activated carbon (TAC) in the present study. A high yield (44.1%) of TAC was obtained from tea seed shells via a one-step chemical method using ZnCl2 as an agent. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and the total pore volumes of the obtained TAC were found to be 1 530.67 mg2/g and 0.782 6 cm3/g, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption results were complied with Langmuir isotherm model and its maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 324.7 mg/g for methylene blue. Adsorption kinetics studies indicated that the pseudo-second-order model yielded the best fit for the kinetic data. An intraparticle diffusion model suggested that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Thermodynamics studies revealed the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption process. These results indicate that tea seed shells could be utilized as a renewable resource to develop activated carbon which is a potential adsorbent for methylene blue. PMID:23825151

  9. Caffeine biosynthesis and degradation in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is under developmental and seasonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Mohanpuria, Prashant; Kumar, Vinay; Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2009-10-01

    To study caffeine biosynthesis and degradation, here we monitored caffeine synthase gene expression and caffeine and allantoin content in various tissues of four Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze cultivars during non-dormant (ND) and dormant (D) growth phases. Caffeine synthase expression as well as caffeine content was found to be higher in commercially utilized tissues like apical bud, 1st leaf, 2nd leaf, young stem, and was lower in old leaf during ND compared to D growth phase. Among fruit parts, fruit coats have higher caffeine synthase expression, caffeine content, and allantoin content. On contrary, allantoin content was found lower in the commercially utilized tissues and higher in old leaf. Results suggested that caffeine synthesis and degradation in tea appears to be under developmental and seasonal regulation.

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals self-incompatibility in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) might be under gametophytic control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wei, Kang; Wu, Li-Yun; Li, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Fen; Cheng, Hao; Ni, De-Jiang

    2016-05-17

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is under genetic control and prevents inbreeding depression in angiosperms. SI mechanisms are quite complicated and still poorly understood in many plants. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) belonging to the family of Theaceae, exhibits high levels of SI and high heterozygosity. Uncovering the molecular basis of SI of the tea plant may enhance breeding and simplify genomics research for the whole family. The growth of pollen tubes following selfing and crossing was observed using fluorescence microscopy. Self-pollen tubes grew slower than cross treatments from 24 h to 72 h after pollination. RNA-seq was employed to explore the molecular mechanisms of SI and to identify SI-related genes in C. sinensis. Self and cross-pollinated styles were collected at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after pollination. Six RNA-seq libraries (SP24, SP48, SP72, CP24 CP48 and CP72; SP = self-pollinated, CP = cross-pollinated) were constructed and separately sequenced. In total, 299.327 million raw reads were generated. Following assembly, 63,762 unigenes were identified, and 27,264 (42.76 %) unigenes were annotated in five public databases: NR, KOG, KEGG, Swiss-Port and GO. To identify SI-related genes, the fragments per kb per million mapped reads (FPKM) values of each unigene were evaluated. Comparisons of CP24 vs. SP24, CP48 vs. SP48 and CP72 vs. SP72 revealed differential expression of 3,182, 3,575 and 3,709 genes, respectively. Consequently, several ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, Ca(2+) signaling, apoptosis and defense-associated genes were obtained. The temporal expression pattern of genes following CP and SP was analyzed; 6 peroxidase, 1 polyphenol oxidase and 7 salicylic acid biosynthetic process-related genes were identified. The RNA-seq data were validated by qRT-PCR of 15 unigenes. Finally, a unigene (CL25983Contig1) with strong homology to the S-RNase was analyzed. It was mainly expressed in styles, with dramatically higher expression in self

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Major Phytochemicals in Orthodox tea (Camellia sinensis), Oxidized under Compressed Air Environment.

    PubMed

    Panda, Brajesh Kumar; Datta, Ashis Kumar

    2016-04-01

    This study describes major changes in phytochemical composition of orthodox tea (Camellia sinensis var. Assamica) oxidized under compressed air (CA). The experiments for oxidation were conducted under air pressure (101, 202, and 303 kPa) for 150 min. Relative change in the concentrations of caffeine, catechins, theaflavins (TF), and thearubigins (TR) were analyzed. Effect of CA pressure was found to be nonsignificant in regulating caffeine concentration during oxidation. But degradation in different catechins as well as formation of different TF was significantly affected by CA pressure. At high CA pressure, TF showed highest peak value. TR was found to have slower rate of formation during initial phase of oxidation than TF. Even though the rate of TR formation was significantly influenced by CA, a portion of catechins remained unoxidized at end of oxidation. Except caffeine, the percent change in rate of formation or degradation were more prominent at 202 kPa. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Optimization of the Production of 1-Phenylethanol Using Enzymes from Flowers of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Plants.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Watanabe, Naoharu; Su, Xinguo; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-01-13

    1-Phenylethanol (1PE) can be used as a fragrance in food flavoring and cosmetic industries and as an intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry. 1PE can be synthesized from acetophenone, and the cost of 1PE is higher than the cost of acetophenone. Therefore, it is important to establish an effective and low-cost approach for producing 1PE. Our previous studies found that tea ( Camellia sinensis ) flowers, which are an abundant and waste resource, contained enzymes that could transform acetophenone to 1PE. In the present study, we extracted crude enzymes from tea flowers and optimized the production conditions of 1PE using response surface methodology. The optimized conditions were an extraction pH of 7.0, a reaction pH of 5.3, a reaction temperature of 55 °C, a reaction time of 100 min, a coenzyme NADPH concentration of 3.75 μmol/mL in the reaction assay, and a substrate acetophenone concentration of 1.25 μmol/mL in the reaction assay. The results provide essential information for future industrial 1PE production using plant-derived enzymes.

  13. Influence of exogenously applied abscisic acid on carotenoid content and water uptake in flowers of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Baldermann, Susanne; Yang, Ziyin; Sakai, Miwa; Fleischmann, Peter; Morita, Akio; Todoroki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2013-05-01

    Carotenoids are a major class of plant pigments and fulfill many functions in different organisms that either produce or consume them. Although the color of the stamina of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers is clearly due to the presence of carotenoids, the carotenoid profile and content remain to be discovered. We investigated the carotenoid profile of tea flowers and determined changes in concentrations over the floral development. The flowers contained oxygenated xanthophylls such as neoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as the hydrocarbons β-carotene and α-carotene. Flowers of the tea plant contain to vegetables comparable amounts of carotenoids. The content of 9'-cis-epoxycarotenoids, which serve as abscisic acid precursors, as well as changes in concentration of abscisic acid were studied. The concentrations of carotenoids decreased whereas the abscisic acid content increased over the floral development. Exogenously applied S-abscisic acid affected water uptake, flower opening and carotenoid accumulation. In summary, this paper reports, for the first time, the carotenoid profile and content of tea flowers. The study revealed that carotenoids in tea flowers are an interesting target in respect of possible applications of tea flower extracts as well as biological functions of abscisic acid during floral development. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. [Functional saponins in tea flower (flower buds of Camellia sinensis): gastroprotective and hypoglycemic effects of floratheasaponins and qualitative and quantitative analysis using HPLC].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Wang, Tao; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Nakamura, Seikou; Nagatomo, Akifumi; Matsuda, Hisashi; Harima, Shoichi

    2008-01-01

    As a part of our characterization studies on the bioactive saponin constituents of tea flowers (Camellia sinensis, flower buds), the methanolic extract and 1-butanol-soluble portion (the saponin fraction) from the flower buds were found to exhibit potent inhibitory effects on ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats and on serum glucose elevation in sucrose-loaded rats. Among the constituents of the 1-butanol-soluble portion, floratheasaponins A, B, and C showed gastroprotective and hypoglycemic activities. Furthermore, we have developed qualitative and quantitative methods using HPLC for the principle saponins, floratheasaponins A-F, in tea flowers, which were previously found to show antiallergic and antiobesity effects. Using those methods, the saponin composition of Indian tea flowers were found to be similar to those of Chinese (Anhui) but not of Japanese tea flowers. On the other hand, it was found that the floratheasaponin contents in tea flowers varied markedly during the blooming period, and they were abundant at half-bloom. Additionally, the contents of caffeine in the tea flowers were examined using HPLC.

  15. Construction, Characterization, and Preliminary BAC-End Sequence Analysis of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jinke; Kudrna, Dave; Wing, Rod A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the construction and characterization of a publicly available BAC library for the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Using modified methods, the library was constructed with the aim of developing public molecular resources to advance tea plant genomics research. The library consists of a total of 401,280 clones with an average insert size of 135 kb, providing an approximate coverage of 13.5 haploid genome equivalents. No empty vector clones were observed in a random sampling of 576 BAC clones. Further analysis of 182 BAC-end sequences from randomly selected clones revealed a GC content of 40.35% and low chloroplast and mitochondrial contamination. Repetitive sequence analyses indicated that LTR retrotransposons were the most predominant sequence class (86.93%–87.24%), followed by DNA retrotransposons (11.16%–11.69%). Additionally, we found 25 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that could potentially be used as genetic markers. PMID:21234344

  16. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and l-theanine: Medicinal values and beneficial applications in humans-A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad; Kakar, Mohib Ullah; Manzoor, Robina; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed Ezzat; Alagawany, Mahmoud; Tiwari, Ruchi; Khandia, Rekha; Munjal, Ashok; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Dhama, Kuldeep; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Dadar, Maryam; Sun, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a famous herb, and its extract has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicinal system. In this context, several studies have revealed its health benefits and medicinal potentialities for several ailments. With ever increasing scientific knowledge, search for safer, potential and novel type of health-related supplements quest, scientists are re-directing their research interests to explore natural resources i.e. medicinal herbs/plant derived compounds. Green tea consumption has gained a special attention and popularity in the modern era of changing lifestyle. The present review is aimed to extend the current knowledge by highlighting the importance and beneficial applications of green tea in humans for safeguarding various health issues. Herein, we have extensively reviewed, analyzed, and compiled salient information on green tea from the authentic published literature available in PubMed and other scientific databases. Scientific literature evidenced that owing to the bioactive constituents including caffeine, l-theanine, polyphenols/flavonoids and other potent molecules, green tea has many pharmacological and physiological functions. It possesses multi-beneficial applications in treating various disorders of humans. This review also provides in-depth insights on the medicinal values of green tea which will be useful for researchers, medical professionals, veterinarians, nutritionists, pharmacists and pharmaceutical industry. Future research emphasis and promotional avenues are needed to explore its potential therapeutic applications for designing appropriate pharmaceuticals, complementary medicines, and effective drugs as well as popularize and propagate its multidimensional health benefits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Profiling and quantification of phenolic compounds in Camellia seed oils: Natural tea polyphenols in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Qiumei; Del Mar Contreras, María; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    In Asia, tea seed oils (seed oils from Camellia oleifera, C. chekiangoleosa, and C. sinensis) are used in edible, medicinal, and cosmetic applications. However, these oils differ in their fatty acid contents, and there is little known about their phenolic compounds. Here we analyzed the phenolic compounds of seed oils from three species gathered from 15 regions of China. Twenty-four phenolic compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including benzoic acids (6), cinnamic acids (6), a hydroxyphenylacetic acid, flavanols (4), flavonols (3), flavones (2), and dihydroflavonoids (2). Some of these phenolic compounds had not previously been reported from C. sinensis (20), C. oleifera (15), and C. chekiangoleosa (24) seed oils. Quantification was done by HPLC-QqQ-MS using 24 chemical standards. The total concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 20.56 to 88.56μg/g. Phenolic acids were the most abundant class, accounting for 76.2-90.4%, with benzoic acid, found at up to 18.87μg/g. The concentration of catechins, typical of tea polyphenols, ranged between 2.1% and 9.7%, while the other flavonoids varied from 4.2% to 17.8%. Although the cultivation region affected the phenolic composition of the Camellia seed oils, in our hierarchical clustering analysis, the samples clustered according to species. The phenolic composition of the seed oils from C. oleifera and C. chekiangoelosa were similar. We found that the phenolic categories in Camellia seed oils were similar to tea polyphenols, thereby identifying a source of liposoluble tea polyphenols and potentially accounting for some of the reported activities of these oils. In addition, this work provides basic data that allows distinction of various Camellia seed oils, as well as improvements to be made in their quality standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual mechanisms regulating glutamate decarboxylases and accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, including activation of CsGAD1 enzymatic activity by calmodulin upon the onset of the stress and accumulation of high levels of CsGAD2 mRNA induced by a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage. PMID:27021285

  19. Dual mechanisms regulating glutamate decarboxylases and accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-03-29

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, including activation of CsGAD1 enzymatic activity by calmodulin upon the onset of the stress and accumulation of high levels of CsGAD2 mRNA induced by a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage.

  20. Laboratory, Epidemiological, and Human Intervention Studies Show That Tea (Camellia sinensis) May Be Useful in the Prevention of Obesity12

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Kimberly A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2010-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) and tea polyphenols have been studied for the prevention of chronic diseases, including obesity. Obesity currently affects >20% of adults in the United States and is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Given this increasing public health concern, the use of dietary agents for the prevention of obesity would be of tremendous benefit. Whereas many laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential efficacy of green or black tea for the prevention of obesity, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The results of human intervention studies are mixed and the role of caffeine has not been clearly established. Finally, there is emerging evidence that high doses of tea polyphenols may have adverse side effects. Given that the results of scientific studies on dietary components, including tea polyphenols, are often translated into dietary supplements, understanding the potential toxicities of the tea polyphenols is critical to understanding their potential usefulness in preventing obesity. In this review, we will critically evaluate the evidence for the prevention of obesity by tea, discuss the relevance of proposed mechanisms in light of tea polyphenol bioavailability, and review the reports concerning the toxic effects of high doses of tea polyphenols and the implication that this has for the potential use of tea for the prevention of obesity. We hope that this review will expose areas for further study and encourage research on this important public health issue. PMID:20089791

  1. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jianan; Lin, Haiyan; Wang, Kunbo; Cheng, Xiaomei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants. PMID:26096006

  2. α-Farnesene and ocimene induce metabolite changes by volatile signaling in neighboring tea (Camellia sinensis) plants.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lanting; Liao, Yinyin; Li, Jianlong; Zhou, Ying; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-11-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) act as direct defenses against herbivores and as indirect defenses by attracting herbivore enemies. However, the involvement of HIPVs in within-plant or plant-to-plant signaling is not fully clarified. Furthermore, in contrast to model plants, HIPV signaling roles in crops have hardly been reported. Here, we investigated HIPVs emitted from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, an important crop used for beverages, and their involvement in tea plant-to-plant signaling. To ensure uniform and sufficient exposure to HIPVs, jasmonic acid combined with mechanical damage (JAMD) was used to simulate herbivore attacks. Metabonomics techniques based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to determine metabolite changes in undamaged tea plants exposed to JAMD-stimulated volatiles. JAMD-stimulated volatiles mainly enhanced the amounts of 1-O-galloyl-6-O-luteoyl-α-d-glucose, assamicain C, 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-6-oxohexyl gallate, quercetagitrin, 2-(2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-8-yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-yl, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate, 1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydroxyheptan-2-one, and methyl gallate in neighboring undamaged tea leaves. Furthermore, α-farnesene and β-ocimene, which were produced after JAMD treatments, were identified as two main JAMD-stimulated volatiles altering metabolite profiles of the neighboring undamaged tea leaves. This research advances our understanding of the ecological functions of HIPVs and can be used to develop crop biological control agents against pest insects in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) administration induces expression of immune relevant genes and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Nootash, Shahab; Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Baradaran, Behzad; Oushani, Ali Khani; Maleki Moghadam, Mohammad Reza; Nofouzi, Katayoon; Monfaredan, Amir; Aghebati, Leili; Zare, Fatemeh; Shabanzadeh, Sadigheh

    2013-12-01

    Present study elucidates the efficacy of green tea (Camellia sinensis) on growth performance, immune and antioxidant systems and cytokine gene expression in rainbow trout tissues. Green tea was supplemented at 20, 100, and 500 mg kg(-1) diet and fed to fish (average weight: 23.5 g) for 35 days. No remarkable changes in growth performance were observed among all test groups. Lower lipid peroxidation product and higher superoxide dismutase activity were noted in fish received the medium dose of green tea. Significant increase in serum bactericidal activity and total protein were recorded in all treatment groups. All doses of green tea up-regulated Interleukin-1β transcription in the spleen, while Interleukin-1β mRNA level decreased significantly in the kidney of low dose of green tea. Interleukin-6 mRNA level was up-regulated in the spleen of high dose of green tea and liver of middle and high doses of green tea. High dose and medium dose of green tea up-regulated the interleukin-8 transcription in the kidney and liver, respectively. Meanwhile, green tea inhibited the production of interleukin-10 in all treatment groups compared with control group. Medium dose of green tea up-regulated tumor necrosis factor-α transcription in all fish tissues, while high dose and low dose of green tea enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels in the kidney and spleen, respectively. Present study suggests that green tea especially at 100 mg kg(-1) feed may effectively enhance the antioxidant system and immune system in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of glycosidically conjugated 1-phenylethanol and its hydrolase β-primeverosidase in tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Dong, Fang; Kunimasa, Aiko; Zhang, Yuqian; Cheng, Sihua; Lu, Jiamin; Zhang, Ling; Murata, Ariaki; Mayer, Frank; Fleischmann, Peter; Watanabe, Naoharu; Yang, Ziyin

    2014-08-13

    A previous study found that 1-phenylethanol (1PE) was a major endogenous volatile compound in tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers and can be transformed to glycosically conjugated 1PE (1PE-Gly). However, occurrences of 1PE-Gly in plants remain unknown. In this study, four 1PE-Glys have been isolated from tea flowers. Three of them were determined as (R)-1PE β-d-glucopyranoside ((R)-1PE-Glu), (S)-1PE-Glu, and (S)-1PE β-primeveroside ((S)-1PE-Pri), respectively, on the basis of NMR, MS, LC-MS, and GC-MS evidence. The other one was identified as (R)-1PE-Pri on the basis of LC-MS and GC-MS data. Moreover, these 1PE-Glys were chemically synthesized as the authentic standards to further confirm their occurrences in tea flowers. 1PE-Glu had a higher molar concentration than 1PE-Pri in each floral stage and organ. The ratio of (R) to (S) differed between 1PE-Glu and 1PE-Pri. In addition, a 1PE-Gly hydrolase β-primeverosidase recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli exhibited high hydrolysis activity toward (R)-1PE-Pri. However, β-primeverosidase transcript level was not highly expressed in the anther part, which accumulated the highest contents of 1PE-Gly and 1PE. This suggests that 1PE-Gly may not be easily hydrolyzed to liberate 1PE in tea flowers. This study provides evidence of occurrences of 1PE-Glys in plants for the first time.

  5. Influence of the addition and storage time of crude extract of tea leaves (camellia sinensis l.) toward value of free fatty acid in crude palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin; Wahifiyah, E.; Hairani, R.; Panggabean, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the crude extract of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.) and storage time on the content of free fatty acid in palm oil. The dried tea leaves were macerated and concentrated by rotary evaporator. The extract obtained was added to crude palm oil with various added mass of the extract and various storage times. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, phenolics and flavonoids. The ANOVA test showed a decrease in free fatty acid content in crude palm oil with the addition of tea leaves extract. The LSD (Least Significant Difference) test showed the best influence on ALB of palm oil is on the total extract mass of 2 grams and the storage time of 20 days.

  6. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ahammed, Golam J; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Lan; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency, which are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenols (TP) and low levels of amino acids (AA) in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.). Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm) of EBR increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration (0.5 ppm) caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential

  7. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Ahammed, Golam J.; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Lan; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency, which are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenols (TP) and low levels of amino acids (AA) in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.). Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm) of EBR increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration (0.5 ppm) caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential

  8. Phytochemical analysis of the triterpenoids with cytotoxicity and QR inducing properties from the total tea seed saponin of Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Ma, Zhong-Jun; Chu, Yang; Wang, Ying; Li, Xian

    2013-01-01

    The tea seed triterpene saponin (TS) from Camellia sinensis was found to exhibit better antitumor activity in vivo in S180 implanted ICR mice and QR inducing activity for hepa lclc7 cells respectively compared with the total tea seed saponin (TTS), hydrolysate of the TTS and tea seed flavonoid glycosides (TF). By bioassay-guided isolation, the TS fraction was separated and seven major components were purified and identified as theasaponin E1 (1), theasaponin E2 (2), theasaponin C1 (3), assamsaponin C (4), theasaponin H1 (5), theasaponin A9 (6), and theasaponin A8 (7), among which compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from this genus for the first time. The antitumor bioassay of the isolated compounds showed that compounds 1, 2 and 3 exhibited potential activities against the human tumor cell lines K562 and HL60. Furthermore, compound 1 (the major constituent with a mass content of over 1%) showed significant QR inducing activity with an IR value of 4.2 at 4μg/ml. So it can be concluded that tea seed especially the compound 1 (theasaponin E1) could be used as an antitumor agent and a chemoprevention agent of cancer. The preliminary structure-activity relationship in the anti-tumor activity and QR inducing activity of tea saponins was discussed briefly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic antioxidants from green tea produced from Camellia taliensis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Fang; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Chen, Ke-Ke; Jiang, Hong-Jian

    2008-08-27

    The chemical constituents of green tea prepared from the leaves of Camellia taliensis (W. W. Smith) Melchior (Theaceae) were investigated for the first time. Of these, 19 phenolic compounds including 8 hydrolyzable tannins (1-8), 6 catechin derivatives (9-14), 3 quinic acid aromatic esters (15-17), and 2 simple phenolics (18, 19) were identified, along with caffeine (20). Their antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibitory assays. Moreover, the chemical composition was compared with that in the cultivated tea plant, C. sinensis var. assamica, by HPLC analysis. It was noted that C. taliensis has similar chemical features with the cultivated tea plant; that is, both of them contain rich flavan-3-ols and caffeine. In addition, there are abundant hydrolyzable tannins as specific characteristic constituents contained in the leaves of C. taliensis. Therein, 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (8), as a major compound in C. taliensis, showed remarkable antioxidant activity. The results suggested that C. taliensis could be a valuable plant resource for the production of tea.

  10. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract and pre-freezing equilibration time on the post-thawing quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin-based extender.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Mahdieh; Daghigh Kia, Hossein; Najafi, Abouzar; Vaseghi Dodaran, Hossein; García-Álvarez, Olga

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Camellia sinensis extract as antioxidant supplement and pre-freezing equilibration times in a soybean lecithin extender for freezing ram semen. In this study, a total of 20 ejaculates were collected from four Ghezel rams and diluted with extenders (1.5% soybean lecithin, 7% glycerol) containing no supplements (control) and Camellia sinensis extract (5, 10, and 15 mg/L) and cryopreserved, immediately after thermal equilibrium was reached at 5 °C (0 h), or 4 h after equilibration. Sperm motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, apoptotic status, MDA and antioxidant activities (GPx, SOD and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) were evaluated following freeze-thawing. Camellia sinensis extract at level 10 mg/L led to the highest total and progressive motilities percentages, in comparison to other treatments (P < 0.05). Our results showed that Camellia sinensis extract at level of 5 and 10 mg/L led to higher plasma membrane integrity, mitochondria activity and Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in comparison to the level of 15 mg/L and control group (P < 0.05). Camellia sinensis extract at 10 mg/L level produced the highest percentage of live spermatozoa and the lowest apoptotic spermatozoa in comparison to all treatments (P < 0.05). In addition, level of MDA formation significantly decreased at this concentration, 10 mg/L, compared to all treatments (P < 0.05). No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between equilibration times (0 h vs. 4 h) for sperm samples incubated with or without different concentrations of Camellia sinensis extract. In conclusion, addition of Camellia sinensis extract at level of 10 mg/L can improve post-thawing quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin extender. However, further research is needed to standardize the process of Camellia sinensis extraction and specially for identifying which compounds are

  11. Effect of shading intensity on morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea (Camellia sinensis L.) shoots under direct covering cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sano, Tomohito; Horie, Hideki; Matsunaga, Akiko; Hirono, Yuhei

    2018-05-02

    Use of covering cultivation to shade tea (Camellia sinensis L.) trees to produce high-quality, high-priced green tea has recently increased in Japan. Knowledge of shading effects on morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea shoots is important for product quality and productivity. We assessed these traits of tea shoots and their relationships under covering cultivation of various radiation intensities. Leaf thickness, LMA (leaf mass per area), and leaf density of new tea leaves were smaller under covering culture than under open-field culture. SPAD values and chlorophyll contents were larger under covering culture than under open culture. The derived exponential equation for estimating chlorophyll contents from SPAD values was improved by considering leaf thickness. Covering culture decreased EC (epicatechin) and EGC (epigallocatechin) contents, and increased theanine and caffeine contents. Principal component analysis on shoot and leaf traits indicated that LMA, and chlorophyll, EC, and EGC contents were strongly associated with shading effects. Morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea shoots and leaves varied depending on radiation intensity, shoot growth, and cropping season. These findings are useful for covering cultivation with high quality and high productivity in tea gardens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene Discovery of Characteristic Metabolic Pathways in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Using ‘Omics’-Based Network Approaches: A Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shihua; Zhang, Liang; Tai, Yuling; Wang, Xuewen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Characteristic secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, theanine and caffeine, in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) are the primary sources of the rich flavors, fresh taste, and health benefits of tea. The decoding of genes involved in these characteristic components is still significantly lagging, which lays an obstacle for applied genetic improvement and metabolic engineering. With the popularity of high-throughout transcriptomics and metabolomics, ‘omics’-based network approaches, such as gene co-expression network and gene-to-metabolite network, have emerged as powerful tools for gene discovery of plant-specialized (secondary) metabolism. Thus, it is pivotal to summarize and introduce such system-based strategies in facilitating gene identification of characteristic metabolic pathways in the tea plant (or other plants). In this review, we describe recent advances in transcriptomics and metabolomics for transcript and metabolite profiling, and highlight ‘omics’-based network strategies using successful examples in model and non-model plants. Further, we summarize recent progress in ‘omics’ analysis for gene identification of characteristic metabolites in the tea plant. Limitations of the current strategies are discussed by comparison with ‘omics’-based network approaches. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of introducing such network strategies in the tea plant, with a prospects ending for a promising network discovery of characteristic metabolite genes in the tea plant. PMID:29915604

  13. Optimisation of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil of flowers of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plants and its antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenchun; Mei, Xin; Jin, Yuxia; Kim, Eun-Hye; Yang, Ziyin; Tu, Youying

    2014-01-30

    To extract natural volatile compounds from tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers without thermal degradation and residue of organic solvents, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was employed to prepare essential oil of tea flowers in the present study. Four important parameters--pressure, temperature, static extraction time, and dynamic extraction time--were selected as independent variables in the SFE. The optimum extraction conditions were the pressure of 30 MPa, temperature of 50°C, static time of 10 min, and dynamic time of 90 min. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, 59 compounds, including alkanes (45.4%), esters (10.5%), ketones (7.1%), aldehydes (3.7%), terpenes (3.7%), acids (2.1%), alcohols (1.6%), ethers (1.3%) and others (10.3%) were identified in the essential oil of tea flowers. Moreover, the essential oil of tea flowers showed relatively stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than essential oils of geranium and peppermint, although its antioxidative activity was weaker than those of essential oil of clove, ascorbic acid, tert-butylhydroquinone, and butylated hydroxyanisole. Essential oil of tea flowers using SFE contained many types of volatile compounds and showed considerable DPPH scavenging activity. The information will contribute to the future application of tea flowers as raw materials in health-care food and food flavour industries. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Mechanism of Fenpropathrin Resistance in Red Spider Mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acarina: Tetranychidae), Infesting Tea [Camellia sinensis L. (O. Kuntze)].

    PubMed

    Amsalingam, Roobakkumar; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Sam, Nisha; Rahman, Vattakandy Jasin; Azariah, Babu

    2017-02-01

    Red spider mite (RSM), Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), has gained special attention in view of their widespread occurrence as a pest on tea [Camellia sinensis L. (O. Kuntze)]. The development of acaricide (fenpropathrin) resistance has been screened in field populations (FPs) of RSMs from different tea-growing regions of south India and compared with a laboratory-susceptible population (SP) based on toxicity bioassay, detoxifying enzyme activities, analysis of acetylcholine esterase gene (AChE, 2064 bp), and their expression pattern using semiquantitative RT-PCR. The increased resistance ratio (RR, 1.39 to 2.13) in LC 50 of fenpropathrin observed in field populations of RSM provides a baseline for screening the development of resistance to fenpropathrin. This resistance developed due to hyperexpression of detoxifying enzymes, i.e., esterase (RR of 1.43 to 2.53) and glutathione S-transferase (RR of 1.11 to 1.86), and overexpression of AChE gene at 1.4 to 2.7-fold. These results necessitate molecular studies and warrant the continuous monitoring of acaricide susceptibility and resistance pattern in order to analyze the usefulness of AChE gene as target for developing alternate pest control strategies and management of pesticide resistance in tea ecosystem.

  15. Proteomic analysis of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) with purple young shoots during leaf development

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiongqiong; Chen, Zhidan; Lee, Jinwook; Li, Xinghui; Sun, Weijiang

    2017-01-01

    Tea products made from purple leaves are highly preferred by consumers due to the health benefits. This study developed a proteome reference map related to color changes during leaf growth in tea (Camellia sinensis) plant with purple young shoots using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel and successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The pronounced changes in the proteomic profile between tender purple leaves (TPL) and mature green leaves (MGL) included: 1) the lower activity of proteins associated with CO2 assimilation, energy metabolism and photo flux efficiency and higher content of anthocyanins in TPL than those in MGL may protect tender leaves against photo-damage; 2) the higher abundance of chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and flavonol synthase (FLS) likely contributes to the synthesis of anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols in TPL tissues; 3) higher abundance of stress response proteins, such as glutathione S-transferases (GST) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), could enhance the tolerance of TPL tissues to adverse condition in; and 4) the increased abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, nucleic acids and cell wall proteins should be beneficial for the proliferation and expansion of leaf cell in TPL tissues. qPCR analysis showed that the expression of differentially abundant proteins was regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, the results indicated that higher abundance of CHI and CHS may account for the production of the purple-shoot phenotype in Wuyiqizhong 18 and thereby, enhancing the anthocyanin biosynthesis. The higher abundance of glutamine synthetase (GS) proteins related to the theanine biosynthesis may improve the flavor of tea products from TPL materials. Thus, this work should help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in leaf color alteration. PMID:28520776

  16. Green synthesis palladium nanoparticles mediated by white tea (Camellia sinensis) extract with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4) cell line.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Susan; Mahdavi Shahri, Mahnaz; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2017-01-01

    Among nanoparticles used for medical applications, palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) are among the least investigated. This study was undertaken to develop PdNPs by green synthesis using white tea (W.tea; Camellia sinensis ) extract to produce the Pd@W.tea NPs. The Pd@W.tea NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, and evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Pd@W.tea NPs were spherical (size 6-18 nm) and contained phenols and flavonoids acquired from the W.tea extract. Pd@W.tea NPs has good 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), OH, and NO-scavenging properties as well as antibacterial effects toward Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli . MTT assay showed that Pd@W.tea NPs (IC 50 =0.006 μM) were more antiproliferative toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4) cells than the W.tea extract (IC 50 =0.894 μM), doxorubicin (IC 50 =2.133 μM), or cisplatin (IC 50 =0.013 μM), whereas they were relatively innocuous for normal human fibroblast (HDF-a) cells. The anticancer cell effects of Pd@W.tea NPs are mediated through the induction of apoptosis and G2/M cell-cycle arrest.

  17. Proteolysis of chloroplast proteins is responsible for accumulation of free amino acids in dark-treated tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyong; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Zhou, Ying; Cheng, Sihua; Zeng, Lanting; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-03-22

    Shade management (dark treatment) on tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a common approach to improve free amino acids in raw materials of tea leaves. However, the reason for amino acid accumulation in dark-treated tea leaves is still unknown. In the present study, dark treatment significantly increased content of free amino acids and reduced content of soluble proteins in tea leaves. Quantitative proteomics analysis showed that most enzymes involved in biosyntheses of amino acids were down-accumulated by dark treatment. Chloroplast numbers reduced in dark-treated leaves and the content of soluble proteins reduced in the chloroplasts isolated from dark-treated leaves compared to control. These suggest that proteolysis of chloroplast proteins contributed to amino acid accumulation in dark-treated leaves. Two chloroplasts proteases, ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit 3 and protease Do-like 2, were up-accumulated in dark-treated leaves. This study firstly elucidated the mechanism of accumulation of amino acids in dark-treated tea leaves. Effect of dark on crop growth has been widely studied, while less attention has been paid to effect of dark on quality-related metabolites in crops. Shade management (dark treatment) on tea plants is a common approach to improve free amino acids in tea leaves. However, the reason for accumulation of free amino acids in dark-treated tea leaves is still unknown. In the present study, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis was performed and the results revealed the accumulation of free amino acids in dark-treated tea leaves was not due to activation of biosyntheses of amino acids, but resulted from proteolysis of chloroplast proteins. The information will advance our understanding of formation of quality or function-related metabolites in agricultural crops exposed to dark stress/shade management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Time series changes in radiocaesium distribution in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.)) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko

    2016-02-01

    Radiocaesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) release following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, belonging to the Tokyo Electric Power Company caused severe contamination of new tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.)) shoots by radiocaesium in many prefectures in eastern Japan. Because tea plants are perennial crops, there is the fear that the contamination might last for a long time. The objectives of this study were to reveal time series changes in the distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants after radioactive fallout and to evaluate the effect of pruning on reduction of radiocaesium concentrations in new shoots growing next year. The experimental tea field was located in Shizuoka, Japan, approximately 400 km away from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in a southwest direction. Time series changes in radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea, a tea product primarily produced for making Japanese green tea, from May 2011 to June 2013 and distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants from May 2011 to May 2012 were monitored. The radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea exponentially decreased; the effective half-lives for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.30 and 0.36 y during the first 2 y after the accident, respectively. With time, the highest concentrations of (137)Cs moved from the upper to the lower parts of plants. Medium pruning 2-3 months after the accident reduced the concentration of (137)Cs in new shoots harvested in the first crop season of the following year by 56% compared with unpruned tea plants; thus, pruning is an effective measure for reducing radiocaesium concentration in tea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliable reference genes for normalization of gene expression data in tea plants (Camellia sinensis) exposed to metal stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Le; Li, Qing-Hui; Xin, Hua-Hong; Chen, Xuan; Zhu, Xu-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] are an important leaf-type crop that are widely used for the production of non-alcoholic beverages in the world. Exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals adversely affects the quality and yield of tea leaves. To analyze the molecular responses of tea plants to heavy metals, a reliable quantification of gene expression is important and of major importance herein is the normalization of the measured expression levels for the target genes. Ideally, stably expressed reference genes should be evaluated in all experimental systems. In this study, 12 candidate reference genes (i.e., 18S rRNA, Actin, CYP, EF-1α, eIF-4α, GAPDH, MON1, PP2AA3, TBP, TIP41, TUA, and UBC) were cloned from tea plants, and the stability of their expression was examined systematically in 60 samples exposed to diverse heavy metals (i.e., manganese, aluminum, copper, iron, and zinc). Three Excel-based algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes. PP2AA3 and 18S rRNA were the most stably expressed genes, even though their expression profiles exhibited some variability. Moreover, commonly used reference genes (i.e., GAPDH and TBP) were the least appropriate reference genes for most samples. To further validate the suitability of the analyzed reference genes, the expression level of a phytochelatin synthase gene (i.e., CsPCS1) was determined using the putative reference genes for data normalizations. Our results may be beneficial for future studies involving the quantification of relative gene expression levels in tea plants.

  20. Reliable reference genes for normalization of gene expression data in tea plants (Camellia sinensis) exposed to metal stresses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Le; Li, Qing-Hui; Xin, Hua-Hong; Chen, Xuan; Zhu, Xu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] are an important leaf-type crop that are widely used for the production of non-alcoholic beverages in the world. Exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals adversely affects the quality and yield of tea leaves. To analyze the molecular responses of tea plants to heavy metals, a reliable quantification of gene expression is important and of major importance herein is the normalization of the measured expression levels for the target genes. Ideally, stably expressed reference genes should be evaluated in all experimental systems. In this study, 12 candidate reference genes (i.e., 18S rRNA, Actin, CYP, EF-1α, eIF-4α, GAPDH, MON1, PP2AA3, TBP, TIP41, TUA, and UBC) were cloned from tea plants, and the stability of their expression was examined systematically in 60 samples exposed to diverse heavy metals (i.e., manganese, aluminum, copper, iron, and zinc). Three Excel-based algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes. PP2AA3 and 18S rRNA were the most stably expressed genes, even though their expression profiles exhibited some variability. Moreover, commonly used reference genes (i.e., GAPDH and TBP) were the least appropriate reference genes for most samples. To further validate the suitability of the analyzed reference genes, the expression level of a phytochelatin synthase gene (i.e., CsPCS1) was determined using the putative reference genes for data normalizations. Our results may be beneficial for future studies involving the quantification of relative gene expression levels in tea plants. PMID:28453515

  1. Construction of a SSR-Based Genetic Map and Identification of QTLs for Catechins Content in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n = 2x = 30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant. PMID:24676054

  2. Online gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) of (+/-)-Dihydroactinidiolide from tea ( Camellia sinensis ) and rooibos tea ( Aspalathus linearis ).

    PubMed

    del Mar Caja, María; Preston, Christina; Menzel, Michael; Kempf, Michael; Schreier, Peter

    2009-07-08

    Online capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry in both the combustion and the pyrolysis modes (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) was employed to perform authentication studies of the flavoring agent (+/-)-dihydroactinidiolide. Thus, the delta(13)C(V-PDB) and delta(2)H(V-SMOW) values of synthetic (ex synthetic beta-ionone and natural beta-carotene) as well as enzymatically (ex synthetic and natural beta-carotene) produced references were studied in comparison with those of the natural substance isolated from black (n = 17) and green teas (n = 6) ( Camellia sinensis ) as well as Rooibos tea ( Aspalathus linearis ) (n = 7). The isotope values determined for both the synthetic and enzymatically produced samples of (+/-)-dihydroactinidiolide reflected the influence of the origin of their educts. Hence, in cases when synthetic educts were used, the delta(13)C(V-PDB) and delta(2)H(V-SMOW) values ranged from -27.0 to -28.4 per thousand and from -28 to -169 per thousand, respectively, whereas the use of natural educts led to ranges from -30.3 to -31.6 per thousand and from -154 to -228 per thousand, respectively. As to the tea samples, delta(13)C(V-PDB) and delta(2)H(V-SMOW) values ranging from -29.0 to -34.1 per thousand and from -153 to -274 per thousand, respectively, were recorded for (+/-)-dihydroactinidiolide from black and green teas, whereas that from Rooibos tea showed (2)H/(1)H ratios ranging from -189 to -210 per thousand as well as slightly enriched values in the (13)C/(12)C ratios ranging from -24.4 to -27.1 per thousand.

  3. Tissue-Specific, Development-Dependent Phenolic Compounds Accumulation Profile and Gene Expression Pattern in Tea Plant [Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Zhao, Lei; Meng, Fei; Wang, Yunsheng; Tan, Huarong; Yang, Hua; Wei, Chaoling; Wan, Xiaochun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.)] play a crucial role in dominating tea flavor and possess a number of key pharmacological benefits on human health. The present research aimed to study the profile of tissue-specific, development-dependent accumulation pattern of phenolic compounds in tea plant. A total of 50 phenolic compounds were identified qualitatively using liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry technology. Of which 29 phenolic compounds were quantified based on their fragmentation behaviors. Most of the phenolic compounds were higher in the younger leaves than that in the stem and root, whereas the total amount of proanthocyanidins were unexpectedly higher in the root. The expression patterns of 63 structural and regulator genes involved in the shikimic acid, phenylpropanoid, and flavonoid pathways were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and cluster analysis. Based on the similarity of their expression patterns, the genes were classified into two main groups: C1 and C2; and the genes in group C1 had high relative expression level in the root or low in the bud and leaves. The expression patterns of genes in C2-2-1 and C2-2-2-1 groups were probably responsible for the development-dependent accumulation of phenolic compounds in the leaves. Enzymatic analysis suggested that the accumulation of catechins was influenced simultaneously by catabolism and anabolism. Further research is recommended to know the expression patterns of various genes and the reason for the variation in contents of different compounds in different growth stages and also in different organs. PMID:23646127

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)).

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Zhao, Lei; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Linjun; Ding, Shibo

    2017-10-05

    Flowering is a critical and complicated process in plant development, involving interactions of numerous endogenous and environmental factors, but little is known about the complex network regulating flower development in tea plants. In this study, de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis using Illumina sequencing technology were performed. Transcriptomic analysis assembles gene-related information involved in reproductive growth of C. sinensis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the annotated unigenes revealed that the majority of sequenced genes were associated with metabolic and cellular processes, cell and cell parts, catalytic activity and binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and plant hormone signal transduction were enriched among the DEGs. Furthermore, 207 flowering-associated unigenes were identified from our database. Some transcription factors, such as WRKY, ERF, bHLH, MYB and MADS-box were shown to be up-regulated in floral transition, which might play the role of progression of flowering. Furthermore, 14 genes were selected for confirmation of expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in C. sinensis. Our data also provided a useful database for further research of tea and other species of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase Gene from Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian-Shan; Zhou, Rui; Yu, You-Ben; Xiao, Yao; Li, Dong-Hua; Xiao, Bin; Yu, Oliver; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaves contain abundant flavan-3-ols, which include dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H: EC 1.14.13.21) is one of the enzymes in the establishment of the hydroxylation pattern. A gene encoding F3′H, designated as CsF3′H, was isolated from Camellia sinensis with a homology-based cloning technique and deposited in the GenBank (GenBank ID: KT180309). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CsF3′H was highly homologous with the characterized F3′Hs from other plant species. Four conserved cytochrome P450-featured motifs and three F3′H-specific conserved motifs were discovered in the protein sequence of CsF3′H. Enzymatic analysis of the heterologously expressed CsF3′H in yeast demonstrated that tea F3′H catalyzed the 3′-hydroxylation of naringenin, dihydrokaempferol and kaempferol. Apparent Km values for these substrates were 17.08, 143.64 and 68.06 μM, and their apparent Vmax values were 0.98, 0.19 and 0.44 pM·min−1, respectively. Transcription level of CsF3′H in the new shoots, during tea seed germination was measured, along with that of other key genes for flavonoid biosynthesis using real-time PCR technique. The changes in 3′,4′-flavan-3-ols, 3′,4′,5′-flavan-3-ols and flavan-3-ols, were consistent with the expression level of CsF3′H and other related genes in the leaves. In the study of nitrogen supply for the tea plant growth, our results showed the expression level of CsF3′H and all other tested genes increased in response to nitrogen depletion after 12 days of treatment, in agreement with a corresponding increase in 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols content in the leaves. All these results suggest the importance of CsF3′H in the biosynthesis of 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols in tea leaves. PMID:26907264

  6. Research on pyrolysis behavior of Camellia sinensis branches via the Discrete Distributed Activation Energy Model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bingliang; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2017-10-01

    This study aims at investigating the pyrolysis behavior of Camellia sinensis branches by the Discrete Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) and thermogravimetric experiments. Then the Discrete DAEM method is used to describe pyrolysis process of Camellia sinensis branches dominated by 12 characterized reactions. The decomposition mechanism of Camellia sinensis branches and interaction with components are observed. And the reaction at 350.77°C is a significant boundary of the first and second reaction range. The pyrolysis process of Camellia sinensis branches at the heating rate of 10,000°C/min is predicted and provides valuable references for gasification or combustion. The relationship and function between four typical indexes and heating rates from 10 to 10,000°C/min are revealed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  8. Fluorine in food with special reference to tea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Hitchcock, A.E.; Gwirtsman, J.

    A review of the literature showed that in 1932 commercial tea, Camellia sinensis Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Camellia thea Link.), was known to contain fluorine (F). Since ornamental camellias (C. japonica L.) and tea are members of the Theaceae family, comparisons were made of the F in leaves of the two species. The dry leaves of various domestic brands of tea, composed mostly of young leaves, contained 72 to 115 parts per million (p.p.m.) F and Chinese tea 131 to 178 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis. One sample of fresh leaves of greenhouse grown tea plants contained 1530more » p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis and the older leaves of ornamental camellias up to 3062 p.p.m. F. One sample of young leaves of C. japonica contained 67 p.p.m. F. Thus both species of Camellia have the capacity to accumulate relatively large amounts of F, especially in the older leaves. The infusion (beverage) from one tea bag in 4.5 fluid oz. of water contained 0.8 to 1.7 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes steeping and 1.0 to 2.0 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes boiling.« less

  9. Determination of some selected secondary metabolites and their invitro antioxidant activity in commercially available Ethiopian tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Bizuayehu, Dereje; Atlabachew, Minaleshewa; Ali, Mirtachew Tihar

    2016-01-01

    Eight brands of tea (Camellia sinensis),which are cultivated and commercially available in Ethiopian market, were analyzed for estimation of their total secondary metabolites (polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins) content and free radical scavenging activity which is expressed on dry weight basis. In this present study, the total polyphenols, tannin and flavonoid contents were studied spectrophotometrically using Folin-Dennis, Folin-Dennis/protein precipitation and aluminium chloride methods respectively. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by using DPPH radical assay. Results of the analysis revealed that the total polyphenol content varied from 21.3 ± 0.24 to 31.6 ± 0.31 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dry matter. Total flavonoids content in the tea samples varied from 8.17 ± 0.68 to 23.2 ± 0.68 mg of catechin equivalent/g of dry weight and tannin content varied from 5.64 ± 0.39 7.45 ± 0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of dry weight basis. The free radical scavenging activity among the tea brand samples ranged from 28.8 ± 1.86 to 80.0 ± 0.63 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50%) values varied from 7.3 ± 1.35 to 64.0 ± 2.81 µg/mL of extract. The correlation between the antioxidant activity with total polyphenol content (R = 0.91325), with flavonoids (R = 0.80658) and with tannin (R = 0.73125) was calculated and maximum correlation value was found between polyphenol content and the free radical scavenging activity of the tea samples. The results in this study also revealed that green tea had the higher polyphenolic content and found to have the most promising antioxidant activity. This study further confirmed that Ethiopia tea is reach in phenolic compounds as compared to some overseas tea cultivars/varieties.

  10. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  11. Effects of Extreme Climate Events on Tea (Camellia sinensis) Functional Quality Validate Indigenous Farmer Knowledge and Sensory Preferences in Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  12. Effects of the medicinal plants Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis on halitosis control.

    PubMed

    Farina, Vitor Hugo; Lima, Ana Paula de; Balducci, Ivan; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

    2012-01-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) are the gases mainly responsible for halitosis (bad breath). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on halitosis control. Two commonly used plants were tested: Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis (green tea). These plants were prepared as an aqueous solution and used as mouthwashes, compared with a standard mouthwash of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and a placebo (water). The experiment was conducted with 30 volunteers from the School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos, Univ. Estadual Paulista - UNESP, SP, Brazil. Each volunteer tested the four mouthwashes. The Cysteine Challenge Method, modified for this study, was used for initial breath standardization. Four breath assessments were conducted after volunteers rinsed orally with acetylcysteine: one before the test mouthwash was used; the second, one minute after its use; a third 90 minutes later; and the last 180 minutes later. The results showed that chlorhexidine gluconate lowered VSC production immediately, and that this effect lasted up to 3 hours, while the tested plants had immediate inhibitory effects but no residual inhibitory effects on VSC. We concluded that Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis, prepared as infusions and used as mouthwashes, did not have a residual neutralizing effect on VSC.

  13. Protective role of tannin-rich fraction of Camellia sinensis in tissue arsenic burden in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Chandronitha, C; Ananthi, S; Ramakrishnan, G; Lakshmisundaram, R; Gayathri, V; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2010-09-01

    The protective effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) was tested against arsenic-induced toxicity. However, the possible role of tannins in green tea in alleviating hepatic and renal oxidative injury has also been studied. Administration of sodium arsenite (100 mg/kg/day) for 28 days in Sprague Dawley female rats resulted in significant reduction of biochemical parameters such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the index of nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels. The tissue arsenic burden was increased after arsenic exposure for a period of 28 days. Green tea crude fraction (GTC) co-treated with sodium arsenite for 28 days caused significant (p < .01) elevation of ALAD, GSH, GPx, SOD, and nitrate/nitrite levels and reduction of the TBARS level and tissue burden when compared to detannified green tea fraction (GTDT)-treated groups. The protective role of tannin-rich fraction of C. sinensis when compared to the detannified fraction was also confirmed by histological examinations. The greater activity of GTC than that of detannified green tea fraction correlates with the higher content of tannins in green tea. Overall, these results indicate that the tannin-rich green tea could have improved the defense mechanism against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and reduced the tissue arsenic burden.

  14. Travelling with tea: a Tuckerella’s tale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tuckerella japonica appears strongly associated with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze., Theaceae) and, due to certain cultural practices in tea production, has in fact become a world traveller, accompanying the greatly coveted tea plant as it spread across the planet. The history of tea productio...

  15. Separation of polyphenols and caffeine from the acetone extract of fermented tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) using high-performance countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Jung; Hong, Yong Deog; Lee, Bumjin; Park, Jun Seong; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Wan Gi; Shin, Song Seok; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-07-21

    Leaves from Camellia sienensis are a popular natural source of various beverage worldwide, and contain caffeine and polyphenols derived from catechin analogues. In the current study, caffeine (CAF, 1) and three tea polyphenols including (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg, 2), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg, 3), and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg, 4) were isolated and purified by flow-rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:9:1:9, v/v). Two hundred milligrams of acetone-soluble extract from fermented C. sinensis leaves was separated by HPCCC to give 1 (25.4 mg), 2 (16.3 mg), 3 (11.1 mg) and 4 (4.4 mg) with purities over 98%. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by QTOF-MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR, and the obtained data were compared to the previously reported values.

  16. L-Theanine Content and Related Gene Expression: Novel Insights into Theanine Biosynthesis and Hydrolysis among Different Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.) Tissues and Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    L-Theanine content has tissues and cultivars specificity in tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.), the correlations of theanine metabolic related genes expression profiles with theanine contents were explored in this study. L-theanine contents in the bud and 1st leaf, 2nd leaf, 3rd leaf, old leaf, stem, and lateral root were determined by HPLC from three C. sinensis cultivars, namely ‘Huangjinya’, ‘Anjibaicha’, and ‘Yingshuang’, respectively. The theanine contents in leaves and root of ‘Huangjinya’ were the highest, followed by ‘Anjibaicha’, and ‘Yingshuang’. The theanine contents in the leaves reduced as the leaf mature gradually, and in stem were the least. Seventeen genes encoding enzymes involved in theanine metabolism were identified from GenBank and our tea transcriptome database, including CsTS1, CsTS2, CsGS1, CsGS2, CsGOGAT-Fe, CsGOGAT-NAD(P)H, CsGDH1, CsGDH2, CsALT, CsSAMDC, CsADC, CsCuAO, CsPAO, CsNiR, CsNR, CsGGT1, and CsGGT3. The transcript profiles of those seventeen genes in the different tissues of three tea plant cultivars were analyzed comparatively. Among the different cultivars, the transcript levels of most selected genes in ‘Huangjinya’ were significantly higher than that in the ‘Anjibaicha’ and ‘Yingshuang’. Among the different tissues, the transcript levels of CsTS2, CsGS1, and CsGDH2 almost showed positive correlation with the theanine contents, while the other genes showed negative correlation with the theanine contents in most cases. The theanine contents showed correlations with related genes expression levels among cultivars and tissues of tea plant, and were determined by the integrated effect of the metabolic related genes. PMID:28439281

  17. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants' growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., 'Photosynthesis'), GO terms (e.g., 'response to karrikin') and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology.

  18. Paradigm shift of contamination risk of six heavy metals in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) growing soil: A new approach influenced by inorganic and organic amendments.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Bora, Krishnamoni; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Khare, Puja; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh Kumar

    2017-09-15

    The present study provides several contamination and ecological risk indices for selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) in tea (Camellia sinensis L.; cv. S.3A/3) growing soil influenced by lower to higher doses of inorganic and organic amendments. While ecological risk indices were applied, it was observed that same treatment showed different risk levels but contamination risk status did not vary significantly. All the indices showed significant correlation with heavy metals' concentration in young shoots of tea plants. As the indices characterized experimental soils with different extents of contamination, it would be important to standardize the indices with long term experiments followed by generation of new index. Therefore, we formulated a new contamination index named as Tea Research Association Heavy Metal Contamination Index (TRAHMCI) for tea growing soils. TRAHMCI is based on the probable change of metal status in soil with progress of growth of tea plant. This could be useful to negate discrepancies arised from use of various existing metal contamination indices in tea growing soils amended with different doses of fertilizers. TRAHMCI was formulated based on individual contamination factor using statistical technique and applied to the present dataset which provided a more holistic understanding of overall tea growing soil behavior. The limitation of the developed TRAHMCI index is that, the index had not been validated for other crops in our study not to claim its effective use for crops other than tea. As already mentioned, this new index had been formulated by taking tea as the test crop with above mentioned six heavy metal contents in young shoot and made tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Mohammad M.; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties. PMID:27428960

  20. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis.

    PubMed

    Rana, Mohammad M; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-07-15

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L(-1) sucrose, 0.1 g·L(-1) l-glutamine and 5 g·L(-1) polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L(-1) sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties.

  1. Optimisation of saponin extraction conditions with Camellia sinensis var. assamica seed and its application for a natural detergent.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wanying; Huang, Yewei; Ji, Aibing; Peng, Wenshu; Liu, Cong; Zeng, Yin; Yang, Ruijuan; Yan, Liang; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Camellia sinensis var. assamica seed cake (a by-product of tea-seed oil) is an abundant resource with poor utilisation. C. sinensis var. assamica seed saponin (CSS) is one kind of non-ionic surfactant. In this study, the CSS extraction conditions were optimised by response surface methodology (RSM) and then the CSS detergent was developed. Additionally, the safety and decontamination ability of the developed detergent were evaluated. The optimised extraction conditions were including the extracting temperature of 40.04 °C, extraction time of 4.97 h, ethanol concentration of 64.11% and liquid-solid ratio of 14.57:1 mL g -1 . The formula of the CSS detergent was as follows: 20% crude CSS, 0.3% oxidised tea polyphenols (OTPs), 0.2% nisin, 0.3% sodium dehydroacetate, 0.7% sodium alginate and 0.5% sodium polyacrylate. The LD 50 of the CSS detergent exceeds 14 g kg -1 in mice, indicating the detergent was non-toxic. Both of the emulsifying and the pesticide residues removal abilities of the CSS detergent were significantly stronger than the commercial detergent. A natural tea seed saponin detergent with good safety and decontamination ability was successfully developed. This can make better use of the tea seed cake, thereby creating added value in the tea seed oil industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Leaf transcriptome analysis of a subtropical evergreen broadleaf plant, wild oil-tea camellia (Camellia oleifera), revealing candidate genes for cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaming; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Xiaomao; Duan, Shihua; Long, Chuan; Chen, Jiakuan; Rong, Jun

    2017-02-28

    Cold tolerance is a key determinant of the geographical distribution range of a plant species and crop production. Cold acclimation can enhance freezing-tolerance of plant species through a period of exposure to low nonfreezing temperatures. As a subtropical evergreen broadleaf plant, oil-tea camellia demonstrates a relatively strong tolerance to freezing temperatures. Moreover, wild oil-tea camellia is an essential genetic resource for the breeding of cultivated oil-tea camellia, one of the four major woody oil crops in the world. The aims of our study are to identify variations in transcriptomes of wild oil-tea camellia from different latitudes and elevations, and discover candidate genes for cold acclimation. Leaf transcriptomes were obtained of wild oil-tea camellia from different elevations in Lu and Jinggang Mountains, China. Huge amounts of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions (InDels) were identified. Based on SNPs, phylogenetic analysis was performed to detect genetic structure. Wild oil-tea camellia samples were genetically differentiated mainly between latitudes (between Lu and Jinggang Mountains) and then among elevations (within Lu or Jinggang Mountain). Gene expression patterns of wild oil-tea camellia samples were compared among different air temperatures, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were discovered. When air temperatures were below 10 °C, gene expression patterns changed dramatically and majority of the DEGs were up-regulated at low temperatures. More DEGs concerned with cold acclimation were detected at 2 °C than at 5 °C, and a putative C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene was significantly up-regulated only at 2 °C, suggesting a stronger cold stress at 2 °C. We developed a new method for identifying significant functional groups of DEGs. Among the DEGs, transmembrane transporter genes were found to be predominant and many of them encoded transmembrane sugar

  3. Influence of Cytokinins in Combination with GA3 on Shoot Multiplication and Elongation of Tea Clone Iran 100 (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    PubMed Central

    Gonbad, Reza Azadi; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2014-01-01

    The use of in vitro culture has been accepted as an efficient technique for clonal propagation of many woody plants. In the present research, we report the results of a number of experiments aimed at optimizing micropropagation protocol for tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) (clone Iran 100) using nodal segments as the explant. The effect of different combinations and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR) (BAP, TDZ, GA3) on shoot multiplication and elongation was assessed. The influence of exposure to IBA in liquid form prior to transfer to solid media on rooting of tea microshoots was investigated. The results of this study showed that the best treatment for nodal segment multiplication in terms of the number of shoot per explant and shoot elongation was obtained using 3 mg/L BAP in combination with 0.5 mg/L GA3. TDZ was found to be inappropriate for multiplication of tea clone Iran 100 as it resulted in hyperhydricity especially at concentrations higher than 0.05 mg/L. Healthy shoots treated with 300 mg/L IBA for 30 min followed by transfer to 1/2 strength MS medium devoid of PGR resulted in 72.3% of shoots producing roots and upon transferring them to acclimatization chamber 65% survival was obtained prior to field transfer. PMID:24605069

  4. Transcriptome-wide identification of Camellia sinensis WRKY transcription factors in response to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a leaf-type healthy non-alcoholic beverage crop, which has been widely introduced worldwide. Tea is rich in various secondary metabolites, which are important for human health. However, varied climate and complex geography have posed challenges for tea plant survival. The WRKY gene family in plants is a large transcription factor family that is involved in biological processes related to stress defenses, development, and metabolite synthesis. Therefore, identification and analysis of WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant have a profound significance. In the present study, 50 putative C. sinensis WRKY proteins (CsWRKYs) with complete WRKY domain were identified and divided into three Groups (Group I-III) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis results. The distribution of WRKY family transcription factors among plantae, fungi, and protozoa showed that the number of WRKY genes increased in higher plant, whereas the number of these genes did not correspond to the evolutionary relationships of different species. Structural feature and annotation analysis results showed that CsWRKY proteins contained WRKYGQK/WRKYGKK domains and C2H2/C2HC-type zinc-finger structure: D-X18-R-X1-Y-X2-C-X4-7-C-X23-H motif; CsWRKY proteins may be associated with the biological processes of abiotic and biotic stresses, tissue development, and hormone and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Temperature stresses suggested that the candidate CsWRKY genes were involved in responses to extreme temperatures. The current study established an extensive overview of the WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant. This study also provided a global survey of CsWRKY transcription factors and a foundation of future functional identification and molecular breeding.

  5. Micronutrients (B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn) content in made tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and tea infusion with health prospect: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Kutu, Funso Raphael; Nath, Jyoti Rani; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh Kumar; Sanyal, Sandip; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Dutta, Amrit Kumar

    2017-09-22

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial acidophilic crop, and known to be a nonalcoholic stimulating beverage that is most widely consumed after water. The aim of this review paper is to provide a detailed documentation of selected micronutrient contents, viz. boron (B), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) in made tea and tea infusion. Available data from the literature were used to calculate human health aspect associated with the consumption of tea infusion. A wide range of micronutrients reported in both made tea and tea infusion could be the major sources of micronutrients for human. The content of B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn in made tea are ranged from 3.04 to 58.44 μg g -1 , below detectable limit (BDL) to 122.4 μg g -1 , BDL to 602 μg g -1 , 0.275 to 13,040 μg g -1 , 0.004 to 15,866 μg g -1 , 0.04 to 570.80 μg g -1 and 0.01 to 1120 μg g -1 , respectively. Only 3.2 μg L -1 to 7.25 mg L -1 , 0.01 μg L -1 to 7 mg L -1 , 3.80 μg L -1 to 6.13 mg L -1 , 135.59 μg L -1 -11.05 mg L -1 , 0.05 μg L -1 to 1980.34 mg L -1 , 0.012 to 3.78 μg L -1 , and 1.12 μg L -1 to 2.32 μg L -1 of B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn, respectively, are found in tea infusion which are lower than the prescribed limit of micronutrients in drinking water by World Health Organization. Furthermore, micronutrient contents in tea infusion depend on infusion procedure as well as on the instrument used for analysis. The proportion of micronutrients found in different tea types are 1.0-88.9% for B, 10-60% for Co, 2.0-97.8% for Cu, 67.8-89.9% for Fe, 71.0-87.4% for Mn, 13.3-34% for Mo, and 34.9-83% for Zn. From the results, it can also be concluded that consumption of three cups of tea infusion per day does not have any adverse effect on human health with respect to the referred micronutrients rather got beneficial effects to human.

  6. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants’ growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., ‘Photosynthesis’), GO terms (e.g., ‘response to karrikin’) and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:25901577

  7. Regulation of hazardous exposure by protective exposure: modulation of phase II detoxification and lipid peroxidation by Camellia sinensis and Swertia chirata.

    PubMed

    Saha, Prosenjit; Das, Sukta

    2003-01-01

    Many natural compounds are now known to have a modulatory role on physiological functions and biotransformation reactions involved in the detoxification process, thereby affording protection from cytotoxic, genotoxic, and metabolic actions of environmental toxicants. As part of a programme on evaluation of food, beverage, and traditional medicinal plants for their anticarcinogenic activity, their effects on detoxification enzymes were also studied. The present report deals with Camellia sinensis and Swertia chirata. The effect of water infusions as well as crude and purified components of these plants on glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was analyzed in mice that were exposed to the chemical carcinogen DMBA. All the four enzymes were found to be activated in different degrees following treatment. The effect of Theaflavin, a component of black tea, was highly significant. The activation of the enzymes was accompanied by significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. The observation suggest the chemopreventive potential of both Camellia sinensis and Swertia chirata. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Distribution of tannin-'tolerant yeasts isolated from Miang, a traditional fermented tea leaf (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kanpiengjai, Apinun; Chui-Chai, Naradorn; Chaikaew, Siriporn; Khanongnuch, Chartchai

    2016-12-05

    Miang is a fermented food product prepared from the tea leaves of Camellia sinensis var. assamica, and is traditionally produced in mountainous areas of northern Thailand. Although Miang has a long history and reveals deep-rooted cultural involvement with local people in northern Thailand, little is known regarding its microbial diversity. Yeasts were isolated from 47 Miang samples collected from 28 sampling sites, including eight provinces in upper northern Thailand. A hundred and seven yeast isolates were recovered and identified within 14 species based on the comparison of the D1/D2 sequence of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Candida ethanolica was determined to be the dominant species that was frequently found in Miang together with minor resident yeast species. All yeast isolates demonstrated their tannin-tolerant capability when cultivated on yeast malt agar (YMA) containing 50g/l tannin, but nine isolates displayed clear zones forming around their colonies, e.g., Debaryomyces hansenii, Cyberlindnera rhodanensis, and Sporidiobolus ruineniae. The results obtained from a visual reading method of tannase revealed that all yeast isolates were positive for methyl gallate, indicating that they possess tannase activity. It is assumed that a tannin-tolerant ability is one of the most important factors for developing a yeast community in Miang. This research study is the first report to describe tannin-tolerant yeasts and yeast communities in traditionally fermented tea leaves. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Expression for caffeine biosynthesis and related enzymes in Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Misako; Kitao, Naoko; Ishida, Mariko; Morimoto, Hanayo; Irino, Fumi; Mizuno, Kouichi

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a purine alkaloid that is present in high concentrations in the tea plant Camellia sinensis. Caffeine synthase (CS, EC 2.1.1.160) catalyzes the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent N-3- and N-1-methylation of the purine base to form caffeine, the last step in the purine alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. We studied the expression profile of the tea caffeine synthase (TCS) gene in developing leaves and flowers by means of northern blot analysis, and compared it with those of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74), and S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthase (SAMS, EC 2.5.1.6). The amount of TCS transcripts was highest in young leaves and declined markedly during leaf development, whereas it remained constant throughout the development of the flower. Environmental stresses other than heavy metal stress and plant hormone treatments had no effect on the expression of TCS genes, unlike the other three genes. Drought stress suppressed TCS gene expression in leaves, and the expression pattern mirrored that of the dehydrin gene. The amounts of TCS transcripts increased slightly on supply of a nitrogen source. We discuss the regulation of TCS gene expression.

  10. Catechin concentrates of garden tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.): extraction/isolation and evaluation of chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Gadkari, Pravin Vasantrao; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar; Balaraman, Manohar

    2014-11-01

    Solid-liquid (SLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) extraction techniques were applied to extract catechins and caffeine from quick mechanically expelled tea leaf juice (QMETLJ) and freeze-dried (FD)-QMETLJ of Camellia sinensis L. The concentrates obtained were analyzed for total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (DPPH(•) inhibition, FRAP and phosphomolybdenum assay). Catechins were identified and quantified using HPLC. Overall, 95% (v/v) ethanol was the best solvent system for extracting total polyphenols (355.26 ± 23.68 to 457.89 ± 28.94 g GAE kg(-1) extractable solid yield (ESY)) and antioxidants (DPPH(•) inhibition, 16.97 ± 0.52 to 20.83 ± 3.11%; FRAP, 4.15 ± 0.32 to 6.38 ± 0.57 mmol TE g(-1) ESY; Mo(V) reduction, 2.47 ± 0.19 to 3.84 ± 0.39 mmol AAE g(-1) ESY) from FD-QMETLJ. Similarly, in LLE, ethyl acetate showed the best results for recovering polyphenols (960.52 ± 7.89 g GAE kg(-1) ESY) and antioxidants (DPPH(•) inhibition, 42.39 ± 0.91%; FRAP, 11.39 ± 0.83 mmol TE g(-1) ESY; Mo(V) reduction, 6.71 ± 1.14 mmol AAE g(-1) ESY) from QMETLJ. It was found that 95% ethanol can be used to increase the total polyphenols and antioxidants in extracts from FD-QMETLJ, while ethyl acetate can be effectively employed for concentrating catechins from QMETLJ. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of Camellia sinensis supplementation and increasing holding time on quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    PubMed

    Gale, I; Gil, L; Malo, C; González, N; Martínez, F

    2015-06-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to the low fertility when compared with fresh semen. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) supplementation of the freezing extender at different concentration (0, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and also to determine the influence of increasing holding time from 2 to 24 h at 15 °C. Seventeen ejaculates from nine boars were used to make pools of three of them and then cryopreserved. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, membrane functionality (HOST) and capacitation status were determined before freezing and at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after thawing. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated just after thawing. The main findings emerging from this study were the following: (i) no improvement in quality of thawed spermatozoa with addition of tea to the freezing extender, (ii) no improvement in quality of thawed spermatozoa with prolonged holding time, (iii) lower peroxidation rate in presence of tea 5% and (iv) a decrease in the number of uncapacited viable spermatozoa with any tea supplementation. We conclude that amplification of holding time in semen cryopreservation process does not vary results, facilitating freezing protocol. Tea supplementation reduces lipoxidation but did not improve quality parameters. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Nitric oxide mediates brassinosteroid-induced flavonoid biosynthesis in Camellia sinensis L.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Lan; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Zhi-Xin; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan

    2017-07-01

    Flavonoids are one of the key secondary metabolites determining the quality of tea. Although exogenous brassinosteroid (BR), a steroidal plant hormone, can stimulate polyphenol biosynthesis in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.), the relevance of endogenous BR in flavonoid accumulation and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that BR enhances flavonoid concentration in tea leaves by inducing an increase in the endogenous concentration of nitric oxide (NO). Notably, exogenous BR increased levels of flavonoids as well as NO in a concentration dependent manner, while suppression of BR levels by an inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, brassinazole (BRz), decreased the concentrations of both flavonoids and NO in tea leaves. Interestingly, combined treatment of BR and BRz reversed the inhibitory effect of BRz alone on the concentrations of flavonoids and NO. Likewise, exogenous NO also increased flavonoids and NO levels dose-dependently. When the NO level in tea leaves was suppressed by using a NO scavenger, 2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), flavonoid concentration dramatically decreased. Although individual application of 0.1μM BR increased the concentrations of flavonoids and NO, combined treatment with exogenous NO scavenger, cPTIO, reversed the effect of BR on flavonoid concentration. Furthermore, BR or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) promoted but cPTIO inhibited the transcription and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in leaves, while combined treatment of BR with SNP or cPTIO had no additive effect. The results of this study suggest that an optimal level of endogenous NO is essential for BR-induced promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in tea leaves. In conclusion, this study unveiled a crucial mechanism of BR-induced flavonoid biosynthesis, which might have potential implication in improving the quality of tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-03-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55-24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  14. The impact of pH and calcium on the uptake of fluoride by tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jianyun; Ma, Lifeng; Shi, Yuanzhi; Han, Wenyan

    2004-01-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) accumulate large amounts of fluoride (F) from soils containing normal F concentrations. The present experiments examined the effects of pH and Ca on F uptake by this accumulating plant species. The effect of pH was assessed in two experiments, one using uptake solutions with different pHs, and the other using lime, as CaO, applied to the soil. The effect of Ca was examined by analysing F concentrations in plants supplied with varying amounts of Ca, as Ca(NO3)2, either in uptake solutions or through the soil. F uptake was highest at solution pH 5.5, and significantly lower at pH 4.0. In the soil experiment, leaf F decreased linearly with the amounts of lime, which raised the soil pH progressively from 4.32 to 4.91, 5.43, 5.89 and, finally, 6.55. Liming increased the water-soluble F content of the soil. Including Ca in the uptake solution or adding Ca to soil significantly decreased leaf F concentrations. The distribution pattern of F in tea plants was not altered by Ca treatment, with most F being allocated to leaves. The activity of F- in the uptake solution was unaffected and water-soluble F in the soil was sometimes increased by added Ca. F uptake by tea plants, which are inherently able to accumulate large quantities of F, was affected both by pH and by Ca levels in the medium. The reduced F uptake following Ca application appeared not to be due simply to the precipitation of CaF2 in solution and soil or to the complexing of Ca and F in roots, although these factors cannot be dismissed. It was more likely due to the effect of Ca on the properties of cell wall or membrane permeability in the solution experiments, and to alteration of F speciations and their quantities in soil solutions following Ca application.

  15. The impact of packaging materials on the antioxidant phytochemical stability of aqueous infusions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmok; Welt, Bruce A; Talcott, Stephen T

    2011-05-11

    Ready to drink (RTD) teas are a growing segment in the beverage category, brought about by improvements in the flavor of these products and healthy market trends driven by consumers. The presented results evaluated the antioxidant phytochemical stability of RTD teas from aqueous infusions of traditional green tea (Camellia sinensis) and a botanical tea from yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) as influenced by packaging materials during cold storage. Two common packaging materials for RTD products are glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and have been compared to a retortable pouch (RP), an emerging packaging material for various types of food since it is durable, inexpensive, lightweight, and easy to sterilize. Storage stability was then evaluated for each aqueous infusion prepared at 10 g/L at 90 °C for 10 min and evaluated at 3 °C in the absence of light over 12 weeks. Analyses included quantification and characterization of individual polyphenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry as well as changes in total antioxidant capacity. For green tea, concentrations of the three major flavan-3-ols, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin gallate were better retained in glass bottles as compared to other packages over 12 weeks. In yaupon holly, chlorogenic acid and its isomers that were the predominant compounds were generally stable in each packaging material, and a 20.6-fold higher amount of saponin was found as compared to green tea, which caused higher stability of flavonol glycosides present in yaupon holly during storage. The antioxidant capacity of green tea was better retained in glass and PET versus RP, whereas no differences were again observed for yaupon holly. Results highlight the superiority of oxygen-impervious glass packaging, but viable alternatives may be utilizable for RTD teas with variable phytochemical compositions.

  16. Review and perspective on the composition and safety of green tea extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...

  17. Effects of single dose and regular intake of green tea (Camellia sinensis) on DNA damage, DNA repair, and heme oxygenase-1 expression in a randomized controlled human supplementation study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cyrus K; Choi, Siu-wai; Siu, Parco M; Benzie, Iris F F

    2014-06-01

    Regular intake of green tea (Camellia sinensis) lowers DNA damage in humans, but molecular mechanisms of genoprotection are not clear. Protection could be via direct antioxidant effects of tea catechins, but, paradoxically, catechins have pro-oxidant activity in vitro, and it is hypothesized that mechanisms relate to redox-sensitive cytoprotective adaptations. We investigated this hypothesis, focusing particularly on effects on the DNA repair enzyme human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), and heme oxygenase-1, a protein that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. A randomized, placebo-controlled, human supplementation study of crossover design was performed. Subjects (n = 16) took a single dose (200 mL of 1.5%, w/v) and 7-days of (2 × 200 mL 1%, w/v per day) green tea (with water as control treatment). Lymphocytic DNA damage was ∼30% (p < 0.001) lower at 60 and 120 min after the single dose and in fasting samples collected after 7-day tea supplementation. Lymphocytic hOGG1 activity was higher (p < 0.0001) at 60 and 120 min after tea ingestion. Significant increases (p < 0.0005) were seen in hOGG1 activity and heme oxygenase-1 after 7 days. Results indicate that molecular triggering of redox-sensitive cytoprotective adaptations and posttranslational changes affecting hOGG1 occur in vivo in response to both a single dose and regular intake of green tea, and contribute to the observed genoprotective effects of green tea. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Identification of the varietal origin of loose leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze] is an economically important crop cultivated in more than 50 countries. Production and marketing of premium specialty tea products provides opportunities for tea growers, the tea industry and consumers. Rapid market segmentation in the tea industry has resulted ...

  19. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity.

  20. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.

  1. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  2. The Impact of pH and Calcium on the Uptake of Fluoride by Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    RUAN, JIANYUN; MA, LIFENG; SHI, YUANZHI; HAN, WENYAN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) accumulate large amounts of fluoride (F) from soils containing normal F concentrations. The present experiments examined the effects of pH and Ca on F uptake by this accumulating plant species. • Methods The effect of pH was assessed in two experiments, one using uptake solutions with different pHs, and the other using lime, as CaO, applied to the soil. The effect of Ca was examined by analysing F concentrations in plants supplied with varying amounts of Ca, as Ca(NO3)2, either in uptake solutions or through the soil. • Key results F uptake was highest at solution pH 5·5, and significantly lower at pH 4·0. In the soil experiment, leaf F decreased linearly with the amounts of lime, which raised the soil pH progressively from 4·32 to 4·91, 5·43, 5·89 and, finally, 6·55. Liming increased the water‐soluble F content of the soil. Including Ca in the uptake solution or adding Ca to soil significantly decreased leaf F concentrations. The distribution pattern of F in tea plants was not altered by Ca treatment, with most F being allocated to leaves. The activity of F– in the uptake solution was unaffected and water‐soluble F in the soil was sometimes increased by added Ca. • Conclusions F uptake by tea plants, which are inherently able to accumulate large quantities of F, was affected both by pH and by Ca levels in the medium. The reduced F uptake following Ca application appeared not to be due simply to the precipitation of CaF2 in solution and soil or to the complexing of Ca and F in roots, although these factors cannot be dismissed. It was more likely due to the effect of Ca on the properties of cell wall or membrane permeability in the solution experiments, and to alteration of F speciations and their quantities in soil solutions following Ca application. PMID:14644914

  3. Quantification of flavonol glycosides in Camellia sinensis by MRM mode of UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yahui; Jiang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Dai, Xinlong; Liu, Yajun; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are major components of tea flavour, in which catechins and flavonol glycosides play important roles in the astringent taste of tea infusion. However, the flavonol glycosides are difficult to quantify because of the large variety, as well as the inefficient seperation on chromatography. In this paper, a total of 15 flavonol glycosides in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) were identified by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), and a quantitative method was established based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QQQ-MS/MS). It provided the limit of detection and quantification to the order of picogram, which was more sensitive than the HPLC detection of the order of nanogram. The relative standard deviations of the intra- and inter-day variations in retention time and signal intensity (peak area) of six analytes were less than 0.26% and 4%, respectively. The flavonol glycosides of four tea cultivars were relatively quantified using the signal intensity (peak area) of product ion, in which six flavonol glycosides were quantified by the authentic standards. The results showed that the flavonol mono-, di- and tri-glycoside mostly accumulated in young leaves of the four tea cultivars. Notably, the myricetin 3-O-galactoside was the major component among the six flavonol glycosides detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Insight into Catechins Metabolic Pathways of Camellia sinensis Based on Genome and Transcriptome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhao; Zhou, Yihui; Wu, Yingling; Dai, Xinlong; Liu, Yajun; Qian, Yumei; Li, Mingzhuo; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wang, Yunsheng; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2018-04-25

    Tea is an important economic crop with a 3.02 Gb genome. It accumulates various bioactive compounds, especially catechins, which are closely associated with tea flavor and quality. Catechins are biosynthesized through the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, with 12 structural genes being involved in their synthesis. However, we found that in Camellia sinensis the understanding of the basic profile of catechins biosynthesis is still unclear. The gene structure, locus, transcript number, transcriptional variation, and function of multigene families have not yet been clarified. Our previous studies demonstrated that the accumulation of flavonoids in tea is species, tissue, and induction specific, which indicates that gene coexpression patterns may be involved in tea catechins and flavonoids biosynthesis. In this paper, we screened candidate genes of multigene families involved in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways based on an analysis of genome and transcriptome sequence data. The authenticity of candidate genes was verified by PCR cloning, and their function was validated by reverse genetic methods. In the present study, 36 genes from 12 gene families were identified and were accessed in the NCBI database. During this process, some intron retention events of the CsCHI and CsDFR genes were found. Furthermore, the transcriptome sequencing of various tea tissues and subcellular location assays revealed coexpression and colocalization patterns. The correlation analysis showed that CsCHIc, CsF3'H, and CsANRb expression levels are associated significantly with the concentration of soluble PA as well as the expression levels of CsPALc and CsPALf with the concentration of insoluble PA. This work provides insights into catechins metabolism in tea and provides a foundation for future studies.

  5. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  6. Identification, quantitation, and comprehensive assessment of green, white, and pu-erh teas using UPLC/UV/MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), an important drink and a traditional medicine for thousands of years, contains many compounds of potential benefit to health. Growing season, geographic region, and fermentation method create many variations in tea composition, which contributes to the unique characteris...

  7. Genome-wide identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in one bud and two tender leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) by small RNA sequencing, microarray-based hybridization and genome survey scaffold sequences.

    PubMed

    Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Zhang, Xiao; Hou, Yan; Shangguan, Mingzhu; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Li, Yeyun; Wei, Chaoling

    2017-11-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important for plant growth and responses to environmental stresses via post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Tea, which is primarily produced from one bud and two tender leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis), is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide owing to its abundance of secondary metabolites. A large number of miRNAs have been identified in various plants, including non-model species. However, due to the lack of reference genome sequences and/or information of tea plant genome survey scaffold sequences, discovery of miRNAs has been limited in C. sinensis. Using small RNA sequencing, combined with our recently obtained genome survey data, we have identified and analyzed 175 conserved and 83 novel miRNAs mainly in one bud and two tender leaves of the tea plant. Among these, 93 conserved and 18 novel miRNAs were validated using miRNA microarray hybridization. In addition, the expression pattern of 11 conserved and 8 novel miRNAs were validated by stem-loop-qRT-PCR. A total of 716 potential target genes of identified miRNAs were predicted. Further, Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that most of the target genes were primarily involved in stress response and enzymes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The predicted targets of 4 conserved miRNAs were further validated by 5'RLM-RACE. A negative correlation between expression profiles of 3 out of 4 conserved miRNAs (csn-miR160a-5p, csn-miR164a, csn-miR828 and csn-miR858a) and their targets (ARF17, NAC100, WER and MYB12 transcription factor) were observed. In summary, the present study is one of few such studies on miRNA detection and identification in the tea plant. The predicted target genes of majority of miRNAs encoded enzymes, transcription factors, and functional proteins. The miRNA-target transcription factor gene interactions may provide important clues about the regulatory

  8. Identification of Intestinal UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Inhibitors in Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Using a Biochemometric Approach: Application to Raloxifene as a Test Drug via In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dan-Dan; Kellogg, Joshua J; Okut, Neşe; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B; Shen, Danny D; McCune, Jeannine S; Paine, Mary F

    2018-05-01

    Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) is a popular beverage worldwide, raising concern for adverse interactions when co-consumed with conventional drugs. Like many botanical natural products, green tea contains numerous polyphenolic constituents that undergo extensive glucuronidation. As such, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), particularly intestinal UGTs, represent potential first-pass targets for green tea-drug interactions. Candidate intestinal UGT inhibitors were identified using a biochemometrics approach, which combines bioassay and chemometric data. Extracts and fractions prepared from four widely consumed teas were screened (20-180 μ g/ml) as inhibitors of UGT activity (4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation) in human intestinal microsomes; all demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition. A biochemometrics-identified fraction rich in UGT inhibitors from a representative tea was purified further and subjected to second-stage biochemometric analysis. Five catechins were identified as major constituents in the bioactive subfractions and prioritized for further evaluation. Of these catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate showed concentration-dependent inhibition, with IC 50 values (105 and 59 μ M, respectively) near or below concentrations measured in a cup (240 ml) of tea (66 and 240 μ M, respectively). Using the clinical intestinal UGT substrate raloxifene, the K i values were ∼1.0 and 2.0 μ M, respectively. Using estimated intestinal lumen and enterocyte inhibitor concentrations, a mechanistic static model predicted green tea to increase the raloxifene plasma area under the curve up to 6.1- and 1.3-fold, respectively. Application of this novel approach, which combines biochemometrics with in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, to other natural product-drug combinations will refine these procedures, informing the need for further evaluation via dynamic modeling and clinical testing. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for

  9. The synergistic potential of various teas, herbs and therapeutic drugs in health improvement: a review.

    PubMed

    Malongane, Florence; McGaw, Lyndy J; Mudau, Fhatuwani N

    2017-11-01

    Tea is one of the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world next to water. It is classified as Camellia sinensis and non-Camellia sinensis (herbal teas). The common bioactive compounds found mainly in green teas are flavan-3-ols (catechins) (also called flavanols), proanthocyanidins (tannins) and flavonols. Black tea contains theaflavins and thearubigins and white tea contains l-theanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), while herbal teas contain diverse polyphenols. Phytochemicals in tea exhibit antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities that are perceived to be helpful in managing chronic diseases linked to lifestyle. Many of these phytochemicals are reported to be biologically active when combined. Knowledge of the synergistic interactions of tea with other teas or herbs in terms of biological activities will be of benefit for therapeutic enhancement. There is evidence that various types of teas act synergistically in exhibiting health benefits to humans, improving consumer acceptance and economic value. Similar observations have been made when teas and herbs or medicinal drugs were combined. The aim of this review is to highlight potential beneficial synergies between combinations of different types of teas, tea and herbs, and tea and medicinal drugs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Changes in chlorophyll and polyphenols content in Camellia sinensis var. sinensis at different stage of leaf maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prawira-Atmaja, M. I.; Shabri; Khomaini, H. S.; Maulana, H.; Harianto, S.; Rohdiana, D.

    2018-03-01

    Chlorophyll and polyphenols are chemical compound related to parameter quality of green tea. We studied the variation of chlorophyll and polyphenol in the development stage of tea leaves (bud, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th). Five clones of tea (Camelia sinensis var. sinensis) from Indonesia and a clone from Japan were used in this study. The results showed that total chlorophyll and total polyphenol content in bud between 1.59-2.15 mg/g (db) and 12.24-14.59% respectively. The concentration of chlorophyll increased significantly with developments stage of leaf while total polyphenol tended to decrease with leaf maturity. Pearson Correlation analysis showed that chlorophyll content was negatively correlated (r = -0.83; p = 0.05) with total polyphenol during developmental stage of tea leaves. Results suggests that five clones of tea from Indonesia have similar quality with tea clone from Japan in chlorophyll and polyphenol content. The present study also provides guidelines on application plucking standard to produce high quality of green tea.

  11. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

  12. Chitosan-induced immunity in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze against blister blight disease is mediated by nitric-oxide.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Panda, Koustubh; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2017-06-01

    Blister blight disease, caused by an obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen, Exobasidium vexans Massee is posing a serious threat for tea cultivation in Asia. As the use of chemical pesticides on tea leaves substantially increases the toxic risks of tea consumption, serious attempts are being made to control such pathogens by boosting the intrinsic natural defense responses against invading pathogens in tea plants. In this study, the nature and durability of resistance offered by chitosan and the possible mechanism of chitosan-induced defense induction in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze plants against blister blight disease were investigated. Foliar application of 0.01% chitosan solution at 15 days interval not only reduced the blister blight incidence for two seasons, but also maintained the induced expressions of different defense related enzymes and total phenol content compared to the control. Defense responses induced by chitosan were found to be down regulated under nitric oxide (NO) deficient conditions in vivo, indicating that the observed chitosan-induced resistance is probably activated via NO signaling. Such role of NO in host defense response was further established by application of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which produced similar defense responses accomplished through chitosan treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that increased production of NO in chitosan-treated tea plants may play a critical role in triggering the innate defense responses effective against plant pathogens, including that causing the blister blight disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  14. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dong-Mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-Ping; Lu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols.

  15. Suppressive subtractive hybridization approach revealed differential expression of hypersensitive response and reactive oxygen species production genes in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves during Pestalotiopsis thea infection.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Palanisamy; Thirugnanasambantham, Krishnaraj; Mandal, Abul Kalam Azad

    2012-12-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is an economically important plant cultivated for its leaves. Infection of Pestalotiopsis theae in leaves causes gray blight disease and enormous loss to the tea industry. We used suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique to unravel the differential gene expression pattern during gray blight disease development in tea. Complementary DNA from P. theae-infected and uninfected leaves of disease tolerant cultivar UPASI-10 was used as tester and driver populations respectively. Subtraction efficiency was confirmed by comparing abundance of β-actin gene. A total of 377 and 720 clones with insert size >250 bp from forward and reverse library respectively were sequenced and analyzed. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis revealed 17 sequences in forward SSH library have high degree of similarity with disease and hypersensitive response related genes and 20 sequences with hypothetical proteins while in reverse SSH library, 23 sequences have high degree of similarity with disease and stress response-related genes and 15 sequences with hypothetical proteins. Functional analysis indicated unknown (61 and 59 %) or hypothetical functions (23 and 18 %) for most of the differentially regulated genes in forward and reverse SSH library, respectively, while others have important role in different cellular activities. Majority of the upregulated genes are related to hypersensitive response and reactive oxygen species production. Based on these expressed sequence tag data, putative role of differentially expressed genes were discussed in relation to disease. We also demonstrated the efficiency of SSH as a tool in enriching gray blight disease related up- and downregulated genes in tea. The present study revealed that many genes related to disease resistance were suppressed during P. theae infection and enhancing these genes by the application of inducers may impart better disease tolerance to the plants.

  16. A novel cold-regulated gene from Camellia sinensis, CsCOR1, enhances salt- and dehydration-tolerance in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xian-Wen, E-mail: xianwenli01@sina.com; College of Life Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology of the Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070

    In present research, the full-length cDNA and the genomic sequence of a novel cold-regulated gene, CsCOR1, were isolated from Camellia sinensis L. The deduced protein CsCOR1 contains a hydrophobic N-terminus as a signal peptide and a hydrophilic C-terminal domain that is rich in glycine, arginine and proline. Two internal repetitive tridecapeptide fragments (HSVTAGRGGYNRG) exist in the middle of the C-terminal domain and the two nucleotide sequences encoding them are identical. CsCOR1 was localized in the cell walls of transgenic-tobaccos via CsCOR1::GFP fusion approach. The expression of CsCOR1 in tea leaves was enhanced dramatically by both cold- and dehydration-stress. And overexpressionmore » of CsCOR1 in transgenic-tobaccos improved obviously the tolerance to salinity and dehydration.« less

  17. Comprehensive Lipidome-Wide Profiling Reveals Dynamic Changes of Tea Lipids during Manufacturing Process of Black Tea.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen

    2017-11-22

    As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.

  18. Theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid) synthesis in leaves of a Chinese tea, kucha (Camellia assamica var. kucha).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Chuang-Xing; Kato, Misako; Crozier, Alan; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2002-05-01

    Theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid) and caffeine were the major purine alkaloids in the leaves of an unusual Chinese tea known as kucha (Camellia assamica var. kucha). Endogenous levels of theacrine and caffeine in expanding buds and young leaves were ca. 2.8 and 0.6-2.7% of the dry wt, respectively, but the concentrations were lower in the mature leaves. Radioactivity from S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-14C]methionine was incorporated into theacrine as well as theobromine and caffeine by leaf disks of kucha, indicating that S-adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methyl donor not only for caffeine biosynthesis but also for theacrine production. [8-14C]Caffeine was converted to theacrine by kucha leaves with highest incorporation occurring in expanding buds. When [8-14C]adenosine, the most effective purine precursor for caffeine biosynthesis in tea (Camellia sinensis), was incubated with young kucha leaves for 24 h, up to 1% of total radioactivity was recovered in theacrine. However, pulse-chase experiments with [8-14C]adenosine demonstrated much more extensive incorporation of label into caffeine than theacrine, possibly because of dilution of [14C]caffeine produced by the large endogenous caffeine pool. These results indicate that in kucha leaves theacrine is synthesized from caffeine in what is probably a three-step pathway with 1,3,7-methyluric acid acting an intermediate. This is a first demonstration that theacrine is synthesized from adenosine via caffeine.

  19. The Tea Tree Genome Provides Insights into Tea Flavor and Independent Evolution of Caffeine Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xia, En-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Sheng, Jun; Li, Kui; Zhang, Qun-Jie; Kim, Changhoon; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Ting; Li, Wei; Huang, Hui; Tong, Yan; Nan, Hong; Shi, Cong; Shi, Chao; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Mao, Shu-Yan; Jiao, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yuan; Zhao, You-Jie; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Ben-Ying; Yu, Yue; Shao, Sheng-Fu; Ni, De-Jiang; Eichler, Evan E; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2017-06-05

    Tea is the world's oldest and most popular caffeine-containing beverage with immense economic, medicinal, and cultural importance. Here, we present the first high-quality nucleotide sequence of the repeat-rich (80.9%), 3.02-Gb genome of the cultivated tea tree Camellia sinensis. We show that an extraordinarily large genome size of tea tree is resulted from the slow, steady, and long-term amplification of a few LTR retrotransposon families. In addition to a recent whole-genome duplication event, lineage-specific expansions of genes associated with flavonoid metabolic biosynthesis were discovered, which enhance catechin production, terpene enzyme activation, and stress tolerance, important features for tea flavor and adaptation. We demonstrate an independent and rapid evolution of the tea caffeine synthesis pathway relative to cacao and coffee. A comparative study among 25 Camellia species revealed that higher expression levels of most flavonoid- and caffeine- but not theanine-related genes contribute to the increased production of catechins and caffeine and thus enhance tea-processing suitability and tea quality. These novel findings pave the way for further metabolomic and functional genomic refinement of characteristic biosynthesis pathways and will help develop a more diversified set of tea flavors that would eventually satisfy and attract more tea drinkers worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tea catechins and flavonoids from the leaves of Camellia sinensis inhibit yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Manir, Md Maniruzzaman; Kim, Jeong Kee; Lee, Byeong-Gon; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2012-04-01

    Four new quercetin acylglycosides, designated camelliquercetisides A-D, quercetin 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl(1→3)][2-O″-(E)-p-coumaroyl][β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucoside (17), quercetin 3-O-[2-O″-(E)-p-coumaroyl][β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucoside (18), quercetin 3-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl(1→3)][2-O″-(E)-p-coumaroyl][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-d-glucoside (19), and quercetin 3-O-[2-O″-(E)-p-coumaroyl][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucoside (20), together with caffeine and known catechins, and flavonoids (1-16) were isolated from the leaves of Camellia sinensis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR, IR, and HR-TOF-MS) and chemical methods. The catechins and flavonoidal glycosides exhibited yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibitory activities in the range of IC(50) 8.0-70.3μM, and radical scavenging activities in the range of IC(50) 1.5-43.8 μM, measured by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Degradation of bromothymol blue by 'greener' nano-scale zero-valent iron synthesized using tea polyphenols

    EPA Science Inventory

    A green single-step synthesis of iron nanoparticles using tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols is described that uses no added surfactants/polymers as a capping or reducing agents. The expeditious reaction between polyphenols and ferric nitrate occurs within few minutes at room te...

  2. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-05-13

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption.

  3. White and green teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis): variation in phenolic, methylxanthine, and antioxidant profiles.

    PubMed

    Unachukwu, Uchenna J; Ahmed, Selena; Kavalier, Adam; Lyles, James T; Kennelly, Edward J

    2010-08-01

    Recent investigations have associated white teas with anti-carcinogenic, immune-boosting, and antioxidative properties that may impact human health in a manner comparable to green teas. An in-depth chemical analysis of white tea types was conducted to quantify polyphenols and antioxidant potential of 8 commercially available white teas, and compare them to green tea. Extraction and HPLC protocols were optimized and validated for the quantification of 9 phenolic and 3 methylxanthine compounds to examine inter- and intra-variation in white and green tea types and subtypes. A sampling strategy was devised to assess various subtypes procured from different commercial sources. Variation in antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of both tea types was further assessed by the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteau (F-C) assays, respectively. Total catechin content (TCC) for white teas ranged widely from 14.40 to 369.60 mg/g of dry plant material for water extracts and 47.16 to 163.94 mg/g for methanol extracts. TCC for green teas also ranged more than 10-fold, from 21.38 to 228.20 mg/g of dry plant material for water extracts and 32.23 to 141.24 mg/g for methanol extracts. These findings indicate that statements suggesting a hierarchical order of catechin content among tea types are inconclusive and should be made with attention to a sampling strategy that specifies the tea subtype and its source. Certain white teas have comparable quantities of total catechins to some green teas, but lesser antioxidant capacity, suggesting that white teas have fewer non-catechin antioxidants present. Practical Application: In this investigation white and green teas were extracted in ways that mimic common tea preparation practices, and their chemical profiles were determined using validated analytical chemistry methods. The results suggest certain green and white tea types have comparable levels of catechins with potential health promoting qualities

  4. Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chemical profiling of infusions and decoctions of Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii by UHPLC-PDA-MS and in vitro biological activities comparatively with green tea (Camellia sinensis) and rooibos tisane (Aspalathus linearis).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina Guerreiro; Barreira, Luísa; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Pieters, Luc; Neves, Vanessa; Rodrigues, Maria João; Rivas, Ricardo; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2017-10-25

    Several medicinal plants are currently used by the food industry as functional additives, for example botanical extracts in herbal drinks. Moreover, the scientific community has recently begun focusing on halophytes as sources of functional beverages. Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii (everlasting) is an aromatic halophyte common in southern Europe frequently used as spice and in traditional medicine. In this context, this work explored for the first time H. italicum subsp. picardii as a potential source of innovative herbal beverages with potential health promoting properties. For that purpose, infusions and decoctions were prepared from roots, vegetative aerial-organs (stems and leaves) and flowers and evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities. Samples were also assessed for toxicity in different mammalian cell lines and chemically characterized by spectrophotometric methods and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS). Results were expressed relating to 'a cup-of-tea' and compared with those obtained with green tea (Camellia sinensis) and rooibos tisane (Aspalathus linearis). Tisanes from the everlasting's above-ground organs, particularly flowers, have high polyphenolic content and several phenolics were identified; the main compounds were chlorogenic and quinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic-acid isomers and gnaphaliin-A. The antioxidant activity of beverages from the everlasting's above-ground organs matched or surpassed that of green tea and rooibos. Its anti-diabetic activity was moderate and toxicity low. Overall, our results suggest that the everlasting is a potential source of innovative and functional herbal beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of aluminum levels in tea products from Hong Kong markets and in varieties of tea plants from Hong Kong and India.

    PubMed

    Fung, K F; Carr, H P; Poon, B H T; Wong, M H

    2009-05-01

    This study project aimed to investigate the concentrations of aluminum (Al) in tea products available in Hong Kong markets. Tea samples consisting of 47 different tea bags and 28 samples of tea leaves were analysed for concentrations of Al. All tea samples released Al (0.70-5.93 mg L(-1)) during a standard infusion period. In comparison to the Joint FAO/WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake guideline of 7 mg Al kg(-1) body weight, it was concluded that tea made with these tea leaves will not impose adverse human health impacts. The relative effects of age, soil available Al, and genetic differences on the levels of Al accumulated by tea bushes were investigated. It was found that there was no definite trend between the amount of Al accumulated and the age of tea bushes. The soil available Al influenced the levels of Al in Camellia sinensis to a certain extent, but it was evident that the ability of different varieties of C. sinensis to accumulate Al was variable. C. sinensis accumulated Al in all stages of growth. Young seedlings had lower contents of Al while the mobility of Al within the tea bushes was high. In a manner typical of hyperaccumulators, Al was not retained in the roots, but was consistently transported to the shoots. Aluminum in the tea bush was distributed between the different parts in the following order: mature leaves>roots>branches>young leaves.

  7. Multimycotoxin UPLC-MS/MS for tea, herbal infusions and the derived drinkable products.

    PubMed

    Monbaliu, Sofie; Wu, Aibo; Zhang, Dabing; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah

    2010-12-22

    In recent years the consumption of tea and herbal infusions has increased. These hot drinks are consumed as daily drinks as well as for medicinal purposes. All tea varieties (white, yellow, green, oolong, black and puerh) originate from the leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. All extracts made of plant or herbal materials which do not contain Camellia sinensis are referred as herbal infusions or tisanes. During processing and manufacturing fungal contamination of the plant materials is possible, enabling contamination of these products with mycotoxins. In this study a multimycotoxin UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of the raw tea and herbal infusion materials as well as for their drinkable products. The samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), with a mobile phase consisting of variable mixtures of water and methanol with 0.3% formic acid. The limits of detection for the different mycotoxins varied between 2.1 μg/kg and 121 μg/kg for raw materials and between 0.4 μg/L and 46 μg/L for drinkable products. Afterward 91 different tea and herbal infusion samples were analyzed. Only in one sample, Ceylon melange, 76 μg/kg fumonisin B(1) was detected. No mycotoxins were detected in the drinkable products.

  8. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Camellia sinensis extract: a green approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumari, J. Celina; Ahila, M.; Malligavathy, M.; Padiyan, D. Pathinettam

    2017-09-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were cost-effectively synthesized using nontoxic chemicals and green tea ( Camellia sinensis) extract via a green synthesis method. The structural properties of the obtained nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction, which indicated that the crystallite size was less than 20 nm. The particle size and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphological analysis revealed agglomerated spherical nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 30 nm. The optical properties of the nanoparticles' band gap were characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The band gap was found to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The O vacancy defects were analyzed using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The increase in the crystallite size, decreasing band gap, and the increasing intensities of the UV and visible emission peaks indicated that the green-synthesized SnO2 may play future important roles in catalysis and optoelectronic devices.

  9. Tea polyphenols for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    People have been consuming brewed tea from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant for almost 50 centuries. Although health benefits have been attributed to tea, especially green tea consumption since the beginning of its history, scientific investigations of this beverage and its constituents have been underway for less than three decades. Currently, tea, in the form of green or black tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. In vitro and animal studies provide strong evidence that polyphenols derived from tea may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Among all tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been shown to be responsible for much of the health promoting ability of green tea. Tea and tea preparations have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of animal models of carcinogenesis. However, with increasing interest in the health promoting properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and health benefits of tea with special reference to cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17655876

  10. Potent suppressive activity of nonpolyphenolic fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against genotoxin-induced umu C gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002), tumor promotor-dependent ornithine decarboxylase induction of BALB/c 3T3 fibroblast cells, and chemically induced mouse skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Okai, Y; Higashi-Okai, K

    Many experimental studies for anticarcinogenic activity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and tea-derived polyphenols have been carried out. However, the anticarcinogenic activity of the nonpolyphenolic fraction of green tea has been poorly elucidated. To study this problem, the effect of the nonpolyphenolic fraction of green tea leaves was analyzed using in vitro and in vivo experiments associated with tumor initiation and promotion as follows: 1) The nonpolyphenolic fraction caused a strong suppressive effect on umu C gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002) induced by genotoxic substances such as 2-amino-6-methyldipirido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) in the presence of a hepatic metabolizing enzyme mixture. 2) The same fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts induced by a tumor promotor, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). 3) The same fraction also exhibited a significant suppression against mouse skin tumorigenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) (initiator) and TPA (promotor) through inhibition at both stages of tumor initiation and promotion. These results suggest that the nonpolyphenolic fraction of green tea has a potent suppressing activity against carcinogenesis associated with tumor initiation and promotion.

  11. Phenolic antioxidants from green tea produced from Camellia crassicolumna Var. multiplex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Mei

    2009-01-28

    Camellia crassicolumna var. multiplex (Chang et Tan) Ming belonging to Camellia sect. Thea (Theaceae), is endemic to the southeastern area of Yunnan province, China, where the leaves have been commonly used for making tea and beverages consumed widely. HPLC analysis showed that there was no caffeine or theophylline contained in the leaves; however, thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested the abundant existence of phenolic compounds. Further detailed chemical investigation of the green tea produced from the leaves of the plant led to the identification of 18 phenolic compounds, including four flavan-3-ols (1-4), six flavonol glycosides (5-10), three hydrolyzable tannins (11-13), two chlorogenic acid derivatives (14, 15), and three simple phenolic compounds (16-18). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibitory assays. Most of them exhibited significant DPPH radical scavenging activities, whereas flavan-3-ols and hydrolyzable tannins showed stronger inhibitory activities on tyrosinase. The results suggest that C. crassicolumna could be an ideal plant resource for a noncaffeine beverage.

  12. What is in your cup of tea? DNA Verity Test to characterize black and green commercial teas

    PubMed Central

    Comparone, Maria; Di Maio, Antonietta; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Menale, Bruno; Troisi, Jacopo; Aliberti, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we used several molecular techniques to develop a fast and reliable protocol (DNA Verity Test, DVT) for the characterization and confirmation of the species or taxa present in herbal infusions. As a model plant for this protocol, Camellia sinensis, a traditional tea plant, was selected due to the following reasons: its historical popularity as a (healthy) beverage, its high selling value, the importation of barely recognizable raw product (i.e., crushed), and the scarcity of studies concerning adulterants or contamination. The DNA Verity Test includes both the sequencing of DNA barcoding markers and genotyping of labeled-PCR DNA barcoding fragments for each sample analyzed. This protocol (DVT) was successively applied to verify the authenticity of 32 commercial teas (simple or admixture), and the main results can be summarized as follows: (1) the DVT protocol is suitable to detect adulteration in tea matrices (contaminations or absence of certified ingredients), and the method can be exported for the study of other similar systems; (2) based on the BLAST analysis of the sequences of rbcL+matK±rps7-trnV(GAC) chloroplast markers, C. sinensis can be taxonomically characterized; (3) rps7-trnV(GAC) can be employed to discriminate C. sinensis from C. pubicosta; (4) ITS2 is not an ideal DNA barcode for tea samples, reflecting potential incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization/introgression phenomena in C. sinensis taxa; (5) the genotyping approach is an easy, inexpensive and rapid pre-screening method to detect anomalies in the tea templates using the trnH(GUG)-psbA barcoding marker; (6) two herbal companies provided no authentic products with a contaminant or without some of the listed ingredients; and (7) the leaf matrices present in some teabags could be constituted using an admixture of different C. sinensis haplotypes and/or allied species (C. pubicosta). PMID:28542606

  13. Effects of the aqueous extract of white tea (Camellia sinensis) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul

    2011-12-15

    White tea (WT) is very similar to green tea (GT) but it is exceptionally prepared only from the buds and young tea leaves of Camelia sinensis plant while GT is prepared from the matured tea leaves. The present study was investigated to examine the effects of a 0.5% aqueous extract of WT in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals in each group namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC) and diabetic white tea (DWT). Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg BW) in DBC and DWT groups except the NC group. After 4 weeks feeding of 0.5% aqueous extracts of WT, the drink intake was significantly (P<0.05) increased in the DWT group compared to the DBC and NC groups. Blood glucose concentrations were significantly decreased and glucose tolerance ability was significantly improved in the DWT group compared to the DBC group. Liver weight and liver glycogen were significantly increased and serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased in the DWT group compared to the DBC group. The food intake, body weight gain, serum insulin and fructosamine concentrations were not influenced by the consumption of WT. Data of this study suggest that the 0.5% aqueous extract of WT is effective to reduce most of the diabetes associated abnormalities in a steptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% Camellia sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children.

    PubMed

    Hambire, Chaitali U; Jawade, Rashmi; Patil, Amol; Wani, Vaibhav R; Kulkarni, Ankur A; Nehete, Parag B

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which requires a susceptible host, a cariogenic microflora, and a suitable substrate that must be present for a sufficient length of time. Tea is prepared by the infusion of dried leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, which contains bioactive compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, and catechins that are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to tea. These compounds have multidimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase, and inhibition of acid production. The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% C. sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children. A randomized blinded controlled trial with 60 healthy children of age group 9-14 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, i.e. group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, group B - 0.05% sodium fluoride, and group C - 0.5% C. sinensis extract, with 20 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS). Salivary pH was assessed using indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after first rinse, after 1 week, and in the 2(nd) week. The data were analyzed using a computer software program (SPSS version 17). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify significant differences between the means of the study groups. Finally, paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of changes within each group between time periods. Critical P values of significance were set at 0.05 and the confidence level set at 95%. Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 2-week trial period in the experimental groups. Antiplaque effectiveness was

  15. Cloning of β-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-01-01

    A β-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The β-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The β-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The β-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to β-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the β-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze β-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the β-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the β-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the β-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl β-primeveroside by the β-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the β-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the β-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

  16. Quantitative analysis of acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, chakasaponins I-III and floratheasaponins A-F, in the flower buds of Camellia sinensis from different regional origins.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Miyake, Sohachiro; Miki, Yoshinobu; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-10-01

    A quantitative analytical method was developed for the determination of acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, chakasaponins I-III (1-3) and floratheasaponins A-F (4-9), found in Camellia sinensis (Theaceae). The practical conditions for separation and detection of these saponins were established on an ODS column with methanol containing 5 mM trifluoroacetic acid as a mobile phase, and the detection and quantitation limits of the method were estimated to be 1.1-3.8 and 3.5-12.5 ng, respectively. The relative standard deviation values of intra- and interday precision were lower than 2.35 and 6.12%, respectively, overall mean recoveries of all saponins being 94.7-108.8%, and the correlation coefficients of all the calibration curves showed good linearity within the test ranges. To approve the validity of the protocol, extracts of 13 kinds of C. sinensis collected in China, Taiwan, Japan, and India were evaluated. The results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise, and could be readily utilized for the quality evaluation of tea flowers. It was noteworthy that the distinct regional difference was observed with respect to the content of chakasaponins and floratheasaponins, more chakasaponins being contained in the extracts of tea flowers from Fujian and Sichuan provinces, China than those from Japan, Taiwan, and India. Optimum conditions for the extraction process were also established.

  17. Ambient Profiling of Phenolic Content in Tea Infusions by Matrix-Assisted Ionization in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, Robert B.

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted ionization in vacuum (MAIV) was used to analyze the polyphenol content of ten different tea infusions. Nine different Camellia sinensis infusions were analyzed including three green teas, two black teas, two oolong teas, jasmine tea, and white tea. An infusion of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea was also analyzed. Each freshly brewed tea was diluted 1:1 with methanol, and 100 ppm of phenolphthalein was added as an internal standard. An excess of 3-nitrobenzonitrile (NBN) was added to each vial, and the solution containing NBN crystals was analyzed by aspiration directly into the mass spectrometer sampling orifice. A working curve constructed for dilutions of catechin with phenolphthalein internal standard showed good linearity for five replicates of each concentration. The measured relative abundances of flavonoid polyphenols in each tea were in good agreement with previously reported values. Polyphenol content in tea infusions varied from 19.2 to 108.6 mg 100 mL-1. In addition to the expected catechin flavonoids, abundant quinic acid and gallic acid was detected in the C. sinensis infusions. Characteristic A. linearis flavonoids were detected in the rooibos tea.

  18. Nectar properties and the role of sunbirds as pollinators of the golden-flowered tea (Camellia petelotii).

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi-Guo; Huang, Zhi-Huan; Chen, Zhi-Bao; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2017-03-01

    Properties of floral nectar have been used to predict if a plant species is pollinated by birds. To see whether winter-flowering plants evolve nectar properties corresponding to bird pollinators, nectar properties of several Camellia species (including the golden-flowered tea), as well as the role of floral visitors as effective pollinators, were examined. Potential pollinators of Camellia petelotii were identified at different times of day and under various weather conditions. A bird exclusion experiment was used to compare the pollination effectiveness of birds and insects. Nectar sugar components (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) from C. petelotii growing wild and another seven Camellia species and 22 additional cultivars (all in cultivation) were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sunbird Aethopyga siparaja and honeybees were the most frequent floral visitors to C. petelotii . Honeybee visits were significantly reduced in cloudy/rainy weather. The fruit and seed set of flowers with birds excluded were reduced by 64%, indicating that bird pollination is significant. For the wild populations of C. petelotii , a bagged flower could secrete 157 μL nectar; this nectar has a low sugar concentration (19%) and is sucrose-dominant (87%). The eight Camellia species and 22 cultivars had an average sugar concentration of around 30% and a sucrose concentration of 80%, demonstrating sucrose-dominant nectar in Camellia species. The nectar sugar composition of Camellia species was characterized by sucrose dominance. In addition, the large reduction in seed set when birds are excluded in the golden-flowered tea also supports the suggestion that these winter-flowering plants may have evolved with birds as significant pollinators. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  19. The contribution of cell wall composition in the expansion of Camellia sinensis seedlings roots in response to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Safari, Masoumeh; Ghanati, Faezeh; Safarnejad, Mohammad Reza; Chashmi, Najmeh Ahmadian

    2018-02-01

    Treatment with aluminum triggers a unique response in tea seedlings resulting in biochemical modification of the cell wall, regulation of the activity of the loosening agents, and elongation of root. Unlike most terrestrial plants, tea (Camellia sinensis L.) responds to aluminum (Al) through the promotion of its root elongation; but the real mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is not well understood. A plausible relationship between the modifications of the cell wall and the promotion of root elongation was examined in tea seedlings treated for 8 days with 400 µM Al. The mechanical properties of the cell wall, the composition of its polysaccharides and their capacity to absorb Al, the expression of genes, and the activities of the wall-modifying proteins were studied. With 6 h of the treatment, about 40% of the absorbed Al was bound to the cell wall; however, the amount did not increase thereafter. Meanwhile, the activity of pectin methylesterase, the level of pectin demethylation, the amounts and the average molecular mass of xyloglucan in the root apices significantly decreased upon exposure to Al, resulting in the reduction of Al binding sites. On the other hand, the activity and the gene expression of peroxidase decreased, whereas the activity and gene expression of xyloglucan-degrading enzymes, the expression of expansin A and the H + -ATPase4 genes increased in the Al-treated plants. Interestingly, it was accompanied by the increase of elastic and viscous extensibility of the root apices. From the results, it can be suggested that the biochemical modification of the cell walls reduces sites of Al binding to roots and triggers the activity of the loosening agents, thereby increasing the length of tea roots.

  20. Novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Zijuan tea and biosynthetic pathway of caffeoylated catechin in tea plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Fu, Xi-Wen; Dai, Xin-Long; Hua, Fang; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Chu, Ming-Jie; Hu, Feng-Lin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Gao, Li-Ping; Xie, Zhong-Wen; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2017-12-15

    Zijuan tea is a special cultivar of Yunnan broad-leaf tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) with purple buds, leaves, and stems. Phytochemical study on this tea led to the discovery of three hydroxycinnamoylated catechins (HCCs) (1-3), seven other catechins (4-10), three proanthocyanidins (11-13), five flavones and flavone glycosides (14-18), two alkaloids (19, 20), one steroid (21), and one phenylpropanoid glycoside (22). The isolation and structural elucidation of the caffeoylated catechin (1) by means of spectroscopic techniques were described. We also provide the first evidence that 1 is synthesized via a two-step pathway in tea plant. The three HCCs (1-3) were investigated on their bioactivity through molecular modeling simulation and biochemical experiments. Our results show that they bind acetylcholinesterase (AChE) tightly and have strong AChE inhibitory activity with IC 50 value at 2.49, 11.41, 62.26μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cymbopogon citratus and Camellia sinensis extracts selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells and reduce growth of lymphoma xenografts in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Philion, Cory; Ma, Dennis; Ruvinov, Ivan; Mansour, Fadi; Pignanelli, Christopher; Noel, Megan; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John; Rodrigues, Mark; Singh, Inderpal; Ropat, Jesse; Pandey, Siyaram

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are reported to have elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are highly dependent on cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. Numerous nutraceuticals and natural polyphenolic compounds have a wide range of abilities to alter cellular redox states with potential implications in various diseases. Furthermore, therapeutic options for cancers are mostly nonselective treatments including genotoxic or tubulin-targeting compounds. Some of the natural extracts, containing multiple bioactive compounds, could target multiple pathways in cancer cells to selectively induce cell death. Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Camellia sinensis (white tea) extracts have been shown to have medicinal properties, however, their activity against lymphoma and leukemia, as well as mechanistic details, have not been fully characterized. Herein, we report potent anti-cancer properties in dose and time-dependent manners of ethanolic lemongrass and hot water white tea extracts in lymphoma and leukemia models. Both extracts were able to effectively induce apoptosis selectively in these human cancer cell types. Interestingly, ethanolic lemongrass extract induces apoptosis primarily by the extrinsic pathway and was found to be dependent on the generation of ROS. Conversely, apoptotic induction by hot water white tea extract was independent of ROS. Furthermore, both of these extracts caused mitochondrial depolarization and decreased rates of oxygen consumption in lymphoma and leukemia cells, leading to cell death. Most importantly, both these extracts were effective in reducing tumor growth in human lymphoma xenograft models when administered orally. Thus, these natural extracts could have potential for being nontoxic alternatives for the treatment of cancer. PMID:29340014

  2. Antioxidative and anti-carcinogenic activities of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Lambert, Joshua D; Sang, Shengmin

    2009-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace), a popular beverage consumed world-wide, has been studied for its preventive effects against cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other diseases. Most of the proposed beneficial effects have been attributed to the polyphenolic compounds in tea, but the nature of these activities and the molecular mechanisms of their actions remain unclear. Tea polyphenols are known to be strong antioxidants. Prevention of oxidative stress, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, and prevention of DNA damage have been suggested as possible cancer preventive mechanisms for tea and tea polyphenols. In this chapter, we discuss these topics in the light of biotransformation and bioavailability of tea polyphenols. We also review the preventive effects of tea polyphenols in animal models of carcinogenesis and some of the possible post-initiation mechanisms of action. Finally, we discuss the effects of tea consumption on cancer risk in humans. It is our aim to raise some of the unanswered questions regarding cancer prevention by tea and to stimulate further research in this area.

  3. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  4. Detecting aroma changes of local flavored green tea (Camellia sinensis) using electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralisnawati, D.; Sukartiko, A. C.; Suryandono, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently the sixth largest tea producer in the world. However, consumption of the product in the country was considered low. Besides tea, the country also has various local flavor ingredients that are potential to be developed. The addition of local flavored ingredients such as ginger, lemon grass, and lime leaves on green tea products is gaining acceptance from consumers and producers. The aroma of local flavored green tea was suspected to changes during storage, while its sensory testing has some limitations. Therefore, the study aimed to detect aroma changes of local flavors added in green tea using electronic nose (e-nose), an instrument developed to mimic the function of the human nose. The test was performed on a four-gram sample. The data was collected with 120 seconds of sensing time and 60 seconds of blowing time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out the aroma changes of local flavored green tea during storage. We observed that electronic nose could detect aroma changes of ginger flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 with variance percentage 99.6%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lemon grass flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.3%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lime leaves flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.4%.

  5. Development of STS and CAPS markers for variety identification and genetic diversity analysis of tea germplasm in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chih-Yi; Tsai, You-Zen; Lin, Shun-Fu

    2014-12-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important economic crop in Taiwan. Particularly, two major commercial types of tea (Paochong tea and Oolong tea) which are produced in Taiwan are famous around the world, and they must be manufactured with specific cultivars. Nevertheless, many elite cultivars have been illegally introduced to foreign countries. Because of the lower cost, large amount of "Taiwan-type tea" are produced and imported to Taiwan, causing a dramatic damage in the tea industry. It is very urgent to develop the stable, fast and reliable DNA markers for fingerprinting tea cultivars in Taiwan and protecting intellectual property rights for breeders. Furthermore, genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship evaluations of tea germplasm in Taiwan are imperative for parental selection in the cross-breeding program and avoidance of genetic vulnerability. Two STS and 37 CAPS markers derived from cytoplasmic genome and ESTs of tea have been developed in this study providing a useful tool for distinguishing all investigated germplasm. For identifying 12 prevailing tea cultivars in Taiwan, five core markers, including each one of mitochondria and chloroplast, and three nuclear markers, were developed. Based on principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis, 55 tea germplasm in Taiwan were divided into three groups: sinensis type (C. sinensis var. sinensis), assamica type (C. sinensis var. assamica) and Taiwan wild species (C. formosensis). The result of genetic diversity analysis revealed that both sinensis (0.44) and assamica (0.41) types had higher genetic diversity than wild species (0.25). The close genetic distance between the first (Chin-Shin-Oolong) and the third (Shy-Jih-Chuen) prevailing cultivars was found, and many recently released varieties are the descents of Chin-Shin-Oolong. This implies the potential risk of genetic vulnerability for tea cultivation in Taiwan. We have successfully developed a tool for tea germplasm discrimination and genetic

  6. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Materials and Methods: Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. Results: E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH•, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Conclusion: Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. SUMMARY Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed

  7. The external morphology of the mouthparts, and observations on feeding and behavior of Tuckerella japonica on Camellia sinensis in the continental United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tuckerella japonica Ehara (Acari: Tetranychoidea: Tuckerellidae) is found where longitudinal splitting occurs on exposed green periderm tissue of shoots on certain varieties or seedling plants of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theales: Theaceae) in the continental United States. The mite is able ...

  8. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  9. SWAPDT: A method for Short-time Withering Assessment of Probability for Drought Tolerance in Camellia sinensis validated by targeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Nyarukowa, Christopher; Koech, Robert; Loots, Theodor; Apostolides, Zeno

    2016-07-01

    Climate change is causing droughts affecting crop production on a global scale. Classical breeding and selection strategies for drought-tolerant cultivars will help prevent crop losses. Plant breeders, for all crops, need a simple and reliable method to identify drought-tolerant cultivars, but such a method is missing. Plant metabolism is often disrupted by abiotic stress conditions. To survive drought, plants reconfigure their metabolic pathways. Studies have documented the importance of metabolic regulation, i.e. osmolyte accumulation such as polyols and sugars (mannitol, sorbitol); amino acids (proline) during drought. This study identified and quantified metabolites in drought tolerant and drought susceptible Camellia sinensis cultivars under wet and drought stress conditions. For analyses, GC-MS and LC-MS were employed for metabolomics analysis.%RWC results show how the two drought tolerant and two drought susceptible cultivars differed significantly (p≤0.05) from one another; the drought susceptible exhibited rapid water loss compared to the drought tolerant. There was a significant variation (p<0.05) in metabolite content (amino acid, sugars) between drought tolerant and drought susceptible tea cultivars after short-time withering conditions. These metabolite changes were similar to those seen in other plant species under drought conditions, thus validating this method. The Short-time Withering Assessment of Probability for Drought Tolerance (SWAPDT) method presented here provides an easy method to identify drought tolerant tea cultivars that will mitigate the effects of drought due to climate change on crop losses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Diversity of Catechin in Northeast Indian Tea Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Sabhapondit, Santanu; Karak, Tanmoy; Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Goswami, Bhabesh Chandra; Hazarika, Mridul

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaf contains a large amount of catechins (a group of very active flavonoids) which contribute to major quality attributes of black tea. Based on morphological characters tea plants were classified as Assam, China, and Cambod varieties. The present study is an attempt for biochemical fingerprinting of the tea varieties based on catechin composition in green leaf of cultivars grown in Northeast India. Assam variety cultivars contained the highest level of catechins followed by Cambod and China. The average catechin contents were 231 ± 7 mg g−1, 202 ± 5 mg g−1, and 157 ± 4 mg g−1 of dry weight of green leaf for Assam, Cambod, and China cultivars, respectively. Among the individual catechins the variations in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were the most prominent among the varieties. High EGC content was found to be a characteristic of Assam variety which was further corroborated through multivariate analysis. PMID:22448135

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars.

    PubMed

    Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Cardoso, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; Akisue, Gokithi; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Santos Júnior, Paulo Villela

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

    PubMed Central

    FARIA, Raquel Lourdes; CARDOSO, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; AKISUE, Gokithi; PEREIRA, Cristiane Aparecida; JUNQUEIRA, Juliana Campos; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SANTOS JÚNIOR, Paulo Villela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Material and Methods Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). Results The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Conclusions Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate. PMID:21986652

  13. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for the beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    El-Salamouny, S; Ranwala, D; Shapiro, M; Shepard, B M; Farrar, Robert R

    2009-10-01

    The addition of 1% (wt:vol) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), and green and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent UV radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), nucleopolyhedrovirus under laboratory conditions. Aqueous extracts of coffee, green tea, and black tea at 0.5% provided 85-100% UV protection, whereas cocoa provided 50% UV protection. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, and caffeine, a component of tea and coffee, also were tested as UV protectants. Both compounds were ineffective when tested alone. When EGCG and caffeine were combined, UV protection increased in a synergistic manner, but <35% of the original virus activity was maintained. This study demonstrated that coffee was comparable to green tea and black tea as a UV protectant. Further studies should be conducted to optimize their use in biopesticide formulations.

  14. In-vitro antibacterial and antioxidant potential of winged prickly ash, green tea and thyme.

    PubMed

    Hafiz, I; Bhatti, H N; Hanif, M A; Shahid, M

    2018-01-01

    Herbs and plants are mostly used as antimicrobials and antioxidants owing to the harmfulness and linked side-effects of synthetic chemical constituents. Plants and spices produce various metabolites with antibacterial and antioxidant potential. These metabolites are principally revealed as encouraging healing components or mediators which control ailments in human beings. The present study was aimed to characterize the extracts from selected medicinal plants through in-vitro activities. Winged prickly ash, green tea and thyme were selected and extracted through ethanol and methanol solutions. The extracts were assessed for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The antibacterial potential of extracts showed the significant extent of the activity against Bacillus subtilis and E. coli. The maximum activity was noted in 80% methanolic fraction of Thymus vulgaris (15.20±0.64 mm) against Bacillus subtilis. Antioxidant potential exhibited the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in Camellia sinensis . The total phenolic content was significantly higher (1456.26±12.05 mg gallic acid) in 80% ethanolic fraction of Camellia sinensis. The flavonoid content in different plant extracts ranged from 8.17±2.02 to 376.29±7.11 mg/g. The radical scavenging DPPH assay also showed the significant antioxidant capacity of selected plants with the methanolic (50%) extract of Camellia sinensis found to be the most potent (78.95±7.12%). It was concluded that the alcoholic extracts of selected medicinal plants revealed the effective antibacterial and antioxidant activity, showing protective prospective against oxidative injury.

  15. Tea and its consumption: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Khizar; Iqbal, Hira; Malik, Uzma; Bilal, Uzma; Mushtaq, Sobia

    2015-01-01

    The recent convention of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or combat diseases is a centuries' old tradition. Nutritional support is an emerging advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; tea and its constituents are one of the significant components of these strategies to maintain the health and reduce the risk of various malignancies. Tea is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide, besides water. All the three most popular types of tea, green (unfermented), black (fully fermented), and oolong (semifermented), are manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Tea possesses significant antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, cholesterol-lowering, and thermogenic properties. Several research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses suggest that tea and its bioactive polyphenolic constituents have numerous beneficial effects on health, including the prevention of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, genital warts, and obesity. Controversies regarding beneficialts and risks of tea consumption still exist but the limitless health-promoting benefits of tea outclass its few reported toxic effects. However, with significant rise in the scientific investigation of role of tea in human life, this review is intended to highlight the beneficial effects and risks associated with tea consumption.

  16. Comparative analysis of the response and gene regulation in cold resistant and susceptible tea plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cheng; Wang, Yiwei; Kong, Lei; Jiang, Huiguang; Xu, Yiqun; Wang, Wenzhi; Pan, Yuting; Li, Yeyun; Jiang, Changjun

    2017-01-01

    Cold environment is the main constraint for tea plants (Camellia sinensis) distribution and tea farming. We identified two tea cultivars, called var. sinensis cv. Shuchazao (SCZ) with a high cold-tolerance and var. assamica cv. Yinghong9 (YH9) with low cold-tolerance. To better understand the response mechanism of tea plants under cold stress for improving breeding, we compared physiological and biochemical responses, and associated genes expression in response to 7-day and 14-day cold acclimation, followed by 7-day de-acclimation in these two tea cultivars. We found that the low EL50, low Fv/Fm, and high sucrose and raffinose accumulation are responsible for higher cold tolerance in SCZ comparing with YH9. We then measured the expression of 14 key homologous genes, known as involved in these responses in other plants, for each stages of treatment in both cultivars using RT-qPCR. Our results suggested that the increased expression of CsCBF1 and CsDHNs coupling with the accumulation of sucrose play key roles in conferring higher cold resistance in SCZ. Our findings have revealed key genes regulation responsible for cold resistance, which help to understand the cold-resistant mechanisms and guide breeding in tea plants. PMID:29211766

  17. Comparative analysis of the response and gene regulation in cold resistant and susceptible tea plants.

    PubMed

    Ban, Qiuyan; Wang, Xuewen; Pan, Cheng; Wang, Yiwei; Kong, Lei; Jiang, Huiguang; Xu, Yiqun; Wang, Wenzhi; Pan, Yuting; Li, Yeyun; Jiang, Changjun

    2017-01-01

    Cold environment is the main constraint for tea plants (Camellia sinensis) distribution and tea farming. We identified two tea cultivars, called var. sinensis cv. Shuchazao (SCZ) with a high cold-tolerance and var. assamica cv. Yinghong9 (YH9) with low cold-tolerance. To better understand the response mechanism of tea plants under cold stress for improving breeding, we compared physiological and biochemical responses, and associated genes expression in response to 7-day and 14-day cold acclimation, followed by 7-day de-acclimation in these two tea cultivars. We found that the low EL50, low Fv/Fm, and high sucrose and raffinose accumulation are responsible for higher cold tolerance in SCZ comparing with YH9. We then measured the expression of 14 key homologous genes, known as involved in these responses in other plants, for each stages of treatment in both cultivars using RT-qPCR. Our results suggested that the increased expression of CsCBF1 and CsDHNs coupling with the accumulation of sucrose play key roles in conferring higher cold resistance in SCZ. Our findings have revealed key genes regulation responsible for cold resistance, which help to understand the cold-resistant mechanisms and guide breeding in tea plants.

  18. Uptake, Translocation, Metabolism, and Distribution of Glyphosate in Nontarget Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Wanjun; Jiao, Weiting; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yeyun; He, Lili; Hou, Ruyan

    2017-09-06

    The uptake, translocation, metabolism, and distribution behavior of glyphosate in nontarget tea plant were investigated. The negative effects appeared to grown tea saplings when the nutrient solution contained glyphosate above 200 mg L -1 . Glyphosate was highest in the roots of the tea plant, where it was also metabolized to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The glyphosate and AMPA in the roots were transported through the xylem or phloem to the stems and leaves. The amount of AMPA in the entire tea plant was less than 6.0% of the amount of glyphosate. The glyphosate level in fresh tea shoots was less than that in mature leaves at each day. These results indicated that free glyphosate in the soil can be continuously absorbed by, metabolized in, and transported from the roots of the tea tree into edible leaves, and therefore, free glyphosate residues in the soil should be controlled to produce teas free of glyphosate.

  19. Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R

    2017-05-03

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

  20. Soil fluoride fractions and their bioavailability to tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaoyun; Qiao, Sha; Ma, Lifeng; Wang, Jie; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-10-01

    Drinking teas containing high fluoride (F) imposes fluorosis risk. The soil F bioavailability is an important factor influencing its uptake and contents in teas. The present work was conducted to investigate F fractions in soil and their bioavailability to tea plants. Tea seedlings were cultivated on 6 typical soils treated with a mixture consisting of dolomite, lime, peat and KCl at variable rates in the pot experiment. Soils and young shoots were collected in pairs from 63 sites of 21 plantations in a field experiment. Soil fluoride was sequentially separated into hot water soluble [Formula: see text], exchangeable [Formula: see text] (by 1 mol L -1 MgCl 2 , pH = 7.0), F bound to Mn and Fe hydroxides [F (oxides,s) ], and organic matter [F (OM,s) ] or extracted independently by water [Formula: see text] or 0.01 mol L -1 CaCl 2 solution [Formula: see text]. Averaged [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], F (oxides,s) and F (OM,s) accounted for 51, 14, 5 and 30 % of the total sequential extracts, respectively. There were significant correlations among [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and F (OM,s) . Fluoride contents in leaves correlated with [Formula: see text] (r = 0.71, p < 0.001), [Formula: see text] (r = 0.93, p < 0.001) and F (OM,s) (r = 0.69, p < 0.01) but not other fractions in the pot experiment and with [Formula: see text] (r = 0.43-0.57, p < 0.001) and [Formula: see text] (r = 0.42-0.79, p < 0.001) in the field experiment. It was concluded that 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable fluoride can be a good indicator of soil F bioavailability to tea plants. The significant correlations among some of the F fractions suggested that F in solution, AlF complexes (AlF 2 + , AlF 2+ ) and those bound to organic matter likely represent the available pools to tea plants.

  1. Role of Green Tea Flavonoids and Other Related Contents in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is made from Camellia sinensis and leaves through the oxidation process. It mainly originates in China and has been used traditionally throughout Asia. In the West, black tea has been used mostly, but green tea has become the most popular beverage throughout the world. It is also used as a raw material in cosmetics, health foods, and as an added ingredient in various beverages. Different varieties of green tea are available. The main differences between the varieties are due to harvesting time, production procedures, and horticulture. Drinking green tea has many positive effects on the body. It helps to nourish our five vital organs, among which the most important is the heart. It also has many qualities to help improve our state of mind (thus possibly reducing the consumption of alcohol), it acts as a stimulant, cures blotchiness, fulfills thirst, eliminates indigestion, cures beriberi disease, prevents fatigue, and improves kidney and brain function.

  2. A comparative evaluation of antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, Curcuma longa, and Camellia sinensis as irrigating solutions on isolated anaerobic bacteria from infected primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Dhariwal, Neha Shashikant; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Harakuni, Sheetal; Sogi, Suma; Assudani, Harsha G; Mistry, Laresh Naresh

    2016-01-01

    In endodontics, most of the commercial intra-canal medicaments have cytotoxic reactions and because of their inability to eliminate bacteria from dentinal tubules, recent medicine has turned its attention to the usage of biologic medication prepared from natural plants. The literature to testify the efficacy of natural alternatives in primary teeth is meagre and its effects as irrigating solutions need to be evaluated. To evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Camellia sinensis (green tea) as irrigating solutions against the anaerobic bacteria isolated from the root canals of infected primary teeth. Thirty patients were selected based on the selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preoperative radiographs were taken. Rubber dam isolation and working length estimation were done, following which thirty samples were taken from the root canals of infected primary teeth using sterile absorbent paper points and transferred to tubes containing thioglycolate transport medium. The bacteria were then isolated using standard microbiological protocols and were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing using the three test irrigants. SPSS 18 software using Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The most commonly isolated bacteria included Porphyromonas sp., Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sodium hypochlorite and C. longa (turmeric) showed good antibacterial effect and were effective against most of the isolated bacteria. There was statistically significant difference in the antibacterial effect among the three tested groups (P < 0.001). The least effective was C. sinensis (green tea). The infected primary teeth almost always present with a polymicrobial structure with a wide variety of anaerobic bacteria. The chemo-mechanical preparation plays an important role in eradicating the population of predominant micro-organisms in treating these teeth with

  3. New flavan-3-ol dimer from green tea produced from Camellia taliensis in the Ai-Lao mountains of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Min; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Shi-Xiong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2012-12-12

    Camellia taliensis (W. W. Smith) Melchior, belonging to the genus Camellia sect. Thea (Theaceae), is an endemic species distributed from the west and southwest of Yunnan province, China, to the north of Myanmar. Known as a wild tea tree, its leaves have been used commonly for producing tea beverages by the local people of its growing area. One new flavan-3-ol dimer, talienbisflavan A (1), was isolated from green tea prepared from the leaves of C. taliensis collected from the east side of the Ai-Lao mountains, Yuanjiang county of Yunnan province, China. In addition, five hydrolyzable tannins (2-6), five flavonols and flavonol glycosides (9-13), three flavan-3-ols (14-16), nine simple phenolic compounds and glycosides (7, 8, and 17-23), and caffeine (24) were identified. Their structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis. All of the isolated phenolic compounds were tested for their antioxidant activities by DPPH and ABTS(+) radical scavenging assays. The contents of its main chemical compositions were also compared with those collected from the Lincang area of Yunnan province by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

  4. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yanling; Tan, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metabolites for oil biosynthesis. The objectives of this study were to identify FBA genes and investigate the relationship between FBA gene expression and oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree. In this paper, four developmentally up-regulated CoFBA genes were identified in Camellia oleifera seeds based on the transcriptome from two seed developmental stages corresponding to the initiation and peak stages of lipid biosynthesis. The expression of CoFBA genes, along with three key oil biosynthesis genes CoACP, CoFAD2 and CoSAD were analyzed in seeds from eight developmental stages by real-time quantitative PCR. The oil content and fatty acid composition were also analyzed. The results showed that CoFBA and CoSAD mRNA levels were well-correlated with oil content whereas CoFAD2 gene expression levels were correlated with fatty acid composition in Camellia seeds. We propose that CoFBA and CoSAD are two important factors for determining tea oil yield because CoFBA gene controls the flux of key intermediates for oil biosynthesis and CoSAD gene controls the synthesis of oleic acid, which accounts for 80% of fatty acids in tea oil. These findings suggest that tea oil yield could be improved by enhanced expression of CoFBA and CoSAD genes in transgenic plants.

  5. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  6. Chemopreventive potential of the tannase-mediated biotransformation of green tea.

    PubMed

    Macedo, J A; Ferreira, L R; Camara, L E; Santos, J C; Gambero, A; Macedo, G A; Ribeiro, M L

    2012-07-15

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The cancer chemopreventive qualities of green tea have been well documented. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is often described as the most potently chemopreventive green tea catechin; however, the low bioavailability of EGCG is a limiting factor for its biological effect. Thus, the aim of this work was to test the chemopreventive potential of green tea extract and EGCG after tannase-mediated hydrolysis. The results showed that the biotransformed compounds retained most of the beneficial properties of the original compounds, and some beneficial properties were improved in the biotransformed compounds. Biotransformation of EGCG decreased its toxicity without affecting its antiproliferative effects. Furthermore, human cells gene expression profiling showed that the biotransformed compounds modulated the expression of several genes related to carcinogenesis. These results demonstrate the benefits of the biotechnological modification of natural food molecules, allowing the improvement of the nutraceutical potential of a beverage as green tea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenotypic, histological and proteomic analyses reveal multiple differences associated with chloroplast development in yellow and variegated variants from Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chengying; Cao, Junxi; Li, Jianke; Zhou, Bo; Tang, Jinchi; Miao, Aiqing

    2016-01-01

    Leaf colour variation is observed in several plants. We obtained two types of branches with yellow and variegated leaves from Camellia sinensis. To reveal the mechanisms that underlie the leaf colour variations, combined morphological, histological, ionomic and proteomic analyses were performed using leaves from abnormal branches (variants) and normal branches (CKs). The measurement of the CIE-Lab coordinates showed that the brightness and yellowness of the variants were more intense than the CKs. When chloroplast profiles were analysed, HY1 (branch with yellow leaves) and HY2 (branch with variegated leaves) displayed abnormal chloroplast structures and a reduced number and size compared with the CKs, indicating that the abnormal chloroplast development might be tightly linked to the leaf colour variations. Moreover, the concentration of elemental minerals was different between the variants and the CKs. Furthermore, DEPs (differentially expressed proteins) were identified in the variants and the CKs by a quantitative proteomics analysis using the label-free approach. The DEPs were significantly involved in photosynthesis and included PSI, PSII, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport, LHC and F-type ATPase. Our results suggested that a decrease in the abundance of photosynthetic proteins might be associated with the changes of leaf colours in tea plants. PMID:27633059

  8. Carboxymethyl- and carboxyl-catechins from ripe Pu-er tea.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Wen; Tao, Mu-Ke; Xu, Min; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Wen-Yong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2014-12-17

    Ripe Pu-er tea, a special microbial postfermented tea originated from Yunnan Province, China, since ancient times, is made from green Pu-er tea prepared from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. assamica (Theaceae). Chemical investigation on thearubigin (n-BuOH-soluble) fraction of the commercial ripe Pu-er tea, led to the identification of four new flavan-3-ol derivatives, 8-carboxymethyl-(+)-catechin (1), 8-carboxymethyl-(+)-catechin methyl ester (2), 6-carboxymethyl-(+)-catechin (3), and 6-carboxyl-(-)-gallocatechin (4), together with 18 known compounds, including other three flavan-3-ol derivatives (5-7), 10 flavonoid glycosides (8-17), two hydrolyzable tannins (18 and 19), two quinic acid derivatives (20-21), and a purine alkaloid (22). Flavonoid glycosides 8-11 are reported from tea plants for the first time. The thearubigin fraction of ripe Pu-er tea was qualitatively analyzed by HPLC, and gallic acid was found to be the major component. Compounds 4, 6-17, 21 and 22 were tested for their acute activities on insulin sensitivity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but none of them showed significant bioactivity at a concentration of 10 μM.

  9. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metab...

  10. Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Huang, Linpei

    2014-10-24

    The history of tea is poorly known, mainly due to the questionable identification of decayed tea plants in archaeological samples. This paper attempts to test the utility of calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) for the identification of tea in archaeological samples. It provides the first survey of the macropatterns of calciphytoliths in several species of Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants. Crystals were extracted from 45 samples of tea, Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants, and detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. In tea plants, druse and trichome base are the most distinctive crystals. Druses have the smallest diameter (11.65 ± 3.64 μm), and trichome bases have four distinctive straight and regular cracks, similar to a regular extinction cross. The results provide morphological criteria for distinguishing tea from other plants, specifically the presence of identifiable druses together with calcified trichome bases. The implications are significant for understanding the history of tea and plant exploitation, especially for plants for which the preservation of macrofossils is poor.

  11. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  12. Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Huang, Linpei

    2014-01-01

    The history of tea is poorly known, mainly due to the questionable identification of decayed tea plants in archaeological samples. This paper attempts to test the utility of calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) for the identification of tea in archaeological samples. It provides the first survey of the macropatterns of calciphytoliths in several species of Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants. Crystals were extracted from 45 samples of tea, Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants, and detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. In tea plants, druse and trichome base are the most distinctive crystals. Druses have the smallest diameter (11.65 ± 3.64 μm), and trichome bases have four distinctive straight and regular cracks, similar to a regular extinction cross. The results provide morphological criteria for distinguishing tea from other plants, specifically the presence of identifiable druses together with calcified trichome bases. The implications are significant for understanding the history of tea and plant exploitation, especially for plants for which the preservation of macrofossils is poor. PMID:25342006

  13. Tea plant SWEET transporters: expression profiling, sugar transport, and the involvement of CsSWEET16 in modifying cold tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Yao, Lina; Hao, Xinyuan; Li, Nana; Qian, Wenjun; Yue, Chuan; Ding, Changqing; Zeng, Jianming; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen SWEET transporters were identified in Camellia sinensis and the cold-suppression gene CsSWEET16 contributed to sugar compartmentation across the vacuole and function in modifying cold tolerance in Arabidopsis. The sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEET) family of sugar transporters in plants is a recently identified protein family of sugar uniporters that contain seven transmembrane helices harbouring two MtN3 motifs. SWEETs play important roles in various biological processes, including plant responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, 13 SWEET transporters were identified in Camellia sinensis and were divided into four clades. Transcript abundances of CsSWEET genes were detected in various tissues. CsSWEET1a/1b/2a/2b/2c/3/9b/16/17 were expressed in all of the selected tissues, whereas the expression of CsSWEET5/7/9a/15 was not detected in some tissues, including those of mature leaves. Expression analysis of nine CsSWEET genes in leaves in response to abiotic stresses, natural cold acclimation and Colletotrichum camelliae infection revealed that eight CsSWEET genes responded to abiotic stress, while CsSWEET3 responded to C. camelliae infection. Functional analysis of 13 CsSWEET activities in yeast revealed that CsSWEET1a/1b/7/17 exhibit transport activity for glucose analogues and other types of hexose molecules. Further characterization of the cold-suppression gene CsSWEET16 revealed that this gene is localized in the vacuolar membrane. CsSWEET16 contributed to sugar compartmentation across the vacuole and function in modifying cold tolerance in Arabidopsis. Together, these findings demonstrate that CsSWEET genes play important roles in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses in tea plants and provide insights into the characteristics of SWEET genes in tea plants, which could serve as the basis for further functional identification of such genes.

  14. Bioconversion of wastewater from sweet potato starch production to Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for tea plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Xiao, Runlin; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-02-28

    Wastewater from the sweet potato starch industry is a large source of nutrient-rich substrates. We assessed whether this wastewater could be used to produce Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for foliar application to tea trees. Using the central composite design methods we experientially determined that the optimal culture conditions for P. polymyxa were pH, 6.5; temperature, 29.0 °C; and incubation time, 16 h. Under these conditions, a maximum biomass of 9.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was achieved. We then conducted a yearlong field investigation to determine the effect of P. polymyxa biofertilizer on the growth of tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Tea yield, quantity of water extract, and tea polyphenol levels were significantly higher after foliar application of the biofertilizer compared to that in the controls by an average of 16.7%, 6.3%, and 10.4%, respectively. This approach appears to be technically feasible for organic tea production, and is an environmentally friendly way to utilize wastewater.

  15. Bioconversion of wastewater from sweet potato starch production to Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for tea plants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Xiao, Runlin; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater from the sweet potato starch industry is a large source of nutrient-rich substrates. We assessed whether this wastewater could be used to produce Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for foliar application to tea trees. Using the central composite design methods we experientially determined that the optimal culture conditions for P. polymyxa were pH, 6.5; temperature, 29.0°C; and incubation time, 16 h. Under these conditions, a maximum biomass of 9.7 × 109 cfu/mL was achieved. We then conducted a yearlong field investigation to determine the effect of P. polymyxa biofertilizer on the growth of tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Tea yield, quantity of water extract, and tea polyphenol levels were significantly higher after foliar application of the biofertilizer compared to that in the controls by an average of 16.7%, 6.3%, and 10.4%, respectively. This approach appears to be technically feasible for organic tea production, and is an environmentally friendly way to utilize wastewater. PMID:24576979

  16. Simultaneous determination of free amino acids in Pu-erh tea and their changes during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuchen; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Pengpu; Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Pu-erh ripened tea is produced through a unique microbial fermentation process from the sun-dried leaves of large-leaf tea species (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura) in Yunnan province of China. In this study, the changes of amino acid profiles during fermentation of Pu-erh tea were investigated, based on the improved HPLC-UV method with PITC pre-column derivatization for the simultaneous determination of twenty free amino acids. Results showed that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, theanine and tyrosine were the major amino acids in tea samples. Fermentation significantly influenced on the amino acid profiles. The total free amino acid contents significantly decreased during fermentation (p<0.05). Meanwhile, low amount of acrylamide were detected. Its concentration increased after 7-days' fermentation and then decreased gradually. The results provided the useful information for the manipulation of fermentation process according to the changes of amino acids and acrylamide contents in Pu-erh ripened tea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities.

    PubMed

    Thitimuta, Surached; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2017-03-04

    The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE) ( Camellia sinensis L.). The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl₄-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE's principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl₄-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl₄ intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  18. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  19. An EPR study on tea: identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Biyik, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-15

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn(2+) and Fe(3+) centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 degrees C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 degrees C while Mn(2+) sextet disappears just above 100 degrees C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn(2+) and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe(3+) line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  20. [Chemical and sensory characterization of tea (Thea sinensis) consumed in Chile].

    PubMed

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; José Zúñiga, María; Fuenzalida, Regina; López-Planes, Reinaldo

    2005-03-01

    By means of descriptive analysis four varieties of tea (Thea sinensis) were assesed: Argentinean OP (orange pekoe) tea (black), Brazilian OP tea (black), Ceylan OP tea (black) and Darjeeling OP tea (green). The appearance of dry tea leaves were qualitatively characterized comparing with dry leaves standard. The attributes: colour, form, regularity of the leaves, fibre and stem cutting were evaluated The differences obtained were related to the differences produced by the effect of the fermentation process. Flavour and aroma descriptors of the tea liqueur were generated by a trained panel. Colour and astringency were evaluated in comparison with qualified standards using non structured linear scales. In order to relate the sensory analysis and the chemical composition for the different varieties of tea, following determinations were made: chemical moisture, dry material, aqueous extract, tannin and caffeine. Through multifactor regression analysis the equations in relation to the following chemical parameters were determined. Dry material, aqueous extract and tannins for colour and moisture, dry material and aqueous extract for astringency, respectively. Statistical analysis through ANOVA (3 variation sources: samples, judges and replications) showed for samples four significant different groups for astringency and three different groups for colour. No significant differences between judges or repetitions were found. By multifactor regression analysis of both, colour and astringency, on their dependence of chemist results were calculated in order to asses the corresponding equations.

  1. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of the tea oil camellia (Camellia oleifera) reveals candidate drought stress genes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Wu, Bin; Hong, Wenhong; Li, Xiuping; Li, Zhuo; Xue, Li; Huang, Yongfang

    2017-01-01

    The tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera) is the most important oil plant in southern China, and has a strong resistance to drought and barren soil. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance would greatly promote its cultivation and molecular breeding. In total, we obtained 76,585 unigenes with an average length of 810 bp and an N50 of 1,092 bp. We mapped all the unigenes to the NCBI 'nr' (non-redundant), SwissProt, KEGG, and clusters of orthologous groups (COG) databases, where 52,531 (68.6%) unigenes were functionally annotated. According to the annotation, 46,171 (60.8%) unigenes belong to 338 KEGG pathways. We identified a series of unigenes that are related to the synthesis and regulation of abscisic acid (ABA), the activity of protective enzymes, vitamin B6 metabolism, the metabolism of osmolytes, and pathways related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. After exposed to drought for 12 hours, the number of differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between treated plants and control plants increased in the G4 cultivar, while there was no significant increase in the drought-tolerant C3 cultivar. DEGs associated with drought stress responsive pathways were identified by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Moreover, we found 789 DEGs related to transcription factors. Finally, according to the results of qRT-PCR, the expression levels of the 20 unigenes tested were consistent with the results of next-generation sequencing. In the present study, we identified a large set of cDNA unigenes from C. oleifera annotated using public databases. Further studies of DEGs involved in metabolic pathways related to drought stress and transcription will facilitate the discovery of novel genes involved in resistance to drought stress in this commercially important plant.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the tea oil camellia (Camellia oleifera) reveals candidate drought stress genes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Hong, Wenhong; Li, Xiuping; Li, Zhuo; Xue, Li; Huang, Yongfang

    2017-01-01

    Background The tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera) is the most important oil plant in southern China, and has a strong resistance to drought and barren soil. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance would greatly promote its cultivation and molecular breeding. Results In total, we obtained 76,585 unigenes with an average length of 810 bp and an N50 of 1,092 bp. We mapped all the unigenes to the NCBI ‘nr’ (non-redundant), SwissProt, KEGG, and clusters of orthologous groups (COG) databases, where 52,531 (68.6%) unigenes were functionally annotated. According to the annotation, 46,171 (60.8%) unigenes belong to 338 KEGG pathways. We identified a series of unigenes that are related to the synthesis and regulation of abscisic acid (ABA), the activity of protective enzymes, vitamin B6 metabolism, the metabolism of osmolytes, and pathways related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. After exposed to drought for 12 hours, the number of differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between treated plants and control plants increased in the G4 cultivar, while there was no significant increase in the drought-tolerant C3 cultivar. DEGs associated with drought stress responsive pathways were identified by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Moreover, we found 789 DEGs related to transcription factors. Finally, according to the results of qRT-PCR, the expression levels of the 20 unigenes tested were consistent with the results of next-generation sequencing. Conclusions In the present study, we identified a large set of cDNA unigenes from C. oleifera annotated using public databases. Further studies of DEGs involved in metabolic pathways related to drought stress and transcription will facilitate the discovery of novel genes involved in resistance to drought stress in this commercially important plant. PMID:28759610

  4. Profiling the Fatty Acids Content of Ornamental Camellia Seeds Cultivated in Galicia by an Optimized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Nande, Marta; Lamas, Juan Pablo; Lores, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Camellia (genus of flowering plants of fam. Theaceae) is one of the main crops in Asia, where tea and oil from leaves and seeds have been utilized for thousands of years. This plant is excellently adapted to the climate and soil of Galicia (northwestern Spain) and northern Portugal where it is grown not only as an ornamental plant, but to be evaluated as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the main fatty acids were extracted from Camellia seeds of four varieties of Camellia: sasanqua, reticulata, japonica and sinensis, by means of matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD), and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with MS detection of the corresponding methyl esters. MSPD constitutes an efficient and greener alternative to conventional extraction techniques, moreover if it is combined with the use of green solvents such as limonene. The optimization of the MSPD extraction procedure has been conducted using a multivariate approach based on strategies of experimental design, which enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the factors influencing the extraction efficiency as well as interactions between factors. The optimized method was applied to characterize the fatty acids profiles of four Camellia varieties seeds, allowing us to compare their fatty acid composition. PMID:29039745

  5. Genoprotective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in human subjects: results of a controlled supplementation trial.

    PubMed

    Han, K C; Wong, W C; Benzie, Iris F F

    2011-01-01

    Green tea is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants and has widely reported but largely unsubstantiated health benefits. In the present study, genoprotective effects of two types of green tea were studied both in an in vitro and in a human supplementation trial. For the in vitro study, human lymphocytes were pre-incubated in tea (0·005-0·1 %, w/v), washed and subjected to oxidant challenge induced by H2O2. In a placebo-controlled, cross-over supplementation study, eighteen healthy volunteers took 2 x 150 ml/d of 1% (w/v) green tea ('Longjing' green tea or 'screw-shaped' green tea) or water (control) for 4 weeks (n 6). Subjects took all the three treatments in a random order, with 6 weeks' washout between each treatment. Fasting blood and urine were collected before and after each treatment. The comet assay was used to measure the resistance of lymphocytic DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Basal oxidation-induced DNA damage was measured using the formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg) enzyme-assisted comet assay. Urine 7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG, mol/mmol creatinine), a biomarker of whole-body oxidative stress, was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem MS. In vitro testing results of tea-treated cells showed increased (P < 0·05) resistance of DNA to the challenge. In the supplementation trial, a significant (P < 0·05) increase in resistance was also observed. Furthermore, the FPg comet data showed .20% decrease in DNA damage with tea supplementation: mean and standard deviation changes in %DNA in comet tail in the Fpg-assisted comet assay were: -5·96 (SD 3·83) % after Longjing tea; -6·22 (SD 3·34) % after screw-shaped tea; +0·91 (SD 5·79) % after water (P < 0·05). No significant changes in urine 8-oxodG were seen. The results indicate that green tea has significant genoprotective effects and provide evidence for green tea as a 'functional food'.

  6. Green tea catechins: defensive role in cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa

    2013-07-01

    Green tea, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), a major source of flavonoids such as catechins, has recently shown multiple cardiovascular health benefits through various experimental and clinical studies. These studies suggest that green tea catechins prevent the incidence of detrimental cardiovascular events, and also lower the cardiovascular mortality rate. Catechins present in green tea have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, ischemic heart diseases, cardiomyopathy, cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure by decreasing oxidative stress, preventing inflammatory events, reducing platelet aggregation and halting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Catechins afford an anti-oxidant effect by inducing anti-oxidant enzymes, inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and scavenging free radicals. Catechins present anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-κB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules. Green tea catechins interfere with vascular growth factors and thus inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and also inhibit thrombogenesis by suppressing platelet adhesion. Additionally, catechins could protect vascular endothelial cells and enhance vascular integrity and regulate blood pressure. In this review various experimental and clinical studies suggesting the role of green tea catechins against the markers of cardiovascular disorders and the underlying mechanisms for these actions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochemical evaluation of triploid progenies of diploid × tetraploid breeding populations of Camellia for genotypes rich in catechin and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourabh Kumar; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Das, Sudripta

    2013-06-01

    To verify the quality of triploid varieties of Camellia tea species at the secondary metabolite level, we tested caffeine and catechin profiles of 97 F(1) segregating progenies in two breeding populations with a common tetraploid parent and diploid parents of two geographic and varietal origins. Catechin and caffeine levels of the triploid progenies were quantified and compared against their diploid parent. Some of the progenies showed better performance than their diploid parent. Most of the progenies of the diploid C. sinensis × tetraploid cross showed heterosis for caffeine and EGCG. Progenies of the C. assamica subsp. lasiocalyx × tetraploid cross showed heterosis for +C, EC, EGC, and TC. The genomic contributions of the diploid parent seem to be the main factor in the variation between the two populations. Our studies showed quantitative enhancement of some of the quality-related parameters in tea, providing a platform to refocus on this classical breeding approach for developing quality cultivars in tea.

  8. Updated bioavailability and 48 h excretion profile of flavan-3-ols from green tea in humans.

    PubMed

    Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Luisa Callegari, Maria; Morelli, Lorenzo; Brighenti, Furio

    2012-08-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage, prepared with infusion of unfermented dried leaves of Camellia sinensis, and is one of the most relevant sources of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet. This study reports green tea flavan-3-ol absorption, metabolism and complete urinary excretion up to 48 h in 20 healthy volunteers. Urinary and tea samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Green tea contained monomeric flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins with a total polyphenol content of 728 μmol. A total of 41 metabolites were identified in urines, all present in conjugated forms. Among these, six colonic metabolites of green tea flavan-3-ols were identified for the first time after green tea consumption in humans. The average 48 h bioavailability was close to 62%, major contributors being microbial metabolites. Some volunteer showed a 100% absorption/excretion, whereas some others were unable to efficiently absorb/excrete this class of flavonoids. This suggests that colonic ring fission metabolism could be relevant in the putative bioactivity of green tea polyphenols.

  9. Mixture-mixture design for the fingerprint optimization of chromatographic mobile phases and extraction solutions for Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Cleber N; Bruns, Roy E; Almeida, Aline A; Scarminio, Ieda S

    2007-07-09

    A composite simplex centroid-simplex centroid mixture design is proposed for simultaneously optimizing two mixture systems. The complementary model is formed by multiplying special cubic models for the two systems. The design was applied to the simultaneous optimization of both mobile phase chromatographic mixtures and extraction mixtures for the Camellia sinensis Chinese tea plant. The extraction mixtures investigated contained varying proportions of ethyl acetate, ethanol and dichloromethane while the mobile phase was made up of varying proportions of methanol, acetonitrile and a methanol-acetonitrile-water (MAW) 15%:15%:70% mixture. The experiments were block randomized corresponding to a split-plot error structure to minimize laboratory work and reduce environmental impact. Coefficients of an initial saturated model were obtained using Scheffe-type equations. A cumulative probability graph was used to determine an approximate reduced model. The split-plot error structure was then introduced into the reduced model by applying generalized least square equations with variance components calculated using the restricted maximum likelihood approach. A model was developed to calculate the number of peaks observed with the chromatographic detector at 210 nm. A 20-term model contained essentially all the statistical information of the initial model and had a root mean square calibration error of 1.38. The model was used to predict the number of peaks eluted in chromatograms obtained from extraction solutions that correspond to axial points of the simplex centroid design. The significant model coefficients are interpreted in terms of interacting linear, quadratic and cubic effects of the mobile phase and extraction solution components.

  10. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) consumption on the components of metabolic syndrome in elderly.

    PubMed

    Vieira Senger, A E; Schwanke, C H A; Gomes, I; Valle Gottlieb, M G

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the consumption of green tea on components of MS in the elderly. Intervention study. The sample was selected from the Geriatric Service of Hospital São Lucas of Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul. 45 elderly with MS were enrolled and allocated into two groups: green tea group (GTG, n= 24), who drank green tea and control group (CG, n= 21) without intervention. The GTG received sachets of 1.0 g of green tea, and should drink three cups per day for 60 days and the CG was instructed not to make changes in their lifestyle. The diagnostic criteria for MS used were the International Diabetes Federation. The lipidic and glycemic profile, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated before and after intervention. There was a statistically significant weight loss only in GTG [71.5±12.6 kg to 70.3±12.6 kg (p<0.001)]. A statistically significant decrease in BMI [-0.5±0.4 kg/m2 in GTG and -0.2±0.6 kg/m2 in CG (P=0.032)] and waist circumference [-2.2±2.0 cm in GTG and - 0.3±1.8 cm in CG (P=0.002)] were observed. The intake of green tea did not change the biochemical parameters. The consumption of green tea was effective in inducing weight loss, reducing BMI and waist circumference in the elderly with MS.

  11. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis).

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08-1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11-2.41 and 1.41-1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5-84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop.

  12. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08–1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11–2.41 and 1.41–1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5–84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop. PMID:26406463

  13. Green tea yogurt: major phenolic compounds and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Amirdivani, Shabboo; Baba, Ahmad Salihin Hj

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fermentation of milk in the presence of green tea (Camellia sinensis) with respect to changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Pasteurized full fat cow's milk and starter culture were incubated at 41 °C in the presence of two different types of green tea extracts. The yogurts formed were refrigerated (4 °C) for further analysis. The total phenolic content was highest (p < 0.05) in air-dried green tea-yogurt (MGT) followed by steam-treated green tea (JGT) and plain yogurts. Four major compounds in MGTY and JGTY were detected. The highest concentration of major phenolic compounds in both samples was related to quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside and quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside for MGTY and JGTY respectively during first 7 day of storage. Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods showed highest antioxidant capacity in MGTY, JGTY and PY. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus spp. were highest in MGTY followed by JGTY and PY. This paper evaluates the implementation of green tea yogurt as a new product with functional properties and valuable component to promote the growth of beneficial yogurt bacteria and prevention of oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  14. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea

    PubMed Central

    Tang, John Yew Huat; Izenty, Bariah Ibrahim; Nur' Izzati, Ahmad Juanda; Masran, Siti Rahmah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Roslan, Arshad; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger); coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk); and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk) held at room temperature (27°C). The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS agar. Initial cultures of 8.00 log CFU/mL were inoculated into each food sample. After 6 h incubation, significant growth was only detected in rice with coconut milk (9.67 log CFU/mL; P < 0.05). However, all 3 types of rice preparation showed significant growth of V. cholerae after 24 h (P < 0.05). For coffee and tea preparations, V. cholerae survived up to 6 h in tea with condensed milk (4.72 log CFU/mL) but not in similar preparation of coffee. This study showed evidence for the survivability of V. cholerae in rice, coffee, and tea. Thus, holding these food and beverages for an extended period of time at room temperature should be avoided. PMID:26904604

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of green tea, yerba mate, and chamomile tea as evaluated by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.

    2017-01-01

    Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.

  16. TMDB: a literature-curated database for small molecular compounds found from tea.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yi; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Liu, Xue-Shi; Tang, Xing; Wang, Wei; Liu, Guang-Jin; Yang, Tao; Ling, Tie-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2014-09-16

    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide. The healthy effects of tea are attributed to a wealthy of different chemical components from tea. Thousands of studies on the chemical constituents of tea had been reported. However, data from these individual reports have not been collected into a single database. The lack of a curated database of related information limits research in this field, and thus a cohesive database system should necessarily be constructed for data deposit and further application. The Tea Metabolome database (TMDB), a manually curated and web-accessible database, was developed to provide detailed, searchable descriptions of small molecular compounds found in Camellia spp. esp. in the plant Camellia sinensis and compounds in its manufactured products (different kinds of tea infusion). TMDB is currently the most complete and comprehensive curated collection of tea compounds data in the world. It contains records for more than 1393 constituents found in tea with information gathered from 364 published books, journal articles, and electronic databases. It also contains experimental 1H NMR and 13C NMR data collected from the purified reference compounds or collected from other database resources such as HMDB. TMDB interface allows users to retrieve tea compounds entries by keyword search using compound name, formula, occurrence, and CAS register number. Each entry in the TMDB contains an average of 24 separate data fields including its original plant species, compound structure, formula, molecular weight, name, CAS registry number, compound types, compound uses including healthy benefits, reference literatures, NMR, MS data, and the corresponding ID from databases such as HMDB and Pubmed. Users can also contribute novel regulatory entries by using a web-based submission page. The TMDB database is freely accessible from the URL of http://pcsb.ahau.edu.cn:8080/TCDB/index.jsp. The TMDB is designed to address the broad needs of tea biochemists

  17. Pyridine metabolism in tea plants: salvage, conjugate formation and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Pyridine compounds, including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, are key metabolites of both the salvage pathway for NAD and the biosynthesis of related secondary compounds. We examined the in situ metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide, [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid riboside in tissue segments of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, and determined the activity of enzymes involved in pyridine metabolism in protein extracts from young tea leaves. Exogenously supplied (14)C-labelled nicotinamide was readily converted to nicotinic acid, and some nicotinic acid was salvaged to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and then utilized for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. The nicotinic acid riboside salvage pathway discovered recently in mungbean cotyledons is also operative in tea leaves. Nicotinic acid was converted to nicotinic acid N-glucoside, but not to trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid), in any part of tea seedlings. Active catabolism of nicotinic acid was observed in tea leaves. The fate of [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid indicates that glutaric acid is a major catabolite of nicotinic acid; it was further metabolised, and carbon atoms were finally released as CO(2). The catabolic pathway observed in tea leaves appears to start with the nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; this pathway differs from catabolic pathways observed in microorganisms. Profiles of pyridine metabolism in tea plants are discussed.

  18. Better detection of pest Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida avocado groves using a two-component lure containing a-copaene and quercivorol.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian tea shot-hole borer (TSHB), Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a pest of commercial tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze. In recent years, several ambrosia beetles morphologically indistinguishable from TSHB have become established in Israel and the U...

  19. Accumulation of catechins in tea in relation to accumulation of mRNA from genes involved in catechin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eungwanichayapant, P D; Popluechai, S

    2009-02-01

    Catechins are a group of polyphenols found in tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) at high levels. They are beneficial for health. From the study on accumulation of catechins in shoots and mature leaves of a tea cultivar, Oolong No. 17, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was found that the amounts of most catechins in the shoots were higher than those in the mature leaves, with an exception of catechins gallate (CG) that was found in trace amounts in both the shoots and mature leaves. mRNA accumulation of genes involved in catechin synthesis was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the mRNA accumulation of the genes were higher in the shoots than in the mature leaves. These genes included genes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1; EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR; EC 1.1.1.219), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR; EC 1.17.1.3), and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H; EC 1.14.11.9).

  20. Volatile profile analysis and quality prediction of Longjing tea (Camellia sinensis) by HS-SPME/GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Dai, Yi; Guo, Ya-nan; Xu, Hai-rong; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the volatile chemical profile of Longjing tea, and further develop a prediction model for aroma quality of Longjing tea based on potent odorants. A total of 21 Longjing samples were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pearson’s linear correlation analysis and partial least square (PLS) regression were applied to investigate the relationship between sensory aroma scores and the volatile compounds. Results showed that 60 volatile compounds could be commonly detected in this famous green tea. Terpenes and esters were two major groups characterized, representing 33.89% and 15.53% of the total peak area respectively. Ten compounds were determined to contribute significantly to the perceived aroma quality of Longjing tea, especially linalool (0.701), nonanal (0.738), (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate (−0.785), and β-ionone (−0.763). On the basis of these 10 compounds, a model (correlation coefficient of 89.4% and cross-validated correlation coefficient of 80.4%) was constructed to predict the aroma quality of Longjing tea. Summarily, this study has provided a novel option for quality prediction of green tea based on HS-SPME/GC-MS technique. PMID:23225852

  1. Amelioration of iron toxicity: A mechanism for aluminum-induced growth stimulation in tea plants.

    PubMed

    Hajiboland, Roghieh; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Tolrà, Roser

    2013-11-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) are well adapted to acid soils with high Al availability. These plants not only accumulate high leaf Al concentrations, but also respond to Al with growth stimulation. Decreased oxidative stress has been associated with this effect. Why tea plants not exposed to Al suffer from oxidative stress has not been clarified. In this study, hydroponically grown tea plants treated with 0 to 300 μM Al were analyzed for growth, Al and Fe accumulation, and Al distribution by means of morin and hematoxylin staining. Roots of control plants stained black with hematoxylin. This indicates the formation of a Fe-hematoxylin complex. Young leaves of controls accumulated more than 1000 mg Fe kg(-1) dry weight. This concentration is above the Fe-toxicity threshold in most species. Supply of Al stimulated growth and reduced Fe uptake and transport. These results indicate that Al-induced growth stimulation might be due to alleviation of a latent Fe toxicity occurring in tea plants without Al supply. © 2013.

  2. Corneal Staining and Hot Black Tea Compresses.

    PubMed

    Achiron, Asaf; Birger, Yael; Karmona, Lily; Avizemer, Haggay; Bartov, Elisha; Rahamim, Yocheved; Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia

    2017-03-01

    Warm compresses are widely touted as an effective treatment for ocular surface disorders. Black tea compresses are a common household remedy, although there is no evidence in the medical literature proving their effect and their use may lead to harmful side effects. To describe a case in which the application of black tea to an eye with a corneal epithelial defect led to anterior stromal discoloration; evaluate the prevalence of hot tea compress use; and analyze, in vitro, the discoloring effect of tea compresses on a model of a porcine eye. We assessed the prevalence of hot tea compresses in our community and explored the effect of warm tea compresses on the cornea when the corneal epithelium's integrity is disrupted. An in vitro experiment in which warm compresses were applied to 18 fresh porcine eyes was performed. In half the eyes a corneal epithelial defect was created and in the other half the epithelium was intact. Both groups were divided into subgroups of three eyes each and treated experimentally with warm black tea compresses, pure water, or chamomile tea compresses. We also performed a study in patients with a history of tea compress use. Brown discoloration of the anterior stroma appeared only in the porcine corneas that had an epithelial defect and were treated with black tea compresses. No other eyes from any group showed discoloration. Of the patients included in our survey, approximately 50% had applied some sort of tea ingredient as a solid compressor or as the hot liquid. An intact corneal epithelium serves as an effective barrier against tea-stain discoloration. Only when this layer is disrupted does the damage occur. Therefore, direct application of black tea (Camellia sinensis) to a cornea with an epithelial defect should be avoided.

  3. A combination of a-copaene and quercivorol results in improved detection of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tea shot-hole borer, Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a serious pest of commercial tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, in India. In recent years, several pest ambrosia beetles morphologically similar to E. fornicatus have become established in Israel an...

  4. Green tea flavour determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Flavour determinants in tea infusions and their changes during manufacturing processes were studied using Camellia sinensis cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') possessing significant floral scents and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD') with common green tea odour. Metabolite profiling based on odour activity threshold revealed that 'BAS' contained higher levels of the active odorants β-ionone, linalool and its two oxides, geraniol, epoxylinalool, decanal and taste determinant catechins than 'FUD' (p<0.05). Enhanced transcription of some terpenoid and catechin biosynthetic genes in 'BAS' suggested genetically enhanced production of those flavour compounds. Due to manufacturing processes, the levels of linalool and geraniol decreased whereas those of β-ionone, linalool oxides, indole and cis-jasmone increased. Compared with pan-fire treatment, steam treatment reduced the levels of catechins and proportion of geraniol, linalool and its derivatives, consequently, reducing catechin-related astringency and monoterpenol-related floral scent. Our study suggests that flavour determinant targeted modulation could be made through genotype and manufacturing improvements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic diversity and structure of tea plant in Qinba area in China by three types of molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Xi; Sun, Wang; Li, Jiao

    2018-01-01

    Qinba area has a long history of tea planting and is a northernmost region in China where Camellia sinensis L. is grown. In order to provide basic data for selection and optimization of molecular markers of tea plants. 118 markers, including 40 EST-SSR, 40 SRAP and 38 SCoT markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 50 tea plant ( Camellia sinensis. ) samples collected from Qinb. tea germplasm, assess population structure. In this study, a total of 414 alleles were obtained using 38 pairs of SCoT primers, with an average of 10.89 alleles per primer. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB), polymorphism information content (PIC), resolving power (Rp), effective multiplex ratio (EMR), average band informativeness (Ib av ), and marker index (MI) were 96.14%, 0.79, 6.71, 10.47, 0.58, and 6.07 respectively. 338 alleles were amplified via 40 pairs of SRAP (8.45 per primer), with PPB, PIC, Rp, EMR, Ib av, and MI values of 89.35%, 0.77, 5.11, 7.55, 0.61, and 4.61, respectively. Furthermore, 320 alleles have been detected using 40 EST-SSR primers (8.00 per primer), with PPB, PIC, Rp, EMR, Ib av , and MI values of 94.06%, 0.85, 4.48, 7.53, 0.56, and 4.22 respectively. These results indicated that SCoT markers had higher efficiency.Mantel test was used to analyze the genetic distance matrix generated by EST-SSRs, SRAPs and SCoTs. The results showed that the correlation between the genetic distance matrix based on EST-SSR and that based on SRAP was very small ( r  = 0.01), followed by SCoT and SRAP ( r  = 0.17), then by SCoT and EST-SSR ( r  = 0.19).The 50 tea samples were divided into two sub-populations using STRUCTURE, Neighbor-joining (NJ) method and principal component analyses (PCA). The results produced by STRUCTURE were completely consistent with the PCA analysis. Furthermore, there is no obvious relationship between the results produced using sub-populational and geographical data. Among the three types of markers, SCoT markers has many

  7. Gene expression profile indicates involvement of NO in Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Pan, Junting; Wang, Weidong; Li, Dongqin; Shu, Zaifa; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-10-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a critical signaling molecule in the low-temperature stress responses in plants, including polarized pollen tube growth in Camellia sinensis. Despite this, the potential mechanisms underlying the participation of NO in pollen tube responses to low temperature remain unclear. Here, we investigate alterations to gene expression in C. sinensis pollen tubes exposed to low-temperature stress and NO using RNA-Seq technology, in order to find the potential candidate genes related to the regulation of pollen tube elongation by NO under low-temperature stress. Three libraries were generated from C. sinensis cv. 'Longjingchangye' pollen tubes cultured at 25 °C (CsPT-CK) and 4 °C (CsPT-LT) or with 25 μM DEA NONOate (CsPT-NO). The number of unigenes found for the three biological replications were 39,726, 40,440 and 41,626 for CsPT-CK; 36,993, 39,070 and 39,439 for CsPT-LT; and 39,514, 38,298 and 39,061 for CsPT-NO. A total of 36,097 unique assembled and annotated sequences from C. sinensis pollen tube reads were found in a BLAST search of the following databases: NCBI non-redundant nucleotide, Swiss-prot protein, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins, and Gene Ontology. The absolute values of log 2 Ratio > 1 and probability > 0.7 were used as the thresholds for significantly differential gene expression, and 766, 497 and 929 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found from the comparison analyses of the CK-VS-LT, CK-VS-NO and LT-VS-NO libraries, respectively. Genes related to metabolism and signaling pathways of plant hormones, transcription factors (TFs), vesicle polarized trafficking, cell wall biosynthesis, the ubiquitination machinery of the ubiquitin system and species-specific secondary metabolite pathways were mainly observed in the CK-VS-LT and CK-VS-NO libraries. Differentially expressed unigenes related to the inhibition of C. sinensis pollen tube growth under low

  8. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities by Infusions from Green Tea and Some Citrus Peels

    PubMed Central

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effect of infusions from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and some citrus peels [shaddock (Citrus maxima), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), and orange (Citrus sinensis)] on key enzymes relevant to the management of neurodegenerative conditions [monoamine oxidase (MAO) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)]. The total phenol contents and antioxidant activities as typified by their 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, and Fe2+ chelating abilities were also investigated. Green tea had the highest total phenol (43.3 mg/g) and total flavonoid (16.4 mg/g) contents, when compared to orange [total phenol (19.6 mg/g), total flavonoid (6.5 mg/g)], shaddock [total phenol (16.3 mg/g), total flavonoid (5.2 mg/g)], and grapefruit [total phenol (17.7 mg/g), total flavonoid (5.9 mg/g)]. Orange (EC50 = 1.78 mg/mL) had the highest MAO inhibitory ability, while green tea had the least MAO inhibitory ability (EC50 = 2.56 mg/mL). Similarly, green tea had the least BChE inhibitory ability (EC50 = 5.43 mg/mL) when compared to the citrus peels' infusions. However, green tea infusions had the strongest highest ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Fe2+ chelating ability. The inhibition of MAO and BChE activities by the green tea and citrus peels infusions could make them good dietary means for the prevention/management of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25243093

  10. a-Copaene is an attractant, synergistic with quercivorol, for improved detection of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tea shot-hole borer, Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff, is an ambrosia beetle endemic to Asia and a pest of commercial tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze. Recently, a complex of species morphologically similar to E. fornicatus has been recognized, which includes new pests established in Israel and...

  11. Antioxidative potential, nutritional value and sensory profiles of confectionery fortified with green and yellow tea leaves (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Korczak, Józef; Helak, Barbara; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a study on development of functional food products containing green and yellow tea leaves. The results indicated that green and yellow tea are significant tools in the creation of the nutritional value, antioxidative potential and stability of the lipid fraction of cookies. Tea-fortified cookies showed considerably higher contents of dietary fiber, especially hemicellulose and insoluble fractions, and were characterized by significantly higher antioxidant potential associated with their phenolics content. Results of ABTS, DPPH, ORACFL and PCL assay showed significantly higher antioxidant potential of tea cookies, highest for yellow tea. The antioxidative potential of applied teas was significant in terms of the inhibition of hydroperoxide content, while formation of secondary lipid oxidation products was less spectacular. It is concluded that tea leaves could be widely used as a source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential, as well as fiber; thus introducing numerous health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of Camellia oleifera Abel components.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaomei; He, Liangmei; Chen, Yayun; Wu, Longhuo; Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhiping

    2017-11-01

    Camellia oleifera Abel is a member of Camellia, and its seeds are used to extract Camellia oil, which is generally used as cooking oil in the south of China. Camellia oil consists of unsaturated fatty acids, tea polyphenol, squalene, saponin, carrot element and vitamins, etc. The seed remains after oil extraction of C. oleifera Abel are by-products of oil production, named as Camellia oil cake. Its extracts contain bioactive compounds including sasanquasaponin, flavonoid and tannin. Major components from Camellia oil and its cake have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antitumor activities. In this review, we will summarize the latest advance in the studies on anti-inflammatory or antioxidative effects of C. oleifera products, thus providing valuable reference for the future research and development of C. oleifera Abel.

  13. The proposed biosynthesis of procyanidins by the comparative chemical analysis of five Camellia species using LC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Tai, Yuling; Wang, Yijun; Meng, Qilu; Yang, Yunqiu; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    The genus Camellia (C.) contains many species, including C. sinensis, C. assamica, and C. taliensis, C. gymnogyna and C. tachangensis. The polyphenols of C. sinensis and C. assamica are flavan-3-ols monomers and their dimers and trimmers. However, the biosynthesis of procyanidins in Camellia genus remains unclear. In the present study, a comparative chemical analysis of flavan-3-ols, flavan-3-ols glycoside and procyanidins was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography diode array detection coupled with triple-quadrupole mass-spectrometry (LC-DAD-QQQ-MS). The results showed that C. tachangensis had a significant higher contents of (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) compared with C. sinensis (p < 0.001). By contrast, higher levels of galloylated catechins were detected in C. sinensis. LC-DAD-MS/MS indicated that the main secondary metabolites of C. tachangensis were non-galloylated catechins, procyanidin dimers and trimers. Furthermore, (-)-epicatechin glucose (EC-glucose) and (-)-epigallocatechin glucose (EGC-glucose) were also abundant in C. tachangensis. A correlation analysis of EC-glucose and procyanidins dimers was conducted in five Camellia species. The levels of EC-glucose were closely related to the procyanidin dimers content. Thus, it was suggested that EC-glucose might be an important substrate for the biosynthesis of procyanidins. PMID:28383067

  14. Evaluation and application of prebiotic and probiotic ingredients for development of ready to drink tea beverage.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Shweta; Dubey, Kriti Kumari; Singhal, Rekha S

    2018-04-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) ice tea is a ready prepared tea, produced from green and black tea originating from same plant Camellia sinensis . The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotics [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and inulin] or synbiotic ingredients (GOS, FOS, inulin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ) on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of RTD. The quality of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) was improved with pretreatment of cellulase and pectinase enzymes. The combined enzymatic extraction amplified total extractives up to 76% in GTE and 72% in BTE. Total polyphenol was found to be enhanced to 24% in GTE and 19% in BTE. GTE was further selected for development of RTD in two different formats; synbiotic RTD and prebiotic RTD premix and analyzed for sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, and acceptability). Synbiotic RTD was also evaluated for stability over a period of 28 days at 4 °C. Synbiotic RTD developed an unpleasant flavor and aroma during the shelf life. Premix format of RTD developed using spray drying was reconstituted and found to be functionally and sensorially acceptable.

  15. Exploring optimal supplement strategy of medicinal herbs and tea extracts for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Liao, Jia-Hui; Hsu, An-Wei; Tsai, Po-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2018-05-01

    This first-attempt study used extracts of appropriate antioxidant abundant Camellia and non-Camellia tea and medicinal herbs as model ESs to stably intensify bioelectricity generation performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As electron shuttles (ESs) could stimulate electron transport phenomena by significant reduction of electron transfer resistance, the efficiency of power generation for energy extraction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be appreciably augmented. Using environmentally friendly natural bioresource as green bioresource of ESs is the most promising to sustainable practicability. As comparison of power-density profiles indicated, supplement of Camellia tea extracts would be the most appropriate, then followed non-Camellia Chrysanthemum tea and medicinal herbs. Antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and power stimulating activities were all electrochemically associated. In particular, the extract of unfermented Camellia tea (i.e., green tea) was the most promising ESs to augment bioenergy extraction compared to other refreshing medicinal herb extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality evaluation of green tea leaf cultured under artificial light condition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Shunsuke; Yonetani, Tsutomu; Yuki, Takayuki; Tomio, Ayako; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    For an experimental model to elucidate the relationship between light quality during plant culture conditions and plant quality of crops or vegetables, we cultured tea plants (Camellia sinensis) and analyzed their leaves as tea material. First, metabolic profiling of teas from a tea contest in Japan was performed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and then a ranking predictive model was made which predicted tea rankings from their metabolite profile. Additionally, the importance of some compounds (glutamine, glutamic acid, oxalic acid, epigallocatechin, phosphoric acid, and inositol) was elucidated for measurement of the quality of tea leaf. Subsequently, tea plants were cultured in artificial conditions to control these compounds. From the result of prediction by the ranking predictive model, the tea sample supplemented with ultraviolet-A (315-399 nm) showed the highest ranking. The improvement in quality was thought to come from the high amino-acid and decreased epigallocatechin content in tea leaves. The current study shows the use and value of metabolic profiling in the field of high-quality crops and vegetables production that has been conventionally evaluated by human sensory analysis. Metabolic profiling enables us to form hypothesis to understand and develop high quality plant cultured under artificial condition. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Dietary Cocoa Tea (Camellia ptilophylla) Supplementation on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, and Hyperlipidemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao Rong; Wat, Elaine; Wang, Yan Ping; Ko, Chun Hay; Koon, Chi Man; Siu, Wing Sum; Gao, Si; Cheung, David Wing Shing; Lau, Clara Bik San; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that green tea has the potential to protect against diet-induced obesity. The presence of caffeine within green tea has caused limitations. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. To determine whether cocoa tea supplementation results in an improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, and whether such effects would be comparable to those of green tea extract, we studied six groups (n = 10) of C57BL/6 mice that were fed with (1) normal chow (N); (2) high-fat diet (21% butterfat + 0.15% cholesterol, wt/wt) (HF); (3) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% green tea extract (HFLG); (4) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% green tea extract (HFHG); (5) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% cocoa tea extract (HFLC); and (6) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% cocoa tea extract (HFHC). From the results, 2% and 4% dietary cocoa tea supplementation caused a dose-dependent decrease in (a) body weight, (b) fat pad mass, (c) liver weight, (d) total liver lipid, (e) liver triglyceride and cholesterol, and (f) plasma lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol). These data indicate that dietary cocoa tea, being naturally decaffeinated, has a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma lipid levels in mice, which are comparable to green tea. The present findings have provided the proof of concept that dietary cocoa tea might be of therapeutic value and could therefore provide a safer and cost effective option for patients with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:23935682

  18. The anti-obesity effect of green tea polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wu, Tao; Dai, ShengDong; Xu, Jinling; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) extracts against obesity have been reported; however, the anti-obesity ability of the major components of green tea, polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine is not clear. Therefore, experiments with total green tea extracts, polyphenols, polysaccharides, caffeine, and a complex of polysaccharide and polyphenol at a dose of 400 or 800 mg kg⁻¹ were conducted on high-fat diet fed rats for 6 weeks to investigate their anti-obesity effects. The results indicated that polyphenols and polysaccharides were responsible for the suppressive effect of green tea extracts on body weight increase and fat accumulation. Moreover, polyphenols, polysaccharides, or caffeine can improve blood lipid and antioxidant levels, and effectively reduce rat serum leptin levels, inhibit the absorption of fatty acids, and markedly reduce the expression levels of the IL-6 and TNF-α gene. Furthermore, it was shown that polysaccharides and polyphenols were synergistic in reduction of serum leptin levels and in anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that the polysaccharide combination with polyphenols might be a potential therapy against obesity.

  19. Identifications of inhibitors of IgE production by human lymphocytes isolated from 'Cha Chuukanbohon Nou 6' tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Honma, Daiki; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2010-01-15

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is consumed all over the world and in especially large quantities in Japan and China, where it has been used not only as a daily beverage but also for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. Tea has been found to exhibit various bioregulatory activities, including antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic, antioxidative, antihypertensive, antihypercholesterolemic, anti-dental caries and antibacterial effects, and to influence intestinal flora. Cha Chuukanbohon Nou 6 is a tea cultivar improved by the National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science (NIVTS) in Japan. On comparing chemical constituents of 11 varieties of tea leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography, we found two new major compounds in Cha Chuukanbohon Nou 6. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed these compounds to be theogallin and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose. The two were similar in chemical structure to strictinin, an inhibitor of immunoglobulin (Ig) production. Thus their effects on the production of Igs by peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested. Both compounds, like strictinin, inhibited IgE production. The results suggest Cha Chuukanbohon Nou 6 to be the basis of an antiallergic beverage. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Enterococcus camelliae sp. nov., isolated from fermented tea leaves in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sukontasing, Sirapan; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Moonmangmee, Somporn; Lee, Jung-Sook; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro

    2007-09-01

    A Gram-positive and catalase-negative coccus that formed chains, strain FP15-1(T), isolated from fermented tea leaves ('miang'), was studied systematically. The strain was facultatively anaerobic and produced l-lactic acid from glucose. Demethylmenaquinone (DMK-7) was the major menaquinone. Straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids C(16 : 1) and C(18 : 1) were the dominant components. The DNA G+C content was 37.8 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA and RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, strain FP15-1(T) was closely related to Enterococcus italicus KCTC 5373(T), with 99.2 and 93.8 % similarity, respectively. The strain could be clearly distinguished from E. italicus ATCC 5373(T) by low DNA-DNA relatedness (< or =33.8 %) and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, this strain represent a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus camelliae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FP15-1(T) (=KCTC 13133(T) =NBRC 101868(T) =NRIC 0105(T) =TISTR 932(T) =PCU 277(T)).

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activities against cariogenic streptococci and their antioxidant capacities: A comparative study of green tea versus different herbs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzung-Hsun; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chien, You-Chia; Lee, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2008-10-15

    The antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria, total antioxidant capacity and phenolic constituents of methanolic extracts from 11 herbs were investigated and compared with those of green tea (Camellia sinensis). Among the 12 tested herbs, eight herbal extracts could inhibit the growth of Streptococcus sanguinis. Jasmine, jiaogulan, and lemongrass were the most potent, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 1mg/ml, while green tea was less effective, with a MIC of 4mg/ml. Among them, only rosemary could inhibit the growth of S. mutans at a MIC of 4mg/ml. Total antioxidant capacities of herbal extracts were analyzed by three different assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Regardless of the assays used, green tea exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by osmanthus. Wide variations in total phenolics and total flavonoids of herbal tea extracts were observed. Chlorogenic acid was detected in high amount in honeysuckle and duzhong. These data suggest that rosemary is a potent inhibitor of oral streptococci, and green tea and osmanthus may be effective potential sources of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Blend of Extracts from Houttuynia cordata, Nelumbo nucifera, and Camellia sinensis Protects Against Ethanol-Induced Liver Damage in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    You, Yanghee; Lee, Hyunmi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Min-Jae; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2018-02-01

    The protective activity of a mixture of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Nelumbo nucifera G. leaves, and Camellia sinensis seed (HNC) was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. Pretreatment with HNC prevented the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase caused by ethanol-induced hepatic damage. The HNC-treated mice showed significantly lower triglyceride levels, reduced CYP2E1 activity, and increased antioxidant enzyme activities and lipogenic mRNA levels. These results suggest that HNC might be a candidate agent for liver protection against ethanol-induced oxidative damage, through enhancement of antioxidant and antilipogenic activity.

  3. Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves extracts on male mice exposed to diazinon.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Abu Zeid, Isam M

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors.

  4. Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Abu Zeid, Isam M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

  5. Further investigation of the biosynthesis of caffeine in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.). Methylation of transfer ribonucleic acid by tea leaf extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Takahashi, E

    1976-01-01

    1. The tRNA methyltransferase activity in vitro of leaves, cotyledons and roots of 85-day-old tea seedlings was studied. 2. The activity of extracts prepared from tea leaves with Polycar AT (insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidine) had optimum pH7.7 and was greatly influenced by thiol compounds, but only slightly by metal ions and ammonium acetate. 3. The activities of extracts, expressed per mg of protein, were as follows: roots greater than leaves greater than cotyledons. The only methylated base isolated after incubation with these preparations was 1-methyladenine. 4. The results did not support the view of involvement of methylation of nucleic acids in caffeine biosynthesis in tea plants. In contrast, it is suggested that theophylline is synthesized from the specific methylated precursor in nucleic acids, namely 1-methyladenylic acid, via 1-methylxanthine. PMID:12749

  6. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Sadrneshin, Sara; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Ashraf, Alireza

    2018-02-01

    Green tea is known as a dietary supplement and a novel functional food worldwide. Since there are increasing preclinical evidence about efficacy of green tea for treating osteoarthritis, this study has aimed at assessing its efficacy and safety for patients with knee osteoarthritis. This is a randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial. As many as fifty adults with osteoarthritis of knee were randomly allocated to receive the green tea extract (in dosage form of tablet) plus diclofenac tablet as "intervention group"; or: diclofenac tablet alone as "control group" for a period of four weeks. Patients were assessed at the beginning of intervention, and then 4 weeks later, in terms of pain score via visual analogue scale (VAS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire's total score in addition to its 3 sub-scores. Furthermore, they were asked about any adverse effects during intervention period. Mean differences of VAS pain, total WOMAC, and WOMAC physical function scores in green tea group showed a significant reduction, compared with the control group (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P = 0.004, respectively). However, No significant differences between the two groups were observed, regarding mean differences of WOMAC pain and stiffness scores of the enrolled patients (P = 0.163, and P = 0.150, respectively). Additionally, only 1 patient reported gastric upset [in control group]. It seems that green tea extract might well be considered as an adjunctive treatment both for control of pain and for the betterment of knee joint physical function in adults with osteoarthritis. However, further studies of longer duration and larger sample size are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity of SK-N-SH cells by natural compounds from green tea.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Shereen; Melzig, Matthias F

    2006-04-01

    Deposition of amyloid beta-peptide as senile plaques in the brain is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, which is the most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia. Neutral endopeptidase is one of the major beta-amyloid-degrading enzymes in the brain. To examine the influence of different polyphenols and other natural products from green tea extract (from Camellia sinensis, Theaceae), we used the neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH and studied the changes in the specific cellular neutral endopeptidase activity after long-term treatment with these substances. We have shown that caffeine leads to an increase in specific cellular neutral endopeptidase activity more than theophylline, theobromine or theanine. We have also shown that the combination of epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechingallate with caffeine, theobromine or theophylline induced cellular neutral endopeptidase activity. It is suggested that the enhancement of cellular neutral endopeptidase activity by green tea extract and its natural products might be correlated with an elevated level of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

  8. Inhibitory effect of six green tea catechins and caffeine on the growth of four selected human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Valcic, S; Timmermann, B N; Alberts, D S; Wächter, G A; Krutzsch, M; Wymer, J; Guillén, J M

    1996-06-01

    Green tea is an aqueous infusion of dried unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (family Theaceae) from which numerous biological activities have been reported including antimutagenic, antibacterial, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antitumor and cancer preventive activities. From the aqueous-alcoholic extract of green tea leaves, six compounds (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, were isolated and purified. Together with (+)-catechin, these compounds were tested against each of four human tumor cells lines (MCF-7 breast carcinoma, HT-29 colon carcinoma, A-427 lung carcinoma and UACC-375 melanoma). The three most potent green tea components against all four tumor cell lines were EGCG, GC and EGC. EGCG was the most potent of the seven green tea components against three out of the four cell lines (i.e. MCF-7 breast cancer, HT-29 colon cancer and UACC-375 melanoma). On the basis of these extensive in vitro studies, it would be of considerable interest to evaluate all three of these components in comparative preclinical in vivo animal tumor model systems before final decisions are made concerning which of these potential chemopreventive drugs should be taken into broad clinical trials.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    PubMed Central

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops. PMID:27465480

  10. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  11. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Šaponjac, Vesna T Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J

    2014-12-01

    Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea ( Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl ( ˙ OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4-4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC 50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  12. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Cvetković, Dragoljub D.; Markov, Siniša L.; Šaponjac, Vesna T. Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites. PMID:27904315

  13. Combined Cytological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway Involved in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidong; Sheng, Xianyong; Shu, Zaifa; Li, Dongqin; Pan, Junting; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplasmic pH and abnormalities in organelle ultrastructure and cell wall component distribution in the pollen tube tip. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs)-related to signaling pathway, such as NO synthesis, cGMP, Ca2+, ROS, pH, actin, cell wall, and MAPK cascade signal pathways, are identified and quantified using transcriptomic analyses and qRT-PCR, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above cytological results. Taken together, these findings suggest that a complex signaling network dominated by NO, including Ca2+, ROS, pH, RACs signaling and the crosstalk among them, is stimulated in the C. sinensis pollen tube in response to cold stress, which further causes secondary and tertiary alterations, such as ultrastructural abnormalities in organelles and cell wall construction, ultimately resulting in perturbed pollen tube extension. PMID:27148289

  14. Mineral and metabolic profiles in tea leaves and flowers during flower development.

    PubMed

    Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of NH4+ and NO3- fluxes in tea (Camellia sinensis) roots measured by scanning ion-selective electrode technique.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Li; Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Fen; Wu, Liyun; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai

    2016-12-05

    As a vital beverage crop, tea has been extensively planted in tropical and subtropical regions. Nitrogen (N) levels and forms are closely related to tea quality. Based on different N levels and forms, we studied changes in NO 3 - and NH 4 + fluxes in tea roots utilizing scanning ion-selective electrode technique. Our results showed that under both single and mixed N forms, influx rates of NO 3 - were much lower than those of NH 4 + , suggesting a preference for NH 4 + in tea. With the increase in N concentration, the influx rate of NO 3 - increased more than that of NH 4 + . The NH 4 + influx rates in a solution without NO 3 - were much higher than those in a solution with NO 3 - , while the NO 3 - influx rates in a solution without NH 4 + were much lower than those in a solution with NH 4 + . We concluded that (1) tea roots showed a preference for NH 4 + , (2) presence of NO 3 - had a negative effect on NH 4 + influx, and (3) NH 4 + had a positive effect on NO 3 - influx. Our findings not only may help advance hydroponic tea experiments but also may be used to develop efficient fertilization protocols for soil-grown tea in the future.

  16. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of a Common Brand of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis) Marketed in Nigerian Environment.

    PubMed

    Olosunde, O Funmilayo; Abu-Saeed, Kamaldeen; Abu-Saeed, Muhammad Buhari

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of a common brand of black tea (Lipton®) in Nigeria. Standard methods were employed for testing carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenes in the tea. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the tea on four standard strains of organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were also determined by standard methods. RESULTs showed that the tea contains tannin and reducing sugar. Concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous and methanolic extract of black tea were prepared and their zones of inhibition determined against the four test organisms using the cup plate method. This was compared with zones for standard disc Gentamicin (10 µg) and Erythromycin (15 µg). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to 2% to 10% aqueous extracts and intermediate to 6%, 8% and 10% methanolic extracts. E. coli was intermediately sensitive to 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous extract and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis was intermediately sensitive to 4%, 6% and 8% aqueous extract and 4% to 10% methanolic extract but sensitive to 10% aqueous extract. Staph.aureus was intermediately sensitive to 4% to 10% aqueous extracts and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis had the lowest MIC values of both aqueous and methanolic extracts. In conclusion, this study has shown that Lipton® has antimicrobial properties on E.coli, Staph.aureus, B.subtilis and Ps.aeruginosa and contains tannin and reducing sugar.

  17. Green tea extract-induced lethal toxicity in fasted but not in nonfasted dogs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuei-Meng; Yao, Jiaqin; Boring, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Recent chronic toxicity studies performed on green tea extracts in fasted dogs have revealed some unique dose-limiting lethal liver, gastrointestinal, and renal toxicities. Key findings included necrosis of hepatic cells, gastrointestinal epithelia and renal tubules, atrophy of reproductive organs, atrophy and necrosis of hematopoietic tissues, and associated hematological changes. The polyphenol cachetins (a mixture of primarily epigallocatechin gallate [≥55%]; plus up to 10% each of epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate) appeared to be the causative agents for the observed toxicities because they are the active ingredients of green tea extract studied. Conduct of the study in nonfasted dogs under the same testing conditions and dose levels showed unremarkable results. Assuming both studies were valid, at the identified no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) of each study, systemic exposures (based on area under the curve [AUC]) were actually lower in fasted than nonfasted dogs, suggesting that fasting may have rendered the target organ systems potentially more vulnerable to the effects of green tea extract. The toxicity mechanisms that produced lethality are not known, but the results are scientifically intriguing. Because tea drinking has become more popular in the United States and abroad, the mode of action and site of action of green tea extract-induced lethal toxicities during fasting and the role of other phytochemical components of Folia Camellia sinensis (including nonpolyphenol fractions, which are often consumed when whole-leaf products are presented) warrant further investigation.

  18. Green tea extract supplementation induces the lipolytic pathway, attenuates obesity, and reduces low-grade inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cláudio A; Lira, Fábio S; Rosa Neto, José C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Gabriel I H; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Souza, Cláudio T; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Oyama, Lila M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water); CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract); HW (high-fat diet and water); HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract). The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage) with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.). The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  19. Efficacy of methanolic extract of green and black teas against extended-spectrum β-Lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Taherpour, Arezou; Hashemi, Ali; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Taki, Elahe

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major bacteria causing acute infections. β-Lactamase production is the principal defense mechanism in gram-negative bacteria. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Methanolic Extracts of Green and Black Teas on P. aeruginosa Extended Spectrum-β-Lactamases (ESBLs) production. This research was carried out on burn wounds of 245 hospitalized patients in Kerman, Iran. P. aeruginosa ESBLs and MBL producing strains were detected by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT) and Epsilometer test (E-test) strips, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured for Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Imipenem, Aztreonam, Cefotaxime and methanollic extracts of Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea). From 245 patients in the burn ward, 120 cases were infected with P. aeruginosa. 41 isolates contained ESBL while MBL was not detected. P. aeruginosa were resistant to Cefotaxime, Aztreonam, Ceftazidime, Meropenem and Imipenem, 72 (60%), 50 (41.66%), 79 (65.83%), 33 (27.5%) and 24 (20%), respectively. Green tea extract had the highest anti-bacterial effect on standard and P. aeruginosa strains in 1.25mg/ml concentration. This study determined that the methanolic extract of green tea has a higher effect against ESBL producing P. aeruginosa than Cefotaxime, Aztreonam and Ceftazidime.

  20. Heterologous expression of three Camellia sinensis small heat shock protein genes confers temperature stress tolerance in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingle; Zou, Zhongwei; Li, Qinghui; Xin, Huahong; Zhu, Xujun; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xinghui

    2017-07-01

    CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8 expressions are induced by heat and cold stresses, and CsHSP overexpression confers tolerance to heat and cold stresses in transgenic Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are crucial for protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses, especially heat stress. However, knowledge concerning the functions of Camellia sinensis sHSP in heat and cold stresses remains poorly understood. In this study, three C. sinensis sHSP genes (i.e., CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8) were isolated and characterized using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology. The CsHSPs expression levels in C. sinensis leaves were significantly up-regulated by heat and cold stresses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8 belong to sHSP Classes I, II, and IV, respectively. Heterologous expression of the three CsHSP genes in Pichia pastoris cells enhanced heat and cold stress tolerance. When exposed to heat and cold treatments, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8 had lower malondialdehyde contents, ion leakage, higher proline contents, and transcript levels of stress-related genes (e.g., AtPOD, AtAPX1, AtP5CS2, and AtProT1) compared with the control line. In addition, improved seed germination vigor was also observed in the CsHSP-overexpressing seeds under heat stress. Taken together, our results suggest that the three identified CsHSP genes play key roles in heat and cold tolerance.

  1. Separation of catechin constituents from five tea cultivars using high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Savitri; Rajapaksha, Maheshinie

    2005-08-12

    Catechins were extracted from five different tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars. High-speed counter-current chromatography was found to be an efficient method for the separation of seven catechins from the catechin extracts. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to assess the purity of the catechins isolated. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) of high purity (91-99%) were isolated in high yield after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run. The two-phase solvent mixtures used for the separation of the catechin extracts were hexane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water (1:6:1:6 for TRI 2023); (1:7:1:7 for TRI 2025 and TRI 2043); (1:5:1:5 for TRI 3079) and (1:6.5:1:6.5 for TRI 4006). Fresh tea shoots from the tea cultivar TRI 2023 (150 g) gave 440 mg of 96% pure EGCG while TRI 2025 (235 g) gave 347 mg of 99% pure EGCG and 40 mg of 97% ECG, and TRI 3079 (225 g) gave 432 mg of 97% pure EGCG and 32 mg of 96% pure ECG. Tea cultivar TRI 4006 (160 g) gave EGCG (272 mg, 96% pure) and EGC (104 mg, 90% pure). 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts for catechin gallate (CG), EGC, ECG, EGCG and epigallocatechin 3,5-di-O-gallate (EGCDG) in CD3OD were also recorded.

  2. Protective effects of Ziyang tea polysaccharides on CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongying; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Yanfei; Yang, Xingbin

    2014-01-15

    This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the tea polysaccharides (ZTPs) extracted from a selenium-enriched Ziyang green tea (Camellia sinensis). ZTPs were identified as the heteropolysaccharides with glucose (31.4%), arabinose (23.5%) and galactose (21.8%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. ZTPs displayed noteworthy scavenging effects against DPPH, OH and O2(-), and high antioxidant effects in vitro, and the effects were further verified by suppressing CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg BW. Administration of ZTPs in mice prior to CCl4 significantly prevented the CCl4-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as hepatic malondialdehyde level. Mice treated with ZTPs showed normal glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, relative to CCl4-treated group. ZTPs also prevented the CCl4-caused liver histological alteration, as indicated by histopathological evaluation. These findings demonstrate that ZTPs have protective effects against acute CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Green synthesis of Fe0 and bimetallic Fe0 for oxidative catalysis and reduction applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    A single-step green approach to the synthesis of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) and nanoscale bimetallic (Fe0/Pd) particles using tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols is described. The expedient reaction between polyphenols and ferric chloride (FeCl3) occurs within a minute at ...

  4. Genetic diversity and domestication origin of tea plant Camellia taliensis (Theaceae) as revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Many species in the Thea section of the Camellia genus can be processed for drinking and have been domesticated. However, few investigations have focused on the genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of landraces on tea plants using credible wild and planted populations of a single species. Here, C. taliensis provides us with a unique opportunity to explore these issues. Results Fourteen nuclear microsatellite loci were employed to determine the genetic diversity and domestication origin of C. taliensis, which were represented by 587 individuals from 25 wild, planted and recently domesticated populations. C. taliensis showed a moderate high level of overall genetic diversity. The greater reduction of genetic diversity and stronger genetic drift were detected in the wild group than in the recently domesticated group, indicating the loss of genetic diversity of wild populations due to overexploitation and habitat fragmentation. Instead of the endangered wild trees, recently domesticated individuals were used to compare with the planted trees for detecting the genetic consequence of domestication. A little and non-significant reduction in genetic diversity was found during domestication. The long life cycle, selection for leaf traits and gene flow between populations will delay the emergence of bottleneck in planted trees. Both phylogenetic and assignment analyses suggested that planted trees may have been domesticated from the adjacent central forest of western Yunnan and dispersed artificially to distant places. Conclusions This study contributes to the knowledge about levels and distribution of genetic diversity of C. taliensis and provides new insights into genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of planted trees of this species. As an endemic tea source plant, wild, planted and recently domesticated C. taliensis trees should all be protected for their unique

  5. Genetic diversity and domestication origin of tea plant Camellia taliensis (Theaceae) as revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Wei; Yang, Jun-Bo; Yang, Shi-Xiong; Kato, Kenji; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-09

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Many species in the Thea section of the Camellia genus can be processed for drinking and have been domesticated. However, few investigations have focused on the genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of landraces on tea plants using credible wild and planted populations of a single species. Here, C. taliensis provides us with a unique opportunity to explore these issues. Fourteen nuclear microsatellite loci were employed to determine the genetic diversity and domestication origin of C. taliensis, which were represented by 587 individuals from 25 wild, planted and recently domesticated populations. C. taliensis showed a moderate high level of overall genetic diversity. The greater reduction of genetic diversity and stronger genetic drift were detected in the wild group than in the recently domesticated group, indicating the loss of genetic diversity of wild populations due to overexploitation and habitat fragmentation. Instead of the endangered wild trees, recently domesticated individuals were used to compare with the planted trees for detecting the genetic consequence of domestication. A little and non-significant reduction in genetic diversity was found during domestication. The long life cycle, selection for leaf traits and gene flow between populations will delay the emergence of bottleneck in planted trees. Both phylogenetic and assignment analyses suggested that planted trees may have been domesticated from the adjacent central forest of western Yunnan and dispersed artificially to distant places. This study contributes to the knowledge about levels and distribution of genetic diversity of C. taliensis and provides new insights into genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of planted trees of this species. As an endemic tea source plant, wild, planted and recently domesticated C. taliensis trees should all be protected for their unique genetic characteristics, which

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of an Anthracnose-Resistant Tea Plant Cultivar Reveals Genes Associated with Resistance to Colletotrichum camelliae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Yuchun; Cao, Hongli; Hao, Xinyuan; Zeng, Jianming; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao

    2016-01-01

    Tea plant breeding is a topic of great economic importance. However, disease remains a major cause of yield and quality losses. In this study, an anthracnose-resistant cultivar, ZC108, was developed. An infection assay revealed different responses to Colletotrichum sp. infection between ZC108 and its parent cultivar LJ43. ZC108 had greater resistance than LJ43 to Colletotrichum camelliae. Additionally, ZC108 exhibited earlier sprouting in the spring, as well as different leaf shape and plant architecture. Microarray data revealed that the genes that are differentially expressed between LJ43 and ZC108 mapped to secondary metabolism-related pathways, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. In addition, genes involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling as well as plant-pathogen interaction pathways were also changed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of 27 selected genes in infected and uninfected tea plant leaves. Genes encoding a MADS-box transcription factor, NBS-LRR disease-resistance protein, and phenylpropanoid metabolism pathway components (CAD, CCR, POD, beta-glucosidase, ALDH and PAL) were among those differentially expressed in ZC108. PMID:26849553

  7. Identification and quantification of 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA) from Camellia sinensis tea leaves and dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1, 3-Dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is a CNS stimulant which has recently been identified in multiple dietary supplements and sometimes labeled as a natural constituent of Pouchung tea. DMBA is an homologue of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) which the US Food and Drug Administration has attempted to remov...

  8. Tea consumption is inversely associated with weight status and other markers for Metabolic Syndrome in U.S. adults1

    PubMed Central

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a widely consumed beverage, and laboratory and some intervention studies have indicated the potential health benefits of hot tea. The present study examines the association between tea consumption (evaluating hot and iced tea independently) and markers for MetS adults in a sample of 6,472 who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) surveys. Methods Tea consumption was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recalls. Seventy percent of the sample reported any consumption of iced tea, and 16% were daily consumers; whereas approximately 56% of this sample reported hot tea consumption and 9% were daily consumers. Results Hot tea consumption was inversely associated with obesity: tea consumers had lower mean waist circumference and lower BMI (25 vs. 28 kg/m2 in men; 26 vs. 29 kg/m2 in women; both P<0.001), than non-consumers after controlling for age, physical activity, total energy intake, and other confounders. For iced tea consumption, the association was reversed: increased iced tea consumption was associated with higher BMI, greater waist circumference, and greater subcutaneous skinfold thickness after controlling for age, physical activity, energy intake, sugar intake, and other confounders. Hot tea consumption was associated with beneficial biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation (increased high density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol and decreased C-reactive protein in both sexes, and reduced triglycerides in women), whereas the association with iced tea consumption was again reversed. Conclusions These cross-sectional results support growing laboratory data which demonstrate the negative association of hot tea intake with markers of MetS. PMID:22777108

  9. Purification and characterization of caffeine synthase from tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Kato, M; Mizuno, K; Fujimura, T; Iwama, M; Irie, M; Crozier, A; Ashihara, H

    1999-06-01

    Caffeine synthase (CS), the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent N-methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, was extracted from young tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves; the CS was purified 520-fold to apparent homogeneity and a final specific activity of 5.7 nkat mg-1 protein by ammonium sulfate fractionation and hydroxyapatite, anion-exchange, adenosine-agarose, and gel-filtration chromatography. The native enzyme was monomeric with an apparent molecular mass of 61 kD as estimated by gel-filtration chromatography and 41 kD as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme displayed a sharp pH optimum of 8.5. The final preparation exhibited 3- and 1-N-methyltransferase activity with a broad substrate specificity, showing high activity toward paraxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, and theobromine and low activity with 3-methylxanthine and 1-methylxanthine. However, the enzyme had no 7-N-methyltransferase activity toward xanthosine and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate. The Km values of CS for paraxanthine, theobromine, 7-methylxanthine, and S-adenosylmethionine were 24, 186, 344, and 21 microM, respectively. The possible role and regulation of CS in purine alkaloid biosynthesis in tea leaves are discussed. The 20-amino acid N-terminal sequence for CS showed little homology with other methyltransferases.

  10. Trace level voltammetric determination of heavy metals and total mercury in tea matrices (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Melucci, Dora; Locatelli, Marcello; Locatelli, Clinio

    2013-12-01

    An analytical procedure regarding the voltammetric determination of mercury(II), copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in matrices involved in food chain is proposed. In particular, tea leaves were analyzed as real samples. The digestion of each matrix was carried out using a concentrated HCl-HNO3-H2SO4 acidic attack mixture; 0.01 mol L(-1) EDTA-Na2+ 0.15 mol L(-1) NaCl + 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl was employed as the supporting electrolyte. The voltammetric measurements were carried out using a conventional three electrode cell, employing, as working electrodes, a gold electrode (GE) and a stationary hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The analytical procedure has been verified on the standard reference materials Spinach Leaves NIST-SRM 1570a, Tomato Leaves NIST-SRM 1573a and Apple Leaves NIST-SRM 1515. For all the elements, the precision as repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr) was of the order of 3-5%, while the trueness, expressed as relative error (e) was of the order of 3-7%. Once set up on the standard reference materials, the analytical procedure was applied to commercial tea leaves samples. A critical comparison with spectroscopic measurements is also discussed.

  11. Ginseng, green tea or fibrate: valid options for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis prevention?

    PubMed

    Miranda-Henriques, Mônica Souza de; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga de Melo; Araújo, Maria Salete Trigueiro de

    2014-01-01

    Panax ginseng, Camellia sinensis and bezafibrate were compared for their lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as potential agents to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Fifty Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: G1 (feed with standard diet); G2 (feed with high-fat diet with 58% of energy from fat); G3 (high-fat diet + standardized Panax ginseng extract at 100 mg/kg/day); G4 (high-fat diet + standardized Camellia sinensis extract at 100 mg/kg/day); and G5 (high-fat diet + bezafibrate at 100 mg/kg/day), given by gavage. The animals were sacrificed eight weeks later and blood was collected for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase determinations. The score system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was used to analyse the liver samples. High-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in animal body weight, biochemical changes and enzymatic elevations. Steatosis, inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning scores were significant high in this group. The biochemical and histological variables were statistically similar in the bezafibrate group and control group. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract prevented obesity and histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (steatosis and inflammation) compared to high-fat diet. Camellia sinensis showed a less effective biochemical response, with small reduction in steatosis and inflammation but lower ballooning scores.

  12. Studies on cytotoxic and clot lysis activity of probiotically fermented cocktail juice prepared using Camellia sinensis and Punica grantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Ananya; Deori, Meenakshi; Nivetha, A.; Mohansrinivasan, V.

    2017-11-01

    In the current research the effect of probiotic microorganisms viz; Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum on fermentation of Camellia sinensis and Punica grantum was studied. In vitro test were done to analyze the anticancer, antioxidant and atherosclerosis (clot lysis) properties of fermented juice. The juice was fermented for 48 and 96h, during which concentration of phenolic content, total acid content and free radical scavenging activity of the sample was analyzed by DPPH assay (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl). Dropping of pH was observed after 48 h of fermentation. The clot lysis activity was found to be 80 % in 100μl concentration of fermented cocktail juice. The 96 h fermented sample has shown around 70% inhibition against colon cancer cell lines. Analytical study of HPLC proves the organic acid production such as ascorbic acid in superior amount for 96h of fermented sample, Based on the retention time, the corresponding peaks were detected at 4.919 and 4.831 min.

  13. The potential role of polyphenols in the modulation of skin cell viability by Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia spp. herbal tea extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Magcwebeba, Tandeka Unathi; Riedel, Sylvia; Swanevelder, Sonja; Swart, Pieter; De Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Andreas Gelderblom, Wentzel Christoffel

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between polyphenol constituents, antioxidant properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), the herbal teas, rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia spp.), against skin cell viability was investigated in vitro. The effect of extracts, characterised in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant properties, on cell viability of premalignant, normal and malignant skin cells was determined. Phenolic composition, particularly high levels of potent antioxidants, of rooibos and green tea methanol extracts was associated with a strong reduction in cell viability specifically targeting premalignant cells. In contrast, the aqueous extracts of Cyclopia spp. were more effective in reducing cell viability. This correlated with a relatively high flavanol/proanthocyanidin content and ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity. The major green tea flavanol (epigallocatechin gallate) and rooibos dihydrochalcone (aspalathin) exhibited differential effects against cell viability, while the major honeybush xanthone (mangiferin) and flavanone (hesperidin) lacked any effect presumably due to a cytoprotective effect. The underlying mechanisms against skin cell viability are likely to involve mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from polyphenol-iron interactions. The polyphenol constituents and antioxidant parameters of herbal tea extracts are useful tools to predict their activity against skin cell survival in vitro and potential chemopreventive effects in vivo. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Extraction and free radical scavenging activity of polysaccharide from 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Wang, Guozhi; Mao, Genxiang

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the optimization of the extraction conditions of polysaccharide from 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) (AP) was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). Three main independent variables (extraction temperature, time, ratio of water to raw material) were taken into consideration. And then the free radical scavenging activities of the sample were investigated including scavenging effects of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The RSM analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values.. The optimal condition to obtain the highest yield of AP was determined as follows: temperature 76.79 °C, time 2.48 h, ratio of water to material 22.53 mL/g. For the free radical scavenging activity, the IC50 values of Vc and AP were 7.78 and 83.25 μg/mL. And for the scavenging effect on hydroxyl radical, that of AP and Vc were 1.80 and 1.69 mg/mL. AP showed excellent antioxidant activity. This exhibited AP had a good potential for antioxidant. The purification and structure needs to be study in further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorogenic acid isomer contents in 100 plants commercialized in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meinhart, Adriana Dillenburg; Damin, Fernanda Mateus; Caldeirão, Lucas; da Silveira, Tayse Ferreira Ferreira; Filho, José Teixeira; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed 100 plants employed in Brazil as ingredients to infusions for their caffeic acid, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA), 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-DQA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-DQA), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-DQA) contents. The samples were collected from public markets and analysed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The highest concentrations of chlorogenic acids were found in yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), 9,2g·100g -1 , white tea (Camellia sinensis), winter's bark (Drimys winteri), green tea (Camellia sinensis), elderflower (Sambucus nigra), and Boehmeria caudata (known as assa-peixe in Brazil), 1,1g·100g -1 . The present work showcased the investigation of chlorogenic acids in a wide range of plants not yet studied in this regard and also resulted in a comparative table which explores the content of six isomers in the samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of different brewing times on antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of loosely packed and bagged black teas (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Jamal; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Nikniaz, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Determination and comparison of the effect of infusion time on the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol contents of bagged and loosely packed black teas. For twenty loosely packed and eleven bagged tea samples, the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content were analyzed using FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteau methods, respectively. The ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. The antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of various brands of tea samples were significantly different. There were significant differences in the antioxidant activity of loosely packed teas between 5, 15(p=0.03), 30(p=0.02) and 60(p=0.007) minutes of brewing times. Besides, there was a significant difference in antioxidant activity of bagged samples infused for 1 minute with four other infusion time points (p<0.001). In the case of polyphenol content, in loosely-packed tea samples, there were not significant differences between different brewing times (p=0.15). However, in bagged samples, the polyphenol contents of samples that were brewed for 1 minute were significantly lower than samples brewed for 3, 4, and 5 minutes (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of tea bags were significantly higher than those ofloosely-packed forms of the same brands at 5-min of brewing time (p<0.001). The infusion time and the form of tea (loosely packed or bagged) were shown to be important determinants of the antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of black tea infusions in addition to the variety, growing environment and manufacturing conditions.

  17. The Microbiome and Metabolites in Fermented Pu-erh Tea as Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing and Quantitative Multiplex Metabolite Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sulyok, Michael; Liu, Xingzhong; Rao, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    Pu-erh is a tea produced in Yunnan, China by microbial fermentation of fresh Camellia sinensis leaves by two processes, the traditional raw fermentation and the faster, ripened fermentation. We characterized fungal and bacterial communities in leaves and both Pu-erhs by high-throughput, rDNA-amplicon sequencing and we characterized the profile of bioactive extrolite mycotoxins in Pu-erh teas by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 390 fungal and 629 bacterial OTUs from leaves and both Pu-erhs. Major findings are: 1) fungal diversity drops and bacterial diversity rises due to raw or ripened fermentation, 2) fungal and bacterial community composition changes significantly between fresh leaves and both raw and ripened Pu-erh, 3) aging causes significant changes in the microbial community of raw, but not ripened, Pu-erh, and, 4) ripened and well-aged raw Pu-erh have similar microbial communities that are distinct from those of young, raw Ph-erh tea. Twenty-five toxic metabolites, mainly of fungal origin, were detected, with patulin and asperglaucide dominating and at levels supporting the Chinese custom of discarding the first preparation of Pu-erh and using the wet tea to then brew a pot for consumption. PMID:27337135

  18. Characteristics of NH4+ and NO3− fluxes in tea (Camellia sinensis) roots measured by scanning ion-selective electrode technique

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Li; Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Fen; Wu, Liyun; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai

    2016-01-01

    As a vital beverage crop, tea has been extensively planted in tropical and subtropical regions. Nitrogen (N) levels and forms are closely related to tea quality. Based on different N levels and forms, we studied changes in NO3− and NH4+ fluxes in tea roots utilizing scanning ion-selective electrode technique. Our results showed that under both single and mixed N forms, influx rates of NO3− were much lower than those of NH4+, suggesting a preference for NH4+ in tea. With the increase in N concentration, the influx rate of NO3− increased more than that of NH4+. The NH4+ influx rates in a solution without NO3− were much higher than those in a solution with NO3−, while the NO3− influx rates in a solution without NH4+ were much lower than those in a solution with NH4+. We concluded that (1) tea roots showed a preference for NH4+, (2) presence of NO3− had a negative effect on NH4+ influx, and (3) NH4+ had a positive effect on NO3− influx. Our findings not only may help advance hydroponic tea experiments but also may be used to develop efficient fertilization protocols for soil-grown tea in the future. PMID:27918495

  19. Purification and Characterization of Caffeine Synthase from Tea Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Misako; Mizuno, Kouichi; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Iwama, Masanori; Irie, Masachika; Crozier, Alan; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Caffeine synthase (CS), the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent N-methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, was extracted from young tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves; the CS was purified 520-fold to apparent homogeneity and a final specific activity of 5.7 nkat mg−1 protein by ammonium sulfate fractionation and hydroxyapatite, anion-exchange, adenosine-agarose, and gel-filtration chromatography. The native enzyme was monomeric with an apparent molecular mass of 61 kD as estimated by gel-filtration chromatography and 41 kD as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme displayed a sharp pH optimum of 8.5. The final preparation exhibited 3- and 1-N-methyltransferase activity with a broad substrate specificity, showing high activity toward paraxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, and theobromine and low activity with 3-methylxanthine and 1-methylxanthine. However, the enzyme had no 7-N-methyltransferase activity toward xanthosine and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate. The Km values of CS for paraxanthine, theobromine, 7-methylxanthine, and S-adenosylmethionine were 24, 186, 344, and 21 μm, respectively. The possible role and regulation of CS in purine alkaloid biosynthesis in tea leaves are discussed. The 20-amino acid N-terminal sequence for CS showed little homology with other methyltransferases. PMID:10364410

  20. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals.

  1. The red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae): its status, biology, ecology and management in tea plantations.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda

    2014-08-01

    Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), the red spider mite (RSM), is a major pest of tea (Camellia sinensis) in most tea-producing countries. Nymphs and adults of RSM lacerate cells, producing minute characteristic reddish brown marks on the upper surface of mature leaves, which turn red in severe cases of infestation, resulting in crop loss. The pest is present on tea all the year round, although numbers vary depending on season. Their number increases as the weather warms up and decreases markedly once rains set in. Under optimal conditions there may be 22 overlapping generations in a year. Parthenogenesis is known to occur; consequently, all mite stages can be found at a given time. Their infestation is mainly confined to the upper surface of the mature leaves and could readily be identified by the bronzing of the leaf. There are several naturally occurring insect predators, such as coccinellid and staphylinid larvae, lacewing larvae, and mite predators, most importantly species of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Integrated management has been adopted to control this mite pest, involving cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods. This review collates the most important works carried out on biology, ecology and management of O. coffeae. Also the scope of future studies for better management of this regular mite pest of tea is discussed.

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Chinary, Assamica and Cambod tea (Camellia sinensis) Types during Development and Seasonal Variation using RNA-seq Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Chawla, Vandna; Sharma, Eshita; Mahajan, Pallavi; Shankar, Ravi; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Tea quality and yield is influenced by various factors including developmental tissue, seasonal variation and cultivar type. Here, the molecular basis of these factors was investigated in three tea cultivars namely, Him Sphurti (H), TV23 (T), and UPASI-9 (U) using RNA-seq. Seasonal variation in these cultivars was studied during active (A), mid-dormant (MD), dormant (D) and mid-active (MA) stages in two developmental tissues viz. young and old leaf. Development appears to affect gene expression more than the seasonal variation and cultivar types. Further, detailed transcript and metabolite profiling has identified genes such as F3‧H, F3‧5‧H, FLS, DFR, LAR, ANR and ANS of catechin biosynthesis, while MXMT, SAMS, TCS and XDH of caffeine biosynthesis/catabolism as key regulators during development and seasonal variation among three different tea cultivars. In addition, expression analysis of genes related to phytohormones such as ABA, GA, ethylene and auxin has suggested their role in developmental tissues during seasonal variation in tea cultivars. Moreover, differential expression of genes involved in histone and DNA modification further suggests role of epigenetic mechanism in coordinating global gene expression during developmental and seasonal variation in tea. Our findings provide insights into global transcriptional reprogramming associated with development and seasonal variation in tea.

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Chinary, Assamica and Cambod tea (Camellia sinensis) Types during Development and Seasonal Variation using RNA-seq Technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Chawla, Vandna; Sharma, Eshita; Mahajan, Pallavi; Shankar, Ravi; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-11-17

    Tea quality and yield is influenced by various factors including developmental tissue, seasonal variation and cultivar type. Here, the molecular basis of these factors was investigated in three tea cultivars namely, Him Sphurti (H), TV23 (T), and UPASI-9 (U) using RNA-seq. Seasonal variation in these cultivars was studied during active (A), mid-dormant (MD), dormant (D) and mid-active (MA) stages in two developmental tissues viz. young and old leaf. Development appears to affect gene expression more than the seasonal variation and cultivar types. Further, detailed transcript and metabolite profiling has identified genes such as F3'H, F3'5'H, FLS, DFR, LAR, ANR and ANS of catechin biosynthesis, while MXMT, SAMS, TCS and XDH of caffeine biosynthesis/catabolism as key regulators during development and seasonal variation among three different tea cultivars. In addition, expression analysis of genes related to phytohormones such as ABA, GA, ethylene and auxin has suggested their role in developmental tissues during seasonal variation in tea cultivars. Moreover, differential expression of genes involved in histone and DNA modification further suggests role of epigenetic mechanism in coordinating global gene expression during developmental and seasonal variation in tea. Our findings provide insights into global transcriptional reprogramming associated with development and seasonal variation in tea.

  4. Laboratory Studies on Weight Control and Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome by Green Tea1

    PubMed Central

    Sudathip, Sae-tan; Grove, Kimberly A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace) is the second most popular beverage in the world and has been extensively studied for its putative disease preventive effects. Green tea is characterized by the presence of a high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, with (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) being the most abundant and most well-studied. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex condition that is defined by the presence of elevated waist circumference, dysglycemia, elevated blood pressure, decrease serum high density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol, and increased serum triglycerides. Studies in both in vitro and laboratory animal models have examined the preventive effects of green tea and EGCG against the symptoms of MetS. Overall, the results of these studies have been promising and demonstrate that green tea and EGCG have preventive effects in both genetic and dietary models of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Various mechanisms have been proposed based on these studies and include: modulation of dietary fat absorption and metabolism, increased glucose utilization, decreased de novo lipogenesis, enhanced vascular responsiveness, and antioxidative effects. In the present review, we discuss the current state of the science with regard to laboratory studies on green tea and MetS. We attempt to critically evaluate the available data and point out areas for future research. Although there is a considerable amount of data available, questions remain in terms of the primary mechanism(s) of action, the dose-response relationships involved, and the best way to translate the results to human intervention studies. PMID:21193040

  5. Functional characterization of proanthocyanidin pathway enzymes from tea and their application for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yongzhen; Abeysinghe, I Sarath B; He, Ji; He, Xianzhi; Huhman, David; Mewan, K Mudith; Sumner, Lloyd W; Yun, Jianfei; Dixon, Richard A

    2013-03-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is rich in specialized metabolites, especially polyphenolic proanthocyanidins (PAs) and their precursors. To better understand the PA pathway in tea, we generated a complementary DNA library from leaf tissue of the blister blight-resistant tea cultivar TRI2043 and functionally characterized key enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of PA precursors. Structural genes encoding enzymes involved in the general phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway and the PA-specific branch pathway were well represented in the library. Recombinant tea leucoanthocyanidin reductase (CsLAR) expressed in Escherichia coli was active with leucocyanidin as substrate to produce the 2R,3S-trans-flavan-ol (+)-catechin in vitro. Two genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase, CsANR1 and CsANR2, were also expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant proteins exhibited similar kinetic properties. Both converted cyanidin to a mixture of (+)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin, although in different proportions, indicating that both enzymes possess epimerase activity. These epimers were unexpected based on the belief that tea PAs are made from (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin. Ectopic expression of CsANR2 or CsLAR led to the accumulation of low levels of PA precursors and their conjugates in Medicago truncatula hairy roots and anthocyanin-overproducing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), but levels of oligomeric PAs were very low. Surprisingly, the expression of CsLAR in tobacco overproducing anthocyanin led to the accumulation of higher levels of epicatechin and its glucoside than of catechin, again highlighting the potential importance of epimerization in flavan-3-ol biosynthesis. These data provide a resource for understanding tea PA biosynthesis and tools for the bioengineering of flavanols.

  6. Phenolic Antioxidants from the Leaves of Camellia pachyandra Hu.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Fang; Xu, Min; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Mei; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2010-08-11

    Camellia pachyandra Hu. is a species in Camellia sect. Heterogenea (Theaceae), whose leaves have been used for making tea and consumed by the local people living in Yunnan province, China. This is the first investigation of the chemical constituents in the leaves of C. pachyandra, from which 22 phenolic compounds including nine hydrolyzable tannins (1-9), 11 flavonol glycosides (10-20), and two simple phenolics (21, 22) were isolated. It was noted that the leaves of the title plant contained no caffeine and no catechin, whereas hydrolyzable tannins were found to be the major constituents, of which the content of ellagitannin 5 reached to 3.7%. All the isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibitory assays. Though the secondary metabolites without caffeine and catechins are different from the commonly consumed tea plants, the results suggested that the leaves of C. pachyandra, rich in hydrolyzable tannins as potent antioxidants, could be developed as an ideal resource for a natural beverage without caffeine.

  7. A systematic review of anti-obesity medicinal plants - an update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study. Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article. In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for

  8. A systematic review of anti-obesity medicinal plants - an update.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-06-19

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study.Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article.In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for interpretation. Although there

  9. Fortification of alcoholic beverages (12% v/v) with tea (Camellia sinensis) reduces harmful effects of alcohol ingestion and metabolism in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ochanda, S O; Rashid, K; Wanyoko, J K; Ngotho, M; Faraj, A K; Onyango, C A; Wachira, F N; Maranga, D N

    2016-01-01

    Background An animal model was used to study the health benefits inherent in tea fortified alcoholic beverages fed to laboratory mice. Objectives An investigation of the effects of tea fortified alcoholic beverages 12% alcohol (v/v) on antioxidant capacity and liver dysfunction indicators in white Swiss mice including packed cell volume (PCV), albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutathione (GSH) was carried out. Methods Plain, black, green and purple tea fortified alcohols were developed with varying tea concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 g/250 mL in 12% v/v. Control alcoholic beverages without teas were also developed. A permit (number IRC/13/12) was obtained for the animal research from the National Museums of Kenya, Institute of Primate Research prior to the start of the study. Alcoholic beverages were orally administered every 2 days for 4 weeks at 1 mL per mouse, and thereafter animals were euthanised and liver and blood samples harvested for analyses. Assays on body weight (bwt), packed cell volume (PCV) albumin, total protein, ALP and GSH were performed. Results were statistically analysed using GraphPad statistical package and significant differences of means of various treatments determined. Results Consumption of tea fortified alcohols significantly decreased (p=0.0001) bwt at 0.32–9.58% and PCV at 5.56–22.75% for all teas. Total protein in serum and liver of mice fed on different tea fortified alcohols ranged between 6.26 and 9.24 g/dL and 2.14 and 4.02 g/dL, respectively. Albumin, ALP and GSH range was 0.92–2.88 µg/L, 314.98–473.80 µg/L and 17.88–28.62 µM, respectively. Fortification of alcoholic beverages lowered liver ALP, replenished antioxidants and increased liver albumin, improving the nutritional status of the mice. Conclusions The findings demonstrate tea's hepatoprotective mechanisms against alcohol-induced injury through promotion of endogenous antioxidants. The beneficial effects of tea in the

  10. Interactions between α-amylase and an acidic branched polysaccharide from green tea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuyun; Lai, Minghua; Luo, Jiahao; Pan, Jingwen; Zhang, Li-Ming; Yang, Liqun

    2017-01-01

    To understand the mechanism responsible for the α-amylase inhibitory activity of tea polysaccharides, the interaction between α-amylase and an acidic branched tea polysaccharide (TPSA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and resonance light scattering analysis. TPSA, exhibiting inhibitory activity towards α-amylase (the maximum inhibition percentage of 65%), was isolated from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and gas chromatography. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the binding interaction between the tryptophan residues of α-amylase and TPSA was predominant. Based on the fluorescence quenching effect of tryptophan residues induced by TPSA, the binding constants between α-amylase and TPSA were determined to be 18.6×10 6 , 8.0×10 6 and 4.6×10 6 L·mol -1 at 20, 30 and 37°C, respectively. The calculated Gibbs free-energy changes were negative, indicating that the bonding interaction was a spontaneous process. The enthalpy and the entropy changes were -62.13 KJ·mol -1 and -0.0728 KJ·mol -1 ·K -1 , suggesting that hydrogen bonding interactions might play a major role in the binding process. The formation of an α-amylase/TPSA complex was evidenced by fluorescence quenching and resonance light scattering analysis, and this complex could be the main contributor to the α-amylase inhibitory activity of TPSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chlorinated phenol removal from aqueous media by tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf waste tailored activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, C. G.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Daud, W. M. A. W.; Krishnaiah, D.; Ng, K. A.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, activated carbons (ACs) wereprepared from tea leaves by using a two-stage self-generated atmosphere method. The process was done by semi-carbonizing the precursor at 300 °C for 1 h, followed by the impregnation of the resulting char at 85 °C for 4 h and finally activation at 500 °C for 2 h. The semi-carbonised samples were impregnated with different ratios of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and their physicochemical effect was studied. The prepared ACs underwent several aspects of both, chemical and physical characterizations, such as the percentage of yield, moisture content, ash content, pH, porosity, adsorption capacity of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), surface area, porosity, morphology and surface chemistry studies. It was found that sample AC2, with an impregnation ratio of 2:1 was the best AC produced in this study. The maximum Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area of AC2 was found to be 695 m2/g. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to examine the experimental isotherms while the kinetic data was analyzed using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The 2,4-DCP adsorption isotherm results complied well to the Langmuir isotherm for the equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model, indicating that chemisorption by valency forces via the sharing (covalent bond) or exchanging of electrons between the AC and the 2,4-DCP molecules were mainly responsible for the adsorption process. From these findings, it is concluded that tea leaves can be used as a low cost precursor for the removal of 2,4-DCP in aqueous medium.

  12. Anti-infective properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, J; Buer, J; Pietschmann, T; Steinmann, E

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) has been shown to have many physiological and pharmacological health benefits. In the past two decades several studies have reported that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea, has anti-infective properties. Antiviral activities of EGCG with different modes of action have been demonstrated on diverse families of viruses, such as Retroviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Flaviviridae and include important human pathogens like human immunodeficiency virus, influenza A virus and the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the molecule interferes with the replication cycle of DNA viruses like hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus and adenovirus. Most of these studies demonstrated antiviral properties within physiological concentrations of EGCG in vitro. In contrast, the minimum inhibitory concentrations against bacteria were 10–100-fold higher. Nevertheless, the antibacterial effects of EGCG alone and in combination with different antibiotics have been intensively analysed against a number of bacteria including multidrug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Furthermore, the catechin EGCG has antifungal activity against human-pathogenic yeasts like Candida albicans. Although the mechanistic effects of EGCG are not fully understood, there are results indicating that EGCG binds to lipid membranes and affects the folic acid metabolism of bacteria and fungi by inhibiting the cytoplasmic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. This review summarizes the current knowledge and future perspectives on the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects of the green tea constituent EGCG. PMID:23072320

  13. Green tea effects on cognition, mood and human brain function: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Edele; Beglinger, Christoph; Drewe, Jürgen; Zanchi, Davide; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-10-15

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain. To assess the current state of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of green tea or green tea extracts, l-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate both components of green tea-on general neuropsychology, on the sub-category cognition and on brain functions in humans. We systematically searched on PubMed database and selected studies by predefined eligibility criteria. We then assessed their quality and extracted data. We structured our effort according to the PRISMA statement. We reviewed and assessed 21 studies, 4 of which were randomised controlled trials, 12 cross-over studies (both assessed with an adapted version of the DELPHI-list), 4 were cross-sectional studies and one was a cohort study (both assessed with an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment scale). The average study quality as appraised by means of the DELPHI-list was good (8.06/9); the studies evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa-scale were also good (6.7/9). The reviewed studies presented evidence that green tea influences psychopathological symptoms (e.g. reduction of anxiety), cognition (e.g. benefits in memory and attention) and brain function (e.g. activation of working memory seen in functional MRI). The effects of green tea cannot be attributed to a single constituent of the beverage. This is exemplified in the finding that beneficial green tea effects on cognition are observed under the combined influence of both caffeine and l-theanine, whereas separate administration of either substance was found to have a lesser impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Identification, quantitation, and method validation for flavan-3-ols in fermented ready-to-drink teas from the Italian market using HPLC-UV/DAD and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Chiara; Canale, Francesca; Del Rio, Daniele; Bicchi, Carlo

    2009-11-01

    The present study is focused on flavan-3-ols characterizing the antioxidant properties of fermented tea (Camellia sinensis). These bioactive compounds, object of nutritional claims in commercial products, should be quantified with rigorous analytical procedures whose accuracy and precision have been stated with a certain level of confidence. An HPLC-UV/DAD method, able to detect and quantify flavan-3-ols in infusions and ready-to-drink teas, has been developed for routine analysis and validated by characterizing several performance parameters. The accuracy assessment has been run through a series of LC-MS/MS analyses. Epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechingallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechingallate, (-)-epicatechingallate, and (-)-catechingallate were chosen as markers of the polyphenolic fraction. Quantitative results showed that samples obtained from tea leaves infusion were richer in polyphenolic antioxidants than those obtained through other industrial processes. The influence of shelf-life and packaging material on the flavan-3-ols content was also considered; markers decreased, with an exponential trend, as a function of time within the shelf life while packaging materials demonstrated to influence differently the flavan-3-ol fraction composition over time. The method presented here provides quantitative results with a certain level of confidence and is suitable for a routine quality control of iced teas whose antioxidant properties are object of nutritional claim.

  15. Functional Characterization of Proanthocyanidin Pathway Enzymes from Tea and Their Application for Metabolic Engineering1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yongzhen; Abeysinghe, I. Sarath B.; He, Ji; He, Xianzhi; Huhman, David; Mewan, K. Mudith; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Yun, Jianfei; Dixon, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is rich in specialized metabolites, especially polyphenolic proanthocyanidins (PAs) and their precursors. To better understand the PA pathway in tea, we generated a complementary DNA library from leaf tissue of the blister blight-resistant tea cultivar TRI2043 and functionally characterized key enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of PA precursors. Structural genes encoding enzymes involved in the general phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway and the PA-specific branch pathway were well represented in the library. Recombinant tea leucoanthocyanidin reductase (CsLAR) expressed in Escherichia coli was active with leucocyanidin as substrate to produce the 2R,3S-trans-flavan-ol (+)-catechin in vitro. Two genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase, CsANR1 and CsANR2, were also expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant proteins exhibited similar kinetic properties. Both converted cyanidin to a mixture of (+)-epicatechin and (−)-catechin, although in different proportions, indicating that both enzymes possess epimerase activity. These epimers were unexpected based on the belief that tea PAs are made from (−)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin. Ectopic expression of CsANR2 or CsLAR led to the accumulation of low levels of PA precursors and their conjugates in Medicago truncatula hairy roots and anthocyanin-overproducing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), but levels of oligomeric PAs were very low. Surprisingly, the expression of CsLAR in tobacco overproducing anthocyanin led to the accumulation of higher levels of epicatechin and its glucoside than of catechin, again highlighting the potential importance of epimerization in flavan-3-ol biosynthesis. These data provide a resource for understanding tea PA biosynthesis and tools for the bioengineering of flavanols. PMID:23288883

  16. Identification of the invertase gene family (INVs) in tea plant and their expression analysis under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wenjun; Yue, Chuan; Wang, Yuchun; Cao, Hongli; Li, Nana; Wang, Lu; Hao, Xinyuan; Wang, Xinchao; Xiao, Bin; Yang, Yajun

    2016-11-01

    Fourteen invertase genes were identified in the tea plant, all of which were shown to participate in regulating growth and development, as well as in responding to various abiotic stresses. Invertase (INV) can hydrolyze sucrose into glucose and fructose, which plays a principal role in regulating plant growth and development as well as the plants response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. However, currently, there is a lack of reported information, regarding the roles of INVs in either tea plant development or in the tea plants response to various stresses. In this study, 14 INV genes were identified from the transcriptome data of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), and named CsINV1-5 and CsINV7-15. Based on the results of a Blastx search and phylogenetic analysis, the CsINV genes could be clustered into 6 acid invertase (AI) genes and 8 alkaline/neutral invertase (A/N-Inv) genes. The results of tissue-specific expression analysis showed that the transcripts of all the identified CsINV genes are detectable in various tissues. Under various abiotic stress conditions, the expression patterns of the 14 CsINV genes were diverse in both the leaves and roots, and some of them were shown to be significantly expressed. Overall, we hypothesize that the identified CsINV genes all participate in regulating growth and development in the tea plant, and most likely through different signaling pathways that regulate the carbohydrate allocation and the ratio of hexose and sucrose for improving the resistance of the leaves and the roots of the tea plant to various abiotic stresses.

  17. Pestalotiopsis and allied genera from Camellia, with description of 11 new species from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Hou, Lingwei; Raza, Mubashar; Cai, Lei

    2017-04-13

    A total of 124 Pestalotiopsis-like isolates associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic tissues of Camellia sinensis and other Camellia spp. from eight provinces in China were investigated. Based on single- and multi-locus (ITS, TEF, TUB2) phylogenies, as well as morphological characters, host associations and geographical distributions, they were classified into at least 19 species in three genera, i.e. Neopestalotiopsis, Pestalotiopsis and Pseudopestalotiopsis. Eight novel species in Pestalotiopsis and three novel species in Pseudopestalotiopsis were described. Our data suggested that the currently widely used loci in Pestalotiopsis-like genera do not consistently provide stable and sufficient resolution tree topologies, especially for Neopestalotiopsis. Moreover, the number, branch pattern and length of the conidial basal appendages were revealed to be phylogenetically informative characters in Pestalotiopsis.

  18. Global Transcriptional Analysis Reveals the Complex Relationship between Tea Quality, Leaf Senescence and the Responses to Cold-Drought Combined Stress in Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chao; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Zhao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In field conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, tea plants are often simultaneously exposed to various abiotic stresses such as cold and drought, which have profound effects on leaf senescence process and tea quality. However, most studies of gene expression in stress responses focus on a single inciting agent, and the confounding effect of multiple stresses on crop quality and leaf senescence remain unearthed. Here, global transcriptome profiles of tea leaves under separately cold and drought stress were compared with their combination using RNA-Seq technology. This revealed that tea plants shared a large overlap in unigenes displayed “similar” (26%) expression pattern and avoid antagonistic responses (lowest level of “prioritized” mode: 0%) to exhibit very congruent responses to co-occurring cold and drought stress; 31.5% differential expressed genes and 38% of the transcriptome changes in response to combined stresses were unpredictable from cold or drought single-case studies. We also identified 319 candidate genes for enhancing plant resistance to combined stress. We then investigated the combined effect of cold and drought on tea quality and leaf senescence. Our results showed that drought-induced leaf senescence were severely delayed by (i) modulation of a number of senescence-associated genes and cold responsive genes, (ii) enhancement of antioxidant capacity, (iii) attenuation of lipid degradation, (iv) maintenance of cell wall and photosynthetic system, (v) alteration of senescence-induced sugar effect/sensitivity, as well as (vi) regulation of secondary metabolism pathways that significantly influence the quality of tea during combined stress. Therefore, care should be taken when utilizing a set of stresses to try and maximize leaf longevity and tea quality. PMID:28018394

  19. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  20. Dynamic calibration approach for determining catechins and gallic acid in green tea using LC-ESI/MS.

    PubMed

    Bedner, Mary; Duewer, David L

    2011-08-15

    Catechins and gallic acid are antioxidant constituents of Camellia sinensis, or green tea. Liquid chromatography with both ultraviolet (UV) absorbance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI/MS) detection was used to determine catechins and gallic acid in three green tea matrix materials that are commonly used as dietary supplements. The results from both detection modes were evaluated with 14 quantitation models, all of which were based on the analyte response relative to an internal standard. Half of the models were static, where quantitation was achieved with calibration factors that were constant over an analysis set. The other half were dynamic, with calibration factors calculated from interpolated response factor data at each time a sample was injected to correct for potential variations in analyte response over time. For all analytes, the relatively nonselective UV responses were found to be very stable over time and independent of the calibrant concentration; comparable results with low variability were obtained regardless of the quantitation model used. Conversely, the highly selective MS responses were found to vary both with time and as a function of the calibrant concentration. A dynamic quantitation model based on polynomial data-fitting was used to reduce the variability in the quantitative results using the MS data.

  1. DNA barcode and identification of the varieties and provenances of Taiwan's domestic and imported made teas using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yen, Cheng-En; Chang, Chieh

    2017-04-01

    The major aim of made tea identification is to identify the variety and provenance of the tea plant. The present experiment used 113 tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] housed at the Tea Research and Extension Substation, from which 113 internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) fragments, 104 trnL intron, and 98 trnL-trnF intergenic sequence region DNA sequences were successfully sequenced. The similarity of the ITS2 nucleotide sequences between tea plants housed at the Tea Research and Extension Substation was 0.379-0.994. In this polymerase chain reaction-amplified noncoding region, no varieties possessed identical sequences. Compared with the trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic sequence fragments of chloroplast cpDNA, the proportion of ITS2 nucleotide sequence variation was large and is more suitable for establishing a DNA barcode database to identify tea plant varieties. After establishing the database, 30 imported teas and 35 domestic made teas were used in this model system to explore the feasibility of using ITS2 sequences to identify the varieties and provenances of made teas. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using ITS2 sequences with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, which indicated that the same variety of tea plant is likely to be successfully categorized into one cluster, but contamination from other tea plants was also detected. This result provides molecular evidence that the similarity between important tea varieties in Taiwan remains high. We suggest a direct, wide collection of made tea and original samples of tea plants to establish an ITS2 sequence molecular barcode identification database to identify the varieties and provenances of tea plants. The DNA barcode comparison method can satisfy the need for a rapid, low-cost, frontline differentiation of the large amount of made teas from Taiwan and abroad, and can provide molecular evidence of their varieties and provenances. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of tea catechin mixture in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Law, Francis C P; Yao, Meicun; Bi, Hui-Chang; Lam, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Although green tea ( Camellia sinensis) (GT) contains a large number of polyphenolic compounds with anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative activities, little is known of the pharmacokinetics and tissue dose of tea catechins (TCs) as a chemical mixture in humans. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of tea catechin mixture (TCM) in rats and humans, and to predict an integrated or total concentration of TCM in the plasma of humans after consuming GT or Polyphenon E (PE). To this end, a PBPK model of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) consisting of 13 first-order, blood flow-limited tissue compartments was first developed in rats. The rat model was scaled up to humans by replacing its physiological parameters, pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue/blood partition coefficients (PCs) with human-specific values. Both rat and human EGCg models were then extrapolated to other TCs by substituting its physicochemical parameters, pharmacokinetic parameters, and PCs with catechin-specific values. Finally, a PBPK model of TCM was constructed by linking three rat (or human) tea catechin models together without including a description for pharmacokinetic interaction between the TCs. The mixture PBPK model accurately predicted the pharmacokinetic behaviors of three individual TCs in the plasma of rats and humans after GT or PE consumption. Model-predicted total TCM concentration in the plasma was linearly related to the dose consumed by humans. The mixture PBPK model is able to translate an external dose of TCM into internal target tissue doses for future safety assessment and dose-response analysis studies in humans. The modeling framework as described in this paper is also applicable to the bioactive chemical in other plant-based health products.

  3. Transcriptome sequencing dissection of the mechanisms underlying differential cold sensitivity in young and mature leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Na-Na; Yue, Chuan; Cao, Hong-Li; Qian, Wen-Jun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wang, Lu; Ding, Chang-Qing; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    The tea plant originated in tropical and subtropical regions and experiences considerable challenges during cold winters and late spring frosts. After short-term chilling stress, young leaves of tea plants exhibit browning, a significant increase in electrolyte leakage and a marked decrease in the maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ) compared with mature leaves. To identify the mechanisms underlying the different chilling tolerance between young and mature leaves of the tea plant, we used Illumina RNA-Seq technology to analyse the transcript expression profiles of young and mature leaves exposed to temperatures of 20 °C, 4 °C, and 0 °C for 4 h. A total of 45.70-72.93 million RNA-Seq raw reads were obtained and then de novo assembled into 228,864 unigenes with an average length of 601 bp and an N50 of 867 bp. In addition, the differentially expressed unigenes were identified via Venn diagram analyses for paired comparisons of young and mature leaves. Functional classifications based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that the up-regulated differentially expressed genes were predominantly related to the cellular component terms of chloroplasts and cell membranes, the biological process term of oxidation-reduction process as well as the pathway terms of glutathione metabolism and photosynthesis, suggesting that these components and pathways may contribute to the cold hardiness of mature leaves. Conversely, the inhibited expression of genes related to cell membranes, carotenoid metabolism, photosynthesis, and ROS detoxification in young leaves under cold conditions might lead to the disintegration of cell membranes and oxidative damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Further quantitative real-time PCR testing validated the reliability of our RNA-Seq results. This work provides valuable information for understanding the mechanisms underlying the cold susceptibility of young

  4. Effect of different drying methods on chemical composition and bioactivity of tea polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Liu, Yangyang; Huo, Jianglei; Zhaoa, Xintong; Zhao, Tingtong; Zheng, Jian; Ren, Jian; Wei, Xinlin

    2013-11-01

    Four polysaccharides (TPS-F, TPS-V, TPS-S and TPS-M) were obtained from tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves by freeze-drying, vacuum-drying, spray-drying and microwave-vacuum drying, respectively. Their chemical composition and biological properties were comparatively studied. The results showed these TPS were similar in IR, UV absorption and distribution of molecular weight. However, they showed significant differences (P<0.05) in yields of crude polysaccharides and contents of protein and total polyphenols. Furthermore, morphological analysis showed their surface differed from each other in size and shape when viewed by SEM, from which surface of TPS-F was rough and porous, surface of TPS-S was evenly particles, and surfaces of the other two were similar to anomalistic bricks. In addition, the bioactivity of them was also evaluated. It was found TPS-F exhibited relatively better ability on metal chelating and superoxide radicals scavenging assays than others, and TPS-V exhibited higher ability on α-glycosidase and α-amylase inhibition assays than others with inhibitory percentages of 82.75% and 92.8%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenolic compounds as antioxidants and chemopreventive drugs from Streptomyces cellulosae strain TES17 isolated from rhizosphere of Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Rani, Riveka; Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Jeevanjot; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

    2018-03-09

    strain TES17 isolated from the rhizosphere of Camellia sinensis (tea) plant; produces potent compounds with antioxidant activity, further might be developed into therapeutic drugs to combat oxidative stress.

  6. Content Variation of Catechin Markers, Total Phenolics and Caffeine in Green Tea Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Abourashed, Ehab A; Roberson, Cindy Leslie A; Elsharkawy, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) preparations are among the top selling products in the United States dietary supplements market. Numerous manufacturers claim different levels of specific catechin markers in their products while many others use total phenolic concentration instead, or not at all. Limited quality control results have been published for green tea dietary supplements over the past seven years. Thus, the goal of this work was to correlate determined levels of phenolics, catechins, and caffeine with manufacturer label claims for selected dietary supplement products (26 total) purchased in the United States. The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method was used to determine the total phenolic content while reversed-phase (RP) HPLC was used to quantify the major catechins: epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The developed HPLC method was validated for accuracy and precision. It utilized a C8 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile in 0.1% aqueous formic acid over 11 min total run time. Peak detection was performed at 280 nm. Caffeine was also included in the HPLC method as another non-phenolic alkaloid marker commonly found in green tea. Both methods showed a good correlation between the content of catechins and polyphenolic compounds in the selected products. The ranges of total catechins and polyphenol concentrations were 3.8-70.2% and 3.6-95.8%, respectively, while that of caffeine was 0.8-11.2%. The selected products displayed a wide range of marker levels. A lack of conformity in disclosing the actual levels of marker compounds was also noticed in the labeling of many products.

  7. Antimicrobial Traits of Tea- and Cranberry-Derived Polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, S.; Murata, R.M.; Duarte, S.

    2011-01-01

    There are over 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the human oral cavity, but only a small fraction of those are attributed to causing plaque-related diseases such as caries. Streptococcus mutans is accepted as the main cariogenic agent and there is substantial knowledge regarding the specific virulence factors that render the organism a pathogen. There has been rising interest in alternative, target-specific treatment options as opposed to nonspecific mechanical plaque removal or application of broad-spectrum antibacterials that are currently in use. The impact of diet on oral health is undeniable, and this is directly observable in populations that consume high quantities of polyphenol-rich foods or beverages. Such populations have low caries incidence and better overall oral health. Camellia sinensis, the plant from which various forms of tea are derived, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (American cranberry fruit) have received notable attention both for their prevalence in the human diet as well as for their unique composition of polyphenols. The biologically active constituents of these plants have demonstrated potent enzyme-inhibitory properties without being bactericidal, a key quality that is important in developing therapies that will not cause microorganisms to develop resistance. The aim of this review is to consider studies that have investigated the feasibility of tea, cranberry, and other select plant derivatives as a potential basis for alternative therapeutic agents against Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate their current and future clinical relevance. PMID:21720161

  8. Comparative toxicity effect of bush tea leaves (Hyptis suaveolens) and orange peel (Citrus sinensis) oil extract on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Amusan, A A S; Idowu, A B; Arowolo, F S

    2005-09-01

    The ethanolic extracts of the orange peel (Citrus sinensis) and bush tea leaves (Hyptis suaveolens) were compared for their toxicity effect on the larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti collected from disused tyres beside College of Natural Sciences building University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Eight graded concentrations, 0.9ppm, 0.8ppm, 0.7ppm, 0.6ppm, 0.5ppm, 0.4ppm, 0.3ppm and 0.2ppm of both plant extracts were tested on the larvae. The mean lethal dose LD10, was 0.15 ppm for C. sinensis, 0.01 for H. suaveolens, while LD50 for C. sinensis was 0.4ppm, H. suaveolens 0.60ppm and LD90 for C. sinensis was 0.9ppm and H. suaveolens was 1.45ppm. LD10 for the control 0.65ppm, LD50 0.9ppm and LD90 2.0 ppm. The extract of C. sinensis peel caused higher mortality rate at concentrations 0.8ppm (95%) and 0.3ppm (90%) of the larvae while the extract of H. suaveolens caused high mortality rate on the larvae at concentrations of 0.9ppm (80%) and 0.3ppm (80%). Significant differences were observed between untreated and treated larvae (exposed to either of the extract) at the various concentrations (P< 0.05).

  9. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Shamekhi, Z; Amani, R; Habibagahi, Z; Namjoyan, F; Ghadiri, Ata; Saki Malehi, A

    2017-07-01

    Antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory benefit of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in autoimmune disease has been proven in recent studies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of green tea on disease activity and quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. A randomized controlled trial on subjects with lupus was conducted, and 68 patients in the age range of 39.1 ± 10.3 years and body mass index of 25.7 ± 5.21 kg/m 2 completed the 12-week study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (1000 mg green tea extract, two capsules/day) and control (1000 mg of starch, two capsules/day). Main outcome measure, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity, was assessed by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index at the first and after 3 months of intervention. In addition, patient's quality of life was evaluated by short form of quality-of-life questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months. Green tea extract supplementation significantly reduced disease activity in lupus patients (p < 0.004); in addition, it significantly increased the vitality (p < 0.006) and general health (p < 0.01). This study showed that daily consumption of green tea extracts for 12 weeks improves the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity as well as some aspects of quality of life. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    PubMed

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of green versus black tea aqueous extract in a rat model of human rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Talaat, Roba M; Abd El-Ghffar, Eman A

    2017-02-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in tea (Camellia sinensis) as a protective agent against inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluated/compared the anti-inflammatory activity of two different doses (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg body weight) of green tea aqueous extract (GTE, rich in catechins) and black tea aqueous extract (BTE, rich in theaflavins and thearubigins) in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model received orally/daily distilled water as vehicle, indomethacin (1.0 mg/kg body weight; a non-steroidal/anti-inflammatory drug), or tea aqueous extracts (for 28 or 14 consecutive days starting from day 0 or 14 of arthritis induction, respectively). The present study showed that only the high dose of GTE (from day 0) significantly alleviated (P < 0.05-0.001) all complications shown in arthritic rats, including synovial joint inflammation, elevation in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood leukocytosis (due to lymphocytosis and neutrocytosis), and changes in weight/cellularity of lymphoid organs. The anti-arthritic activity of the high dose of GTE (from day 0) was comparable (P > 0.05) with that of indomethacin (12.9-53.8 vs. 9.5-48.4%, respectively) and mediated by significantly decreasing and down-regulating (P < 0.001) the systemic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the expression of chemokine receptor-5 in synovial tissues, respectively. Moreover, the anti-arthritic activity of tea aqueous extracts was in the following order: high dose of GTE > low dose of GTE ≥ high dose of BTE > low dose of BTE. The present study proved the anti-inflammatory activity of GTE over BTE and equal to that of indomethacin in AIA rat model. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  13. Identification and Evaluation of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xinyuan; Horvath, David P.; Chao, Wun S.; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao; Xiao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a crucial step in qRT-PCR normalization. To date, only a few housekeeping genes have been identified and used as reference genes in tea plant. The validity of those reference genes are not clear since their expression stabilities have not been rigorously examined. To identify more appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies on tea plant, we examined the expression stability of 11 candidate reference genes from three different sources: the orthologs of Arabidopsis traditional reference genes and stably expressed genes identified from whole-genome GeneChip studies, together with three housekeeping gene commonly used in tea plant research. We evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in 94 experimental samples. The expression stabilities of these 11 genes were ranked using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ∆CT method. Results showed that the three commonly used housekeeping genes of CsTUBULIN1, CsACINT1 and Cs18S rRNA1 together with CsUBQ1 were the most unstable genes in all sample ranking order. However, CsPTB1, CsEF1, CsSAND1, CsCLATHRIN1 and CsUBC1 were the top five appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in complex experimental conditions. PMID:25474086

  14. Formulation of intumescent flame retardant coatings containing natural-based tea saponin.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei; Li, Xiang-Zhou; Wu, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Yan-Xin; Fang, Cong-Cong; Meng, Wei

    2015-03-18

    Natural product tea saponin (TS), extracted from the nutshell of camellia (Camellia oleifera Abel, Theaceae), was introduced into intumescent flame retardant formulations as blowing agent and carbon source. The formulations of the flame retardant system were optimized to get the optimum proportion of TS, and intumescent flame retardant coatings containing tea saponin (TS-IFRCs) were then prepared. It was found that TS can significantly affect the combustion behavior and the thermal stability of TS-IFRCs evaluated by cone calorimetry and simultaneous thermal analyzer, respectively. It was shown that TS, degraded to water vapor and carbon at high temperatures, can combine with other components to form a well-developed char layer. The char layer was supposed to inhibit erosion upon exposure to heat and oxygen and enhance the flame retardancy of TS-IFRCs. In addition, the smoke release of TS-IFRCs was also studied, which provided a low amount of smoke production.

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Caffeine and Theobromine Production

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lu; Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, XiangQi; Han, Jixiang; Deng, WeiWei; Wang, Min; Yu, Oliver; Zhang, Zhengzhu

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine) are the major purine alkaloids in plants, e.g. tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica). Caffeine is a major component of coffee and is used widely in food and beverage industries. Most of the enzymes involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway have been reported previously. Here, we demonstrated the biosynthesis of caffeine (0.38 mg/L) by co-expression of Coffea arabica xanthosine methyltransferase (CaXMT) and Camellia sinensis caffeine synthase (TCS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we endeavored to develop this production platform for making other purine-based alkaloids. To increase the catalytic activity of TCS in an effort to increase theobromine production, we identified four amino acid residues based on structural analyses of 3D-model of TCS. Two TCS1 mutants (Val317Met and Phe217Trp) slightly increased in theobromine accumulation and simultaneously decreased in caffeine production. The application and further optimization of this biosynthetic platform are discussed. PMID:25133732

  16. Structural characteristics for superoxide anion radical scavenging and productive activities of green tea polyphenols including proanthocyanidin dimers.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masashi; Toyazaki, Hajime; Yoshioka, Yu; Yokoi, Nobutoshi; Yamasaki, Toru

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report structural characteristics for superoxide anion radical (O(2(-))) scavenging and productive activities of green tea polyphenols. (-)-Epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), (-)-epigallocatechin (6), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (7), (+)-gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8')-epigallocatechin (8), and (-)-epigallocatechin-(2beta-->O-->7', 4beta-->8')-epicatechin 3'-O-gallate (9) were isolated from the tea plant Camellia sinensis L. (+)-Epigallocatechin-(2beta-->O-->7, 4beta-->8')-epicatechin (10) was prepared by hydrolyzing 9. The polyphenols, as well as commercially available pyrogallol (1), methyl gallate (2), (+)-catechin (3), (-)-epicatechin (4), and the flavonol myricetin (11), produced O(2(-)) in descending order 1, 6 asymptotically equal to11 asymptotically equal to8, 7, 10, 2 asymptotically equal to9, 5 asymptotically equal to4. In the polyphenols with the pyrogallol-type B-ring and/or galloyl group, electron-withdrawing substituents (carbonyl and ketal carbons) and/or intramolecular hydrogen bonding constituted structural characteristics against the autoxidation reaction. The O(2(-))-productive activity partially counteracted O(2(-))-scavenging activity. However, such structural characteristics appeared to enhance the scavenging activity, accordingly the polyphenols in effect served as O(2(-))-scavengers in descending order 9 asymptotically equal to7, 2, 11, 8, 10, 3 asymptotically equal to4. On the other hand, 6, having no such structural characteristic, acted as a O(2(-))-generator, as well as 1. Further assessments covering tannins (e.g., A-type proanthocyanidin dimer 9) are needed to identify which green tea polyphenols are the most desirable chemopreventive agents.

  17. Overexpression of a tea flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene confers tolerance to salt stress and Alternaria solani in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Monika; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Flavan-3-ols are the major flavonoids present in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves. These are known to have antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties in vitro. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase is considered to be an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway leading to accumulation of flavan-3-ols in tea. Expression analysis revealed the upregulation in transcript levels of C. sinensis flavanone 3-hydroxylase (CsF3H) encoding gene under salt stress. In this study, the biotechnological potential of CsF3H was evaluated by gene overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Overexpression of CsF3H cDNA increased the content of flavan-3-ols in tobacco and conferred tolerance to salt stress and fungus Alternaria solani infection. Transgenic tobaccos were observed for increase in primary root length, number of lateral roots, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme expression and their activities. Also, they showed lesser malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage compared to control tobacco plants. Further, transgenic plants produced higher degree of pectin methyl esterification via decreasing pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity in roots and leaves under unstressed and salt stressed conditions. The effect of flavan-3-ols on pectin methyl esterification under salt stressed conditions was further validated through in vitro experiments in which non-transgenic (wild) tobacco seedlings were exposed to salt stress in presence of flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and epigallocatechin. The in vitro exposed seedlings showed similar trend of increase in pectin methyl esterification through decreasing PME activity as observed in CsF3H transgenic lines. Taken together, overexpression of CsF3H provided tolerance to salt stress and fungus A. solani infection to transgenic tobacco through improved antioxidant system and enhanced pectin methyl esterification.

  18. Diversity analysis of diazotrophic bacteria associated with the roots of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    PubMed

    Gulati, Arvind; Sood, Swati; Rahi, Praveen; Thakur, Rishu; Chauhan, Sunita; Chawla, Isha

    2011-06-01

    The diversity elucidation by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of 96 associative diazotrophs, isolated from the feeder roots of tea on enriched nitrogen-free semisolid media, revealed the predominance of Gram-positive over Gram-negative bacteria within the Kangra valley in Himachal Pradesh, India. The Gram-positive bacteria observed belong to two taxonomic groupings; Firmicutes, including the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus; and Actinobacteria, represented by the genus Microbacterium. The Gram-negative bacteria included alpha-Proteobacteria genera Brevundimonas, Rhizobium, and Mesorhizobium; gamma-Proteobacteria genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas; and beta-Proteobacteria genera Azospira, Burkholderia, Delftia, Herbaspirillum and Ralstonia. The low level of similarity of two isolates, with the type strains Paenibacillus xinjiangensis and Mesorhizobium albiziae, suggests the possibility of raising species novum. The bacterial strains of different phylogenetic groups exhibited distinct carbon-source utilization patterns and fatty acid methyl ester profiles. The strains differed in their nitrogenase activities with relatively high activity seen in the Gramnegative strains exhibiting the highest similarity to Azospira oryzae, Delftia lacustris and Herbaspirillum huttiense.

  19. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers using acrylamide-β-cyclodextrin as a cofunctional monomer for the specific capture of tea saponins from the defatted cake extract of Camellia oleifera.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiqin; Xiong, Jingjing; Ma, Wentian; Wu, Minghuo; Yan, Liushui; Li, Kexin; Liu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using mixed tea saponins as a template and acrylamide-β-cyclodextrin as a cofunctional monomer for the specific binding and purification of tea saponins from the defatted cake extract of Camellia oleifera. The adsorption properties of the prepared polymers were systematically evaluated including adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and selective recognition characteristics. It showed that the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R 2 = 0.995) with an equilibrium time of 3 h, adsorption isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir-Freundlich model (R 2 = 0.984) with an adsorption capacity of 14.23 mg/g. The relative selectivity coefficient (k´) in the presence of the analogues glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid were 1.16 and 17.21, respectively. The performance of the molecularly imprinted polymers as solid-phase extraction materials was investigated and the results indicated that using acrylamide-β-cyclodextrin as a cofunctional monomer improved both the adsorption capacity and active sites stability of the imprinted polymers. The solid-phase extraction using the polymers as packing materials was subsequently applied for the separation of tea saponins in raw C. oleifera press extract, and targets were obtained with a purity reaching 89%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Tea polyphenols as an antivirulence compound Disrupt Quorum-Sensing Regulated Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Honging; Deng, Yifeng; Wang, Huafu; Liu, Wugao; Zhuang, Xiyi; Chu, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, a water extract of non-fermented leaves of Camellia sinensis L., is one of the nonalcoholic beverages in China. It is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because of its refreshing, mild stimulant and medicinal properties. Here we examined the quorum sensing inhibitory potentials of tea polyphenols (TP) as antivirulence compounds both in vitro and in vivo. Biosensor assay data suggested minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TP against selected pathogens were 6.25 ~ 12.5 mg/mL. At sub-MIC, TP can specifically inhibit the production of violacein in Chromobacterium violaceum 12472 with almost 98% reduction at 3.125 mg/mL without affecting its growth rate. Moreover, TP exhibited inhibitory effects on virulence phenotypes regulated by QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total proteolytic activity, elastase, swarming motility and biofilm formation were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, TP treatment resulted in the reduction of P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. When its concentration was 3.125 mg/mL, the survival rate reached 63.3%. In the excision wound infection model, the wound contraction percentage in treatment groups was relatively increased and the colony-forming units (CFU) in the wound area were significantly decreased. These results suggested that TP could be developed as a novel non-antibiotic QS inhibitor without killing the bacteria but as an antivirulence compound to control bacterial infection. PMID:26548447

  1. Tea enhances insulin activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A; Polansky, Marilyn M

    2002-11-20

    The most widely known health benefits of tea relate to the polyphenols as the principal active ingredients in protection against oxidative damage and in antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic activities, but polyphenols in tea may also increase insulin activity. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin-enhancing properties of tea and its components. Tea, as normally consumed, was shown to increase insulin activity >15-fold in vitro in an epididymal fat cell assay. Black, green, and oolong teas but not herbal teas, which are not teas in the traditional sense because they do not contain leaves of Camellia senensis, were all shown to increase insulin activity. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of tea extracts utilizing a Waters SymmetryPrep C18 column showed that the majority of the insulin-potentiating activity for green and oolong teas was due to epigallocatechin gallate. For black tea, the activity was present in several regions of the chromatogram corresponding to, in addition to epigallocatechin gallate, tannins, theaflavins, and other undefined compounds. Several known compounds found in tea were shown to enhance insulin with the greatest activity due to epigallocatechin gallate followed by epicatechin gallate, tannins, and theaflavins. Caffeine, catechin, and epicatechin displayed insignificant insulin-enhancing activities. Addition of lemon to the tea did not affect the insulin-potentiating activity. Addition of 5 g of 2% milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity one-third, and addition of 50 g of milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity approximately 90%. Nondairy creamers and soy milk also decreased the insulin-enhancing activity. These data demonstrate that tea contains in vitro insulin-enhancing activity and the predominant active ingredient is epigallocatechin gallate.

  2. Effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Radafshar, Golpar; Ghotbizadeh, Mahshid; Saadat, Farshid; Mirfarhadi, Nastaran

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of Iranian green tea mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis. In this randomized, double-blinded, parallel, controlled clinical trial, 40 volunteer dental students with a gingival index ≥1 were enrolled. At baseline, gingival, plaque, and bleeding indices were recorded and all the participants received dental polishing. Based on random allocation, 20 participants used the test and 20 used chlorhexidine mouthwash with no change in regular toothbrushing methods. The participants were asked to use 15 mL of the respective mouthwash for 1 min, twice a day for 28 days. All indices, as well as stain index, were recorded after 1 and 4 weeks post-rinsing. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Significant in-group differences, but not between-group differences, were observed in all indices after 1 and 4 weeks compared to baseline. The test mouthwash resulted in significantly less tooth staining than the control. The 1% tannin green tea mouthwash could be a safe and feasible adjunct to mechanical plaque control. The tested green tea mouthwash could be considered a good alternative for chlorhexidine in contraindicating situations. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, Paulo C; Costa-Souza, Elaine; Zala, Marcello; Furtado, Edson L; Souza, Nilton L

    2012-04-01

    The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR) caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA), to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2). As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

  4. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies

    PubMed Central

    Ceresini, Paulo C.; Costa-Souza, Elaine; Zala, Marcello; Furtado, Edson L.; Souza, Nilton L.

    2012-01-01

    The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR) caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA), to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2). As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. PMID:22888299

  5. Anion Channel Inhibitor NPPB-Inhibited Fluoride Accumulation in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Is Related to the Regulation of Ca2+, CaM and Depolarization of Plasma Membrane Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Hong-Hong; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea plant is known to be a hyper-accumulator of fluoride (F). Over-intake of F has been shown to have adverse effects on human health, e.g., dental fluorosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms fluoride accumulation and developing potential approaches to decrease F uptake in tea plants might be beneficial for human health. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with the anion channel inhibitor NPPB reduced F accumulation in tea plants. Simultaneously, we observed that NPPB triggered Ca2+ efflux from mature zone of tea root and significantly increased relative CaM in tea roots. Besides, pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) and CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP) suppressed NPPB-elevated cytosolic Ca2+ fluorescence intensity and CaM concentration in tea roots, respectively. Interestingly, NPPB-inhibited F accumulation was found to be significantly alleviated in tea plants pretreated with either Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) or CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP). In addition, NPPB significantly depolarized membrane potential transiently and we argue that the net Ca2+ and H+ efflux across the plasma membrane contributed to the restoration of membrane potential. Overall, our results suggest that regulation of Ca2+-CaM and plasma membrane potential depolarization are involved in NPPB-inhibited F accumulation in tea plants. PMID:26742036

  6. Stability of a Cosmetic Multiple Emulsion Loaded with Green Tea Extract

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

    2013-01-01

    Multiple emulsions are excellent and exciting potential systems for the delivery of useful cosmetic agents. The work describes stability of a multiple emulsion for cosmetic purpose, loaded with extract of Camellia sinensis L. (Theaceae) in concentration of 5%. The formulation constitutes of cetyl dimethicone copolyol and polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether as emulsifiers and was characterised and monitored for various physicochemical aspects. Centrifugation has no devastating effect on physical destabilization/phase separation observed for 30 days. Mean globule sizes of multiple droplets were found in the range of 10.29 ± 4.4 μm to 12.77 ± 5.1 μm and of inner droplets were in the range of 0.8 ± 0.4 μm to 1.6 ± 0.8 μm. All samples exhibited shear thinning behavior with increase in shear stress. The results of the present study indicate that multiple emulsions can be used as carrier of 5% Camellia sinensis L. extract to enhance desired effects. The developed physically and chemically stable system is an effective system for targeting skin layers; however, long-term stability at elevated temperatures may be needed with suitable modifications, if required. PMID:24058284

  7. Effects of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) on functional characteristics of gluten-free crackers.

    PubMed

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Tsao, Rong

    2014-03-01

    A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers. All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves. Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9. This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product. Hemp seed oil press-cake as a by-product of cold-pressed oil processing and brown rice flour were used to design a functional gluten-free snack-type product-savory crackers. All crackers were high in minerals, fibers, and omega-3 fatty acids with a desirable omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio. Green tea leaves were added to improve antioxidant activity, which greatly

  8. In vitro and in vivo anti-allergic effects of ‘benifuuki’ green tea containing O-methylated catechin and ginger extract enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Ema, Kaori; Shibuichi, Ikuo

    2007-01-01

    ‘Benifuuki’, a tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) cultivar in Japan, is rich in anti-allergic epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3″Me). ‘Benifuuki’ green tea and simultaneous addition of ginger extract remarkably suppressed cytokine (TNF-α and MIP-1α) secretion from mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells after antigen stimulation and, as expected, suppressed delay-type allergy. After drinking ‘benifuuki’ green tea containing 43.5 mg of EGCG and 8.5 mg of EGCG3″Me, the AUC (area under the drug concentration time curve; min μg/ml) of EGCG was 6.72 ± 2.87 and EGCG3″Me was 8.48 ± 2.54 in healthy human volunteers. Though the dose of EGCG was 5.1 times the dose of EGCG3″Me, the AUC of EGCG3″Me was higher than that of EGCG. A double blind clinical study on subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis was carried out. At the 11th week after starting the study, in the most severe cedar pollen scattering period, symptoms, i.e., blowing the nose and itching eyes, were significantly relieved in the ‘benifuuki’ intake group compared with the placebo group, and blowing the nose, itching eyes and nasal symptom score, and at the 11th and 13th weeks, stuffy nose, throat pain and the nasal symptom medication score were significantly relieved in the ‘benifuuki’ containing ginger extract group compared with the placebo group. These results suggested that over one consecutive month, drinking ‘benifuuki’ green tea was useful to reduce some of the symptoms from Japanese cedar pollinosis, and did not affect any normal immune response in subjects with seasonal rhinitis, and the ginger extract enhanced the effect of ‘benifuuki’ green tea. PMID:19003003

  9. Spray drying of lipid-based systems loaded with Camellia sinensis polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Secolin, Vanessa A; Souza, Claudia R F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2017-03-01

    In this work, spray-dried lipid systems based on soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and lauroyl polyoxylglycerides for entrapping Green tea polyphenols were produced. The aim was to study the effects of the encapsulating composition and spray drying conditions on the system performance and physicochemical product properties. The spray dryer powder production yield falls around 50.7 ± 2.8%, which is typical for lab scale spray dryers. Wrinkled and rounded particles, with low surface porosities were generated, independent of the drying carriers (trehalose or lactose) used. The product showed high encapsulation efficiency of Green tea polyphenols, which was promptly redispersible in water. It presented low density, and good compressive and flow properties. The results herein reported confirm the feasibility of the entrapment of Green tea polyphenols in lipid-based compositions by spray drying in presence of the drying carriers evaluated. The spray-dried microparticles show high potential to be used as additive in food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products.

  10. Carbonic anhydrase from Camelia sinensis (tea) leaves.

    PubMed

    Demir, Y; Demir, N; Ağar, G

    1997-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (carbonate hydrolyase; E,C,4.2.1.1) from leaves of mature Camelia sinensis was purified and characterized. The purification level was 53 fold. The optimum temperature for maximal enzyme activity is 50 degrees C. The optimum pH was 6.8 and this pH varied between 6.5 and 7.5. Each enzyme molecule is a hexamer with an M(r) of 169,000 with subunits of M(r) = 28,000.

  11. Protective effects of green tea on olanzapine-induced-metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Lookian, Fariba; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Atypical antipsychotics particularly olanzapine are associated with obesity and serious metabolic disturbances. As green tea (Camellia sinensis) is generally associated with beneficial effects on obesity and other metabolic disturbances, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea aqueous extract (GTAE) on olanzapine induced weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: control, olanzapine (5mg/kg/day, IP.), GTAE (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day, IP.) plus olanzapine and GTAE (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day, IP.). Treatments were continued for 11 days. Body weight gain, average food and water intake were measured during the experiment. Plasma lipid, glucose and leptin levels, mean systolic blood pressure and total locomotion were evaluated at the end of experiment. Olanzapine induced significant weight gain at the end of treatment (10.38% of body weight) when compared to control (3.13% of body weight) in male Wistar rats. Average food and water intake were increased by olanzapine treatment. 11days olanzapine administration led to hyperleptinemia, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Olanzapine also increased mean systolic blood pressure and decreased total locomotion. GTAE decreased significantly body weight gain and average food and water intake, improved the changes in lipid profile as well as fasting blood glucose, and finally decreased hyperleptinemia and hypertension induced by olanzapine. Results of this study demonstrated that GTAE could exert protective effects against olanzapine induced obesity partially due to its lowering effect on leptin. GTAE improved other metabolic abnormalities including dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension induced by olanzapine in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. White tea intake prevents prediabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in testis and epididymis preserving sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Rato, Luís; Casal, Susana; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-11-01

    Prediabetes has been associated with alterations in male reproductive tract, especially in testis and epididymis. Moreover, in vitro studies described a promising action of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) against metabolic dysfunctions. Herein, we hypothesized that white tea (WTEA) ingestion by prediabetic animals could ameliorate the metabolic alterations induced by the disease in testicular and epididymal tissues, preserving sperm quality. WTEA infusion was prepared and its phytochemical profile was evaluated by 1 H-NMR. A streptozotocin-induced prediabetic rat model was developed and three experimental groups were defined: control, prediabetic (PreDM) and prediabetic drinking WTEA (PreDM+WTEA). Metabolic profiles of testis and epididymis were evaluated by determining the metabolites content ( 1 H-NMR), protein levels (western blot) and enzymatic activities of key metabolic intervenient. The quality of spermatozoa from cauda epididymis was also assessed. Prediabetes increased glucose transporter 3 protein levels and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity in testis, resulting in a lower lactate content. WTEA ingestion led to a metabolic adaptation to restore testicular lactate content. Concerning epididymis, prediabetes decreased the protein levels of several metabolic intervenient, resulting in decreased lactate and alanine content. WTEA consumption restored most of the evidenced alterations, however, not lactate content. WTEA also improved epididymal sperm motility and restored sperm viability. Prediabetes strongly affected testicular and epididymal metabolic status and most of these alterations were restored by WTEA consumption, resulting in the improvement of sperm quality. Our results suggest that WTEA consumption can be a cost-effective strategy to improve prediabetes-induced reproductive dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Assessment of Copper, Iron, and Zinc Contents in Selected Indian (Assam) and South African (Thohoyandou) Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Samples and Their Infusion: A Quest for Health Risks to Consumer.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Kutu, Funso Raphael; Mehra, Aradhana; Khare, Puja; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Bora, Krishnamoni; Boruah, Romesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The current study aims to assess the infusion pattern of three important micronutrients namely copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) contents from black tea samples produced in Assam (India) and Thohoyandou (South Africa). Average daily intakes and hazardous quotient were reported for these micronutrients. Total content for Cu, Fe, and Zn varied from 2.25 to 48.82 mg kg -1 , 14.75 to 148.18 mg kg -1 , and 28.48 to 106.68 mg kg -1 , respectively. The average contents of each of the three micronutrients were higher in tea leaves samples collected from South Africa than those from India while the contents in tea infusions in Indian samples were higher than in South African tea samples. Results of this study revealed that the consumption of 600 mL tea infusion produced from 24 g of made tea per day may be beneficial to human in terms of these micronutrients content. Application of nonparametric tests revealed that most of the data sets do not satisfy the normality assumptions. Hence, the use of both parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis that subsequently revealed significant differences in elemental contents among Indian and South African tea.

  14. The use of teetaimed in Estonia, 1880s-1990s.

    PubMed

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo

    2012-10-01

    This research contributes to a better understanding of the criteria used for the selection of plants for making beverages. Worldwide, not only the leaves of Camellia sinensis, but also various other plants are used for making tea. We argue that the selection of plants for making tea (in Estonian teetaimed) depends on specific features possessed by or attributed to the plants. 54 plant taxa and one lichen were identified as being used for making tea, based on the analysis of Estonian historical handwritten archival records on plant use for the period from 1887 to 1994. The influence of popular literature on the use of plants for making tea was also assessed. The suitability of a plant for making tea depends on a combination of factors like multifunctional use, mild taste and attributed medicinal properties. The variety of medicinal properties attributed to teetaimed in folk medicine allowed herbal tea drinking to be considered as mild disease prevention. Hence, the roots of the Estonian tea tradition lie in the medicinal use of the plants, not oriental ceremonial tea drinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Camellias for zone 6b

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent hybridization of camellias has yielded several selections recognized as cold hardy to USDA Hardiness Zone 6. Several of the cold hardy camellias, in an established camellia evaluation since 2004, were damaged with foliar bronzing and stem dieback after a severe freeze in November 2013 in McMi...

  16. Solubilization of Tea Seed Oil in a Food-Grade Water-Dilutable Microemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lingli; Que, Fei; Wei, Hewen; Xu, Guangwei; Dong, Xiaowei; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.). The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w) as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil) could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase (< 35% water) to the bicontinuous phase (40–45% water) and finally to the oil-in-water phase (> 45% water) along the dilution line. PMID:25996147

  17. Solubilization of tea seed oil in a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lingli; Que, Fei; Wei, Hewen; Xu, Guangwei; Dong, Xiaowei; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.). The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w) as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil) could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase (< 35% water) to the bicontinuous phase (40-45% water) and finally to the oil-in-water phase (> 45% water) along the dilution line.

  18. Metabolic Flux Redirection and Transcriptomic Reprogramming in the Albino Tea Cultivar ‘Yu-Jin-Xiang’ with an Emphasis on Catechin Production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Feng, Lin; Gao, Li-Ping; Gao, Ming-Jun; Gruber, Margaret Y.; Zhang, Zhao-Liang; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, shade-induced conversion from a young pale/yellow leaf phenotype to a green leaf phenotype was studied using metabolic and transcriptomic profiling and the albino cultivar ‘Yu-Jin-Xiang’ (‘YJX’) of Camellia sinensis for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the phenotype shift and the altered catechin and theanine production. Shaded leaf greening resulted from an increase in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid abundance and chloroplast development. A total of 1,196 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the ‘YJX’ pale and shaded green leaves, and these DEGs affected ‘chloroplast organization’ and ‘response to high light’ besides many other biological processes and pathways. Metabolic flux redirection and transcriptomic reprogramming were found in flavonoid and carotenoid pathways of the ‘YJX’ pale leaves and shaded green leaves to different extents compared to the green cultivar ‘Shu-Cha-Zao’. Enhanced production of the antioxidant quercetin rather than catechin biosynthesis was correlated positively with the enhanced transcription of FLAVONOL SYNTHASE and FLAVANONE/FLAVONOL HYDROXYLASES leading to quercetin accumulation and negatively correlated to suppressed LEUCOANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE, ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE and SYNTHASE leading to catechin biosynthesis. The altered levels of quercetin and catechins in ‘YJX’ will impact on its tea flavor and health benefits. PMID:28332598

  19. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (I).

    PubMed

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Badea, Mihaela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dima, Lorena; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered.

  20. Potent suppressing activity of the non-polyphenolic fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against genotoxin-induced umu C gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002)--association with pheophytins a and b.

    PubMed

    Okai, Y; Higashi-Okai, K

    1997-11-25

    Antigenotoxic and antimutagenic activities of green tea extract and tea-derived polyphenols have been studied using in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, antigenotoxic substances in the non-polyphenolic fraction of green tea have been poorly elucidated. In the present study, the effect of the non-polyphenolic fraction of green tea on genotoxin-induced umu C gene expression was analyzed using a tester bacteria, and potent antigenotoxic substances in the non-polyphenolic fraction were identified. The non-polyphenolic fraction of green tea showed strong suppressive activities against umu C gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535/pSK 1002) induced by 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol (Trp-P-1) or mitomycin C (MMC) in the presence or absence of S9 metabolizing enzyme mixture. The non-polyphenolic fraction of green tea exhibited major two-color bands in a silica gel TLC and they were identified as chlorophyll-related compounds, pheophytins a and b, judged by their specific colors, Rf values in silica gel TLC and absorption spectra. These pigments showed significant suppressive activities against umu C gene expression in tester bacteria induced by Trp-P- and MMC in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the non-polyphenolic fraction of green tea contains pheophytins a and b as potent antigenotoxic substances.

  1. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Green tea component EGCG, insulin and IGF-1 promote nuclear efflux of atrophy-associated transcription factor Foxo1 in skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Robert J; Russell, Sarah J; Schneider, Martin F

    2015-12-01

    Prevention and slowing of skeletal muscle atrophy with nutritional approaches offers the potential to provide far-reaching improvements in the quality of life for our increasingly aging population. Here we show that polyphenol flavonoid epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), found in the popular beverage green tea (Camellia sinensis), demonstrates similar effects to the endogenous hormones insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin in the ability to suppress action of the atrophy-promoting transcription factor Foxo1 through a net translocation of Foxo1 out of the nucleus as monitored by nucleo-cytoplasmic movement of Foxo1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live skeletal muscle fibers. Foxo1-GFP nuclear efflux is rapid in IGF-1 or insulin, but delayed by an additional 30 min for EGCG. Once activated, kinetic analysis with a simple mathematical model shows EGCG, IGF-1 and insulin all produce similar apparent rate constants for Foxo1-GFP unidirectional nuclear influx and efflux. Interestingly, EGCG appears to have its effect at least partially via parallel signaling pathways that are independent of IGF-1's (and insulin's) downstream PI3K/Akt/Foxo1 signaling axis. Using the live fiber model system, we also determine the dose-response curve for both IGF-1 and insulin on Foxo1 nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution. The continued understanding of the activation mechanisms of EGCG could allow for nutritional promotion of green tea's antiatrophy skeletal muscle benefits and have implications in the development of a clinically significant parallel pathway for new drugs to target muscle wasting and the reduced insulin receptor sensitivity which causes type II diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of a novel hedycaryol synthase gene isolated from Camellia brevistyla flowers and floral scent of Camellia cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hattan, Jun-ichiro; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ito, Tomoko; Shibuya, Yurica; Watanabe, Arisa; Tagaki, Chie; Ohno, Fumina; Sasaki, Tetsuya; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko; Misawa, Norihiko

    2016-04-01

    A novel terpene synthase (Tps) gene isolated from Camellia brevistyla was identified as hedycaryol synthase, which was shown to be expressed specifically in flowers. Camellia plants are very popular because they bloom in winter when other plants seldom flower. Many ornamental cultivars of Camellia have been bred mainly in Japan, although the fragrance of their flowers has not been studied extensively. We analyzed floral scents of several Camellia cultivars by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found that Camellia brevistyla produced various sesquiterpenes in addition to monoterpenes, whereas Camellia japonica and its cross-lines produced only monoterpenes, including linalool as the main product. From a flower of C. brevistyla, we isolated one cDNA encoding a terpene synthase (TPS) comprised of 554 amino acids, which was phylogenetically positioned to a sole gene clade. The cDNA, designated CbTps1, was expressed in mevalonate-pathway-engineered Escherichia coli, which carried the Streptomyces mevalonate-pathway gene cluster in addition to the acetoacetate-CoA ligase gene. A terpene product was purified from recombinant E. coli cultured with lithium acetoacetate, and analyzed by (1)H-nulcear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR) and GC-MS. It was shown that a sesquiterpene hedycaryol was produced, because (1)H-NMR signals of the purified product were very broad, and elemol, a thermal rearrangement product from hedycaryol, was identified by GC-MS analysis. Spectroscopic data of elemol were also determined. These results indicated that the CbTps1 gene encodes hedycaryol synthase. Expression analysis of CbTps1 showed that it was expressed specifically in flowers, and hedycaryol is likely to be one of the terpenes that attract insects for pollination of C. brevistyla. A linalool synthase gene, which was isolated from a flower of Camellia saluenensis, is also described.

  4. Kombucha fermentation test used for various types of herbal teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novi Primiani, C.; Pujiati; Mumtahanah, Mahda; Ardhi, Waskitho

    2018-05-01

    Tea is a common drink in the community, the benefits of tea can be improved by processing fermented tea called kombucha. Kombucha is a refreshing drink made from tea water plus sugar, obtained through the fermentation process by acetic acid bacteria and fungi, is consumed for its health benefits. The common Kombucha starter is called SCOOBY (Simbyotic of Bacteri and Yeast). Kombucha research using herbal tea is very rarely done, it is necessary kombucha research using a variety of herbal teas to determine the quality of its inhibitory power against bacteria and its quality compared with kombucha berkomposisi tea Camelia sinensis in general. The purpose of this research was to know kombucha quality with ph parameter, thickness of nata, total acid and its inhibitory power to Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This research used Randomized Block Design (RAK) method using 1 tea type treatment, with 3 replications. The first type of green tea (P1), roselle tea (P2), mangosteen peel tea (P3), soursop leaf tea (P4), moringa leaf tea (P5) and yellow leaf tea (P6), so there are 18 treatment combinations. Based on statistical analysis, there was influence of tea type to kombucha quality. Treatments of P1 and P2 were found to have an optimum and significant effect for kombucha. the results in level of acidity [pH] on green tea (P1) was 3.05, nata thickness of 4.63 and total acid of 0.69. Acidity in roselle tea (P2) was 2.86, nata thickness of 3.83, and total acid of 0.71. While the lowest quality was found in the treatment of mangosteen peel (P3) tea with pH 2.57, nata thickness of 0.35, and total acid of 0.79.

  5. Protective Effect of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) against Ethanol-Induced Acute Oxidative Injury of the Gastric Mucosa in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tu, Pang-Shuo; Tung, Yu-Tang; Lee, Wei-Ting; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2017-06-21

    Camellia oil, a common edible oil in Taiwan and China, has health effects for the gastrointestinal tract in folk medicine, and it contains abundant unsaturated fatty acids and phytochemicals. However, the preventive effect of camellia oil on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers remains unclear. This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of camellia oil on ethanol-induced gastric injury in vitro and in vivo as well as its mechanisms of action. In an in vitro study, our results showed that pretreatment of RGM-1 cells with camellia oil enhanced the migration ability as well as increased heat shock protein expression and reduced apoptotic protein expression. In animal experiments, mice pretreated with camellia oil effectively showed improved ethanol-induced acute injury of the gastric muscosa and oxidative damage through the enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities and heat shock protein and PGE 2 production, as well as the suppression of lipid peroxidation, apoptosis-related proteins, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and NO production. Histological injury score and hemorrhage score in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage dramatically elevated from the control group (0.00 ± 0.0) to 3.40 ± 0.7 and 2.60 ± 0.5, respectively. However, treatments with camellia oil or olive oil (2 mL/kg bw) and lansoprazole (30 mg/kg bw) showed significant decreases in elevation of injury score and hemorrhage score (p < 0.05). Therefore, camellia oil has the potential to ameliorate ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury through the inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  6. Transcriptional analysis and histochemistry reveal that hypersensitive cell death and H2O2 have crucial roles in the resistance of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) to anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuchun; Hao, Xinyuan; Lu, Qinhua; Wang, Lu; Qian, Wenjun; Li, Nana; Ding, Changqing; Wang, Xinchao; Yang, Yajun

    2018-01-01

    Anthracnose causes severe losses of tea production in China. Although genes and biological processes involved in anthracnose resistance have been reported in other plants, the molecular response to anthracnose in tea plant is unknown. We used the susceptible tea cultivar Longjing 43 and the resistant cultivar Zhongcha 108 as materials and compared transcriptome changes in the leaves of both cultivars following Colletotrichum fructicola inoculation. In all, 9015 and 8624 genes were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible cultivars and their controls (0 h), respectively. In both cultivars, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched in 215 pathways, including responses to sugar metabolism, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS), biotic stimuli and signalling, transmembrane transporter activity, protease activity and signalling receptor activity, but DEG expression levels were higher in Zhongcha 108 than in Longjing 43. Moreover, functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs showed that hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) metabolism, cell death, secondary metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism are involved in the defence of Zhongcha 108, and 88 key genes were identified. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network demonstrated that putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are activated by resistance (R) genes and mediate downstream defence responses. Histochemical analysis subsequently validated the strong hypersensitive response (HR) and H 2 O 2 accumulation that occurred around the hyphal infection sites in Zhongcha 108. Overall, our results indicate that the HR and H 2 O 2 are critical mechanisms in tea plant defence against anthracnose and may be activated by R genes via MAPK cascades.

  7. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomic analysis of Camellia sinensis (L.) reveals a synergistic network in the response to drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Fan, Kai; Wang, Jing; Ding, Zhao-Tang; Wang, Hui; Bi, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Yun-Wei; Sun, Hai-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a crucial limiting factor for tea yield and quality. To systematically characterize the molecular response of tea plants to drought stress and its capacity to recover, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic approach to investigate the effects of drought on protein expression profiles in tea seedlings subjected to different drought treatments. A total of 3274 proteins were identified, of which 2169 and 2300 showed differential expressions during drought and recovery, respectively. Functional annotation showed that multiple biological processes were regulated, suggesting that tea plants probably employed multiple and synergistic resistance mechanisms in dealing with drought stress. Hierarchical clustering showed that chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins were up-regulated in DB and RE, suggesting that tea plants might regulate expression of chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins to maintain the photosystem II function during drought stress. Abundant proteins involved in sulfur-containing metabolite pathways, such as glutathione, taurine, hypotaurine, methionine, and cysteine, changed significantly during drought stress. Among them, TL29 interacted with LHCb6 to connect S-containing metabolites with chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins. This suggests that sulfur-containing compounds play important roles in the response to drought stress in tea plants. In addition, the expression of PAL was up-regulated in DA and down-regulated in DB. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase also showed significant changes in expression levels, which regulated the biosynthesis of polyphenols. The results indicate that slight drought stress might promote polyphenol biosynthesis, while serious drought stress leads to inhibition. The expression of lipoxygenase and short-chain dehydrogenase increased during slight drought stress and some volatile metabolite pathways were enriched, indicating that drought stress might affect the tea aroma

  9. Camellia v1.0 Manual: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Nathan V.

    2016-09-28

    Camellia began as an effort to simplify implementation of efficient solvers for the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) finite element methodology of Demkowicz and Gopalakrishnan. Since then, the feature set has expanded, to allow implementation of traditional continuous Galerkin methods, as well as discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, hybridizable DG (HDG) methods, first-order-system least squares (FOSLS), and the primal DPG method. This manual serves as an introduction to using Camellia. We begin, in Section 1.1, by describing some of the core features of Camellia. In Section 1.2 we provide an outline of the manual as a whole.

  10. Susceptibility against grey blight disease-causing fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) cultivars is influenced by anti-oxidative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Senthilkumar; Mandal, Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is the first level of response by a host during stress. Even though the ROS are toxic to cell, when present in a limited amount, they act as a signalling molecule for the expression of defence-related genes and later are scavenged by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic mechanisms of the host. The different anti-oxidative enzymes like glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APO), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were estimated, and their activities were compared between infected and healthy leaves of the tolerant and susceptible cultivars of tea. The infected leaves of the susceptible cultivars registered higher amount of enzyme activity when compared with the tolerant cultivars. The study reveals that the more anti-oxidative enzymes, the more susceptible the cultivar will be.

  11. [Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Fu-sheng; Ye, Su-qiong; Yu, Su-qin; Fang, Xiang-min; Hu, Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) plantation in hilly red soil region has been long impacted by acid deposition, however its effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transformations in rhizosphere soils remain unclear. A 25-year old tea plantation in a typical hilly red soil region was selected for an in situ simulation experiment treated by pH 4.5, pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and control. Rhizosihere and bulk soils were collected in the third year from the simulated acid deposition experiment. Soil mineral N, available P contents and major enzyme activities were analyzed using the chemical extraction and biochemical methods, and N and P mineralization rates were estimated using the indoor aerobic incubation methods. Our results showed that compared to the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, respectively decreased 7.1%, 42.1% and 49.9% NO3(-)-N, 6.4%, 35.9% and 40.3% mineral N, 10.5%, 41.1% and 46.9% available P, 18.7%, 30.1% and 44.7% ammonification rate, 3.6%, 12.7% and 38.8% net N-mineralization rate, and 31.5%, 41.8% and 63.0% P mineralization rate in rhizosphere soils; however, among the 4 treatments, rhizosphere soil nitrification rate was not significantly different, the rhizosphere soil urease and acid phosphatase activities generally increased with the increasing intensity of acid rain (P<0.05). In bulk soil, compared with the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5 did not cause significant changes in NO3(-)-N, mineral N, available P as well as in the rates of nitrification, ammonification, net N-mineralization and P mineralization. With increasing the acid intensity, the rhizosphere effects of NH4+-N, NO3(-)-N, mineral N, ammonification and net N-mineralization rates were altered from positive to negative effects, those of urease and acid phosphatease showed the opposite trends, those of available P and P mineralization were negative and that of nitrification was positive. In sum, prolonged elevated acid rain could reduce N and P transformation

  12. Antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity of traditional Kombucha and Satureja montana L. Kombucha.

    PubMed

    Cetojevic-Simin, D D; Bogdanovic, G M; Cvetkovic, D D; Velicanski, A S

    2008-01-01

    To carry out a preliminary investigation of the biological activity of Kombucha beverages from Camellia sinensis L. (black tea) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory tea), that have consuming acidity. Cell growth effect was measured by sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay on HeLa (cervix epithelioid carcinoma), HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma). Antimicrobial activity to bacteria, yeasts and moulds was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Consuming Kombuchas had the most expressive antimicrobial activity against all investigated bacteria, except Sarcina lutea, while unfermented tea samples had no activity. Traditional Kombucha showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli than acetic acid, while both neutralized Kombuchas had bacteriostatic activity on Salmonella enteritidis. Examined Kombuchas did not stimulate cell proliferation of the investigated cell lines. Antiproliferative activity of winter savory tea Kombucha was comparable to that of traditional Kombucha made from black tea. Furthermore, in HeLa cell line Satureja montana L. Kombucha induced cell growth inhibition by 20% (IC20) at lower concentration compared to the activity of water extract of Satureja montana L. obtained in our previous research. Presence of more active antiproliferative component(s) in Satureja montana L. Kombucha compared to Satureja montana L. water extract and antimicrobial component(s) other than acetic acid in both Kombuchas is suggested.

  13. Green tea proanthocyanidins cause impairment of hormone-regulated larval development and reproductive fitness via repression of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, insulin-like peptide and cytochrome P450 genes in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Muema, Jackson M; Nyanjom, Steven G; Mutunga, James M; Njeru, Sospeter N; Bargul, Joel L

    2017-01-01

    Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis) on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets. Based on the induced phenotypic effects, genes selected for study targeted juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, signal transduction, oxidative stress response and xenobiotic detoxification in addition to vitellogenesis in females. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure of larval stages (L3/L4) to sublethal dose of 5 ppm dramatically extended larval developmental period for up to 12 days, slowed down pupation rates, induced abnormal larval-pupal intermediates and caused 100% inhibition of adult emergence. Further, females exhibited significant interference of fecundity and egg hatchability relative to controls (p < 0.001). Using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), our findings show that PA-treated larvae exhibited significant repression of AgamJHAMT (p < 0.001), AgamILP1 (p < 0.001) and AgamCYP6M2 (p < 0.001) with up-regulation of Hsp70 (p < 0.001). Females exposed as larvae demonstrated down-regulation of AgamVg (p = 0.03), AgamILP1 (p = 0.009), AgamCYP6M2 (p = 0.05) and AgamJHAMT (p = 0.02). Our findings support that C. sinensis proanthocyanidins affect important vectorial capacity components such as mosquito survival rates and reproductive fitness thus could be potentially used for controlling populations of malaria vectors.

  14. Rapid decolorization of textile wastewater by green synthesized iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Z Y; Cakirgoz, M; Kaymak, E S; Erdim, E

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) extracts for the production of iron nanoparticles and their application for color removal from a textile industry wastewater was investigated. Polyphenols in extracts act as reducing agents for iron ions in aqueous solutions, forming iron nanoparticles. Pomegranate extract was found to have almost a 10-fold higher polyphenolic content than the same amount of green tea extract on a mass basis. However, the size of the synthesized nanoparticles did not show a correlation with the polyphenolic content. 100 ppm and 300 ppm of iron nanoparticles were evaluated in terms of color removal efficiency from a real textile wastewater sample. 300 ppm of pomegranate nanoscale zero-valent iron particles showed more than 95% color removal and almost 80% dissolved organic carbon removal. The degradation mechanisms are is considered to be adsorption and precipitation to a major extent, and mineralization to a minor extent.

  15. [Maturation of Cordyceps sinensis associates with alterations of fungal expressions of multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis mutants in stroma of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling; Li, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Jian-qing; Lu, Ji-hong; Zhao, Jia-gang; Zhu, Jia-shi

    2012-06-18

    To examine maturational changes in expressions of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O.sinensis) transition and transversion mutation genotypes in Cordyceps sinensis (C.sinensis) stroma. MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum genotyping was used, and 8 SNP extension primers were designed based on the scattered, multiple point mutations of known sequences for the O.sinensis mutants within their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) segments. Of the extension primers, 5 (not capable of distinguishing between the 2 AT-biased genotypes) located in rDNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions: 067721-211, 067721-240, 067721-477, 067721-531 and 067721-581. The other 3 extension primers located in 5.8S rDNA region: 067740-324, 067740-328 and 067740-360, to distinguish between the 2 AT-biased genotypes. MS chromatograms at the 8 SNP sites showed dynamic alterations of mutant alleles in C.sinensis stroma. The allele for the AT-biased genotypes at 067721-211 site showed higher peak height than its GC-biased counterpart in the premature C.sinensis stroma, but disappeared with C.sinensis maturation. Chromatograms displayed not only the transition mutation alleles, but also transversion mutants. Some of the transversion mutation alleles displayed higher peak heights than those for GC- and AT-biased alleles, but their peak heights and detection rates tended to be decreased with C.sinensis maturation. When distinguishing between the 2 AT-biases, AB067744 and AB067740 genotype alleles co-existed in the premature C.sinensis stroma. The allele peak height for AB067744 genotype was greatly decreased with C.sinensis maturation, while that for AB067740 genotype increased. Co-existence of at least 5 transition and transversion mutant genotypes of O.sinensis and the dynamic changes in their expressions in C.sinensis stroma along with C.sinensis maturation may be of extreme importance in C.sinensis stroma germination and

  16. Impact of traditional culture on Camellia reticulata in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tong; de Riek, Jan; Guo, Huijun; Jarvis, Devra; Ma, Lijuan; Long, Chunlin

    2015-10-22

    Cha-hua (Camellia reticulata) is one of China's traditional ornamental flowers developed by the local people of Yunnan Province. Today, more than 500 cultivars and hybrids are recognized. Many ancient camellia trees still survive and are managed by local peopl. A few records on cha-hua culture exist, but no studies expound the interaction between C. reticulata and traditional culture of ethnic groups. The contribution of traditional culture of different nationalities and regions to the diversity of Camellia reticulate is discussed. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout Central and Western Yunnan to investigate and document the traditional culture related to Camellia reticulata. Five sites were selected to carry out the field investigation. Information was collected using participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Most of the ancient camellia trees were preserved or saved in the courtyards of old buildings and cultural or religious sites. Religion-associated culture plays an important role in C. reticulata protection. In every site we investigated, we found extensive traditional culture on C. reticulata and its management. These traditional cultures have not only protected the germplasm resources of C. reticulata, but also improved the diversity of Camellia cultivars. There are abundant and diverse genetic resources of cha-hua, Camellia reticulata in Yunnan. Cha-hua is not only an ornamental flower but also has been endowed with rich spiritual connotation. The influence of traditional culture had improved the introduction and domestication of wild plants, breeding and selection of different varieties, and the propagation and dissemination of the tree in Yunnan. However, either some ancient cha-hua trees or their associated traditional culture are facing various threats. The old cha-hua trees and the ethnic camellia culture should be respected and

  17. TBC2health: a database of experimentally validated health-beneficial effects of tea bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Xuan, Hongdong; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Sicong; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Hua; Tai, Yuling; Song, Youhong; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-09-01

    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Considerable studies show the exceptional health benefits (e.g. antioxidation, cancer prevention) of tea owing to its various bioactive components. However, data from these extensively published papers had not been made available in a central database. To lay a foundation in improving the understanding of healthy tea functions, we established a TBC2health database that currently documents 1338 relationships between 497 tea bioactive compounds and 206 diseases (or phenotypes) manually culled from over 300 published articles. Each entry in TBC2health contains comprehensive information about a bioactive relationship that can be accessed in three aspects: (i) compound information, (ii) disease (or phenotype) information and (iii) evidence and reference. Using the curated bioactive relationships, a bipartite network was reconstructed and the corresponding network (or sub-network) visualization and topological analyses are provided for users. This database has a user-friendly interface for entry browse, search and download. In addition, TBC2health provides a submission page and several useful tools (e.g. BLAST, molecular docking) to facilitate use of the database. Consequently, TBC2health can serve as a valuable bioinformatics platform for the exploration of beneficial effects of tea on human health. TBC2health is freely available at http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Effect of girdling at various positions of 'Huang Zhi Xiang' tea tree (Camellia sinensis) on the contents of catechins and starch in fresh leaf.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Jiang, Yueming; Shi, John; Xu, Xinlan; Yang, Shaoyu; Duan, Jun

    2011-06-01

    The contents of starch and catechins in the fresh leaf of 'Huang Zhi Xiang' Oolong tea trees girdled at the bottom, middle (on the big branches) and top (on the small branches) were determined. The study demonstrated that the starch contents from girdled trees were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that from non-girdled ones. Furthermore, the contents of (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), total catechins (TC) and simple catechins (SC) from girdled trees were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from non-girdled ones. Especially, the contents of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and catechin gallate (CG) from girdled at the middle were also significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from the non-girdled. The starch contents were negatively correlated with the contents of (-)-gallocatechin (GC), EC, SC, TC and EGC, while positively correlated with the contents of EGCG and CG in fresh shoots.

  19. Uptake of cesium-137 by crops from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, H.; Oezer, I.; Celenk, I.

    1994-11-01

    The Turkish tea crop was contaminated following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Finding ways to dispose of the contaminated tea (Camellia sinensis L.) without damaging the environment was the goal of this research conducted at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In this study, an investigation was made of {sup 137}Cs activities of the plants and the ratios of transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants when the contaminated tea was applied to the soil. Experiments were conducted in the field and in pots under greenhouse conditions. The activities of the tea applied in the field ranged from 12 500 tomore » 72 800 Bq/m{sup 2}, whereas this activity was constant at 8000 Bq/pot in the greenhouse experiment. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the plants was between 0.037 and 1.057% for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and grass (Lolium perenne L.). The ratio of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants increased as the activity {sup 137}Cs in tea applied to soil was increased. The activity in the plants increased due to increased uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  20. Anti-plaque effect of a synergistic combination of green tea and Salvadora persica L. against primary colonizers of dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Raad; Himratul-Aznita, Wan Harun; Baharuddin, Nor Adinar

    2016-10-01

    Green tea (Gt), leafs of Camellia sinensis var. assamica, is widely consumed as healthy beverage since thousands of years in Asian countries. Chewing sticks (miswak) of Salvadora persica L. (Sp) are traditionally used as natural brush to ensure oral health in developing countries. Both Gt and Sp extracts were reported to have anti-bacterial activity against many dental plaque bacteria. However, their combination has never been tested to have anti-bacterial and anti-adherence effect against primary dental plaque colonizers, playing an initial role in the dental plaque development, which was investigated in this study. Two-fold serial micro-dilution method was used to measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts of Gt, Sp and their combinations. Adsorption to hexadecane was used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of bacterial cells. Glass beads were used to mimic the hard tissue surfaces, and were coated with saliva to develop experimental pellicles for the adhesion of the primary colonizing bacteria. Gt aqueous extracts exhibited better anti-plaque effect than Sp aqueous extracts. Their combination, equivalent to 1/4 and 1/2 of MIC values of Gt and Sp extracts respectively, showed synergistic anti-plaque properties with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) equal to 0.75. This combination was found to significantly reduce CSH (p<0.05) and lower the adherence ability (p<0.003) towards experimental pellicles. Combination between Gt and Sp aqueous extracts exhibited synergistic anti-plaque activity, and could be used as a useful active agent to produce oral health care products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Research and development of Camellia oleifera fruit sheller and sorting machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Di; Wang, Yong; Fan, Youhua; Chen, Zejun

    2018-01-01

    Camellia oleifera fruit sheller in this paper was designed by the principle of kneading and extruding. This machine adopted the rolling classification sieve to screen camellia oleifera fruit with different sizes into the husking device, and camellia oleifera fruit was shelled in the mutually co-operative action of transport belt and flexible rubbing washboard. After research, in the condition that the moisture content of camellia oleifera fruit was below 55%, the vibration of the motor frequency was 50 Hz and the horizontal angle of sorting belt was 50 degrees∼55 degrees, the processing capacity was more than 900 kg/h, the threshing ratio was more than 97%, the seed broken ratio was less than 5%, the loss ratio was less than 1%. The machine is of great value in actual production, and should be widely spread and applied.

  2. Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Pacjuk, Olga; Hernández-Huguet, Silvia; Körner, Johanna; Scherer, Katharina; Richling, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts (Arbutus unedo, Camellia sinensis, Cynara scolymus, Zingiber officinale) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Results: Strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo) and tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke (Cynara scolymus) extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL) as well as its flavone luteolin (IC50 = 41 ± 10 μM) and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC50 > 1.0 mM). Additionally, the ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC50 > 1.7 mM, respectively). Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC50 = 455 ± 19 μg/mL). Conclusions: A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research. PMID:29113064

  3. Bactericidal catechins damage the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Ikigai, H; Nakae, T; Hara, Y; Shimamura, T

    1993-04-08

    The mode of antibacterial action of, the green tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) was investigated. Strong bactericidal EGCg caused leakage of 5,6-carboxyfluorescein from phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PC), but EC with very weak bactericidal activity caused little damage to the membrane. Phosphatidylserine and dicetyl phosphate partially protected the membrane from EGCg-mediated damage when reconstituted into the liposome membrane with PC. EGCg, but not EC, caused strong aggregation and NPN-fluorescence quenching of PC-liposomes and these actions were markedly lowered in the presence of negatively charged lipids. These results show that bactericidal catechins primarily act on and damage bacterial membranes. The observation that Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to bactericidal catechins than Gram-positive bacteria can be explained to some extent by the presence of negatively charged lipopolysaccharide.

  4. Biochemical and transcriptomic analyses reveal different metabolite biosynthesis profiles among three color and developmental stages in 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Fang; Xu, Yan-Xia; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Dan-Juan; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Chen, Liang

    2016-09-08

    The new shoots of the albino tea cultivar 'Anji Baicha' are yellow or white at low temperatures and turn green as the environmental temperatures increase during the early spring. 'Anji Baicha' metabolite profiles exhibit considerable variability over three color and developmental stages, especially regarding the carotenoid, chlorophyll, and theanine concentrations. Previous studies focused on physiological characteristics, gene expression differences, and variations in metabolite abundances in albino tea plant leaves at specific growth stages. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating metabolite biosynthesis in various color and developmental stages in albino tea leaves have not been fully characterized. We used RNA-sequencing to analyze 'Anji Baicha' leaves at the yellow-green, albescent, and re-greening stages. The leaf transcriptomes differed considerably among the three stages. Functional classifications based on Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that differentially expressed unigenes were mainly related to metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. Chemical analyses revealed higher β-carotene and theanine levels, but lower chlorophyll a levels, in the albescent stage than in the green stage. Furthermore, unigenes involved in carotenoid, chlorophyll, and theanine biosyntheses were identified, and the expression patterns of the differentially expressed unigenes in these biosynthesis pathways were characterized. Through co-expression analyses, we identified the key genes in these pathways. These genes may be responsible for the metabolite biosynthesis differences among the different leaf color and developmental stages of 'Anji Baicha' tea plants. Our study presents the results of transcriptomic and biochemical analyses of 'Anji Baicha' tea plants at various stages. The distinct transcriptome profiles

  5. Enhancement of antioxidative activity and cardiovascular protection in hamsters by camellia oil and soybean-camellia blended oil.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Yi; Lu, Yi-Fa; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of several vegetable oils and blended oil composed of soybean and camellia oils on blood lipid reduction and antioxidative activity. Forty male hamsters were fed an AIN-93 G diet for 1 wk, followed by dividing into five groups: control group-1 was fed a low-fat diet containing 5% oil for 6 wk, and the other four groups were fed high-fat diets with group-2 containing 14% palm oil, group-3 containing 14% camellia oil, group-4 containing 14% soybean oil, and group-5 containing 14% blended oil (8.4% soybean oil and 5.6% camellia oil) along with 0.2% cholesterol and 0.1% bile acid. High-fat diets raised serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase in hamsters without affecting alanine aminotransferase. Compared with palm oil-containing diet, the other three high-fat diets reduced serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with an opposite trend for liver total cholesterol. However, compared with the control group, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was raised for all four high-fat diets. The higher the degree of oil unsaturation, the higher the serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the lower the liver triacylglycerol level and activities of fatty acid synthase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzymes. Both soybean and blended oils lowered the antioxidative activity of liver. Camellia and blended oils were more efficient than soybean oil in elevating serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comprehensive transcriptome analyses reveal differential gene expression profiles of Camellia sinensis axillary buds at para-, endo-, ecodormancy, and bud flush stages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter dormancy is an important biological feature for tea plant to survive cold winters, and it also affects the economic output of tea plant, one of the few woody plants in the world whose leaves are harvested and one of the few non-conifer evergreen species with characterized dormancies. To disco...

  7. [Indiscriminate use of Latin name for natural Cordyceps sinensis insect-fungi complex and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Sang; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Natural Cordyceps sinensis(Dongchongxiacao) is an insect-fungi complex containing multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis(≡Cordyceps sinensis) fungi and dead body of larva of the family of Hepialidae. But natural C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi use the same Latin name, resulting in uncertainty of the specific meaning, even disturbing the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and regulations, and influencing consumer psychology onthe market. This paper reviews the history and current status of the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O. sinensis for both the natural insect-fungi complex C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi and lists the rename suggetions. Some scholars suggested using the term O. sinensis for the fungi and renaming the natural C. sinensis "Chinese cordyceps". Others suggested renaming the natural C. sinensis "Ophiocordyceps & Hepialidae". Both suggestions have not reached general consensus due to various academic concerns. This paper also reviews the exacerbation of the academic uncertainties when forcing implementing the 2011 Amsterdam Declaration "One Fungus=One Name" under the academic debate. Joint efforts of mycological, zoological and botany-TCM taxonomists and properly initiating the dispute systems offered by International Mycology Association may solve the debate on the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O.sinensis for the natural insect-fungi complex,the teleomorph and anamorph(s) of O. sinensis fungi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Genotoxicity testing of different types of beverages in the Drosophila wing Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test.

    PubMed

    Graf, U; Moraga, A A; Castro, R; Díaz Carrillo, E

    1994-05-01

    Five wines and one brandy of Spanish origin as well as three herbal teas and ordinary black tea were tested for genotoxicity in the wing Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) which makes use of the two recessive wing cell markers multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr3) on the left arm of chromosome 3 of Drosophila melanogaster. 3-day-old larvae trans-heterozygous for these two markers were fed the beverages at different concentrations and for different feeding periods using Drosophila instant medium. Somatic mutations or mitotic recombinations induced in the cells of the wing imaginal discs give rise to mutant single or twin spots on the wing blade of the emerging adult flies showing either the mwh phenotype or/and the flr phenotype. One of the red wines showed a clear genotoxic activity that was not due to its ethanol content. Two herbal teas (Urtica dioica, Achillea millefolium) and black tea (Camellia sinensis) proved to be weakly genotoxic as well. Furthermore, it was shown that quercetin and rutin, two flavonols present in beverages of plant origin, also exhibited weak genotoxic activity in the somatic cells of Drosophila. These results demonstrate that Drosophila in vivo somatic assays can detect the genotoxicity of complex mixtures such as beverages. In particular, it is possible to administer these test materials in the same form as that in which they are normally consumed.

  9. Quality improvement of a rice-substituted fried noodle by utilizing the protein-polyphenol interaction between a pea protein isolate and green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract.

    PubMed

    Song, Youngwoon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2017-11-15

    The quality of rice-substituted fried noodles was improved by applying interaction between pea protein isolate (PPI) and green tea extract (GTE). Radical-scavenging activities of GTE were stably maintained when exposed to acidic pH, UV light, and fluorescent light, but decreased by approximately 65% when exposed to 80°C for 168h. The RVA profiles of noodle dough showed that peak viscosity and breakdown increased significantly but that setback and final viscosity remained unchanged with 20% rice flour replacement. PPI significantly decreased the viscosity parameters of rice-supplemented dough, and the addition of GTE recovered these values significantly. The cooking loss and viscoelasticity (R max ) of cooked rice-supplemented noodles were fully restored by combined treatment of PPI and GTE. GTE decreased the peroxide value of fried noodles by 14% after storage at 63°C for 16days. Therefore, PPI+GTE treatment has great potential for use in fried noodles owing to the reinforced network and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and sporulation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon and Maubl.

    PubMed

    Saha, A; Mandal, P; Dasgupta, S; Saha, D

    2008-05-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a common tea (Camellia sinensis) pathogen, usually does not sporulate or sporulates poorly in common media, which makes spore production difficult. In this study the effects of culture media, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH and light on mycelial growth and sporulation were evaluated. Among several carbon sources tested, glucose and sucrose were found superior for growth. Potassium nitrate supplemented media showed maximum growth amongst the tested inorganic nitrogen sources while peptone produced maximum growth among the tested organic nitrogen sources. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium was found to be the most suitable for mycelial growth and sporulation of L. theobromae. The fungus grow at temperatures ranging from 40 to 36 degrees C, with optimum growth at 28 degrees C and no growth was noted at 40 degrees C. There was no significant effect of different light period on growth of L. theobromae, but light enhanced sporulation. The fungus grow at pH 3.0-8.0 and optimum growth was observed at pH 6.0. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium with pH 6.0 was the most suitable for production of conidia of L. theobromae at 28 degrees C. Hence this media may be recommended for inoculum production for further studies.

  11. Identification of Rubisco rbcL and rbcS in Camellia oleifera and their potential as molecular markers for selection of high tea oil cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongzhong; Wang, Baoming; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Xiangnan; Wang, Rui; Peng, Shaofeng; Chen, Longsheng; Ma, Li; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tea oil derived from seeds of Camellia oleifera Abel. is high-quality edible oil in China. This study isolated full-length cDNAs of Rubisco subunits rbcL and rbcS from C. oleifera. The rbcL has 1,522 bp with a 1,425 bp coding region, encoding 475 amino acids; and the rbcS has 615 bp containing a 528 bp coding region, encoding 176 amino acids. The expression level of the two genes, designated as Co-rbcL and Co-rbcS, was determined in three C. oleifera cultivars: Hengchong 89, Xianglin 1, and Xianglin 14 whose annual oil yields were 546.9, 591.4, and 657.7 kg ha(-1), respectively. The Co-rbcL expression in 'Xianglin 14' was significantly higher than 'Xianglin 1', and 'Xianglin 1' was greater than 'Hengchong 89'. The expression levels of Co-rbcS in 'Xianglin 1' and 'Xianglin 14' were similar but were significantly greater than in 'Hengchong 89'. The net photosynthetic rate of 'Xianglin 14' was significantly higher than 'Xianglin 1', and 'Xianglin 1' was higher than 'Hengchong 89'. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that seed yields and oil yields were highly correlated with the expression level of Co-rbcL at P < 0.001 level; and the expression of Co-rbcS was correlated with oil yield at P < 0.01 level. Net photosynthetic rate was also correlated with oil yields and seed yields at P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively. Our results suggest that Co-rbcS and Co-rbcL in particular could potentially be molecular markers for early selection of high oil yield cultivars. In combination with the measurement of net photosynthetic rates, the early identification of potential high oil production cultivars would significantly shorten plant breeding time and increase breeding efficiency.

  12. Saponins from seeds of Genus Camellia: Phytochemistry and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Na; Tong, Tuantuan; Ren, Ning; Tu, Youying; Li, Bo

    2018-05-01

    Camellia seeds have been traditionally used as oil raw materials in Asia, and are known for a wide spectrum of applications. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins are the major specialised metabolites in Camellia seeds, and more than seventy saponins have been isolated and characterized. These natural compounds have caught much attention due to their various biological and pharmacological activities, including modulation of gastrointestinal system, anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-microorganism, antioxidation, neuroprotection, hypolipidemic effects, foaming and detergence, as well as helping the accumulation of pollutants by plants. These compounds have a promising application in medicine, agriculture, industry and environmental protection. The present paper summarized the information from current publications on Camellia seed saponins, with a focus on the advances made in chemical structures, determination methods, bioactivities and toxicity. We hope this article will stimulate further investigations on these compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Arms race between weevil rostrum length and camellia pericarp thickness: Geographical cline and theory.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Naoyuki; Sasaki, Akira; Toju, Hirokazu

    2011-09-21

    The geographical cline of the coevolving traits of weevil rostrum (mouthpart) length and camellia pericarp (fruit coat) thickness provides an opportunity to test the arms race theory of defense (pericarp thickness) and countermeasure (rostrum length) between antagonistically interacting species. By extending the previous model for the coevolution of quantitative traits to introduce nonlinear costs for exaggerated traits, the generation overlap, and density-dependent regulation in the host, we studied the evolutionarily stable (ES) pericarp thickness in the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica) and the ES rostrum length in the camellia-weevil (Curculio camelliae). The joint monomorphic ES system has a robust outcome with nonlinear costs, and we analyzed how the traits of both species at evolutionary equilibrium depend on demographic parameters. If camellia demographic parameters vary latitudinally, data collected over the geographical scale of rostrum length and pericarp thickness should lie on an approximately linear curve with the slope less than that of the equiprobability line A/B of boring success, where A and B are coefficients for the logistic regression of boring success to pericarp thickness and rostrum length, respectively. This is a robust prediction as long as the cost of rostrum length is nonlinear (accelerating). As a result, boring success should be lower in populations with longer rostrum length, as reported in the weevil-camellia system (Toju, H., and Sota, T., 2006a. Imbalance of predator and prey armament: Geographic clines in phenotypic interface and natural selection. American Naturalist 167, 105-117). The nonlinearity (exponent) for the cost of rostrum length estimated from the geographical cline data for the weevil-camellia system was 2.2, suggesting nonlinearity between quadratic and cubic forms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chung S., E-mail: csyang@rci.rutgers.edu; Lambert, Joshua D.; Ju Jihyeung

    Tea made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis is a popular beverage. The possible cancer-preventive activity of tea and tea polyphenols has been studied extensively. This article briefly reviews studies in animal models, cell lines, and possible relevance of these studies to the prevention of human cancer. The cancer-preventive activity of tea constituents have been demonstrated in many animal models including cancer of the skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, colon, bladder, prostate, and mammary gland. The major active constituents are polyphenols, of which (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is most abundant, most active, and most studied,more » and caffeine. The molecular mechanisms of the cancer-preventive action, however, are just beginning to be understood. Studies in cell lines led to the proposal of many mechanisms on the action of EGCG. However, mechanisms based on studies with very high concentrations of EGCG may not be relevant to cancer prevention in vivo. The autooxidation of EGCG in cell culture may also produce activities that do not occur in many internal organs. In contrast to the cancer prevention activity demonstrated in different animal models, no such conclusion can be convincingly drawn from epidemiological studies on tea consumption and human cancers. Even though the human data are inconclusive, tea constituents may still be used for the prevention of cancer at selected organ sites if sufficient concentrations of the agent can be delivered to these organs. Some interesting examples in this area are discussed.« less

  15. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies)

    PubMed Central

    Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

  16. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies).

    PubMed

    Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective.

  17. [Climate change impacts on yield of Cordyceps sinensis and research on yield prediction model of C. sinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shou-Dong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Ma, Xing-Tian; Hao, Qing-Xiu; Le, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Mei-Lan

    2017-04-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a Chinese unique precious herbal material, its genuine producing areas covering Naqu, Changdu in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Yushu in Qinghai province and other regions. In recent 10 years, C. sinensis resources is decreasing as a result of the blindly and excessively perennial dug. How to rationally protect, develop and utilize of the valuable resources of C. sinensis has been referred to an important field of research on C. sinensis. The ecological environment and climate change trend of Qinghai Tibet plateau happens prior to other regions, which means that the distribution and evolution of C. sinensis are more obvious and intense than those of the other populations. Based on RS (remote sensing)/GIS(geographic information system) technology, this paper utilized the relationship between the snowline elevation, the average temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours in harvest period (April and may) of C. sinensis and the actual production of C. sinensis to establish a weighted geometric mean model. The model's prediction accuracy can reach 82.16% at least in forecasting C. sinensis year yield in Naqu area in every early June. This study can provide basic datum and information for supporting the C. sinensis industry healthful, sustainable development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Virus-like particles vaccine containing Clonorchis sinensis tegumental protein induces partial protection against Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Ah-Ra; Lee, Su-Hwa; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2017-12-29

    Human clonorchiasis, caused by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis, is one of the major health problems in Southeast Asia. However, vaccine efficacy against C. sinensis infection remains largely unknown. In this study, for the first time, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine containing the C. sinensis tegumental protein 22.3 kDa (CsTP 22.3) and the influenza matrix protein (M1) as a core protein, and investigated the vaccine efficacy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Intranasal immunization of VLPs vaccine induced C. sinensis-specific IgG, IgG2a and IgG2c in the sera and IgA responses in the feces and intestines. Notably, upon challenge infection with C. sinensis metacercariae, significantly lower adult worm loads (70.2%) were measured in the liver of rats immunized with VLPs, compared to those of naïve rats. Furthermore, VLPs immunization induced antibody secreting cells (ASC) responses and CD4+/CD8+ T cell responses in the spleen. Our results indicated that VLPs vaccine containing C. sinensis CsTP 22.3 kDa provided partial protection against C. sisnensis infection. Thus, VLPs could be a potential vaccine candidate against C. sinensis.

  19. Multispecies Adulteration Detection of Camellia Oil by Chemical Markers.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xinjing; Mao, Jin; Zhang, Liangxiao; Xie, Huali; Chen, Lin; Yu, Li; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiupin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2018-01-25

    Adulteration of edible oils has attracted attention from more researchers and consumers in recent years. Complex multispecies adulteration is a commonly used strategy to mask the traditional adulteration detection methods. Most of the researchers were only concerned about single targeted adulterants, however, it was difficult to identify complex multispecies adulteration or untargeted adulterants. To detect adulteration of edible oil, identification of characteristic markers of adulterants was proposed to be an effective method, which could provide a solution for multispecies adulteration detection. In this study, a simple method of multispecies adulteration detection for camellia oil (adulterated with soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil) was developed by quantifying chemical markers including four isoflavones, trans-resveratrol and sinapic acid, which used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with solid phase extraction (SPE). In commercial camellia oil, only two of them were detected of daidzin with the average content of 0.06 ng/g while other markers were absent. The developed method was highly sensitive as the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 ng/mL to 0.16 ng/mL and the mean recoveries ranged from 79.7% to 113.5%, indicating that this method was reliable to detect potential characteristic markers in edible oils. Six target compounds for pure camellia oils, soybean oils, peanut oils and rapeseed oils had been analyzed to get the results. The validation results indicated that this simple and rapid method was successfully employed to determine multispecies adulteration of camellia oil adulterated with soybean, peanut and rapeseed oils.

  20. Determination of catechins and caffeine in camillia sinensis raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by HPLC-uv: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Roman, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed to quantify seven catechins and caffeine in green tea (Camillia sinensis) raw material and powdered extract, and dietary supplements containing green tea extract. The method utilizes RP HPLC with a phenyl-based stationary phase and gradient elution. Detection is by UV absorbance. The total run time, including column re-equilibration, is 13 min. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, ruggedness, and linearity for (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and (+)-gallocatechin, as well as caffeine. Repeatability precision and recovery results met AOAC guidelines for SLV studies for all catechins and caffeine down to a level of approximately 20 mg/g. Finished products containing high concentrations of minerals require the use of EDTA to prevent decomposition of the catechins.

  1. Plasma pharmacokinetics of catechin metabolite 4'-O-Me-EGC in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Mathieu; Redeuil, Karine; Longet, Karin; Marmet, Cynthia; Dionisi, Fabiola; Kussmann, Martin; Williamson, Gary; Nagy, Kornél

    2011-10-01

    Tea is an infusion of the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant and is the most widely consumed beverage in the world after water. Green tea contains significant amounts of polyphenol catechins and represents a promising dietary component to maintain health and well-being. Epidemiological studies indicate that polyphenol intake may have potential health benefits, such as, reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. While bioavailability of green tea bioactives is fairly well understood, some gaps still remain to be filled, especially the identification and quantification of conjugated metabolites in plasma, such as, sulphated, glucuronidated or methylated compounds. In the present study, we aimed to quantify the appearance of green tea catechins in plasma with particular emphasis on their methylated forms. After feeding 400 mL of green tea, 1.25% infusion to 9 healthy subjects, we found significant amounts of EC, EGC and EGCg in plasma as expected. EGC was the most bioavailable catechin, and its methylated form (4'-O-Me-EGC) was also present in quantifiable amounts. Its kinetics followed that of its parent compound. However, the relative amount of the methylated form of EGC was lower than that of the parent compound, an important aspect which, in the literature, has been controversial so far. The quantitative results presented in our study were confirmed by co-chromatography and accurate mass analysis of the respective standards. We show that the relative abundance of 4'-O-Me-EGC is ~40% compared to the parent EGC. 4'-O-Me-EGC is an important metabolite derived from catechin metabolism. Its presence in significant amounts should not be overlooked when assessing human bioavailability of green tea.

  2. Identification of Rubisco rbcL and rbcS in Camellia oleifera and their potential as molecular markers for selection of high tea oil cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongzhong; Wang, Baoming; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Xiangnan; Wang, Rui; Peng, Shaofeng; Chen, Longsheng; Ma, Li; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tea oil derived from seeds of Camellia oleifera Abel. is high-quality edible oil in China. This study isolated full-length cDNAs of Rubisco subunits rbcL and rbcS from C. oleifera. The rbcL has 1,522 bp with a 1,425 bp coding region, encoding 475 amino acids; and the rbcS has 615 bp containing a 528 bp coding region, encoding 176 amino acids. The expression level of the two genes, designated as Co-rbcL and Co-rbcS, was determined in three C. oleifera cultivars: Hengchong 89, Xianglin 1, and Xianglin 14 whose annual oil yields were 546.9, 591.4, and 657.7 kg ha-1, respectively. The Co-rbcL expression in ‘Xianglin 14’ was significantly higher than ‘Xianglin 1’, and ‘Xianglin 1’ was greater than ‘Hengchong 89’. The expression levels of Co-rbcS in ‘Xianglin 1’ and ‘Xianglin 14’ were similar but were significantly greater than in ‘Hengchong 89’. The net photosynthetic rate of ‘Xianglin 14’ was significantly higher than ‘Xianglin 1’, and ‘Xianglin 1’ was higher than ‘Hengchong 89’. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that seed yields and oil yields were highly correlated with the expression level of Co-rbcL at P < 0.001 level; and the expression of Co-rbcS was correlated with oil yield at P < 0.01 level. Net photosynthetic rate was also correlated with oil yields and seed yields at P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively. Our results suggest that Co-rbcS and Co-rbcL in particular could potentially be molecular markers for early selection of high oil yield cultivars. In combination with the measurement of net photosynthetic rates, the early identification of potential high oil production cultivars would significantly shorten plant breeding time and increase breeding efficiency. PMID:25873921

  3. Green Tea Polyphenols Stimulate Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Improve Renal Function after Chronic Cyclosporin A Treatment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Hasibur; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Haque, Khujista; Lemasters, John J.; Schnellmann, Rick G.; Zhong, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that an extract from Camellia sinenesis (green tea), which contains several polyphenols, attenuates nephrotoxicity caused by cyclosporine A (CsA). Since polyphenols are stimulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), this study investigated whether stimulation of MB plays a role in green tea polyphenol protection against CsA renal toxicity. Rats were fed a powdered diet containing green tea polyphenolic extract (0.1%) starting 3 days prior to CsA treatment (25 mg/kg, i.g. daily for 3 weeks). CsA alone decreased renal nuclear DNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein ATP synthase-β (AS-β) by 42%, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded OXPHOS protein NADH dehydrogenase-3 (ND3) by 87% and their associated mRNAs. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was also decreased by 78% by CsA. Immunohistochemical analysis showed decreased cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV), an OXPHOS protein, in tubular cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, the master regulator of MB, and mitochondrial transcription factor-A (Tfam), the transcription factor that regulates mtDNA replication and transcription, were 42% and 90% lower, respectively, in the kidneys of CsA-treated than in untreated rats. These results indicate suppression of MB by chronic CsA treatment. Green tea polyphenols alone and following CsA increased AS-β, ND3, COX-IV, mtDNA copy number, PGC-1α mRNA and protein, decreased acetylated PGC-1α, and increased Tfam mRNA and protein. In association with suppressed MB, CsA increased serum creatinine, caused loss of brush border and dilatation of proximal tubules, tubular atrophy, vacuolization, apoptosis, calcification, and increased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression, leukocyte infiltration, and renal fibrosis. Green tea polyphenols markedly attenuated CsA-induced renal injury and improved renal function. Together, these results demonstrate that green tea polyphenols attenuate Cs

  4. Camellia oleifera shell as an alternative feedstock for furfural production using a high surface acidity solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luxin; He, Yunfei; Zhu, Yujie; Liu, Yuting; Wang, Xiaochang

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on the high-value transformation of camellia oleifera shell, which is an agricultural waste enriched in hemicellulose. An efficient catalytic route employing sulfonated swelling mesoporous polydivinylbenzene (PDVB-SO 3 H) as catalyst in monophasic or biphasic solvents was developed for the conversion of raw camellia oleifera shell into furfural. The reaction parameters were evaluated and optimized for improving the furfural yield. It was found that the solvent greatly influenced the hydrolysis of camellia oleifera shells, and the highest furfural yield of 61.3% was obtained in "γ-butyrolactone + water" system when the feedstock-to-catalyst ratio was 2 for 30 min at 443 K. Camellia oleifera shell exhibited a high potential as feedstock to produce furfural in high yields. The outcome of this study provides an attractive utilization option to camellia oleifera shell, which is currently burned or discarded for producing a bio-based chemical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatic lipophilization of epicatechin with free fatty acids and its effect on antioxidative capacity in crude camellia seed oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sa-Sa; Luo, Shui-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi; Zhao, Yan-Yan; Pang, Min; Jiang, Shao-Tong

    2017-02-01

    Crude camellia seed oil is rich in free fatty acids, which must be removed to produce an oil of acceptable quality. In the present study, we reduced the free fatty acid content of crude camellia seed oil by lipophilization of epicatechin with these free fatty acids in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), and this may enhance the oxidative stability of the oil at the same time. The acid value of crude camellia seed oil reduced from 3.7 to 2.5 mgKOH g -1 after lipophilization. Gas chomatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that epicatechin oleate and epicatechin palmitate were synthesized in the lipophilized oil. The peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values during heating of the lipophilized oil were much lower than that of the crude oil and commercially available camellia seed oil, suggesting that lipophilized epicatechin derivatives could help enhance the oxidative stability of edible oil. The enzymatic process to lipophilize epicatechin with the free fatty acids in crude camellia seed oil described in the present study could decrease the acid value to meet the quality standards for commercial camellia seed oil and, at the same time, obtain a new edible camellia seed oil product with good oxidative stability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The protective ability of Camellia meal extract on the silk protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, JZ; Cai, C.; Zhang, DY; Dai, BK

    2018-02-01

    With the enhancement of living standards, people pay more and more attention to the health. The edible oil become more and more popular, but also produced a large amount of Camellia meal which can not fully put into utilization. In this study, the extracting liquid of Camellia meal was used on the process of silk degumming. Firstly, tussah silk was treated by degumming in the Na2CO3 solution, and the preliminary condition of tussah silk degumming was obtained by orthogonal experiment: the concentration Na2CO3 was 0.1%, the degumming time was 1 hour, and the ratio of silk/water was 40:1. Then the extract of Camellia meal (GCJSY) was added before the bleaching process of tussah silk to investigate the protective ability of GCJSY on the silk protein basry on the residual ratio of the silk. While the concentration of GYJSY was 0.08%, the residual ratio of silk after degumming in the Na2CO3 solution and bleaching in the 2% H2O2 solution was 87.2%.

  7. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  8. Functional Properties of Novel Epigallocatechin Gallate Glucosides Synthesized by Using Dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-1299CB4.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoun; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; Kim, Nahyun M; Moon, Young-Hwan; Ha, Jung-Min; Park, Namhyeon; Lee, Dong-Gu; Hwang, Kyeong-Hwan; Park, Jun-Seong; Kim, Doman

    2016-12-07

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin found in the leaves of green tea, Camellia sinensis. In this study, novel epigallocatechin gallate-glucocides (EGCG-Gs) were synthesized by using dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-1299CB4. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the conversion of EGCG to EGCG-Gs, resulting in a 91.43% conversion rate of EGCG. Each EGCG-G was purified using a C 18 column. Of nine EGCG-Gs identified by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, five EGCG-Gs (2 and 4-7) were novel compounds with yields of 2.2-22.6%. The water solubility of the five novel compounds ranged from 229.7 to 1878.5 mM. The 5'-OH group of EGCG-Gs expressed higher antioxidant activities than the 4'-OH group of EGCG-Gs. Furthermore, glucosylation at 7-OH group of EGCG-Gs was found to be responsible for maintaining tyrosinase inhibitory activity and increasing browning-resistant activities.

  9. Cholecystolithiasis Is Associated with Clonorchis sinensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyze gallbladder stones for direct evidence of a relationship between Clonorchis sinensis infection and gallbladder stones formation. Methodology We investigated one hundred eighty-three gallbladder stones for the presence of Clonorchis sinensis eggs using microscopy, and analyzed their composition using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We confirmed the presence of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in the gallbladder stones using real-time fluorescent PCR and scanning electron microscopy. Principal Findings Clonorchis sinensis eggs were detected in 122 of 183 gallbladder stones based on morphologic characteristics and results from real-time fluorescent PCR. The proportion of pigment stones, cholesterol stones and mixed gallstones in the egg-positive stones was 79.5% (97/122), 3.3% (4/122) and 17.2% (21/122), respectively, while 29.5% (18/61), 31.1% (19/61) and 39.3% (24/61) in the egg-negative stones. The proportion of pigment stone in the Clonorchis sinensis egg-positive stones was higher than in egg-negative stones (P<0.0001). In the 30 egg-positive stones examined by scanning electron microscopy, dozens or even hundreds of Clonorchis sinensis eggs were visible (×400) showing a distinct morphology. Many eggs were wrapped with surrounding particles, and in some, muskmelon wrinkles was seen on the surface of the eggs. Also visible were pieces of texture shed from some of the eggs. Some eggs were depressed or without operculum while most eggs were adhered to or wrapped with amorphous particles or mucoid matter (×3000). Conclusion Clonorchis sinensis eggs were detected in the gallbladder stones which suggests an association between Clonorchis sinensis infection and gallbladder stones formation, especially pigment stones. PMID:22905137

  10. Cholecystolithiasis is associated with Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze gallbladder stones for direct evidence of a relationship between Clonorchis sinensis infection and gallbladder stones formation. We investigated one hundred eighty-three gallbladder stones for the presence of Clonorchis sinensis eggs using microscopy, and analyzed their composition using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We confirmed the presence of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in the gallbladder stones using real-time fluorescent PCR and scanning electron microscopy. Clonorchis sinensis eggs were detected in 122 of 183 gallbladder stones based on morphologic characteristics and results from real-time fluorescent PCR. The proportion of pigment stones, cholesterol stones and mixed gallstones in the egg-positive stones was 79.5% (97/122), 3.3% (4/122) and 17.2% (21/122), respectively, while 29.5% (18/61), 31.1% (19/61) and 39.3% (24/61) in the egg-negative stones. The proportion of pigment stone in the Clonorchis sinensis egg-positive stones was higher than in egg-negative stones (P<0.0001). In the 30 egg-positive stones examined by scanning electron microscopy, dozens or even hundreds of Clonorchis sinensis eggs were visible (×400) showing a distinct morphology. Many eggs were wrapped with surrounding particles, and in some, muskmelon wrinkles was seen on the surface of the eggs. Also visible were pieces of texture shed from some of the eggs. Some eggs were depressed or without operculum while most eggs were adhered to or wrapped with amorphous particles or mucoid matter (×3000). Clonorchis sinensis eggs were detected in the gallbladder stones which suggests an association between Clonorchis sinensis infection and gallbladder stones formation, especially pigment stones.

  11. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  12. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Liu, Jun-Ang; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp), calmodulin (633 bp), glutamine synthetase (711 bp), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp), yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola. PMID:27299731

  13. [Identification on three kinds of Diphylleia sinensis (II)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Yan; Yu, Ping; Yang, Guang-Yi; Zhu, Hai-Tao; An, Zhi-Bin; Song, Deng-Peng

    2008-04-01

    In order to provide reference for the development of quality standards and distinction of authenticity, some sources of Diphylleia sinensis Li. in the maket were identified by sampling. The TLC of six batches of Diphylleia sinensis Li. in the market were identified. They were the dried rhizome of Diphylleia sinensis Li., Dysosma versipellis (Hance.) M. Cheng and D. pleiantha (Hance) Woods. According to the pharmaceutical characteristics, retrieval tables of identification on plants, traits, microscopic and TLC were established. It is simple and reliable to use TLC and retrieval table to identify three sources of Diphylleia sinensis Li.

  14. [Simultaneous extraction of tea-polyphenols and caffeine from green tea].

    PubMed

    Hai, L; Sun, H; Li, Z

    1998-05-01

    Tea-polyphenols and caffeine were extracted simultaneously from green tea. The factors influencing on the process of impregnation and extraction were studied. The result indicated that the content of tea-polyphenols and caffeine in tea was increased with the duration of extraction and decreased with the frequency of extraction. The authors discuss the effect of pH on the precipition of calcium-tea-polyphenols.

  15. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    PubMed

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  16. Using tea stalk lignocellulose as an adsorbent for separating decaffeinated tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Ye, J H; Jin, J; Liang, H L; Lu, J L; Du, Y Y; Zheng, X Q; Liang, Y R

    2009-01-01

    Lignocelluloses prepared from woody tea stalk, pine sawdust and sugarcane bagasse were used as adsorbents to isolate decaffeinated catechins from tea extracts and compared with synthetic macroporous resin HPD 600. HPD 600 had the highest adsorption capacity to catechins, followed by tea stalk lignocellulose while lignocelluloses of pine sawdust and bagasse the least. Tea stalk lignocellulose absorbed preferentially tea catechins and showed a good selectivity. HPD 600 absorbed caffeine and tea catechins simultaneously. The kinetics data of tea stalk lignocellulose showed a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm model. It is considered that tea stalk lignocellulose is an alternative low-cost adsorbent for preparing decaffeinated tea catechins.

  17. Tea production characteristics of tea growers (plantations and smallholdings) and livelihood dimensions of tea workers in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Eloise M; Gupta, Niladri; Saikia, Sukanya D; Duncan, John M A

    2018-04-01

    This article provides summary data regarding tea production in Assam, India. Questionnaires were completed by tea producers and focus group discussions undertaken with tea workers. These data are presented for the four main tea growing regions of the state (Cachar, North Bank, South Bank and Upper Assam). Tables detail tea production characteristics of the tea plantations for both large- (> 10 ha) and small- (< 10 ha) holders. Figures provide supplementary information for research by Biggs et al. [1] regarding fertilizer application, landscape management strategies, healthcare provisioning and educational facilities within plantations, as well as detailing the livelihood dimensions of tea workers. The questions posed to producers are also included. For further context underpinning the research for which these data were collated, see 'The tea landscape of Assam: multi-stakeholder insights into sustainable livelihoods under a changing climate' by Biggs et al. [1].

  18. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Pei-Ling; Lo, Yi-Chen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans. Principal Findings The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%). Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans. Conclusions This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods. PMID:27275864

  19. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  20. Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the Taiwanese tea industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Chang; Yang, Chin-Ying

    2015-04-01

    We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi-rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non-organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Identification on three kinds of Diphylleia sinensis (I)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Yan; Yu, Ping; Yang, Guang-Yi; Zhu, Hai-Tao; An, Zhi-Bin; Song, Deng-Peng

    2008-03-01

    In order to provide reference for the development of quality standards and distinction of authenticity, some sources of Diphylleia sinensis Li. in the market were identified by sampling. To identify the traits and microscopic features of six batches of Diphylleia sinensis Li. in the market. They were the dried rhizome of Diphylleia sinensis Li., Dysosma versipellis (Hance) M. Cheng and D. pleiantha (Hance) Woods. The differences in traits and microscopic features of them are obvious.

  2. Contamination of Tea and Tea Infusion with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, Alicja; Gałkowska, Dorota; Juszczak, Lesław

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to validate the method of determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., benzo(a)pyrene and sum of benzo(a)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene in different types of tea, as well as to assess the transfer of these contaminants from tea to tea infusion. The research materials were popular types of black, green, red and white tea. Quantitative and qualitative determination of PAHs was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). The samples were prepared by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) technique followed by cleaning-up by dispersion solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Values of limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained in the validation of the method were lower than the respective maximum values given in Commission Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011. The level of contamination of popular teas commercially available on the Polish market with PAHs is similar to that of teas available in other countries, with a very large variation in the concentration of each of the compounds. The highest benzo(a)pyrene and Σ4PAHs contents (209 ± 42 μg/kg and 756 ± 151 μg/kg, respectively) were found for black tea leaves. The transfer of Σ4PAHs from black tea to tea infusions was 0.48%, while it was 1.55–1.72% for red, white and green teas. PMID:29283369

  3. Prevention of disuse osteoporosis in rats by Cordyceps sinensis extract.

    PubMed

    Qi, W; Yan, Y-B; Lei, W; Wu, Z-X; Zhang, Y; Liu, D; Shi, L; Cao, P-C; Liu, N

    2012-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been known as a traditional medicine in China, and C. sinensis plus strontium could prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. The present study shows that daily oral administration of C. sinensis at higher doses in adult hind limb suspension rats can prevent disuse-induced bone loss and deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture. Cordyceps sinensis induces estradiol production and prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. This study was to examine whether C. sinensis can prevent disuse-induced osteoporosis. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, and five groups were treated with hind limb suspension (HLS). One HLS group received alendronate (2.0 mg/kg/day) orally, and to the three other HLS groups to each group, a different amount of C. sinensis (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 8 weeks before and after HLS. The remaining HLS group was set as a control without treatment. Each group consisted of 10 males and females. The body weights, biochemical parameters in serum and urine, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical testing, and bone microarchitecture were examined. Treatments with higher C. sinensis dosage (300 and 500 mg/kg/day) or alendronate had a positive effect on body weights, mechanical strength, BMD, and BMC compared to the other HLS groups. C. sinensis decreased markers of bone turnover dose dependently and increased the osteocalcin levels in HLS rats. The result of micro-CT analysis from the L4 vertebra showed that C. sinensis (500 mg/kg) significantly prevented the reduction of the bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabeculae number, and thickness as well as improved the trabeculae separation and structure model index in HLS rats. The present study demonstrates that administration of C. sinensis at higher doses over an 8-week period can prevent the disuse osteoporosis in rats. It implies that C. sinensis might be an alternative therapy for prevention

  4. Effects of adjacent land-use types on the distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in the montane area of central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiou-Pin; Juang, Kai-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Pai, Chuang-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks can be altered through reforestation and cropping. We estimated the effects of land use on SOC stocks after natural deciduous forests replaced by crops and coniferous plantations by examining the vertical distribution of SOC stocks at different depth intervals in an adjacent Oolong tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plantation, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest, and Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides) forest in central Taiwan. The main soil characteristics, soil nitrogen (N) content, and soil carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio were also determined. Different land uses resulted in significantly higher bulk density, lower cation exchange capacity, SOC, soil N, soil C/N ratio, and SOC stocks in croplands compared to forestlands. Due to the long-term application of chemical fertilizers, a significantly lower soil pH was found in the tea plantation. Croplands had a lower soil C/N ratio because of less C input into the soil and a higher mineralization rate of organic carbon during cultivation. Similar SOC stocks were found in Taiwania and Japanese cedar forests (148.5 and 151.8 Mg C ha -1 , respectively), while the tea plantation had comparable SOC stocks to the bamboo forest (101.8 and 100.5 Mg C ha -1 , respectively). Over 40% of SOC stocks was stored in croplands and over 56% was stored in forestland within the upper 10 cm of soil. Coniferous plantations can contribute to a higher SOC stock than croplands, and a significant difference can be found in the top 0-5 cm of soil.

  5. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in rats via suppressing MAPK mediated inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglou; Xu, Jun; Li, Jingjing; Du, Lifen; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ping; Peng, Sisi; Wang, Mingwei; Song, Hongping

    2015-05-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is an extremely popular beverage worldwide. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the major catechins isolated from green tea and contributes to its beneficial therapeutic functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EGCG on mastitis is not yet known. This study was to investigate the protective potential of EGCG against mastitis in rats. The rat mastitis model was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the duct of mammary gland. The mammary gland was collected after the experimental period. The levels of mammary oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the local activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. The mammary expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor κB-p65 (NFκB-p65) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated by western blot analysis. It was found that EGCG obviously normalized LPS-induced low activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as decreased the high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, EGCG inhibited the mammary over-expression of MAPKs, NFκB-p65 and HIF-1α. These results indicated that EGCG was able to attenuate LPS-induced mastitis in rats by suppressing MAPK related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Activities of Extracts from Edible Plants against Soft Drink Spoilage by Asaia spp.

    PubMed

    Antolak, Hubert; Czyzowska, Agata; Kregiel, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks.

  7. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-11-22

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas.

  8. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas. PMID:27874103

  9. A pilot study testing a natural and a synthetic Molluscicide for controlling invasive apple snails (Pomacea maculata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olivier, Heather M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Berhow, Mark; Carter, Jacoby

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this pilot study snails were exposed to two molluscicides, a tea (Camellia sinensis) seed derivative (TSD) or niclosamide monohydrate (Pestanal®, 2′,5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide, CAS #73360-56-2). Mortality was recorded after exposure to high or low concentrations (0.03 and 0.015 g/L for TSD, 1.3 and 0.13 mg/L for niclosamide). The TSD induced 100 % mortality at both concentrations. Niclosamide caused 100 % and 17 % mortality at high and low concentrations respectively. These molluscicides were also tested on potential biocontrol agents, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus). No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L).

  10. Application of phase-trafficking methods to natural products research.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan J; Montenegro, Gloria; Mitscher, Lester A; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2010-09-24

    A novel simultaneous phase-trafficking approach using spatially separated solid-supported reagents for rapid separation of neutral, basic, and acidic compounds from organic plant extracts with minimum labor is reported. Acidic and basic ion-exchange resins were physically separated into individual sacks ("tea bags") for trapping basic and acidic compounds, respectively, leaving behind in solution neutral components of the natural mixtures. Trapped compounds were then recovered from solid phase by appropriate suspension in acidic or basic solutions. The feasibility of the proposed separation protocol was demonstrated and optimized with an "artificial mixture" of model compounds. In addition, the utility of this methodology was illustrated with the successful separation of the alkaloid skytanthine from Skytanthus acutus Meyen and the main catechins and caffeine from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze). This novel approach offers multiple advantages over traditional extraction methods, as it is not labor intensive, makes use of only small quantities of solvents, produces fractions in adequate quantities for biological assays, and can be easily adapted to field conditions for bioprospecting activities.

  11. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  12. Optimization of the degumming process for camellia oil by the use of phospholipase C in pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaofei; Chang, Ming; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo

    2015-06-01

    In present study, phospholipase C (PLC) was applied in camellia oil degumming and the response surface method (RSM) was used to determine the optimum degumming conditions (reaction time, reaction temperature and enzyme dosage) for this enzyme. The optimum conditions for the minimum residual phosphorus content (15.14 mg/kg) and maximum yield of camellia oil (98.2 %) were obtained at reaction temperature 53 ºC, reaction time 2.2 h, PLC dosage 400 mg/kg and pH 5.4. The application of phospholipase A (PLA) - assisted degumming process could further reduce the residual phosphorus content of camellia oil (6.84 mg/kg) to make the oil suitable for physical refining while maintaining the maximal oil yield (98.2 %). These results indicate that PLC degumming process in combination with PLA treatment can be a commercially viable alternative for traditional degumming process. Study on the quality changes of degummed oils showed that the oxidative stability of camellia oil was slightly deceased after the enzymatic treatment, thus more attention should be paid to the oxidative stability in the further application.

  13. RNA-seq based transcriptomic analysis uncovers α-linolenic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways respond to cold acclimation in Camellia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingyuan; Lei, Sheng; Du, Kebing; Li, Lizhi; Pang, Xufeng; Wang, Zhanchang; Wei, Ming; Fu, Shao; Hu, Limin; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Camellia is a well-known ornamental flower native to Southeast of Asia, including regions such as Japan, Korea and South China. However, most species in the genus Camellia are cold sensitive. To elucidate the cold stress responses in camellia plants, we carried out deep transcriptome sequencing of ‘Jiangxue’, a cold-tolerant cultivar of Camellia japonica, and approximately 1,006 million clean reads were generated using Illumina sequencing technology. The assembly of the clean reads produced 367,620 transcripts, including 207,592 unigenes. Overall, 28,038 differentially expressed genes were identified during cold acclimation. Detailed elucidation of responses of transcription factors, protein kinases and plant hormone signalling-related genes described the interplay of signal that allowed the plant to fine-tune cold stress responses. On the basis of global gene regulation of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis- and jasmonic acid biosynthesis-related genes, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways were deduced to be involved in the low temperature responses in C. japonica. These results were supported by the determination of the fatty acid composition and jasmonic acid content. Our results provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of the responses to cold acclimation in camellia plants. PMID:27819341

  14. Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste supported aluminum oxides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chuanyi; Xi, Junjun; Chen, Guijie; Feng, Zhihui; Ke, Fei; Ning, Jingming; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Cai, Huimei; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-03-01

    Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea-Al), was successfully prepared. The Tea-Al biosorbent was characterized by energy-dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The Tea-Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), but a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine, under the same conditions. Fluoride adsorption by Tea-Al for different times obeyed the surface reaction and adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Results from this study demonstrated that Tea-Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok

    2008-10-08

    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  16. The Nematicidal Effect of Camellia Seed Cake on Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne javanica of Banana

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Kang; Su, Lanxi; Li, Hongmei; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L) showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression. PMID:25849382

  17. Metabonomics approach to determine metabolic differences between green tea and black tea consumption.

    PubMed

    Van Dorsten, Ferdi A; Daykin, Clare A; Mulder, Theo P J; Van Duynhoven, John P M

    2006-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of black and green tea consumption on human metabolism. Seventeen healthy male volunteers consumed black tea, green tea, or caffeine in a randomized crossover study. Twenty-four-hour urine and blood plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabonomics, that is, high-resolution 1H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate statistics. Green and black tea consumption resulted in similar increases in urinary excretion of hippuric acid and 1,3-dihydroxyphenyl-2-O-sulfate, both of which are end products of tea flavonoid degradation by colonic bacteria. Several unidentified aromatic metabolites were detected in urine specifically after green tea intake. Interestingly, green and black tea intake also had a different impact on endogenous metabolites in urine and plasma. Green tea intake caused a stronger increase in urinary excretion of several citric acid cycle intermediates, which suggests an effect of green tea flavanols on human oxidative energy metabolism and/or biosynthetic pathways.

  18. Immune responses induced by co-infection with Capillaria hepatica in Clonorchis sinensis-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Moon, E-K; Lee, S-H; Goo, T W; Quan, F-S

    2018-07-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Capillaria hepatica are zoonotic parasites that mainly infect the liver and cause serious liver disorders. However, immunological parameters induced by co-infection with these parasites remain unknown. In this study, for the first time, we investigated immunological profiles induced by co-infection with C. hepatica (CH) in C. sinensis (CS)-infected rats (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were infected primarily with 50 metacercariae of C. sinensis; 4 weeks later, they were subsequently infected with 1000 infective C. hepatica eggs. Significantly higher levels of C. sinensis- or C. hepatica-specific IgG antibodies were found in the sera of rats. Interestingly, no cross-reacting antibody was observed between C. sinensis and C. hepatica infections. Significantly raised eosinophil levels were found in the blood of C. sinensis/C. hepatica co-infected rats (CS + CH) compared to the blood of rats infected singly with C. sinensis. Co-infected rats showed significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production compared to a single C. sinensis infection. The worm burden of C. sinensis was significantly reduced in co-infected rats compared to the single C. sinensis infection. These results indicate that the eosinophils, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production induced by subsequent infection with C. hepatica in C. sinensis-infected rats might contribute to the observed C. sinensis worm reduction.

  19. [NIR Fingerprints of Different Medicinal Parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-ya; Gu, Zhi-rong; Ding, Jun-xia; Wang, Yao-peng; Sun, Yu-jing; Wang, Ya-li

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the spectrum characteristics of near-intrared dittuse retlectance spectroscopy (NIR) fingerprint of different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. 96 batches of samples were collected from 14 counties of Gansu Province and Yunnan Province. The NIR fingerprints were collected by integrated sphere. Similarity analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were used to analyze the fingerprint. The average spectrum of NIR fingerprint of different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix showed some differences; the absorbance in characteristic absorption was in a decreasing order of body > tail > head > whole. Most NIR fingerprint similarities of different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix exceeded 0. 95. The established model of PLS-DA could be used to accurately classify the medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. The differences of NIR fingerprints of different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix were mainly existing in the wave number ranges of 8,443 - 8,284 cm -1, 7,003 - 6,896 cm-1, 6,102 - 5,864 cm-1, 4,847 - 4,674 cm-1, and 4,386 - 4,208 cm-1. The different medicinal parts of Angelicae Sinensis Radix have some differences in chemical components.

  20. [Study on eco-climatic applicability of Angelica sinensis].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhen-Yong; Yin, Xian-Zhi; Yin, Dong; Yang, Qi-Guo; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Ming-Chun

    2005-06-01

    In the interest of establish planting base of Angelica sinensis on a large scale, enhance economic benefit, and improve decision-making reasons, the eco-climatic applicability of A. sinensis was studied. Using integral regression, eco-climatic applicability and the effect of meteorological conditions for the yield of A. sinensis' were analysed by field experimental data. Selected > or =0 degrees C accumulated temperature and annual precipitation as leading index, altitude as assistant index, yield and rate of finished products as reference index, the integrated eco-climatic division index and the planting division applicability of A. sinensis was confirmed. Accordancing to theory of climate similitude and leading index summarisation, combining with assistant index and reference index, the integrated division index of eco-climate was confirmed. The planting division of co-climate applicability was divided into 5 grades as best suitable, suitable hypo-suitable, just suitable and no suitable regions. At the same time,the way to enhanced utilizing efficiency of eco-climate resources was brought forward.

  1. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of Athrixia phylicoides DC. (bush tea), Monsonia burkeana (special tea) and synergistic effects of both combined herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Tshivhandekano, Itani; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Ngezimana, Wonder; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mudau, Fhatuwani Nixwell

    2014-09-01

    To determine the chemical compositions and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.), special tea (Monsonia burkeana) and synergy (combination of bush tea and special tea). Total polyphenols were determined using the methods reported by Singleton and Rossi (1965) and modified by Waterman and Mole (1994). Tannins were determined using vanillin HCL methods described by Prince et al. (1978). Total antioxidants were determined using the methods described by Awika et al. (2004). The micro dilution technique using 96-well micro-plates, as described by Eloff (1998) was used to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values of the ethanol extracts against the microorganisms under study. The microbes strain used was Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia; Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and a fungus Candida albicans. The results demonstrated that special tea contains significantly higher content of total polyphenols (8.34 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.83 mg/100 g) as compared to bush tea [total polyphenols (6.41 mg/100g) and total antioxidant (0.63 mg/100g)] and combination of bush tea and special tea [total polyphenols (6.42 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.64 mg/100 g)]. There was no significant difference in tannins between bush tea, special tea and synergy. The results of antimicrobial activity (MIC and MMC) demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of bush tea, special tea and synergy possessed antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms at different zones. The MIC of bush tea ranged from 1.56 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.78 to 12.50 mg/mL. Special tea's MIC ranged from 0.39 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.01 to 12.50 mg/mL. The MIC of synergy ranged from 3.13 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 3

  2. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  3. Developmental Transcriptomic Features of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Pyo Yun; Kim, Tae Im; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Park, Hong-Seog; Kim, Tong-Soo; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development, bile chemotaxis, and

  4. Synergism and foaming properties in binary mixtures of a biosurfactant derived from Camellia oleifera Abel and synthetic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hong-lei; Liao, Xiao-xia; Zhu, Li-wei; Zhang, Wei-ming; Jiang, Jian-xin

    2011-07-15

    A biosurfactant, named tea saponin (TS), was isolated and purified from the defatted seed of Camellia oleifera Abel. The characterization of TS including molecular weight, glycosyl composition, and thermal behavior as well as the surface and foaming properties was conducted. The synergistic interactions of binary systems of CTAB-TS, SDS-TS, and Brij35-TS were investigated. The results show that TS had a weight-average molecular weight of 809.12 g mol(-1) and contained four aglycones of L-rhamnose, D-galactose, D-glucose, and D-glucuronic acid. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of 2.242 mmol L(-1) and the minimum surface tension (γ(cmc)) of 43.5 mN m(-1) were determined for TS. Synergisms in surface tension reduction efficiency, in mixed micelle formation, and in surface tension reduction effectiveness were observed in CTAB-TS and SDS-TS systems, whereas that was not shown in Brij35-TS mixtures. The mixtures of TS with CTAB and SDS showed synergism in foaming efficiency, but this synergism did not exist in Brij35-TS system with respect to the surface properties. Nevertheless, there appears to be no significant correlation between foam stability and the surface properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of dietary green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) supplementation on growth performance, lipid metabolism, and antioxidant status in a sturgeon hybrid of Sterlet (Huso huso ♂ × Acipenser ruthenus ♀) fed oxidized fish oil.

    PubMed

    Hasanpour, Soleiman; Salati, Amir Parviz; Falahatkar, Bahram; Azarm, Hamid Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Lipid content of diet is very susceptible to oxidation, especially when stored for a long time, so for evaluating protective effects of green tea in fish received oxidized oil, this study was done. Lipid content of diet was replaced by oxidized fish oil (OFO) in 0, 50, and 100%. Green tea extract (GTE) was added to diet in three levels, 0, 5, and 100 mg/kg giving a total of nine experimental diets. Two hundred and seventy sturgeon hybrid of Sterlet (Huso huso ♀ × Acipenser ruthenus ♂) with initial weight of 212.6 ± 0.7 g after 2 weeks adaptation randomly divided in 27 fiberglass tanks with 700 L volume. Fish were fed satiated three times daily. After 6 weeks, biometry was done to evaluate growth performance and blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. The result showed that feeding with oxidized oil had no effects on growth. However, in fish fed GTE, growth indices improved slightly. Feeding with OFO reduced serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein, while increased high density lipoprotein. Dietary GTE moderated the effects of OFO on lipid metabolism. Feeding with the OFO increased activity of serum superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde contents. In fish received both OFO and GTE, reduced activity of serum antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content was recorded in compare to fish fed only OFO. According to the result of the present study, it can be argued that feeding of sturgeon hybrid of Sterlet with OFO has negative effects on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status, whereas GTE dosages used in this study have protective effects on fish from the adverse effects of oxidized oil.

  6. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shu-Yuan; Ha, Choi-Lan; Wu, Pei-Shan; Yeh, Chiu-Ling; Su, Ying-Shan; Li, Man-Po; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2015-12-10

    Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM) reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  7. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  8. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  9. Isolation, Culture and Characterization of Hirsutella sinensis Mycelium from Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yun-Fei; Liau, Jian-Ching; Lee, Chien-Sheng; Chiu, Chen-Yaw; Martel, Jan; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Ojcius, David M.; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number of incorrect mycelium strains. We report here the isolation of a mycelium from a fruiting body of O. sinensis and we identify the isolate as O. sinensis’ anamorph (also called Hirsutella sinensis) based on multi-locus sequence typing of several fungal genes (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7, β-tubulin, TEF-1α, and ATP6). The main characteristics of the isolated mycelium, including its optimal growth at low temperature (16°C) and its biochemical composition, are similar to that of O. sinensis fruiting bodies, indicating that the mycelium strain characterized here may be used as a substitute for the rare and expensive O. sinensis fruiting bodies found in nature. PMID:28046129

  10. The water-water cycle is a major electron sink in Camellia species when CO2 assimilation is restricted.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan-Fei; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Li, Shu-Fa; Wang, Ji-Hua; Huang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The water-water cycle (WWC) is thought to dissipate excess excitation energy and balance the ATP/NADPH energy budget under some conditions. However, the importance of the WWC in photosynthetic regulation remains controversy. We observed that three Camellia cultivars exhibited high rates of photosynthetic electron flow under high light when photosynthesis was restricted. We thus tested the hypothesis that the WWC is a major electron sink in the three Camellia cultivars when CO 2 assimilation is restricted. Light response curves indicated that the WWC was strongly increased with photorespiration and was positively correlated with extra ATP supplied from other flexible mechanisms excluding linear electron flow, implying that the WWC is an important alternative electron sink to balance ATP/NADPH energy demand for sustaining photorespiration in Camellia cultivars. Interestingly, when photosynthesis was depressed by the decreases in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, the rates of photosynthetic electron flow through photosystem II declined slightly and the rates of WWC was enhanced. Furthermore, the increased electron flow of WWC was positively correlated with the ratio of Rubisco oxygenation to carboxylation, supporting the involvement of alternative electron flow in balancing the ATP/NADPH energy budget. We propose that the WWC is a crucial electron sink to regulate ATP/NADPH energy budget and dissipate excess energy excitation in Camellia species when CO 2 assimilation is restricted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-02-22

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  12. Metabolomic comparison between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Yuetao; Guo, Qingfeng; Zheng, Qingxia; Zhang, Wancun

    2018-05-11

    A systematic study on the metabolome differences between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris was conducted using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis results showed that C. militaris grown on solid rice medium (R-CM) and C. militaris grown on tussah pupa (T-CM) evidently separated and individually separated from wild O. sinensis, indicating metabolome difference among wild O. sinensis, R-CM and T-CM. The metabolome differences between R-CM and T-CM indicated that C. militaris could accommodate to culture medium by differential metabolic regulation. Hierarchical clustering analysis was further performed to cluster the differential metabolites and samples based on their metabolic similarity. The higher content of amino acids (pyroglutamic acid, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine and arginine), unsaturated fatty acid (linolenic acid and linoleic acid), peptides, mannitol, adenosine and succinoadenosine in O. sinensis make it as an excellent choice as a traditional Chinese medicine for invigoration or nutritional supplementation. Similar compositions with O. sinensis and easy cultivation make artificially cultured C. militaris a possible alternative to O. sinensis. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Comparison of Antioxidative Effects of Insect Tea and Its Raw Tea (Kuding Tea) Polyphenols in Kunming Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Yi, Ruokun; Li, Guijie; Sun, Peng; Park, Kun-Young; Suo, Huayi

    2018-01-19

    Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metab