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Sample records for camillea xylariaceae ascomycota

  1. Ascus apical apparatus and ascospore characters in Xylariaceae.

    PubMed

    Suwannasai, Nuttika; Whalley, Margaret A; Whalley, Anthony J S; Thienhirun, Surang; Sihanonth, Prakitsin

    2012-12-01

    Members of Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) are recognized and classified mainly on the morphological features of their sexual state. In a number of genera high morphological variation of stromatal characters has made confident recognition of generic and specific boundaries difficult. There are, however, a range of microscopical characteristics which can in most cases make distinctions, especially at generic level, even in the absence of molecular data. These include details of the apical apparatus in the ascus (e.g. disc-shaped, inverted hat-shaped, rhomboid, composed of rings, amyloid, non-amyloid); position and length of the germ slit; and presence and type of ascospore wall ornamentation as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unfortunately many of the classical studies on xylariaceous genera omitted these features and were undertaken long before the development of scanning electron microscopy. More recent studies have, however, demonstrated their value as diagnostic characters in the family. Camillea is for example, instantly recognizable by its rhomboid or diamond shaped apical apparatus, and the distinctive inverted hat or urniform type is usually prominent in Xylaria, Rosellinia, Kretzschmaria, and Nemania. At least six categories of apical apparatus based on shape and size can be recognized. Ascospore ornamentation as seen by SEM has been exceptionally useful and provided the basis for separating Camillea from Biscogniauxia and other xylariaceous genera.

  2. A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Marc; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Decock, Cony; Schmieschek, Beata; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Peršoh, Derek

    2014-01-01

    For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UV-visible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future

  3. Dating the Diversification of the Major Lineages of Ascomycota (Fungi)

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, María; Wedin, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the dates for the origin and main diversification events in the phylogeny of Ascomycota is among the most crucial remaining goals in understanding the evolution of Fungi. There have been several analyses of divergence times in the fungal tree of life in the last two decades, but most have yielded contrasting results for the origin of the major lineages. Moreover, very few studies have provided temporal estimates for a large set of clades within Ascomycota. We performed molecular dating to estimate the divergence times of most of the major groups of Ascomycota. To account for paleontological uncertainty, we included alternative fossil constraints as different scenarios to enable a discussion of the effect of selection of fossils. We used data from 6 molecular markers and 121 extant taxa within Ascomycota. Our various ‘relaxed clock’ scenarios suggest that the origin and diversification of the Pezizomycotina occurred in the Cambrian. The main lineages of lichen–forming Ascomycota originated at least as early as the Carboniferous, with successive radiations in the Jurassic and Cretaceous generating the diversity of the main modern groups. Our study provides new information about the timing of the main diversification events in Ascomycota, including estimates for classes, orders and families of both lichenized and non–lichenized Ascomycota, many of which had not been previously dated. PMID:23799026

  4. Innovation and constraint leading to complex multicellularity in the Ascomycota

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tu Anh; Cissé, Ousmane H.; Yun Wong, Jie; Zheng, Peng; Hewitt, David; Nowrousian, Minou; Stajich, Jason E.; Jedd, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The advent of complex multicellularity (CM) was a pivotal event in the evolution of animals, plants and fungi. In the fungal Ascomycota, CM is based on hyphal filaments and arose in the Pezizomycotina. The genus Neolecta defines an enigma: phylogenetically placed in a related group containing mostly yeasts, Neolecta nevertheless possesses Pezizomycotina-like CM. Here we sequence the Neolecta irregularis genome and identify CM-associated functions by searching for genes conserved in Neolecta and the Pezizomycotina, which are absent or divergent in budding or fission yeasts. This group of 1,050 genes is enriched for functions related to diverse endomembrane systems and their organization. Remarkably, most show evidence for divergence in both yeasts. Using functional genomics, we identify new genes involved in fungal complexification. Together, these data show that rudimentary multicellularity is deeply rooted in the Ascomycota. Extensive parallel gene divergence during simplification and constraint leading to CM suggest a deterministic process where shared modes of cellular organization select for similarly configured organelle- and transport-related machineries. PMID:28176784

  5. Innovation and constraint leading to complex multicellularity in the Ascomycota.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Anh; Cissé, Ousmane H; Yun Wong, Jie; Zheng, Peng; Hewitt, David; Nowrousian, Minou; Stajich, Jason E; Jedd, Gregory

    2017-02-08

    The advent of complex multicellularity (CM) was a pivotal event in the evolution of animals, plants and fungi. In the fungal Ascomycota, CM is based on hyphal filaments and arose in the Pezizomycotina. The genus Neolecta defines an enigma: phylogenetically placed in a related group containing mostly yeasts, Neolecta nevertheless possesses Pezizomycotina-like CM. Here we sequence the Neolecta irregularis genome and identify CM-associated functions by searching for genes conserved in Neolecta and the Pezizomycotina, which are absent or divergent in budding or fission yeasts. This group of 1,050 genes is enriched for functions related to diverse endomembrane systems and their organization. Remarkably, most show evidence for divergence in both yeasts. Using functional genomics, we identify new genes involved in fungal complexification. Together, these data show that rudimentary multicellularity is deeply rooted in the Ascomycota. Extensive parallel gene divergence during simplification and constraint leading to CM suggest a deterministic process where shared modes of cellular organization select for similarly configured organelle- and transport-related machineries.

  6. Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina: the yeasts and yeast-like fungi of the Ascomycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylum Ascomycota has been resolved into three major phylogenetic lineages: the subphyla Saccharomycotina (e.g., Saccharomyces, Pichia, Candida), Taphrinomycotina (e.g., Protomyces, Taphrina, Pneumocystis), and the Pezizomycotina (e.g., Aspergillus, Neurospora, Peziza). We discuss the ecology, ...

  7. Origin and evolution of carnivorism in the Ascomycota (fungi).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ence; Xu, Lingling; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiang, Meichun; Wang, Chengshu; An, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xingzhong

    2012-07-03

    Carnivorism is one of the basic life strategies of fungi. Carnivorous fungi possess the ability to trap and digest their preys by sophisticated trapping devices. However, the origin and development of fungal carnivorism remains a gap in evolution biology. In this study, five protein-encoding genes were used to construct the phylogeny of the carnivorous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota; these fungi prey on nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures such as constricting rings and adhesive traps. Our analysis revealed a definitive pattern of evolutionary development for these trapping structures. Molecular clock calibration based on two fossil records revealed that fungal carnivorism diverged from saprophytism about 419 Mya, which was after the origin of nematodes about 550-600 Mya. Active carnivorism (fungi with constricting rings) and passive carnivorism (fungi with adhesive traps) diverged from each other around 246 Mya, shortly after the occurrence of the Permian-Triassic extinction event about 251.4 Mya. The major adhesive traps evolved around 198-208 Mya, which was within the time frame of the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event about 201.4 Mya. However, no major carnivorous ascomycetes divergence was correlated to the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, which occurred more recently (about 65.5 Mya). Therefore, a causal relationship between mass extinction events and fungal carnivorism evolution is not validated in this study. More evidence including additional fossil records is needed to establish if fungal carnivorism evolution was a response to mass extinction events.

  8. Origin and evolution of carnivorism in the Ascomycota (fungi)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Xu, Lingling; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiang, Meichun; Wang, Chengshu; An, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xingzhong

    2012-01-01

    Carnivorism is one of the basic life strategies of fungi. Carnivorous fungi possess the ability to trap and digest their preys by sophisticated trapping devices. However, the origin and development of fungal carnivorism remains a gap in evolution biology. In this study, five protein-encoding genes were used to construct the phylogeny of the carnivorous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota; these fungi prey on nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures such as constricting rings and adhesive traps. Our analysis revealed a definitive pattern of evolutionary development for these trapping structures. Molecular clock calibration based on two fossil records revealed that fungal carnivorism diverged from saprophytism about 419 Mya, which was after the origin of nematodes about 550–600 Mya. Active carnivorism (fungi with constricting rings) and passive carnivorism (fungi with adhesive traps) diverged from each other around 246 Mya, shortly after the occurrence of the Permian–Triassic extinction event about 251.4 Mya. The major adhesive traps evolved around 198–208 Mya, which was within the time frame of the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event about 201.4 Mya. However, no major carnivorous ascomycetes divergence was correlated to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred more recently (about 65.5 Mya). Therefore, a causal relationship between mass extinction events and fungal carnivorism evolution is not validated in this study. More evidence including additional fossil records is needed to establish if fungal carnivorism evolution was a response to mass extinction events. PMID:22715289

  9. Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) from multigene phylogenetic analysis of type species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylogenetic relatedness among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) has been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small sub...

  10. Estimating the Phanerozoic history of the Ascomycota lineages: combining fossil and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Beimforde, Christina; Feldberg, Kathrin; Nylinder, Stephan; Rikkinen, Jouko; Tuovila, Hanna; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Gube, Matthias; Jackson, Daniel J; Reitner, Joachim; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2014-09-01

    The phylum Ascomycota is by far the largest group in the fungal kingdom. Ecologically important mutualistic associations such as mycorrhizae and lichens have evolved in this group, which are regarded as key innovations that supported the evolution of land plants. Only a few attempts have been made to date the origin of Ascomycota lineages by using molecular clock methods, which is primarily due to the lack of satisfactory fossil calibration data. For this reason we have evaluated all of the oldest available ascomycete fossils from amber (Albian to Miocene) and chert (Devonian and Maastrichtian). The fossils represent five major ascomycete classes (Coniocybomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes, and Lecanoromycetes). We have assembled a multi-gene data set (18SrDNA, 28SrDNA, RPB1 and RPB2) from a total of 145 taxa representing most groups of the Ascomycota and utilized fossil calibration points solely from within the ascomycetes to estimate divergence times of Ascomycota lineages with a Bayesian approach. Our results suggest an initial diversification of the Pezizomycotina in the Ordovician, followed by repeated splits of lineages throughout the Phanerozoic, and indicate that this continuous diversification was unaffected by mass extinctions. We suggest that the ecological diversity within each lineage ensured that at least some taxa of each group were able to survive global crises and rapidly recovered.

  11. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-12-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of γ-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  12. Isolation of Endohyphal Bacteria from Foliar Ascomycota and In Vitro Establishment of Their Symbiotic Associations

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Kayla R.; Hockett, Kevin L.; Araldi-Brondolo, Sarah J.; Baltrus, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Endohyphal bacteria (EHB) can influence fungal phenotypes and shape the outcomes of plant-fungal interactions. Previous work has suggested that EHB form facultative associations with many foliar fungi in the Ascomycota. These bacteria can be isolated in culture, and fungi can be cured of EHB using antibiotics. Here, we present methods for successfully introducing EHB into axenic mycelia of strains representing two classes of Ascomycota. We first establish in vitro conditions favoring reintroduction of two strains of EHB (Luteibacter sp.) into axenic cultures of their original fungal hosts, focusing on fungi isolated from healthy plant tissue as endophytes: Microdiplodia sp. (Dothideomycetes) and Pestalotiopsis sp. (Sordariomycetes). We then demonstrate that these EHB can be introduced into a novel fungal host under the same conditions, successfully transferring EHB between fungi representing different classes. Finally, we manipulate conditions to optimize reintroduction in a focal EHB-fungal association. We show that EHB infections were initiated and maintained more often under low-nutrient culture conditions and when EHB and fungal hyphae were washed with MgCl2 prior to reassociation. Our study provides new methods for experimental assessment of the effects of EHB on fungal phenotypes and shows how the identity of the fungal host and growth conditions can define the establishment of these widespread and important symbioses. PMID:26969692

  13. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  14. A monograph of Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and their pycnidial, sporodochial, and synnematous anamorphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Nectria is the type genus of Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota), the systematics of the teleomorphic and anamorphic state of Nectria sensu Rossman has not been studied in detail. The objectives of this study were to 1) provide a phylogenetic overview to d...

  15. Antioxidative Polyketones from the Mangrove-Derived Fungus Ascomycota sp. SK2YWS-L

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chunbin; Liu, Zhaoming; Chen, Senhua; Huang, Xishan; Cui, Hui; Long, Yuhua; Lu, Yongjun; She, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Three novel 2,3-diaryl indone derivatives, ascomindones A−C (1−3), and two new isobenzofuran derivatives, ascomfurans A (4) and B (5), together with four know compounds (6−9) were isolated from the culture of a mangrove-derived fungus Ascomycota sp. SK2YWS-L. Their structures were elucidated on the interpretation of spectroscopic data. 1 and 4 were further constructed by analysis of X-ray diffraction. Antioxidant properties based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and the ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) of the new compounds were assayed. All of them exhibited significant effects, of which 1 showed more potent activity than ascorbic acid in scavenging DPPH radical with IC50 value of 18.1 μM. PMID:27811993

  16. Promising approaches towards biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with Ascomycota fungi.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Elisabet

    2016-04-01

    The bioremediation of hazardous aromatic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been extensively studied in recent decades, including the potential use of different phyla of fungi for this purpose. Molecular technologies are starting to reveal that the real players in polluted environments are mainly represented by the phylum Ascomycota and the subphylum Mucoromycotina and, to a lesser extent, the phylum Basidiomycota. Paradoxically, despite their key involvement, these groups of fungi are often treated as a black box, and their potential roles in the transformation of xenobiotics and catabolic pathways remain poorly understood. The complex intracellular metabolism seems to play a major role in the ability of these fungi to transform or remove PAHs, and their associated enzymes are encoded in the xenome. Functional genomics offers novel information about this enzymatic system, which is widely distributed among all phyla.

  17. Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov., a new species of the Ascomycota, subphylum Taphrinomycotina.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2012-05-01

    Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov. (NRRL YB-2330, CBS 12360, type strain, MycoBank accession number 563858) is described. This new member of the phylum Ascomycota, subphylum Taphrinomycotina was isolated from insect frass occurring in an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) that was growing in Colorado, USA. Multigene sequence analysis showed that S. coloradoensis is distinct from Saitoella complicata, the only other known species of Saitoella. The two species may be separated phenotypically from growth reactions on D: -xylose, ribitol and methyl-α-D: -glucoside. Asexual reproduction is by budding and both species produce thick-walled, spherical cells that appear morphologically similar to the ascogenous cells formed in plant host tissue by species of Protomyces and some species of Taphrina. The thick-walled cells did not form ascospores but did produce buds when placed on fresh growth media.

  18. [Role of G-protein alpha sub-units in the morphogenic processes of filamentous Ascomycota fungi].

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Ramón O; Fierro, Francisco

    The phylum Ascomycota comprises about 75% of all the fungal species described, and includes species of medical, phytosanitary, agricultural, and biotechnological importance. The ability to spread, explore, and colonise new substrates is a feature of critical importance for this group of organisms. In this regard, basic processes such as conidial germination, the extension of hyphae and sporulation, make up the backbone of development in most filamentous fungi. These processes require specialised morphogenic machinery, coordinated and regulated by mechanisms that are still being elucidated. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the role of the signalling pathway mediated by heterotrimericG proteins in basic biological processes of many filamentous fungi. This review focuses on the role of the alpha subunits of heterotrimericG proteins in the morphogenic processes of filamentous Ascomycota.

  19. Functional Operons in Secondary Metabolic Gene Clusters in Glarea lozoyensis (Fungi, Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Qun; Chen, Li; Li, Yan; Bills, Gerald F.; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiang, Meichun; Li, Shaojie; Che, Yongsheng; Niu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Operons are multigene transcriptional units which occur mostly in prokaryotes but rarely in eukaryotes. Protein-coding operons have not been reported in the Fungi even though they represent a very diverse kingdom of organisms. Here, we report a functional operon involved in the secondary metabolism of the fungus Glarea lozoyensis belonging to Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota). Two contiguous genes, glpks3 and glnrps7, encoding polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase, respectively, are cotranscribed into one dicistronic mRNA under the control of the same promoter, and the mRNA is then translated into two individual proteins, GLPKS3 and GLNRPS7. Heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans shows that the GLPKS3-GLNRPS7 enzyme complex catalyzes the biosynthesis of a novel pyrrolidinedione-containing compound, xenolozoyenone (compound 1), which indicates the operon is functional. Although it is structurally similar to prokaryotic operons, the glpks3-glnrps7 operon locus has a monophylogenic origin from fungi rather than having been horizontally transferred from prokaryotes. Moreover, two additional operons, glpks28-glnrps8 and glpks29-glnrps9, were verified at the transcriptional level in the same fungus. This is the first report of protein-coding operons in a member of the Fungi. PMID:26081635

  20. Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) from multigene phylogenetic analysis of type species.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2013-02-01

    Relationships among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) have been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small subunit (SSU) rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α, and RNA polymerase II, subunits 1 (RPB1) and 2 (RPB2). The analysis substantiates earlier proposals that all known ascomycetous yeast genera now assigned to the Saccharomycotina represent a single clade. Maximum likelihood analysis resolved the taxa into eight large multigenus clades and four-one- and two-genus clades. Maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses gave similar results. Genera of the family Saccharomycetaceae remain as one large clade as previously demonstrated, to which the genus Cyniclomyces is now assigned. Pichia, Saturnispora, Kregervanrija, Dekkera, Ogataea and Ambrosiozyma are members of a single large clade, which is separate from the clade that includes Barnettozyma, Cyberlindnera, Phaffomyces, Starmera and Wickerhamomyces. Other clades include Kodamaea, Metschnikowia, Debaryomyces, Cephaloascus and related genera, which are separate from the clade that includes Zygoascus, Trichomonascus, Yarrowia and others. This study once again demonstrates that there is limited congruence between a system of classification based on phenotype and a system determined from DNA sequences.

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of ornithine decarboxylase gene fragments from the Ascomycota.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Rodríguez-Guerra, Raul; Cortes-Penagos, Carlos; Torres-Guzman, Juan Carlos; Williamson, June Simpson

    2006-06-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) catalyzes the initial step in the biosynthesis of polyamines, the conversion of ornithine to putrescine. Based on the most conserved regions of fungal ODCs, we designed and synthesized oligonucleotides to amplify homologous fragments of three important plant pathogenic Pyrenomycete fungi (Ascomycota), Magnaporthe grisea, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Fusarium solani, and one insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified fragments revealed homologies of between 37 to 88% with other fungal ODCs. The predicted peptide sequences were compared by Clustal analysis and conserved sequences corresponding to the substrate and cofactor binding sites were identified. Comparative analyses of the ODC fragments isolated in this study, revealed high homology between them (68.3-81.1%) and also with other Pyrenomycetes such as Neurospora crassa (order Sordariales; 68.6-72.9%) and Fusarium graminearum (order Hypocreales; 70.8-88.1%). Data obtained in this work revealed that these fungi constitute a compact group separated from other eukaryotic ODCs.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Strain RR-HG1, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (Esca)-Related Member of the Ascomycota

    PubMed Central

    Antonielli, Livio; Compant, Stéphane; Strauss, Joseph; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The Ascomycota species Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, in concert with other fungi, is a causal agent for grapevine trunk diseases. Here, we present the first draft of the P. chlamydospora genome sequence, which comprises 355 scaffolds, with a total length of 26.59 Mb and 7,279 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:24723699

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Strain RR-HG1, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (Esca)-Related Member of the Ascomycota.

    PubMed

    Antonielli, Livio; Compant, Stéphane; Strauss, Joseph; Sessitsch, Angela; Berger, Harald

    2014-04-10

    The Ascomycota species Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, in concert with other fungi, is a causal agent for grapevine trunk diseases. Here, we present the first draft of the P. chlamydospora genome sequence, which comprises 355 scaffolds, with a total length of 26.59 Mb and 7,279 predicted protein-coding genes.

  4. Histopathological effects of Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) on larvae of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control.

  5. Ultrastructural and cytochemical characterization of brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infected by the Lecanicillium lecanii (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Liu, Weimin; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructural and cytochemical characterization of the brown soft scale, Coccus hesperidum L. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infected by the hyphomycete Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Gams & Zare, belonging to the phylum Ascomycota and order Hypocreales, was investigated by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Gold cytochemistry was used to label chitin in the cuticle of the scale insect. The results revealed that the pathogenic fungus, L. lecanii generally infected by penetrating the integument, especially at anus, vulva, spiracles, stigmatic furrow, body margin, and the areas of cuticle with grooves, fissures and rugoses areas. The conidia became attached to the host body surface and germinated into hyphae that established colonies by branching repeatedly. Hyphae penetrated the integument by means of their penetration pegs using mechanical force and extracellular enzymes. During integument penetration, the hyphae extended vertically or parallel along the cuticle. Labeling with the WGA/Ovo-G complex showed disruption of the parallel sheets of chitin and a decrease in the density of the gold particles surrounding the penetrated hyphae. Hyphal invasion also separated the cuticle and epidermis from each other. Once in the haemocoele, blastospores of the fungus infected the haemocytes and internal organs. After some time, the nutritive value of the haemocoele decreased and the insect's internal organs disappeared. The hyphae then produced conidiophores and released them through the cuticle of the scale insect cadaver.

  6. First detection of the larval chalkbrood disease pathogen Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales) in adult bumble bees.

    PubMed

    Maxfield-Taylor, Sarah A; Mujic, Alija B; Rao, Sujaya

    2015-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Ascosphaera (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales) cause chalkbrood disease in larvae of bees. Here, we report the first-ever detection of the fungus in adult bumble bees that were raised in captivity for studies on colony development. Wild queens of Bombus griseocollis, B. nevadensis and B. vosnesenskii were collected and maintained for establishment of nests. Queens that died during rearing or that did not lay eggs within one month of capture were dissected, and tissues were examined microscopically for the presence of pathogens. Filamentous fungi that were detected were plated on artificial media containing broad spectrum antibiotics for isolation and identification. Based on morphological characters, the fungus was identified as Ascosphaera apis (Maasen ex Claussen) Olive and Spiltoir, a species that has been reported earlier only from larvae of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, and the carpenter bee Xylocopa californica arizonensis. The identity of the fungus was confirmed using molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis. Ascosphaera apis was detected in queens of all three bumble bee species examined. Of 150 queens dissected, 12 (8%) contained vegetative and reproductive stages of the fungus. Both fungal stages were also detected in two workers collected from colonies with Ascosphaera-infected B. nevadensis queens. In this study, wild bees could have been infected prior to capture for rearing, or, the A. apis infection could have originated via contaminated European honey bee pollen fed to the bumble bees in captivity. Thus, the discovery of A. apis in adult bumble bees in the current study has important implications for commercial production of bumble bee colonies and highlights potential risks to native bees via pathogen spillover from infected bees and infected pollen.

  7. Origin and diversification of major clades in parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) during the Paleogene inferred by Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Cubas, Paloma; Divakar, Pradeep K; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Crespo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate on the extent of vicariance and long-distance dispersal events to explain the current distribution of organisms, especially in those with small diaspores potentially prone to long-distance dispersal. Age estimates of clades play a crucial role in evaluating the impact of these processes. The aim of this study is to understand the evolutionary history of the largest clade of macrolichens, the parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) by dating the origin of the group and its major lineages. They have a worldwide distribution with centers of distribution in the Neo- and Paleotropics, and semi-arid subtropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using DNA sequences of nuLSU and mtSSU rDNA, and the protein-coding RPB1 gene. The three DNA regions had different evolutionary rates: RPB1 gave a rate two to four times higher than nuLSU and mtSSU. Divergence times of the major clades were estimated with partitioned BEAST analyses allowing different rates for each DNA region and using a relaxed clock model. Three calibrations points were used to date the tree: an inferred age at the stem of Lecanoromycetes, and two dated fossils: Parmelia in the parmelioid group, and Alectoria. Palaeoclimatic conditions and the palaeogeological area cladogram were compared to the dated phylogeny of parmelioid. The parmelioid group diversified around the K/T boundary, and the major clades diverged during the Eocene and Oligocene. The radiation of the genera occurred through globally changing climatic condition of the early Oligocene, Miocene and early Pliocene. The estimated divergence times are consistent with long-distance dispersal events being the major factor to explain the biogeographical distribution patterns of Southern Hemisphere parmelioids, especially for Africa-Australia disjunctions, because the sequential break-up of Gondwana started much earlier than the origin of these clades. However, our

  8. Multigene Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeographic Diversification of the Earth Tongue Fungi in the Genera Cudonia and Spathularia (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zai-Wei; Yang, Zhu L.; Pfister, Donald H.; Carbone, Matteo; Bau, Tolgor; Smith, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    The family Cudoniaceae (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota) was erected to accommodate the “earth tongue fungi” in the genera Cudonia and Spathularia. There have been no recent taxonomic studies of these genera, and the evolutionary relationships within and among these fungi are largely unknown. Here we explore the molecular phylogenetic relationships within Cudonia and Spathularia using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on 111 collections from across the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenies based on the combined data from ITS, nrLSU, rpb2 and tef-1α sequences support the monophyly of three main clades, the /flavida, /velutipes, and /cudonia clades. The genus Cudonia and the family Cudoniaceae are supported as monophyletic groups, while the genus Spathularia is not monophyletic. Although Cudoniaceae is monophyletic, our analyses agree with previous studies that this family is nested within the Rhytismataceae. Our phylogenetic analyses circumscribes 32 species-level clades, including the putative recognition of 23 undescribed phylogenetic species. Our molecular phylogeny also revealed an unexpectedly high species diversity of Cudonia and Spathularia in eastern Asia, with 16 (out of 21) species-level clades of Cudonia and 8 (out of 11) species-level clades of Spathularia. We estimate that the divergence time of the Cudoniaceae was in the Paleogene approximately 28 Million years ago (Mya) and that the ancestral area for this group of fungi was in Eastern Asia based on the current data. We hypothesize that the large-scale geological and climatic events in Oligocene (e.g. the global cooling and the uplift of the Tibetan plateau) may have triggered evolutionary radiations in this group of fungi in East Asia. This work provides a foundation for future studies on the phylogeny, diversity, and evolution of Cudonia and Spathularia and highlights the need for more molecular studies on collections from Europe and North America. PMID:25084276

  9. Host range and diversity of the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) living in association with bark beetles in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Kolarík, Miroslav; Kostovcík, Martin; Pazoutová, Sylvie

    2007-11-01

    Geosmithia spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are dry-spored fungi that occur in galleries built by many phloeophagous bark beetles. This study mapped the diversity, host spectrum and area of distribution of Geosmithia spp. occurring in galleries of bark beetle species with a Mediterranean distribution. Eighty-six wood samples of 19 tree species infested by 18 subcortical insect species were collected from across the Mediterranean Basin during the years 2003-2006. Geosmithia spp. were found in 82 samples of angiosperms and two host trees from the family Juniperaceae infested by 14 bark beetles and the bostrichid Scobicia pustulata, suggesting that the association of Geosmithia and phloeophagous bark beetles is very widespread in the Mediterranean. Geosmithia isolates were sorted into 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on their phenotype similarity and phylogeny of their ITS regions of rDNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). The OTUs represent five known species (G. flava, G. langdonii, G. lavendula, G. pallida, G. putterillii) and seven undescribed taxa. Most of the bark beetles were associated with on average 1-2.5 OTUs per sample. G. lavendula, considered very uncommon in nature, was found as a common associate of bark beetles. Six out of 13 OTUs were found to be distributed in the Mediterranean but not in neighbouring areas of temperate Europe suggesting that Geosmithia spp. have a geographically limited distribution, probably due to their dependency on the geographically limited area of their vectors. The proportion of generalists and specialists among Geosmithia spp. was smaller compared with data from temperate Europe. A possible explanation is the effective dispersal of Geosmithia by polyphagous bostrichids across the niches defined by mutually exclusive bark beetles.

  10. First Detection of the Larval Chalkbrood Disease Pathogen Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales) in Adult Bumble Bees

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield-Taylor, Sarah A.; Mujic, Alija B.; Rao, Sujaya

    2015-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Ascosphaera (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales) cause chalkbrood disease in larvae of bees. Here, we report the first-ever detection of the fungus in adult bumble bees that were raised in captivity for studies on colony development. Wild queens of Bombus griseocollis, B. nevadensis and B. vosnesenskii were collected and maintained for establishment of nests. Queens that died during rearing or that did not lay eggs within one month of capture were dissected, and tissues were examined microscopically for the presence of pathogens. Filamentous fungi that were detected were plated on artificial media containing broad spectrum antibiotics for isolation and identification. Based on morphological characters, the fungus was identified as Ascosphaera apis (Maasen ex Claussen) Olive and Spiltoir, a species that has been reported earlier only from larvae of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, and the carpenter bee Xylocopa californica arizonensis. The identity of the fungus was confirmed using molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis. Ascosphaera apis was detected in queens of all three bumble bee species examined. Of 150 queens dissected, 12 (8%) contained vegetative and reproductive stages of the fungus. Both fungal stages were also detected in two workers collected from colonies with Ascosphaera-infected B. nevadensis queens. In this study, wild bees could have been infected prior to capture for rearing, or, the A. apis infection could have originated via contaminated European honey bee pollen fed to the bumble bees in captivity. Thus, the discovery of A. apis in adult bumble bees in the current study has important implications for commercial production of bumble bee colonies and highlights potential risks to native bees via pathogen spillover from infected bees and infected pollen. PMID:25885679

  11. What an rRNA Secondary Structure Tells about Phylogeny of Fungi in Ascomycota with Emphasis on Evolution of Major Types of Ascus

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Wen-Ying; Liu, Chao-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Background RNA secondary structure is highly conserved throughout evolution. The higher order structure is fundamental in establishing important structure-function relationships. Nucleotide sequences from ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have made a great contribution to our understanding of Ascomycota phylogeny. However, filling the gaps between molecular phylogeny and morphological assumptions based on ascus dehiscence modes and type of fruitbodies at the higher level classification of the phylum remains an unfulfilled task faced by mycologists. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected some major groups of Ascomycota to view their phylogenetic relationships based on analyses of rRNA secondary structure. Using rRNA secondary structural information, here, we converted nucleotide sequences into the structure ones over a 20-symbol code. Our structural analyses together with ancestral character state reconstruction produced reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes as opposed to the classic nucleotide analyses. Judging from the secondary structure analyses with consideration of mode of ascus dehiscence and the ability of forming fruitbodies, we draw a clear picture of a possible evolutionary route for fungal asci and some major groups of fungi in Ascomycota. The secondary structure trees show a more reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes. Conclusions Our results illustrate that asci lacking of any dehiscence mechanism represent the most primitive type. Passing through the operculate and Orbilia-type asci, bitunicate asci occurred. The evolution came to the most advanced inoperculate type. The ascus-producing fungi might be derived from groups lacking of the capacity to form fruitbodies, and then evolved multiple times. The apothecial type of fruitbodies represents the ancestral state, and the ostiolar type is advanced. The class Geoglossomycetes is closely related to Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes having a similar ascus

  12. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  13. A monograph of Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and their pycnidial, sporodochial, and synnematous anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.; Lechat, C.; Chaverri, P.

    2012-01-01

    Although Nectria is the type genus of Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota), the systematics of the teleomorphic and anamorphic state of Nectria sensu Rossman has not been studied in detail. The objectives of this study are to 1) provide a phylogenetic overview to determine if species of Nectria with Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs form a monophyletic group; 2) define Nectria, segregate genera, and their species using morphologically informative characters of teleomorphic and anamorphic states; and 3) provide descriptions and illustrations of these genera and species. To accomplish these objectives, results of phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from six loci (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1 and tub), were integrated with morphological characterisations of anamorphs and teleomorphs. Results from the phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that species previously regarded as the genus Nectria having Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs belong in two major paraphyletic clades. The first major clade regarded as the genus Pleonectria contains 26 species with ascoconidia produced by ascospores in asci, perithecial walls having bright yellow scurf, and immersed or superficial pycnidial anamorphs (Zythiostroma = Gyrostroma). A lineage basal to the Pleonectria clade includes Nectria miltina having very small, aseptate ascospores, and trichoderma-like conidiophores and occurring on monocotyledonous plants. These characteristics are unusual in Pleonectria, thus we recognise the monotypic genus Allantonectria with Allantonectria miltina. The second major clade comprises the genus Nectria sensu stricto including the type species, N. cinnabarina, and 28 additional species. Within the genus Nectria, four subclades exist. One subclade includes species with sporodochial anamorphs and another with synnematous anamorphs. The other two paraphyletic subclades include species that produce abundant stromata in which the

  14. A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Poinar, George O

    2008-01-01

    Phyllopsora dominicanus sp. nov. (Bacidiaceae, Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) is described and illustrated from Dominican amber. The diagnostic features of the lichen include a minute subfolious thallus of lacinulate, ascending squamules, a well-developed upper cortex, and a net-like pseudocortex on the lower surface. The algal symbionts are unicellular green algae, forming a distinct layer immediately below the upper cortex. The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossil also provides the first detailed views of mycobiont-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens. The mycobiont hyphae formed apical and intercalary appressoria by pressing closely against the photobiont cells. This indicates that a conserved maintenance of structure is also seen in the fine details of the fungal-algal interface.

  15. Unusual compact rDNA gene arrangements within some members of the Ascomycota: evidence for molecular co-evolution between ITS1 and ITS2.

    PubMed

    Hausner, Georg; Wang, Xi

    2005-08-01

    The internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA tandem repeat were examined in members of the ascomycetous genus Sphaeronaemella. Species of Sphaeronaemella and its mitotic counterpart Gabarnaudia, have a compact rDNA gene arrangement due to unusually short internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Examination of these regions from phylogenetically related taxa, Cornuvesica, Gondwanamyces, and Ceratocystis, showed that their ITS1 and ITS2 regions could be folded into central hairpin-like structures with the size reduction in species of Sphaeronaemella being due to length reduction of the main-hairpin and the loss of smaller hairpin-like structures that emanate from the main hairpin. A databank compilation, combined with newly obtained sequences, provided an ITS data set that includes sequences of 600 species belonging to the Ascomycota. Correlation analysis revealed that the sizes of ITS1 and ITS2 show a strong positive correlation, suggesting that the 2 rDNA regions have co-evolved. This supports biochemical evidence indicating that the ITS1 and ITS2 segments interact to facilitate the maturation of the rRNA precursor.

  16. Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from

  17. A re-evaluation of the genus Myceliophthora (Sordariales, Ascomycota): its segregation into four genera and description of Corynascus fumimontanus sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Marin-Felix, Yasmina; Stchigel, Alberto M; Miller, Andrew N; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, José F

    2015-01-01

    Based on a number of isolates of Myceliophthora (Chaetomiaceae, Sordariales, Ascomycota) recently isolated from soil samples collected in USA, the taxonomy of the genus was re-evaluated through phylogenetic analyses of sequences from the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and genes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and translation elongation factor 1α. Members of Myceliophthora were split into four monophyletic clades strongly supported by molecular and phenotypic data. Such clades correspond with Myceliophthora, now restricted only to the type species of the genus Corynascus, which is re-established with five species, the new monotypic genus Crassicarpon and also the new genus Thermothelomyces (comprising four species). Myceliophthora lutea is mesophilic and a permanently asexual morph compared to the members of the other three mentioned genera, which also are able to sexually reproduce morphs with experimentally proven links to their asexual morphs. The asexual morph of M. lutea is characterized by broadly ellipsoidal, smooth-walled conidia with a wide, truncate base. Crassicarpon thermophilum is thermophilic and heterothallic and produces spherical to cuneiform, smooth-walled conidia and cleistothecial ascomata of smooth-walled, angular cells and ascospores with a germ pore at each end. Corynascus spp. are homothallic and mesophilic and produce spherical, mostly ornamented conidia and cleistothecial ascomata with textura epidermoidea composed of ornamented wall cells, and ascospores with one germ pore at each end. Thermothelomyces spp. are thermophilic, heterothallic and characterized by similar ascomata and conidia as Corynascus spp., but its ascospores exhibit only a single germ pore. A dichotomous key to distinguish Myceliophthora from the other mentioned genera are provided, as well as dichotomous keys to identify the species of Corynascus and Thermothelomyces. A new species, namely Corynascus fumimontanus, characterized by

  18. Rapid Discovery and Functional Characterization of Terpene Synthases from Four Endophytic Xylariaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weihua; Tran, William; Taatjes, Craig A.; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Lee, Taek Soon; Gladden, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs) derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Out of the 26 TPS’s profiled, 12 TPS’s were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity. PMID:26885833

  19. Rapid discovery and functional characterization of terpene synthases from four endophytic xylariaceae

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Weihua; Tran, William; Taatjes, Craig A.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs)more » derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Lastly, out of the 26 TPS’s profiled, 12 TPS’s were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity.« less

  20. Rapid discovery and functional characterization of terpene synthases from four endophytic xylariaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weihua; Tran, William; Taatjes, Craig A.; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Lee, Taek Soon; Gladden, John M.; Hamberger, Bjorn

    2016-02-17

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs) derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Lastly, out of the 26 TPS’s profiled, 12 TPS’s were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity.

  1. Rapid Discovery and Functional Characterization of Terpene Synthases from Four Endophytic Xylariaceae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weihua; Tran, William; Taatjes, Craig A; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Lee, Taek Soon; Gladden, John M

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs) derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Out of the 26 TPS's profiled, 12 TPS's were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity.

  2. Understanding Phenotypical Character Evolution in Parmelioid Lichenized Fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  3. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the genus Neoerysiphe (Erysiphaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Susumu; Havrylenko, Maria; Wolcan, Silvia M; Matsuda, Sanae; Niinomi, Seiko

    2008-06-01

    The genus Neoerysiphe belongs to the tribe Golovinomyceteae of the Erysiphaceae together with the genera Arthrocladiella and Golovinomyces. This is a relatively small genus, comprising only six species, and having ca 300 species from six plant families as hosts. To investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the genus, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA ITS regions and the divergent domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rDNA. The 30 ITS sequences from Neoerysiphe are divided into three monophyletic groups that are represented by their host families. Groups 1 and 3 consist of N. galeopsidis from Lamiaceae and N. galii from Rubiaceae, respectively, and the genetic diversity within each group is extremely low. Group 2 is represented by N. cumminsiana from Asteraceae. This group also includes Oidium baccharidis, O. maquii, and Oidium spp. from Galinsoga (Asteraceae) and Aloysia (Verbenaceae), and is further divided into four subgroups. N. galeopsidis is distributed worldwide, but is especially common in western Eurasia from Central Asia to Europe. N. galii is also common in western Eurasia. In contrast, the specimens of group 2 were all collected in the New World, except for one specimen that was collected in Japan; this may indicate a close relationship of group 2 with the New World. Molecular clock calibration demonstrated that Neoerysiphe split from other genera of the Erysiphaceae ca 35-45M years ago (Mya), and that the three groups of Neoerysiphe diverged between 10 and 15Mya, in the Miocene. Aloysia citriodora is a new host for the Erysiphaceae and the fungus on this plant is described as O. aloysiae sp. nov.

  4. The rise and fall of Sarawakus (Hypocreaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Lechat, Christian; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Species of Sarawakus are rarely encountered. Their teleomorphs resemble sexual stages of Trichoderma, formerly called Hypocrea, but differ from that genus by unicellular ascospores. The two greenspored species S. britannicus and the type species of Sarawakus, S. lycogaloides, recently were collected, compared with their types and cultured. We redescribe and illustrate these species and transfer them to Trichoderma, based on phylogenetic analysis of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), containing the two last introns and exon, and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Trichoderma lycogaloides, was found to cluster with Hypocrea sulawesensis, an unusual species of Trichoderma, while T. britannicum is closely related to T. aerugineum of the Spinulosa clade. The anamorphs of the two examined species are characterized by (odd) verticillium-like conidiophores, large cylindrical phialides and conidia, which belong to the largest of those species forming green conidia, oval to subglobose in T. lycogaloides and oblong in T. britannicum. All species currently recognized in Sarawakus are transferred to Trichoderma, introducing the new combinations T. fragile, T. hexasporum, T. izawae, T. sordidum, T. subtrachycarpum, T. succisum and T. trachycarpum and the new name T. rosellum. Trichoderma trachycarpum is redescribed and illustrated from an isotype. PMID:24603837

  5. The Genus Letrouitia (Letrouitiaceae: Lichenized Ascomycota) New to Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haixia; Qian, Zigang; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yanyun; Ye, Xin; Harada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The genus Letrouitia is newly recorded for Cambodia, including the four species as L. domingensis, L. leprolytoides, L. sayeri, and L. subvulpina. A brief description and illustrations are provided. PMID:26190924

  6. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation.

  7. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  8. Biogeography and Genetic Structure in Populations of a Widespread Lichen (Parmelina tiliacea, Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crespo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of the foliose lichenized fungus Parmelina tiliacea has been analyzed through its geographical range, including samples from Macaronesia (Canary Islands), the Mediterranean, and Eurosiberia. DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α were used as molecular markers. The haplotypes of the three markers and the molecular variance analyses of multilocus haplotypes showed the highest diversity in the Canary Islands, while restricted haplotypes occurred at high frequencies in Mediterranean coastal samples. The multilocus haplotypes formed three unevenly distributed clusters (clusters 1-3). In the Canary Islands all the haplotypes were present in a similar proportion, while the coastal Mediterranean sites had almost exclusively haplotypes of cluster 3; cluster 2 predominated in inland Mediterranean sites; and cluster 1 was more abundant in central and northern Europe (Eurosiberian area). The distribution of clusters is partially explained by climatic factors, and its interaction with local spatial structure, but much of the variation remains unexplained. The high frequency of individuals in the Canary Islands with haplotypes shared with other areas suggests that could be a refugium of genetic diversity, and the high frequency of individuals of the Mediterranean coastal sites with restricted haplotypes indicates that gene flow to contiguous areas may be restricted. This is significant for the selection of areas for conservation purposes, as those with most genetic variation may reflect historical factors and biological properties of the species. PMID:25961726

  9. Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

  10. Hypoxylon pulicicidum sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Xylariales), a Pantropical Insecticide-Producing Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Bills, Gerald F.; González-Menéndez, Victor; Martín, Jesús; Platas, Gonzalo; Fournier, Jacques; Peršoh, Derek; Stadler, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background Nodulisporic acids (NAs) are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. Methods and Results Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. Conclusions and Significance Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a fungal organism, whether from environmental sequences, vegetative mycelia or field specimens, resulting in holistic species concepts critical to the assessment of the dimensions of fungal diversity. PMID:23056404

  11. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Thelonectria discophora (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thelonectria discophora (Thelonectria, Nectriaceae, Hypocreales) is a conspicuous group of saprobic fungi on decaying plant material, characterized by red perithecia each with a broad mammiform (nipple-like) apex. The anamorphic state is characterized by a cylindrocarpon-like morphology, with 3–5 se...

  12. Study on the ice nucleation activity of fungal spores (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Grothe, H.

    2012-04-01

    Biogenic ice nucleation (IN) in the atmosphere is a topic of growing interest, as, according to IPCC, the impact of IN on global climate is crucial to perform reliable climate model calculations. About 20 years ago IN activity of a few lichen and Fusarium species [1,2] was reported, while all other investigated fungi were IN-negative. However, as the fungal kingdom is vast, many abundant species, especially the Basidiomycota (most mushrooms), were not tested before. Furthermore, the focus of the past studies was on the IN activity of the mycelium as a cryoprotective mechanism, and not on the airborne spores. We carried out oil immersion measurements [3] with spores from 17 different fungal species of ecological, economical or sanitary importance. Most of these species have not been investigated before, like exponents of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Agaricales (most mushrooms). Apart from F. avenaceum, spores of all measured species showed moderate or no IN activity, supporting the hypothesis that significant IN activity is a rather exclusive property of only a few species within the fungal kingdom. [1] Kieft TL and Ruscetti T: J. Bacteriol. 172, 3519-3523, 1990. [2] Pouleur S et al.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 2960-2964, 1992. [3] Marcolli C et al.: Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5081-5091, 2007.

  13. New molecular markers for fungal phylogenetics: Two genes for species level systematics in the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant progress has been made resolving deep branches of the fungal tree of life in recent works, many fungal systematists are interested in species-level questions to both define species and to assess fungal biodiversity. Fungal genome sequences are a useful resource to systematic bio...

  14. Symbiotic lifestyle and phylogenetic relationships of the bionts of Mastodia tessellata (Ascomycota, incertae sedis).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Ríos, Asunción de Los; Crespo, Ana; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2010-05-01

    The biological nature of some symbioses is unclear because it is often not easy to discern whether the symbionts obtain any benefits from the association. Mastodia tessellata, a symbiosis between a leafy green alga and a fungus of uncertain phylogenetic position, is among the most investigated, controversial, and poorly understood associations. Because it has been difficult to determine whether this association is mutually beneficial or parasitic, not all scientists accept M. tessellata as a true lichen symbiosis. Mastodia tessellata is thus an interesting model to illustrate the interactions and processes that occur in fungal-algal symbioses. To improve our understanding of this association, we address the phylogenetic positions of the bionts involved and examine their interactions at the ultrastructural level. Examining the nuLSU and nuSSU gene regions of the mycobiont and the rbcL gene region of the photobiont, we found the fungus to be related to a group of marine species in the genus Verrucaria, family Verrucariaceae, despite its present ascription to the family Mastodiaceae. In addition, the photobiont of the symbiosis emerged as closely related to the North American species Prasiola borealis. Our electron microscopy observations provide new information on the process of fungal colonization of the algal thalli, as well as on relationships between the symbionts during different stages of colonization. The special features of this lichen symbiosis are discussed and compared with other examples of fungal symbioses in nature.

  15. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the lichen-forming fungus Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)1

    PubMed Central

    Lutsak, Tetiana; Fernández-Mendoza, Fernando; Greshake, Bastian; Dal Grande, Francesco; Ebersberger, Ingo; Ott, Sieglinde; Printzen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the lichen species Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae) to study fine-scale population diversity and phylogeographic structure. Methods and Results: Using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq, 15 fungus-specific microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 81 specimens from four populations from Spain. The number of alleles ranged from four to 13 alleles per locus with a mean of 7.9, and average gene diversities varied from 0.40 to 0.73 over four populations. The amplification rates of 10 markers (CA01–CA10) in populations of C. aculeata exceeded 85%. The markers also amplified across a range of closely related species, except for locus CA05, which did not amplify in C. australiensis and C. “panamericana,” and locus CA10 which did not amplify in C. australiensis. Conclusions: The identified microsatellite markers will be used to study the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure in populations of C. aculeata in western Eurasia. PMID:27672520

  16. Evolutionary history of vegetative reproduction in Porpidia s.L. (Lichen-forming ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Buschbom, Jutta; Barker, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The evolutionary history of gains and losses of vegetative reproductive propagules (soredia) in Porpidia s.l., a group of lichen-forming ascomycetes, was clarified using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approaches to monophyly tests and a combined MCMC and maximum likelihood approach to ancestral character state reconstructions. The MCMC framework provided confidence estimates for the reconstructions of relationships and ancestral character states, which formed the basis for tests of evolutionary hypotheses. Monophyly tests rejected all hypotheses that predicted any clustering of reproductive modes in extant taxa. In addition, a nearest-neighbor statistic could not reject the hypothesis that the vegetative reproductive mode is randomly distributed throughout the group. These results show that transitions between presence and absence of the vegetative reproductive mode within Porpidia s.l. occurred several times and independently of each other. Likelihood reconstructions of ancestral character states at selected nodes suggest that--contrary to previous thought--the ancestor to Porpidia s.l. already possessed the vegetative reproductive mode. Furthermore, transition rates are reconstructed asymmetrically with the vegetative reproductive mode being gained at a much lower rate than it is lost. A cautious note has to be added, because a simulation study showed that the ancestral character state reconstructions were highly dependent on taxon sampling. However, our central conclusions, particularly the higher rate of change from vegetative reproductive mode present to absent than vice versa within Porpidia s.l., were found to be broadly independent of taxon sampling.

  17. Molecular and morphological characterization of Leveillula (Ascomycota: Erysiphales) on monocotyledonous plants.

    PubMed

    Khodaparast, Seyed Akbar; Niinomi, Seiko; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2007-06-01

    Leveillula on monocotyledonous plants have been recorded as L. taurica by several authors, whereas the fungus on Allium has been described as an independent species, namely L. allii, by some authors. We sequenced ca 600bp of the rDNA ITS region for two Leveillula specimens from Allium and Polianthes (both from monocotyledons) and compared them with several already published sequences from Leveillula isolates from dicotyledons. Pair-wise percentages of sequence divergences were calculated for all Leveillula isolates. The ITS sequence of the Polianthes isolate was identical to L. taurica on Helianthus and Vicia. The sequence of the Allium isolate was 99.5% identical to L. taurica on Euphorbia, Haplophylum, Peganum, etc. These results suggest close relationships between monocot and dicot pathogenic Leveillula species. The identity between two monocot isolates was 98.4%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two monocot isolates do not group into a clade together. This result suggests that Leveillula acquired parasitism to monocots at least twice independently.

  18. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis.

  19. Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov., a new species of the Ascomycota, subphylum Taphrinomycotina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov. (NRRL YB-2330, CBS 12360, type strain) is described. This new member of the phylum Ascomycotina, subphylum Taphrinomycotina was isolated from insect frass occurring in an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) that was growing in Colorado, USA. Multigene sequence analy...

  20. Sharpening the species boundaries in the Cladonia mediterranea complex (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Pino-Bodas, R; Pérez-Vargas, I; Stenroos, S; Ahti, T; Burgaz, A R

    2017-01-01

    The complex Cladonia mediterranea belongs to the section Impexae and is formed by C. azorica, C. macaronesica and C.mediterranea. These species are basically distributed in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian Regions. In the present work the limits between the species of this complex are re-examined. To this end, the morphological characters were studied along with the secondary metabolites and the DNA sequences from three loci (ITS rDNA, IGS rDNA and rpb2). The morphological data were studied by principal component analysis (PCA), while the DNA sequences were analyzed using several approaches available to delimit species: genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition, species tree (BEAST* and spedeSTEM) and cohesion species recognition. In addition, the genealogical sorting index was used in order to assess the monophyly of the species. The different procedures used in our study turned out to be highly congruent with respect to the limits they establish, but these limits are not the ones separating the prior species. Either the morphological analysis or the different approaches to species delimitation indicate that C. mediterranea is a different species from C. macaronesica, while C. azorica and C. macaronesica, which are reduced to synonyms of C. portentosa, constitute a separate lineage.

  1. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Conlon, Benjamin H; Mitchell, Jannette; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Carøe, Christian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Poulsen, Michael; de Fine Licht, Henrik H

    2017-04-01

    This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001-FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2).

  2. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, Mosa; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 103 to 107 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (103 conidia/ml) at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05) making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides. PMID:24031777

  3. Exploring the genomic diversity of black yeasts and relatives (Chaetothyriales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M M; Moreno, L F; Stielow, B J; Muszewska, A; Hainaut, M; Gonzaga, L; Abouelleil, A; Patané, J S L; Priest, M; Souza, R; Young, S; Ferreira, K S; Zeng, Q; da Cunha, M M L; Gladki, A; Barker, B; Vicente, V A; de Souza, E M; Almeida, S; Henrissat, B; Vasconcelos, A T R; Deng, S; Voglmayr, H; Moussa, T A A; Gorbushina, A; Felipe, M S S; Cuomo, C A; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2017-03-01

    The order Chaetothyriales (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycetes) harbours obligatorily melanised fungi and includes numerous etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and other diseases of vertebrate hosts. Diseases range from mild cutaneous to fatal cerebral or disseminated infections and affect humans and cold-blooded animals globally. In addition, Chaetothyriales comprise species with aquatic, rock-inhabiting, ant-associated, and mycoparasitic life-styles, as well as species that tolerate toxic compounds, suggesting a high degree of versatile extremotolerance. To understand their biology and divergent niche occupation, we sequenced and annotated a set of 23 genomes of main the human opportunists within the Chaetothyriales as well as related environmental species. Our analyses included fungi with diverse life-styles, namely opportunistic pathogens and closely related saprobes, to identify genomic adaptations related to pathogenesis. Furthermore, ecological preferences of Chaetothyriales were analysed, in conjuncture with the order-level phylogeny based on conserved ribosomal genes. General characteristics, phylogenomic relationships, transposable elements, sex-related genes, protein family evolution, genes related to protein degradation (MEROPS), carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), melanin synthesis and secondary metabolism were investigated and compared between species. Genome assemblies varied from 25.81 Mb (Capronia coronata) to 43.03 Mb (Cladophialophora immunda). The bantiana-clade contained the highest number of predicted genes (12 817 on average) as well as larger genomes. We found a low content of mobile elements, with DNA transposons from Tc1/Mariner superfamily being the most abundant across analysed species. Additionally, we identified a reduction of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, specifically many of the Glycosyl Hydrolase (GH) class, while most of the Pectin Lyase (PL) genes were lost in etiological agents of chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. An expansion was found in protein degrading peptidase enzyme families S12 (serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidases) and M38 (isoaspartyl dipeptidases). Based on genomic information, a wide range of abilities of melanin biosynthesis was revealed; genes related to metabolically distinct DHN, DOPA and pyomelanin pathways were identified. The MAT (MAting Type) locus and other sex-related genes were recognized in all 23 black fungi. Members of the asexual genera Fonsecaea and Cladophialophora appear to be heterothallic with a single copy of either MAT-1-1 or MAT-1-2 in each individual. All Capronia species are homothallic as both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes were found in each single genome. The genomic synteny of the MAT-locus flanking genes (SLA2-APN2-COX13) is not conserved in black fungi as is commonly observed in Eurotiomycetes, indicating a unique genomic context for MAT in those species. The heterokaryon (het) genes expansion associated with the low selective pressure at the MAT-locus suggests that a parasexual cycle may play an important role in generating diversity among those fungi.

  4. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  5. Seven wood-inhabiting new species of the genus Trichoderma (Fungi, Ascomycota) in Viride clade

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wen-Tao; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    More than 200 recent collections of Trichoderma from China were examined and 16 species belonging to the Viride clade were identified based on integrated studies of phenotypic and molecular data. Among them, seven wood-inhabiting new species, T. albofulvopsis, T. densum, T. laevisporum, T. sinokoningii, T. sparsum, T. sphaerosporum and T. subviride, are found. They form trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores, lageniform to subulate phialides and globose to ellipsoidal conidia, but vary greatly in colony features, growth rates, and sizes of phialides and conidia. To explore their taxonomic positions, the phylogenetic tree including all the known species of the Viride clade is constructed based on sequence analyses of the combined RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1 alpha exon genes. Our results indicated that the seven new species were well-located in the Koningii, Rogersonii and Neorufum subclades as well as a few independent terminal branches. They are clearly distinguishable from any existing species. Morphological distinctions and sequence divergences between the new species and their close relatives were discussed. PMID:27245694

  6. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  7. Proposal to conserve the name Bipolaris against Cochliobolus (Ascomycota: Pleosporales: Pleosporaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal genera Bipolaris Shoemaker and Cochliobolus Drechsler have been applied to economically important plant pathogens causing diseases of cereal crops worldwide, especially southern corn leaf blight. There are major accounts of these genera including those incorporating molecular phylogenetic...

  8. Phylogenetic overview of the genus Genea (Pezizales, Ascomycota) with an emphasis on European taxa.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Pablo; Cabero, Julio; Moreno, Gabriel; Bratek, Zoltán; van Vooren, Nicolas; Kaounas, Vasileios; Konstantinidis, Giorgos; Agnello, Carlo; Merényi, Zsolt; Smith, Matthew E; Vizzini, Alfredo; Trappe, James M

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Genea, with new molecular data from samples collected in several countries in temperate and Mediterranean Europe, as well as North America. Type specimens and authentic material of most species were examined to support identifications. The molecular identity of the most common species in Genea was compared with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), D1-D2 domains of 28S nuc rDNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α ene (TEF1) profiles of 10 recently proposed taxa, G. brunneocarpa, G. compressa, G. dentata, G. fageticola, G. lobulata, G. oxygala, G. pinicola, G. pseudobalsleyi, G. pseudoverrucosa and G. tuberculata, supporting their status as distinct species. Genea mexicana and G. thaxteri on the one hand and G. sphaerica and G. lespiaultii on the other are closely related. Multiple lineages were recorded for G. verrucosa and G. fragrans, but we found no morphological traits to discriminate among them, so we tentatively interpreted them as cryptic species. A key to species of the genus Genea is provided to facilitate identification. We provide macroscopic images of fresh specimens and of representative spores of most species. Finally, we conducted a molecular analysis of the divergence time for Genea and discuss the implications of our results.

  9. Susceptibility of two hymenopteran parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Dean, Kimberly M; Vandenberg, John D; Griggs, Michael H; Bauer, Leah S; Fierke, Melissa K

    2012-03-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, native to Asia, is killing ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) across 15 states and southeastern Canada. Integrated pest management using biological control is the only viable long-term approach for controlling the spread of EAB outside of host resistance. Three hymenopteran parasitoids, Spathius agrili Yang, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang were discovered attacking EAB in China and were approved for release in the United States in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess susceptibility of the larval parasitoid species S. agrili and T. planipennisi, relative to that of EAB, to Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus that infects and kills EAB adults when sprayed on ash bark or foliage. Adult EAB and parasitoids were exposed to B. bassiana inoculated ash twigs for 2 h and then monitored daily for death and signs of infection for up to 10 days. All EAB adults exposed to B. bassiana were fatally infected while mean survival for control EAB was 77%. Average survival in the treatment groups for T. planipennisi and S. agrili were 99% and 83%, respectively, indicating these parasitoids are relatively unaffected by exposure to B. bassiana. This research elucidates interactions between a fungal pathogen and two parasitoids of EAB, and provides data necessary to developing a successful multi-stage integrated management approach to control of EAB.

  10. Position specificity in Chitonomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) on Laccophilus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae): a molecular approach resolves a century-old debate.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Laboulbeniomycete species consistently on a precise portion of beetle integument was investigated in 13 species of Chitonomyces ectoparasitic on the aquatic diving beetle Laccophilus maculosus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). The phenomenon was called "position specificity" by Roland Thaxter in 1896, yet the mechanism has remained unknown. By using molecular analysis of the nucSSU rRNA gene and the 5.8S and partial ITS1 rRNA regions, 13 species of Chitonomyces reported to exhibit position specificity on Laccophilus maculosus were placed neatly into pairs of morphotypes, resulting in synonomies and recognition of six phylogenetic species (one species is a triplet). Each phylogenetic species was located at corresponding positions on male and female beetles that make contact during mating. In addition, ecological data and video footage of the mating behaviors of Laccophilus confirmed that sexual transmission is the mechanism behind this enigmatic phenomenon.

  11. Three new genera representing novel lineages of Sordariomycetidae (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) from tropical freshwater habitats in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Astrid; Miller, Andrew N; Sarmiento, Carolina; Shearer, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Three new genera are established in the Sordariomycetidae based on morphological and molecular data (SSU and LSU nrDNA) to accommodate five ascomycete species collected from submerged woody debris in freshwater habitats from Costa Rica. The genus Bullimyces contains three new species, B. communis, B. costaricensis and B. aurisporus. Bullimyces is characterized by globose to subglobose, membranous, black, ostiolate ascomata; deliquescent, hyaline, globose cells that fill the center of the centrum; unitunicate asci that deliquesce early in some species; and septate, thick-walled ascospores with or without gelatinous sheaths or appendages. Bullimyces species form a well supported clade with 100% bootstrap support, but the position of the genus in the Sordariomycetidae remains unclear. The second genus, Riomyces, is represented by a single species, R. rotundus. Riomyces is characterized by globose to subglobose, membranous, black, ostiolate ascomata, unitunicate, cylindrical asci, hyaline, globose cells that fill the hamathecium and septate, thick-walled ascospores with a gelatinous sheath. Although Riomyces is morphologically similar to Bullimyces, the two genera did not group together with support in any analysis. The third genus, Hydromelitis, is represented by a single species, H. pulchella. Hydromelitis is characterized by pyriform, membranous, black, ostiolate ascomata, unitunicate asci lacking an apical structure, simple, thin-walled, septate paraphyses and hyaline to golden yellow, multiseptate, thick-walled ascospores with a gelatinous sheath. Bullimyces, Riomyces and Hydromelitis were nested within an unsupported clade consisting of members of the Ophiostomatales, Magnaporthales and freshwater Annulatacaceae sensu lato and sensu stricto.

  12. (2289) Proposal to conserve the name Morchella semilibera against Phallus crassipes, P. gigas and P. undosus (Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    True morels (Morchella) are among the most highly prized and easily recognized edible mushrooms collected during spring throughout the Northern Hemisphere. To help ensure that commercial harvests are sustainable and species diversity is preserved, management practices and conservation policies need...

  13. Migration between continents: geographical structure and long-distance gene flow in Porpidia flavicunda (lichen-forming Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Buschbom, Jutta

    2007-05-01

    Historical and contemporary geographical distribution ranges with their associated gene flow patterns interact to produce the genetic diversity observed today. Often it is not possible to separate out the impacts of historical events, e.g. past fragmentation, and contemporary gene flow, e.g. long-distance dispersal. Porpidia flavicunda is a lichen-forming ascomycete occurring circumpolar in the boreal to arctic zones for which vegetation history suggests that its distribution pattern has stayed broadly the same over the past millennia. DNA-sequence diversity in P. flavicunda can, thus, be expected to predominantly represent geographical population differentiation and its contemporary migration rates. The population sample consists of 110 specimens collected in Northern Québec, Baffin Island, Western Greenland and Northern Scandinavia. DNA-sequence data sets of three nuclear gene fragments (LSU, RPB2 and beta-tubulin) were analysed for genetic diversity within, and differentiation between, geographical regions. Tests of population subdivision employing analyses of molecular variance and exact tests of haplotype frequency distributions showed significant structure between the geographical regions. However, the lack of fixed nucleotide polymorphisms and the wide sharing of identical haplotypes between geographical regions suggest recurrent long-distance gene flow of propagules. Still, the means by which propagules are dispersed remain to be discovered. Inference of migration rates shows that in many cases a sufficiently high amount of migrants is exchanged between geographical regions to prevent drastic population differentiation through genetic drift. The observed haplotype distributions and migration rates point to a gene flow model of isolation by distance.

  14. A multigene phylogenetic synthesis for the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota): 1307 fungi representing 1139 infrageneric taxa, 317 genera and 66 families

    PubMed Central

    Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Högnabba, Filip; Oliver, Jeffrey C.; Molnár, Katalin; Fraker, Emily; Gaya, Ester; Hafellner, Josef; Hofstetter, Valérie; Gueidan, Cécile; Otálora, Mónica A.G.; Hodkinson, Brendan; Kukwa, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Björk, Curtis; Sipman, Harrie J.M.; Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Thell, Arne; Passo, Alfredo; Myllys, Leena; Goward, Trevor; Fernández-Brime, Samantha; Hestmark, Geir; Lendemer, James; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Schmull, Michaela; Schoch, Conrad; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël; Maddison, David R.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Lutzoni, François; Stenroos, Soili

    2014-01-01

    The Lecanoromycetes is the largest class of lichenized Fungi, and one of the most species-rich classes in the kingdom. Here we provide a multigene phylogenetic synthesis (using three ribosomal RNA-coding and two protein-coding genes) of the Lecanoromycetes based on 642 newly generated and 3329 publicly available sequences representing 1139 taxa, 317 genera, 66 families, 17 orders and five subclasses (four currently recognized: Acarosporomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Ostropomycetidae, Umbilicariomycetidae; and one provisionarily recognized, ‘Candelariomycetidae’). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on four multigene datasets assembled using a cumulative supermatrix approach with a progressively higher number of species and missing data (5-gene, 5+4-gene, 5+4+3-gene and 5+4+3+2-gene datasets) show that the current classification includes non-monophyletic taxa at various ranks, which need to be recircumscribed and require revisionary treatments based on denser taxon sampling and more loci. Two newly circumscribed orders (Arctomiales and Hymeneliales in the Ostropomycetidae) and three families (Ramboldiaceae and Psilolechiaceae in the Lecanorales, and Strangosporaceae in the Lecanoromycetes inc. sed.) are introduced. The potential resurrection of the families Eigleraceae and Lopadiaceae is considered here to alleviate phylogenetic and classification disparities. An overview of the photobionts associated with the main fungal lineages in the Lecanoromycetes based on available published records is provided. A revised schematic classification at the family level in the phylogenetic context of widely accepted and newly revealed relationships across Lecanoromycetes is included. The cumulative addition of taxa with an increasing amount of missing data (i.e., a cumulative supermatrix approach, starting with taxa for which sequences were available for all five targeted genes and ending with the addition of taxa for which only two genes have been sequenced) revealed relatively stable relationships for many families and orders. However, the increasing number of taxa without the addition of more loci also resulted in an expected substantial loss of phylogenetic resolving power and support (especially for deep phylogenetic relationships), potentially including the misplacements of several taxa. Future phylogenetic analyses should include additional single copy protein-coding markers in order to improve the tree of the Lecanoromycetes. As part of this study, a new module (“Hypha”) of the freely available Mesquite software was developed to compare and display the internodal support values derived from this cumulative supermatrix approach. PMID:24747130

  15. Genome characteristics reveal the impact of lichenization on lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedwig (Verrucariales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lichen is a classic mutualistic organism and the lichenization is one of the fungal symbioses. The lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum is living in symbiosis with the green alga Diplosphaera chodatii Bialsuknia as a lichen in the arid regions. Results 454 and Illumina technologies were used to sequence the genome of E. pusillum. A total of 9,285 genes were annotated in the 37.5 Mb genome of E. pusillum. Analyses of the genes provided direct molecular evidence for certain natural characteristics, such as homothallic reproduction and drought-tolerance. Comparative genomics analysis indicated that the expansion and contraction of some protein families in the E. pusillum genome reflect the specific relationship with its photosynthetic partner (D. chodatii). Co-culture experiments using the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum and its algal partner allowed the functional identification of genes involved in the nitrogen and carbon transfer between both symbionts, and three lectins without signal peptide domains were found to be essential for the symbiotic recognition in the lichen; interestingly, the ratio of the biomass of both lichen-forming fungus and its photosynthetic partner and their contact time were found to be important for the interaction between these two symbionts. Conclusions The present study lays a genomic analysis of the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum for demonstrating its general biological features and the traits of the interaction between this fungus and its photosynthetic partner D. chodatii, and will provide research basis for investigating the nature of its drought resistance and symbiosis. PMID:24438332

  16. Establishment of fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as endophytes on artichoke Cynara scolymus.

    PubMed

    Guesmi-Jouini, J; Garrido-Jurado, I; López-Díaz, C; Ben Halima-Kamel, M; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are commonly found in diverse habitats and are known to cause mycoses in many different taxa of arthropods. Various unexpected roles have been recently reported for fungal entomopathogens, including their presence as fungal endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers and plant growth promoting fungi. In Tunisia, a wide range of indigenous EPF isolates from different species, such as Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca, were found to occur in the soil, and to be pathogenic against the artichoke aphid Capitophorus elaeagni (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Since endophytic fungi are recently regarded as plant-defending mutualists and their presence in internal plant tissue has been discussed as an adaptive protection against insects, we were interested on elucidating the possible endophytic behavior of B. bassiana and B. ochroleuca on artichoke, Cynara scolymus, after foliar spraying tehcnique. The leaf spray inoculation method was effective in introducing the inoculated fungi into the plant tissues and showed, then, an endophytic activity on artichoke even 10 days later. According S-N-K test, there was significant differences between the two fungal treatments, B. ochroleuca (84% a) and B. bassiana (78% a), and controls (0% b). Likewise, the inoculated entomopathogenic fungi were also isolated from new leaves even though with significant differences respectively between controls (0% c), B. bassiana (56% b) and B. ochroleuca (78% a). These results reveals significant new data on the interaction of inoculated fungi with artichoke plant as ecological roles that can be exploited for the protection of plants.

  17. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

  18. Limitations of Species Delimitation Based on Phylogenetic Analyses: A Case Study in the Hypogymnia hypotrypa Group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xinli; McCune, Bruce; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Li, Hui; Leavitt, Steven; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Tchabanenko, Svetlana; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Asia, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group (Parmeliaceae). In the current classification, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group includes two species: H. hypotrypa and H. flavida, which are separated based on distinctive reproductive modes, the former producing soredia but absent in the latter. We reexamined the relationship between these two species using phenotypic characters and molecular sequence data (ITS, GPD, and MCM7 sequences) to address species boundaries in this group. In addition to morphological investigations, we used Bayesian clustering to identify potential genetic groups in the H. hypotrypa/H. flavida clade. We also used a variety of empirical, sequence-based species delimitation approaches, including: the “Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery” (ABGD), the Poisson tree process model (PTP), the General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC), and the multispecies coalescent approach BPP. Different species delimitation scenarios were compared using Bayes factors delimitation analysis, in addition to comparisons of pairwise genetic distances, pairwise fixation indices (FST). The majority of the species delimitation analyses implemented in this study failed to support H. hypotrypa and H. flavida as distinct lineages, as did the Bayesian clustering analysis. However, strong support for the evolutionary independence of H. hypotrypa and H. flavida was inferred using BPP and further supported by Bayes factor delimitation. In spite of rigorous morphological comparisons and a wide range of sequence-based approaches to delimit species, species boundaries in the H. hypotrypa group remain uncertain. This study reveals the potential limitations of relying on distinct reproductive strategies as diagnostic taxonomic characters for Hypogymnia and also the challenges of using popular sequence-based species delimitation methods in groups with recent diversification histories. PMID:27828951

  19. (2049-2050) Proposals to conserve the name Wickerhamomyces against Hansenula and to reject the name Saccharomyces sphaericus (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, under which fungi are also classified, require a preserved specimen, the type specimen, for all described species. The yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus, which is common in nature and widely used for the biocontrol of spoilage fungi that contaminate en...

  20. Overlooked competing asexual and sexually typified generic names of Ascomycota with recommendations for their use or protection.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Amy Y; Allen, W Cavan; Braun, Uwe; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chaverri, Priscila; Crous, Pedro W; Hawksworth, David L; Hyde, Kevin D; Johnston, Peter; Lombard, Lorenzo; Romberg, Megan; Samson, Rob A; Seifert, Keith A; Stone, Jeffrey K; Udayanga, Dhanushka; White, James F

    2016-12-01

    With the change to one scientific name for fungal species, numerous papers have been published with recommendations for use or protection of competing generic names in major groups of ascomycetes. Although genera in each group of fungi were carefully considered, some competing generic names were overlooked. This paper makes recommendations for additional competing genera not considered in previous papers. Chairs of relevant Working Groups of the ICTF were consulted in the development of these recommendations. A number of generic names need protection, specifically Amarenographium over Amarenomyces, Amniculicola over Anguillospora, Balansia over Ephelis, Claviceps over Sphacelia, Drepanopeziza over Gloeosporidiella and Gloeosporium, Golovinomyces over Euoidium, Holwaya over Crinium, Hypocrella over Aschersonia, Labridella over Griphosphaerioma, Metacapnodium over Antennularia, and Neonectria over Cylindrocarpon and Heliscus. The following new combinations are made: Amniculicola longissima, Atichia maunauluana, Diaporthe columnaris, D. liquidambaris, D. longiparaphysata, D. palmicola, D. tersa, Elsinoë bucidae, E.caricae, E. choisyae, E. paeoniae, E. psidii, E. zorniae, Eupelte shoemakeri, Godronia myrtilli, G. raduloides, Sarcinella mirabilis, S. pulchra, Schizothyrium jamaicense, and Trichothallus niger. Finally, one new species name, Diaporthe azadirachte, is introduced to validate an earlier name, and the conservation of Discula with a new type, D. destructiva, is recommended.

  1. Susceptibility of two hymenopteran parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, native to Asia, is killing ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern North America. Integrated pest management using biological control is the only viable long-term approach for controlling the spread of EAB outside of host resistance. Three hymen...

  2. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4 degreeC or 12 degreeC. In accordance with the results on colony diameters, the fungus revealed an ability to degrade casein, chitin derivatives, Tween 20, and urea as evidenced by the appearance of a halo around the fungal colony. Because of its origin and temperature tolerance, this Argentine strain has great potential for use as a biocontrol agent for insect pest control in cold and temperate environments.

  3. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia.

  4. A multigene phylogenetic synthesis for the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota): 1307 fungi representing 1139 infrageneric taxa, 317 genera and 66 families.

    PubMed

    Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Högnabba, Filip; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Molnár, Katalin; Fraker, Emily; Gaya, Ester; Hafellner, Josef; Hofstetter, Valérie; Gueidan, Cécile; Otálora, Mónica A G; Hodkinson, Brendan; Kukwa, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Björk, Curtis; Sipman, Harrie J M; Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Thell, Arne; Passo, Alfredo; Myllys, Leena; Goward, Trevor; Fernández-Brime, Samantha; Hestmark, Geir; Lendemer, James; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmull, Michaela; Schoch, Conrad L; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël; Maddison, David R; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Lutzoni, François; Stenroos, Soili

    2014-10-01

    The Lecanoromycetes is the largest class of lichenized Fungi, and one of the most species-rich classes in the kingdom. Here we provide a multigene phylogenetic synthesis (using three ribosomal RNA-coding and two protein-coding genes) of the Lecanoromycetes based on 642 newly generated and 3329 publicly available sequences representing 1139 taxa, 317 genera, 66 families, 17 orders and five subclasses (four currently recognized: Acarosporomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Ostropomycetidae, Umbilicariomycetidae; and one provisionarily recognized, 'Candelariomycetidae'). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on four multigene datasets assembled using a cumulative supermatrix approach with a progressively higher number of species and missing data (5-gene, 5+4-gene, 5+4+3-gene and 5+4+3+2-gene datasets) show that the current classification includes non-monophyletic taxa at various ranks, which need to be recircumscribed and require revisionary treatments based on denser taxon sampling and more loci. Two newly circumscribed orders (Arctomiales and Hymeneliales in the Ostropomycetidae) and three families (Ramboldiaceae and Psilolechiaceae in the Lecanorales, and Strangosporaceae in the Lecanoromycetes inc. sed.) are introduced. The potential resurrection of the families Eigleraceae and Lopadiaceae is considered here to alleviate phylogenetic and classification disparities. An overview of the photobionts associated with the main fungal lineages in the Lecanoromycetes based on available published records is provided. A revised schematic classification at the family level in the phylogenetic context of widely accepted and newly revealed relationships across Lecanoromycetes is included. The cumulative addition of taxa with an increasing amount of missing data (i.e., a cumulative supermatrix approach, starting with taxa for which sequences were available for all five targeted genes and ending with the addition of taxa for which only two genes have been sequenced) revealed relatively stable relationships for many families and orders. However, the increasing number of taxa without the addition of more loci also resulted in an expected substantial loss of phylogenetic resolving power and support (especially for deep phylogenetic relationships), potentially including the misplacements of several taxa. Future phylogenetic analyses should include additional single copy protein-coding markers in order to improve the tree of the Lecanoromycetes. As part of this study, a new module ("Hypha") of the freely available Mesquite software was developed to compare and display the internodal support values derived from this cumulative supermatrix approach.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Ascotricha, including two new marine algae-associated species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoli; Li, Wei; Cai, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on a broad taxonomic sampling of Ascotricha were conducted using the sequences of nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), partial nuc 18S rDNA (18S) and partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2). Hypoxyloid Xylariaceae and xylarioid Xylariaceae were inferred as two distinct lineages in the Xylariaceae in the combined ITS-TUB2 phylogeny. Within xylarioid Xylariaceae species of Ascotricha form a monophyletic group. Two new marine algae-associated fungi, Ascotricha longipila and A. parvispora, are described on the basis of morphological and molecular characters and the combination, A. sinuosa, is proposed. A synopsis of the morphological characters and a dichotomous key to Ascotricha species are provided.

  6. A monograph of the entomopathogenic genera Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia gen. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae), and their aschersonia-like anamorphs in the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Chaverri, P.; Liu, M.; Hodge, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    The present taxonomic revision deals with Neotropical species of three entomopathogenic genera that were once included in Hypocrella s. l.: Hypocrella s. str. (anamorph Aschersonia), Moelleriella (anamorph aschersonia-like), and Samuelsia gen. nov (anamorph aschersonia-like). Species of Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia are pathogens of scale insects (Coccidae and Lecaniidae, Homoptera) and whiteflies (Aleyrodidae, Homoptera) and are common in tropical regions. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuclear ribosomal large subunit (28S), translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF 1-α), and RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1) and analyses of multiple morphological characters demonstrate that the three segregated genera can be distinguished by the disarticulation of the ascospores and shape and size of conidia. Moelleriella has filiform multi-septate ascospores that disarticulate at the septa within the ascus and aschersonia-like anamorphs with fusoid conidia. Hypocrella s. str. has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and Aschersonia s. str. anamorphs with fusoid conidia. The new genus proposed here, Samuelsia, has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and aschersonia-like anamorphs with small allantoid conidia. In addition, the present study presents and discusses the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology in Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia based on multigene phylogenetic analyses. PMID:18490956

  7. Molecular Detection of Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Ascomycota: Pseudeurotiaceae) and Unidentified Fungal Dermatitides on Big Brown Bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) Overwintering inside Buildings in Canada.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Donald F; McBurney, Scott; Sabine, Mary; Vanderwolf, Karen J; Park, Allysia; Y Cai, Hugh

    2016-10-01

    Big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) overwintering outside the underground environment are not believed to play a role in the epidemiology of the disease white-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we provide molecular evidence for Pd on four big brown bats overwintering in heated buildings in New Brunswick, Canada. Two of the affected individuals also had very mild, focal, pustular, fungal dermatitis identified microscopically. A third bat, which was qPCR Pd-negative, had similar fungal lesions. Despite determining that these fungal lesions were caused by a suspected ascomycete, the intralesional fungi were not confirmed to be Pd. These findings demonstrate that bats overwintering in heated buildings and other above-ground sites may have subclinical or preclinical WNS, or be contaminated with Pd, and could play a role in local dispersal of Pd. Our inability to determine if the ascomycetes causing pustular lesions were Pd highlights the need for ancillary diagnostic tests, such as in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry, so that Pd can be detected directly within a lesion. As the host-pathogen relationship for Pd evolves, and where bat species are exposed to the fungus under varying temperature regimes, lesions may become less stereotypic and such tests could help define these changes.

  8. Not as ubiquitous as we thought: taxonomic crypsis, hidden diversity and cryptic speciation in the cosmopolitan fungus Thelonectria discophora (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of microbial species, including fungi, has long been considered cosmopolitan. Recently, this perception has been challenged by molecular studies in historical biogeography, phylogeny and population genetics. Here we explore this issue using the fungal morphological species Thelonect...

  9. Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Altermann, Susanne; Divakar, Pradeep K; Alors, David; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions of algal symbionts, and our study addresses patterns of lichen symbiont interactions at the largest geographic and taxonomic scales attempted to date. We analysed a total of 2356 algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences collected from lichens representing ten mycobiont genera in Parmeliaceae, two genera in Lecanoraceae and 26 cultured Trebouxia strains. Algal ITS sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs); we attempted to validate the evolutionary independence of a subset of the inferred OTUs using chloroplast and mitochondrial loci. We explored the patterns of symbiont interactions in these lichens based on ecogeographic distributions and mycobiont taxonomy. We found high levels of undescribed diversity in Trebouxia, broad distributions across distinct ecoregions for many photobiont OTUs and varying levels of mycobiont selectivity and specificity towards the photobiont. Based on these results, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal partners play a major role in determining lichen partnerships, potentially superseding ecology, at least at the ecogeographic scale investigated here. To facilitate effective communication and consistency across future studies, we propose a provisional naming system for Trebouxia photobionts and provide representative sequences for each OTU circumscribed in this study.

  10. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi.

  11. Phylogenetic Classification at Generic Level in the Absence of Distinct Phylogenetic Patterns of Phenotypical Variation: A Case Study in Graphidaceae (Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies often reveal that taxa circumscribed by phenotypical characters are not monophyletic. While re-examination of phenotypical characters often identifies the presence of characters characterizing clades, there is a growing number of studies that fail to identify diagnostic characters, especially in organismal groups lacking complex morphologies. Taxonomists then can either merge the groups or split taxa into smaller entities. Due to the nature of binomial nomenclature, this decision is of special importance at the generic level. Here we propose a new approach to choose among classification alternatives using a combination of morphology-based phylogenetic binning and a multiresponse permutation procedure to test for morphological differences among clades. We illustrate the use of this method in the tribe Thelotremateae focusing on the genus Chapsa, a group of lichenized fungi in which our phylogenetic estimate is in conflict with traditional classification and the morphological and chemical characters do not show a clear phylogenetic pattern. We generated 75 new DNA sequences of mitochondrial SSU rDNA, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding RPB2. This data set was used to infer phylogenetic estimates using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The genus Chapsa was found to be polyphyletic, forming four well-supported clades, three of which clustering into one unsupported clade, and the other, supported clade forming two supported subclades. While these clades cannot be readily separated morphologically, the combined binning/multiresponse permutation procedure showed that accepting the four clades as different genera each reflects the phenotypical pattern significantly better than accepting two genera (or five genera if splitting the first clade). Another species within the Thelotremateae, Thelotrema petractoides, a unique taxon with carbonized excipulum resembling Schizotrema, was shown to fall outside Thelotrema. Consequently, the new genera Astrochapsa, Crutarndina, Pseudochapsa, and Pseudotopeliopsis are described here and 39 new combinations are proposed. PMID:23251515

  12. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae).

    PubMed

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P

    2016-06-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential.

  13. Coalescent-based species delimitation approach uncovers high cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal-arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods--BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence.

  14. Coalescent-Based Species Delimitation Approach Uncovers High Cryptic Diversity in the Cosmopolitan Lichen-Forming Fungal Genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D.; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J.; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal -arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods – BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence. PMID:25932996

  15. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory.

  16. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), their phoretic mites (Acari) and associated Geosmithia species (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Virgilia trees in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Machingambi, Netsai M; Roux, Jolanda; Dreyer, Léanne L; Roets, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles are ecologically and economically important phloeophagous insects that often have complex symbiotic relationships with fungi and mites. These systems are greatly understudied in Africa. In the present study we identified bark and ambrosia beetles, their phoretic mites and their main fungal associates from native Virgilia trees in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. In addition, we tested the ability of mites to feed on the associated fungi. Four species of scolytine beetles were collected from various Virgilia hosts and from across the CFR. All were consistently associated with various Geosmithia species, fungi known from phloeophagous beetles in many parts of the world, but not yet reported as Scolytinae associates in South Africa. Four beetle species, a single mite species and five Geosmithia species were recovered. The beetles, Hapalogenius fuscipennis, Cryphalini sp. 1, and Scolytoplatypus fasciatus were associated with a single species of Elattoma phoretic mite that commonly carried spores of Geosmithia species. Liparthrum sp. 1 did not carry phoretic mites. Similar to European studies, Geosmithia associates of beetles from Virgilia were constant over extended geographic ranges, and species that share the same host plant individual had similar Geosmithia communities. Phoretic mites were unable to feed on their Geosmithia associates, but were observed to feed on bark beetle larvae within tunnels. This study forms the first African-centred base for ongoing global studies on the associations between arthropods and Geosmithia species. It strengthens hypotheses that the association between Scolytinae beetles and dry-spored Geosmithia species may be more ubiquitous than commonly recognised.

  17. A phylogeny of the highly diverse cup-fungus family Pyronemataceae (Pezizomycetes, Ascomycota) clarifies relationships and evolution of selected life history traits.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen; Perry, Brian A; Dranginis, Andrew W; Pfister, Donald H

    2013-05-01

    Pyronemataceae is the largest and most heterogeneous family of Pezizomycetes. It is morphologically and ecologically highly diverse, comprising saprobic, ectomycorrhizal, bryosymbiotic and parasitic species, occurring in a broad range of habitats (on soil, burnt ground, debris, wood, dung and inside living bryophytes, plants and lichens). To assess the monophyly of Pyronemataceae and provide a phylogenetic hypothesis of the group, we compiled a four-gene dataset including one nuclear ribosomal and three protein-coding genes for 132 distinct Pezizomycetes species (4437 nucleotides with all markers available for 80% of the total 142 included taxa). This is the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Pyronemataceae, and Pezizomycetes, to date. Three hundred ninety-four new sequences were generated during this project, with the following numbers for each gene: RPB1 (124), RPB2 (99), EF-1α (120) and LSU rDNA (51). The dataset includes 93 unique species from 40 genera of Pyronemataceae, and 34 species from 25 genera representing an additional 12 families of the class. Parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggest that Pyronemataceae is paraphyletic due to the nesting of both Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae within the family. Four lineages with taxa currently classified in the family, the Boubovia, Geopyxis, Pseudombrophila and Pulvinula lineages, form a monophyletic group with Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae. We advocate the exclusion of these four lineages in order to recognize a monophyletic Pyronemataceae. The genus Coprotus (Thelebolales, Leotiomycetes) is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes, forming a strongly supported monophyletic group with Boubovia. Ten strongly supported lineages are identified within Pyronemataceae s. str. Of these, the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages are identified as successive sister lineages to the rest of Pyronemataceae s. str. The highly reduced (gymnohymenial) Monascella is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes and is for the first time suggested to be closely related to the cleistothecial Warcupia, as a sister group to the primarily apothecial Otidea. None of the lineages of pyronemataceous taxa identified here correspond to previous families or subfamily classifications. Ancestral character state reconstructions (ASR) using a Bayesian approach support that the ancestors of Pezizomycetes and Pyronemataceae were soil inhabiting and saprobic. Ectomycorrhizae have arisen within both lineages A, B and C of Pezizomycetes and are suggested to have evolved independently seven to eight times within Pyronemataceae s. l., whereas an obligate bryosymbiotic lifestyle has arisen only twice. No reversals to a free-living, saprobic lifestyle have happened from symbiotic or parasitic Pyronemataceae. Specializations to various substrates (e.g. burnt ground and dung) are suggested to have occurred several times in mainly saprobic lineages. Although carotenoids in the apothecia are shown to have arisen at least four times in Pezizomycetes, the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str., excluding the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages, most likely produced carotenoids, which were then subsequently lost in some clades (- and possibly gained again). Excipular hairs were found with a high probability to be absent from apothecia in the deepest nodes of Pezizomycetes and in the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str. True hairs are restricted to the core group of Pyronemataceae s. str., but are also found in Lasiobolus (Ascodesmidaceae), the Pseudombrophila lineage and the clade of Chorioactidaceae, Sarcoscyphaceae and Sarcosomataceae. The number of gains and losses of true hairs within Pyronemataceae s. str., however, remains uncertain. The ASR of ascospore guttulation under binary coding (present or absent) indicates that this character is fast evolving and prone to shifts.

  18. Characterization and phylogeny of Isaria spp. strains (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and elongation factor 1-alpha sequences.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Celeste P; Jones, Leandro R; Humber, Richard A; López Lastra, Claudia C; Sosa-Gomez, Daniel R

    2014-07-01

    The elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions ITS1 and ITS2 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences were used to characterize and to identify Isaria isolates from Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil, as well as to study the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and other related fungi from the order Hypocreales. The molecular characterization, which was performed by PCR-RFLP of EF1-α and ITS1-5.8-ITS2 genes, was useful for resolving representative isolates of Isaria fumosorosea, Isaria farinosa, and Isaria tenuipes and to confirm the taxonomic identity of fungi from Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil. The phylogenetic analyses showed three clades corresponding to three families of Hypocreales. The genus Isaria was confirmed as polyphyletic and in family Cordycipitaceae, Isaria species were related to anamorphic species of Beauveria, Lecanicillium, and Simplicillium and to teleomorphic Cordyceps and Torrubiella. Therefore, EF1-α and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 genes were found to be powerful tools for improving the characterization, identification, and phylogenetic relationship of the Isaria species and other entomopathogenic fungi.

  19. Characterization and phylogeny of entomopathogenic Isaria spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) using ITS1-5.8X-ITS2 and elongation factor 1-alpha sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-a) and the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences were used to characterize and identify Isaria isolates from Argentina and Brazil, as well as to study the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and other related fungi...

  20. Genetic covariation of the marine fungal symbiont Haloguignardia irritans (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina) with its algal hosts Cystoseira and Halidrys (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) along the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J B J; Goff, Lynda J

    2010-01-01

    The fungal endophyte Haloguignardia irritans induces gall formation on the brown algal genera Cystoseira and Halidrys occurring from Oregon to Baja California, Mexico. Here we examine genetic covariation and compare rDNA phylogenies to investigate the coevolutionary histories of H. irritans and its algal hosts. Despite recognition of H. irritans as a single morphological species, internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences representative of its geographic range are characterized by sequence variation at the intraspecific to intrageneric levels. An assessment of parallel cladogenesis between endophyte and host phylogenies provides evidence for a combination of independent fungal divergence and host jumping, similar to that observed in terrestrial lichens. Our results suggest that reduced gene flow due to geographic isolation is a major contributing factor to more concerted covariation observed at one island site, rather than to differences among algal host species alone. Because geography and its effects on gene flow can create heterogeneous mosaics of coevolution for symbioses in terrestrial environments, our results support the notion that conservation efforts toward the maintenance of genetic diversity in marine environments should likewise consider geographic complexity and its effects on coevolving marine species.

  1. Evolution of Pleopsidium (lichenized Ascomycota) S943 group I introns and the phylogeography of an intron-encoded putative homing endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Valérie; Haugen, Peik; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Lutzoni, François

    2007-03-01

    The sporadic distribution of nuclear group I introns among different fungal lineages can be explained by vertical inheritance of the introns followed by successive losses, or horizontal transfers from one lineage to another through intron homing or reverse splicing. Homing is mediated by an intron-encoded homing endonuclease (HE) and recent studies suggest that the introns and their associated HE gene (HEG) follow a recurrent cyclical model of invasion, degeneration, loss, and reinvasion. The purpose of this study was to compare this model to the evolution of HEGs found in the group I intron at position S943 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the lichen-forming fungus Pleopsidium. Forty-eight S943 introns were found in the 64 Pleopsidium samples from a worldwide screen, 22 of which contained a full-length HEG that encodes a putative 256-amino acid HE, and 2 contained HE pseudogenes. The HEGs are divided into two closely related types (as are the introns that encode them) that differ by 22.6% in their nucleotide sequences. The evolution of the Pleopsidium intron-HEG element shows strong evidence for a cyclical model of evolution. The intron was likely acquired twice in the genus and then transmitted via two or three interspecific horizontal transfers. Close geographical proximity plays an important role in intron-HEG horizontal transfer because most of these mobile elements were found in Europe. Once acquired in a lineage, the intron-HEG element was also vertically transmitted, and occasionally degenerated or was lost.

  2. Proposal to conserve the name Helminthosporium maydis Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake (Bipolaris maydis) against H. maydis Brond. and Ophiobolus heterostrophus (Ascomycota: Pleosporales: Pleosporaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The name Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake) Shoemaker is the type of the genus Bipolaris Shoemaker, while Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Drechsler) Drechsler is the type of the genus Cochliobolus Drechsler. Initially described as Helminthosporium maydis Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake, Bipolaris maydis is...

  3. Isolation and characterisation of the fungus Spiromastix asexualis sp. nov. from discospondylitis in a German Shepherd dog, and review of Spiromastix with the proposal of the new order Spiromastixales (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Rizzo, L; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Thompson, E H; Friedman, R; Wickes, B L; Cano-Lira, J F; Stchigel, A M; Guarro, J

    2014-07-01

    The genus Spiromastix consists of several fungal species that have been isolated from soil and animal dung in various parts of the world. However, these species are considered to be of low pathogenic potential, as no cases of infections caused by these fungi have been reported. Here, we describe the clinical course of discospondylitis in a dog from which a fungus was cultured from a biopsy and identified as a Spiromastix species by morphologic characteristics and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis determined this to be a new species, Spiromastix asexualis, which is described, and a new order, Spiromastixales, is proposed.

  4. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302

  5. Sporothriolide derivatives as chemotaxonomic markers for Hypoxylon monticulosum

    PubMed Central

    Surup, Frank; Kuhnert, Eric; Lehmann, Erik; Heitkämper, Simone; Hyde, Kevin D.; Fournier, Jacques; Stadler, Marc

    2014-01-01

    During the course of a screening for novel anti-infective agents from cultures of tropical Xylariaceae originating from French Guiana and Thailand, pronounced antifungal activity was noted in extracts of cultures of Hypoxylon monticulosum. A bioassay-guided fractionation led to the known metabolite sporothriolide as active principle. In addition, three new derivatives of sporothriolide were isolated, for which we propose the trivial names sporothric acid, isosporothric acid and dihydroisosporothric acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry in conjunction with two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy. From earlier studies on the biogenesis of the chemically similar canadensolides, we postulate that the new compounds were shunt products, rather than biogenetic precursors of sporothriolide. Interestingly, this compound class, as well as strong antifungal activities, was only observed in multiple cultures of H. monticulosum, but not in several hundreds of Hypoxylon cultures studied previously or concurrently. Therefore, sporothriolide production may constitute a species-specific feature with respect to Hypoxylon and the Xylariaceae, although the compound was previously reported from non-related fungal taxa. PMID:25379335

  6. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  7. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Microdochium bolleyi, a Dark Septate Fungal Endophyte of Beach Grass

    PubMed Central

    Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Lim, Joanne; Lipzen, Anna; Wang, Mei; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the genome sequence of the dark septate fungal endophyte Microdochium bolleyi (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Xylariales). The assembled genome size was 38.84 Mbp and consisted of 173 scaffolds and 13,177 predicted genes. PMID:27125481

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Microdochium bolleyi, a Dark Septate Fungal Endophyte of Beach Grass.

    PubMed

    David, Aaron S; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Lim, Joanne; Lipzen, Anna; Wang, Mei; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V; Spatafora, Joseph W; May, Georgiana

    2016-04-28

    Here, we present the genome sequence of the dark septate fungal endophyte Microdochium bolleyi (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Xylariales). The assembled genome size was 38.84 Mbp and consisted of 173 scaffolds and 13,177 predicted genes.

  10. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors.

    PubMed

    Lutzoni, F; Pagel, M; Reeb, V

    2001-06-21

    About one-fifth of all known extant fungal species form obligate symbiotic associations with green algae, cyanobacteria or with both photobionts. These symbioses, known as lichens, are one way for fungi to meet their requirement for carbohydrates. Lichens are widely believed to have arisen independently on several occasions, accounting for the high diversity and mixed occurrence of lichenized and non-lichenized (42 and 58%, respectively) fungal species within the Ascomycota. Depending on the taxonomic classification chosen, 15-18 orders of the Ascomycota include lichen-forming taxa, and 8-11 of these orders (representing about 60% of the Ascomycota species) contain both lichenized and non-lichenized species. Here we report a phylogenetic comparative analysis of the Ascomycota, a phylum that includes greater than 98% of known lichenized fungal species. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic tree sampling methodology combined with a statistical model of trait evolution, we take into account uncertainty about the phylogenetic tree and ancestral state reconstructions. Our results show that lichens evolved earlier than believed, and that gains of lichenization have been infrequent during Ascomycota evolution, but have been followed by multiple independent losses of the lichen symbiosis. As a consequence, major Ascomycota lineages of exclusively non-lichen-forming species are derived from lichen-forming ancestors. These species include taxa with important benefits and detriments to humans, such as Penicillium and Aspergillus.

  11. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  12. Secondary metabolites of endophytic Xylaria species with potential applications in medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; Sánchez-Fernández, Rosa Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are important sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. The genus Xylaria Hill (ex Schrank, 1789, Xylariaceae) comprises various endophytic species associated to both vascular and non vascular plants. The secondary metabolites produced by Xylaria species include a variety of volatile and non-volatile compounds. Examples of the former are sesquiterpenoids, esters, and alcohols, among others; and of the latter we find terpenoids, cytochalasins, mellein, alkaloids, polyketides, and aromatic compounds. Some of these metabolites have shown potential activity as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides; others possess antibacterial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, or α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Thus metabolites from Xylaria are promising compounds for applications in agriculture for plague control as biopesticides, and biocontrol agents; and in medicine, for example as drugs for the treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases. This review seeks to show the great value of the secondary metabolites of Xylaria, particularly in the agriculture and medicine fields.

  13. The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits α-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses

    PubMed Central

    Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g−1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g−1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg−1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative α-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., α-l-rhamnopyranoside and α-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

  14. 18S rRNA Gene Variation among Common Airborne Fungi, and Development of Specific Oligonucleotide Probes for the Detection of Fungal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihong; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Blomquist, Göran; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced 18S rRNA genes (rDNA) from 49 fungal strains representing 31 species from 15 genera. Most of these species are common airborne fungi and pathogens that may cause various public health concerns. Sequence analysis revealed distinct divergence between Zygomycota and Ascomycota. Within Ascomycota, several strongly supported clades were identified that facilitate the taxonomic placement of several little-studied fungi. Wallemia appeared as the group most diverged from all the other Ascomycota species. Based on the 18S rDNA sequence variation, 108 oligonucleotide probes were designed for each genus and species included in this study. After homology searches and DNA hybridization evaluations, 33 probes were verified as genus or species specific. The optimal hybridization temperatures to achieve the best specificity for these 33 probes were determined. These new probes can contribute to the molecular diagnostic research for environmental monitoring. PMID:12957927

  15. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  16. Comparative physiology of forty-five Yarrowia lipolytica strains grown on pretreated switchgrass hydrolysate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a well-characterized yeast of the phylum Ascomycota with established use in the biotechnology industry for production of organic acids and enzymes. In addition, the yeast is a model oleaginous organism that accumulates lipids during growth on a variety of carbon sources. The a...

  17. Population genetics of Eutypa lata in the major grape-growing regions of the world and historical patterns of viticulture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causal agent of Eutypa dieback of grape, Eutypa lata (Ascomycota), is a destructive disease worldwide. The pathogen has a broad host range, but causes severe symptoms on only a few cultivated hosts (e.g., apricot & grape). To decipher its cosmopolitan distribution, we examined the population gen...

  18. Cyberlindnera xylolytica sp. nov., a xylitol-producing yeast species isolated from lignocellulosic materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Independent surveys of yeasts associated with lignocellulosic-related materials led to the discovery of a novel yeast species belonging to the Cyberlindnera clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the la...

  19. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of true morels (Morchella) reveals an early Cretaceous origin and high continental endemism and provincialism in the Holarctic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morel mushrooms (Morchella, phylum Ascomycota) are arguably the most widely recognized and highly prized of the estimated 1.5 million fungi that inhabit our planet. Although field guides treat these epicurean macrofungi as though the species have cosmopolitan distributions, this assumption has not b...

  20. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

  1. Revision of the Genus Corallomycetella with Corallonectria gen. nov. for C. jatrophae (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Corallomycetella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) has been defined to include red nectrioid fungi associated with rhizomorphs in nature and culture. With the recent collection of an unusual specimen having striated ascospores, the genus was re-examined using this and...

  2. Glucosylation and other biotransformations of T-2 toxin by yeasts of the Trichomonascus clade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five yeasts assigned to the Trichomonascus clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota), including three Trichomonascus species and 22 anamorphic species presently classified in Blastobotrys, were tested for their ability to convert T-2 toxin, a Fusarium trichothecene mycotoxin, to less toxic product...

  3. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the diversity of fungi living in rocks from different altitudes in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Eighty-one fungal isolates obtained were identified as 21 species of 12 genera from Ascomycota using molecular techniques. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicill...

  4. Tubakia seoraksanensis sp. nov., a new species from Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unknown species of Tubakia (Diaporthales, Ascomycota) was collected recently from Quercus mongolica on Seoraksan Mountain, GangWon province in Korea. It was characterized with cultural, ITS region sequence, and morphologial data. After comparison with known species of Tubakia, this species is des...

  5. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  6. Recommendations of generic names in Diaporthales competing for protection or use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In advancing to one name for fungi, this paper treats generic names competing for use in the order Diaporthales (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) and makes a recommendation for the use or protection of one generic name among synonymous names that may be either sexua...

  7. What is Scirrhia?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete genus Scirrhia is presently treated as a member of the Dothideomycetidae, though uncertainty remains to which family it belongs in the Capnodiales within the Ascomycota. Recent collections on stems of a fern, Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Brazil, led to the discovery of a ...

  8. Microsatellite loci for the fungus, Ascosphaera apis, cause of honey bee chalkbrood disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota:Ascosphaeriaceae) is a worldwide fungal pathogen of honey bees. To provide tools for understanding the dispersal history of this pathogen, strain differences in virulence, and host-pathogen interactions, we developed and tested microsatellite loci for this sp...

  9. Full Genome of Phialocephala scopiformis DAOMC 229536, a Fungal Endophyte of Spruce Producing the Potent Anti-Insectan Compound Rugulosin

    PubMed Central

    Frasz, Samantha L.; Seifert, Keith A.; Miller, J. David; Mondo, Stephen J.; LaButti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Dockter, Rhyan B.; Kennedy, Megan C.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    We present the full genome of Phialocephala scopiformis DAOMC 229536 (Helotiales, Ascomycota), a foliar endophyte of white spruce from eastern Quebec. DAOMC 229536 produces the anti-insectan compound rugulosin, which inhibits a devastating forestry pest, the spruce budworm. This genome will enable fungal genotyping and host-endophyte evolutionary genomics in inoculated trees. PMID:26950333

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Penicillium brasilianum MG11

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jörg; Mattern, Derek J.; Walther, Grit; Guthke, Reinhard; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Penicillium belongs to the phylum Ascomycota and includes a variety of fungal species important for food and drug production. We report the draft genome sequence of Penicillium brasilianum MG11. This strain was isolated from soil, and it was reported to produce different secondary metabolites. PMID:26337871

  11. Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery. PMID:23472167

  12. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Vincent P.; Rees, Evan R.; Tchegnon, Edem; Bardsley, Robert H.; Raja, Huzefa A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet–based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture. PMID:27199902

  13. Distribution of the antifungal agents sordarins across filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Francisca; Basilio, Angela; Platas, Gonzalo; Collado, Javier; Bills, Gerald F; González del Val, Antonio; Martín, Jesús; Tormo, José R; Harris, Guy H; Zink, Deborah L; Justice, Michael; Kahn, Jennifer Nielsen; Peláez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Sordarins are a class of natural antifungal agents which act by specifically inhibiting fungal protein synthesis through their interaction with the elongation factor 2, EF2. A number of natural sordarins produced by diverse fungi of different classes have been reported in the literature. We have run an exhaustive search of sordarin-producing fungi using two different approaches consecutively, the first one being a differential sensitivity screen using a sordarin-resistant mutant yeast strain run in parallel with a wild type strain, and the second one an empiric screen against Candida albicans followed by early detection of sordarins by LC-MS analysis. Using these two strategies we have detected as many as 22 new strains producing a number of different sordarin analogues, either known (sordarin, xylarin, zofimarin) or novel (isozofimarin and 4'-O-demethyl sordarin). Sordarin and xylarin were the most frequently found compounds in the class. The producing strains were subjected to sequencing of the ITS region to determine their phylogenetic affinities. All the strains were shown to belong to the Xylariales, being distributed across three families in this order, the Xylariaceae, the Amphisphaeriaceae, and the Diatrypaceae. Despite being screened in large numbers, we did not find sordarin production in any other fungal group, including those orders where sordarin producing fungi are known to exist (i.e., Sordariales, Eurotiales, and Microascales), suggesting that the production of sordarin is a trait more frequently associated to members of the Xylariales than to any other fungal order.

  14. Measurement of personal exposure to outdoor aeromycota in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett James; O'Meara, Timothy; Sercombe, Jason; Tovey, Euan

    2006-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling traditionally uses a volumetric spore trap located in a fixed position to estimate personal exposure to airborne fungi. In this study, the number and identity of fungi inhaled by human subjects (n=34), wearing Intra-nasal air samplers (INASs), was measured over 2-hour periods in an outdoor community setting, and compared to fungal counts made with a Burkard spore trap and Institute of Occupational Medicine personal filter air samplers (IOMs). All sampling devices were in close proximity and located in an outdoor environment in Casino, northern New South Wales, Australia. Using INASs, the most prevalent fungi inhaled belonged to soil or vegetation borne spores of Alternaria, Arthrinium, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicoccum, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Pithomyces, Spegazzinia and Tetraploa species, Xylariaceae ascospores, in addition to hyphal fragments. These results showed that inhaled fungal exposure in most people varied in a 2-fold range with 10-fold outliers. In addition, the INASs and personal air filters agreed more with each other than with Burkard spore trap counts (r=0.74, p < 0.0001). These findings further support a new paradigm of personal fungal exposure, which implicates the inhalation of a spectrum of fungi more closely associated with soil or vegetation borne mycoflora and hyphal fragments than what is collected by stationary spore traps in the same geographic region.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping.

    PubMed

    Sica, Vincent P; Rees, Evan R; Tchegnon, Edem; Bardsley, Robert H; Raja, Huzefa A; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet-based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture.

  16. Identification of a Fungal 1,8-Cineole Synthase from Hypoxylon sp. with Specificity Determinants in Common with the Plant Synthases*

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Berbasova, Tetyana; Sasaki, Tomoaki; Jefferson-George, Kyra; Spakowicz, Daniel J.; Dunican, Brian F.; Portero, Carolina E.; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Strobel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes are an important and diverse class of secondary metabolites widely produced by fungi. Volatile compound screening of a fungal endophyte collection revealed a number of isolates in the family Xylariaceae, producing a series of terpene molecules, including 1,8-cineole. This compound is a commercially important component of eucalyptus oil used in pharmaceutical applications and has been explored as a potential biofuel additive. The genes that produce terpene molecules, such as 1,8-cineole, have been little explored in fungi, providing an opportunity to explore the biosynthetic origin of these compounds. Through genome sequencing of cineole-producing isolate E7406B, we were able to identify 11 new terpene synthase genes. Expressing a subset of these genes in Escherichia coli allowed identification of the hyp3 gene, responsible for 1,8-cineole biosynthesis, the first monoterpene synthase discovered in fungi. In a striking example of convergent evolution, mutational analysis of this terpene synthase revealed an active site asparagine critical for water capture and specificity during cineole synthesis, the same mechanism used in an unrelated plant homologue. These studies have provided insight into the evolutionary relationship of fungal terpene synthases to those in plants and bacteria and further established fungi as a relatively untapped source of this important and diverse class of compounds. PMID:25648891

  17. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    symbionts associated with orchids [23] and angiosperms [5]. An interesting isolate found in E. purpurea was the phylotype M. indicus, a tropical to...cosmopolitan being found as saprotrophic, pathogenic and as part of an orchid endomycorrhizal group [27]. Ceratorhiza is the anamorphic genus Cer...atobasidium, its species are common endophytes associ- ated with orchids [27]. Glomerella (Ascomycota) is the anamorphic genus Colletotrichum which includes

  18. Fireworks under the microscope: a spectacular new species of Zodiomyces from the Thaxter collection.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Walter; Haelewaters, Danny; Pfister, Donald H

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Zodiomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) is described, Z. rhizophorus, parasitic on a hydrophilid beetle (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) from Trinidad. This species was discovered during the examination of the slides of Laboulbeniales made by Roland Thaxter. It is characterized by numerous long, slender, multicellular and multiseriate outgrowths at the base of the receptacle. Thaxter's outstanding illustrations have set a standard in the field of mycology; we provide a review of the methods he employed in the preparation of these illustrations.

  19. Fungi associated with the southern Eurasian orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall.

    PubMed

    Tondello, Alessandra; Vendramin, Elena; Villani, Mariacristina; Baldan, Barbara; Squartini, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The hitherto unknown relationships between the European orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall and its internally associated fungi were explored by a combined approach involving microscopy-based investigations at a morpho-histological level as well as by molecular analyses of the identity of the eukaryotic endophytes present in the root tissue of the plant. We found that this orchid which is currently reported to have a vulnerable status in northern Italy, can host and interact with at least nine types of fungi. Some of these fungi show similarity to mycorrhizal genera found in orchids such as the Ceratobasidium-Rhizoctonia group. Other fungi found are from the genera Davidiella (Ascomycota), Leptosphaeria (Ascomycota), Alternaria (Ascomycota), and Malassezia (Basidiomycota), some of which until have not previously been reported to have an endophytic relationship with plants. The repeated occurrence of often pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Alternaria sp., within healthy specimens of this orchid suggests a tempered interaction with species that are sometimes deleterious to non-orchid plants. The fact is reminiscent of the symbiotic compromise established by orchids with fungi of the rhizoctonia group.

  20. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    DOE PAGES

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; ...

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senescedmore » tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.« less

  1. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B.

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senesced tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.

  2. Resolution of morphology-based taxonomic delusions: Acrocordiella, Basiseptospora, Blogiascospora, Clypeosphaeria, Hymenopleella, Lepteutypa, Pseudapiospora, Requienella, Seiridium and Strickeria.

    PubMed

    Jaklitsch, W M; Gardiennet, A; Voglmayr, H

    2016-12-01

    Fresh material, type studies and molecular phylogeny were used to clarify phylogenetic relationships of the nine genera Acrocordiella, Blogiascospora, Clypeosphaeria, Hymenopleella, Lepteutypa, Pseudapiospora, Requienella, Seiridium and Strickeria. At first sight, some of these genera do not seem to have much in common, but all were found to belong to the Xylariales, based on their generic types. Thus, the most peculiar finding is the phylogenetic affinity of the genera Acrocordiella, Requienella and Strickeria, which had been classified in the Dothideomycetes or Eurotiomycetes, to the Xylariales. Acrocordiella and Requienella are closely related but distinct genera of the Requienellaceae. Although their ascospores are similar to those of Lepteutypa, phylogenetic analyses do not reveal a particularly close relationship. The generic type of Lepteutypa, L. fuckelii, belongs to the Amphisphaeriaceae. Lepteutypa sambuci is newly described. Hymenopleella is recognised as phylogenetically distinct from Lepteutypa, and Hymenopleella hippophaëicola is proposed as new name for its generic type, Sphaeria (= Lepteutypa) hippophaës. Clypeosphaeria uniseptata is combined in Lepteutypa. No asexual morphs have been detected in species of Lepteutypa. Pseudomassaria fallax, unrelated to the generic type, P. chondrospora, is transferred to the new genus Basiseptospora, the genus Pseudapiospora is revived for P. corni, and Pseudomassaria carolinensis is combined in Beltraniella (Beltraniaceae). The family Clypeosphaeriaceae is discontinued, because the generic type of Clypeosphaeria, C. mamillana, is a member of the Xylariaceae. The genus Seiridium, of which the sexual morph Blogiascospora is confirmed, is unrelated to Lepteutypa, as is Lepteutypa cupressi. The taxonomy of the cypress canker agents is discussed. The family Sporocadaceae is revived for a large clade of the Xylariales that contains Hymenopleella, Seiridium and Strickeria among a number of other genera. Neotypes are

  3. Resolution of morphology-based taxonomic delusions: Acrocordiella, Basiseptospora, Blogiascospora, Clypeosphaeria, Hymenopleella, Lepteutypa, Pseudapiospora, Requienella, Seiridium and Strickeria

    PubMed Central

    Jaklitsch, W.M.; Gardiennet, A.; Voglmayr, H.

    2016-01-01

    Fresh material, type studies and molecular phylogeny were used to clarify phylogenetic relationships of the nine genera Acrocordiella, Blogiascospora, Clypeosphaeria, Hymenopleella, Lepteutypa, Pseudapiospora, Requienella, Seiridium and Strickeria. At first sight, some of these genera do not seem to have much in common, but all were found to belong to the Xylariales, based on their generic types. Thus, the most peculiar finding is the phylogenetic affinity of the genera Acrocordiella, Requienella and Strickeria, which had been classified in the Dothideomycetes or Eurotiomycetes, to the Xylariales. Acrocordiella and Requienella are closely related but distinct genera of the Requienellaceae. Although their ascospores are similar to those of Lepteutypa, phylogenetic analyses do not reveal a particularly close relationship. The generic type of Lepteutypa, L. fuckelii, belongs to the Amphisphaeriaceae. Lepteutypa sambuci is newly described. Hymenopleella is recognised as phylogenetically distinct from Lepteutypa, and Hymenopleella hippophaëicola is proposed as new name for its generic type, Sphaeria (= Lepteutypa) hippophaës. Clypeosphaeria uniseptata is combined in Lepteutypa. No asexual morphs have been detected in species of Lepteutypa. Pseudomassaria fallax, unrelated to the generic type, P. chondrospora, is transferred to the new genus Basiseptospora, the genus Pseudapiospora is revived for P. corni, and Pseudomassaria carolinensis is combined in Beltraniella (Beltraniaceae). The family Clypeosphaeriaceae is discontinued, because the generic type of Clypeosphaeria, C. mamillana, is a member of the Xylariaceae. The genus Seiridium, of which the sexual morph Blogiascospora is confirmed, is unrelated to Lepteutypa, as is Lepteutypa cupressi. The taxonomy of the cypress canker agents is discussed. The family Sporocadaceae is revived for a large clade of the Xylariales that contains Hymenopleella, Seiridium and Strickeria among a number of other genera. Neotypes are

  4. Phytochelatin synthase is required for tolerating metal toxicity in a basidiomycete yeast and is a conserved factor involved in metal homeostasis in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Alaina M; Shakya, Viplendra PS; Idnurm, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of phytochelatin from glutathione. Phytochelatins protect cells against the toxic effects of non-essential heavy metals, such as cadmium, and hence growth is restricted in the presence of these metals in mutants in PCS-encoding genes. PCS genes from fungi have been characterized in only two species in the Ascomycota, and these genes are considered sparsely distributed in the fungal kingdom. Results A gene encoding a putative PCS was identified in Sporobolomyces sp. strain IAM 13481, a fungus that is a member of the Pucciniomycotina subphylum of the Basidiomycota. The function of this PCS1 gene was assessed by heterologous expression in the Ascomycota yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and by mutating the gene in Sporobolomyces. The gene is required for tolerance to toxic concentrations of non-essential cadmium as well as the essential metal copper. Pcs1 homologs in fungi and other eukaryotes have putative targeting sequences for mitochondrial localization: the S. pombe homolog was fused to green fluorescent protein and it co-localized with a mitochondrial dye. Evaluation of the presence or absence of PCS and PCS-like homologs in the genome sequences of fungi indicates that they have a wide distribution, and the absence in most Ascomycota and Basidiomycota (the Dikarya) species can be explained by a small number of gene losses. Conclusions The ecology of the species within the fungi carrying putative PCS genes, the phenotypes of phytochelatin synthase mutants in two major fungal lineages, and the presence of homologs in many non-Dikarya lineages parallel what is seen in the plant and animal kingdoms. That is, PCS is a protein present early during the evolution of the fungi and whose role is not solely dedicated to combating toxic concentrations of non-essential metals. PMID:25926993

  5. Analysis of the microbial diversity in faecal material of the endangered blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus.

    PubMed

    Guass, Olivia; Haapanen, Lisa Meier; Dowd, Scot E; Širović, Ana; McLaughlin, Richard William

    2016-07-01

    Using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing, the microbiota of the faecal material of two blue whales living in the wild off the coast of California was investigated. In both samples the most predominant bacterial phylum was the Firmicutes with Clostridium spp. being the most dominant bacteria. The most predominant fungi were members of the phylum Ascomycota with Metschnikowia spp. being the most dominant. In this study, we also preliminarily characterised the culturable anaerobic bacteria from the faecal material, using traditional culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches. In total, three bacterial species belonging to the phylum Firmicutes were identified.

  6. Marine culturable yeasts in deep-sea hydrothermal vents: species richness and association with fauna.

    PubMed

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Arzur, Danielle; Durand, Lucile; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Barbier, Georges

    2010-07-01

    Investigations of the diversity of culturable yeasts at deep-sea hydrothermal sites have suggested possible interactions with endemic fauna. Samples were collected during various oceanographic cruises at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, South Pacific Basins and East Pacific Rise. Cultures of 32 isolates, mostly associated with animals, were collected. Phylogenetic analyses of 26S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the yeasts belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, with the identification of several genera: Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Candida, Debaryomyces and Cryptococcus. Those genera are usually isolated from deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of yeasts associated with deep-sea hydrothermal animals.

  7. New Primers for Discovering Fungal Diversity Using Nuclear Large Ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gloor, Gregory B.; Lindo, Zoë

    2016-01-01

    Metabarcoding has become an important tool in the discovery of biodiversity, including fungi, which are the second most speciose group of eukaryotes, with diverse and important ecological roles in terrestrial ecosystems. We have designed and tested new PCR primers that target the D1 variable region of nuclear large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA; one set that targets the phylum Ascomycota and another that recovers all other fungal phyla. The primers yield amplicons compatible with the Illumina MiSeq platform, which is cost-effective and has a lower error rate than other high throughput sequencing platforms. The new primer set LSU200A-F/LSU476A-R (Ascomycota) yielded 95–98% of reads of target taxa from environmental samples, and primers LSU200-F/LSU481-R (all other fungi) yielded 72–80% of target reads. Both primer sets have fairly low rates of data loss, and together they cover a wide variety of fungal taxa. We compared our results with these primers by amplifying and sequencing a subset of samples using the previously described ITS3_KYO2/ITS4_KYO3 primers, which amplify the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. With approximately equivalent read depth, our LSU primers recovered a greater number and phylogenetic diversity of sequences than the ITS2 primers. For instance, ITS3_KYO2/ITS4_KYO3 primers failed to pick up any members of Eurotiales, Mytilinidiales, Pezizales, Saccharomycetales, or Venturiales within Ascomycota, or members of Exobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, or Tremellomycetes within Basidiomycota, which were retrieved in good numbers from the same samples by our LSU primers. Among the OTUs recovered using the LSU primers were 127 genera and 28 species that were not obtained using the ITS2 primers, although the ITS2 primers recovered 10 unique genera and 16 species that were not obtained using either of the LSU primers These features identify the new primer sets developed in this study as useful

  8. A new method to evaluate the biocontrol potential of single spore isolates of fungal entomopathogens

    PubMed Central

    Posada, Francisco J.; Vega, Fernando E.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) strains isolated from the coffee berry borer were used to develop a novel screening method aimed at selecting strains with the highest biocontrol potential. The screening method is based on percent insect mortality, average survival time, mortality distribution, percent spore germination, fungal life cycle duration, and spore production on the insect. Based on these parameters, only 11 strains merited further study. The use of a sound scientific protocol for the selection of promising fungal entomopathogens should lead to more efficient use of time, labor, and financial resources in biological control programs. PMID:17119619

  9. Havispora longyearbyenensis gen. et sp. nov.: an arctic marine fungus from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Chiang, Michael W L; Vrijmoed, Lilian L P

    2008-01-01

    Information on the diversity and ecology of arctic marine fungi is lacking. During a short visit to Longyearbyen (78 degrees 13'N 15 degrees 33'E), Svalbard, Norway, a new marine fungus growing on driftwood collected at the shore was encountered. This taxon belongs to the Halosphaeriales (Ascomycota), a fungal order of mostly marine species. Havispora longyearbyenensis gen. et sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Nautosphaeria and Nereiospora, all with tufts of appendages at polar and equatorial positions of the ascospore but differing in color and septation of the ascospore and morphology and ontogeny of the ascospore appendage.

  10. Phenylpropanoid amides of serotonin accumulate in witches' broom diseased bamboo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Tanaka, Chihiro; Mori, Naoki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Tsuda, Mitsuya

    2003-11-01

    Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae), causes the witches' broom disease in bamboo, particularly Phyllostachys bambusoides. Since it was observed that endogenous indole-3-acetic acid is reduced in the twigs of the diseased bamboo, the symptoms (bushy appearance) may be induced by reduction in auxin levels. Furthermore, two indolic compounds accumulated in diseased twigs, these being identified as N-p-coumaroylserotonin and N-feruloylserotonin by LC-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses. N-p-Coumaroylserotonin possesses antifungal activity against A. take.

  11. New insight into biodegradation of polylactide (PLA)/clay nanocomposites using molecular ecological techniques.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Parveen; Way, Cameron; Wu, Dong-Yang

    2009-07-07

    Novel molecular ecological techniques were used to study changes in microbial community structure and population during degradation of polylactide (PLA)/organically modified layered silicates (OMLS) nanocomposites. Cloned gene sequences belonging to members of the phyla Actinobacteria and Ascomycota comprized the most dominant groups of microorganisms during biodegradation of PLA/OMLS nanocomposites. Due to their numerical abundance, members of these microbial groups are likely to play an important role during biodegradation process. This paper presents new insights into the biodegradability of PLA/OMLS nanocomposites and highlights the importance of using novel molecular ecological techniques for in situ identification of new microorganisms involved in biodegradation of polymeric materials.

  12. A new method to evaluate the biocontrol potential of single spore isolates of fungal entomopathogens.

    PubMed

    Posada, Francisco J; Vega, Fernando E

    2005-12-06

    Fifty Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) strains isolated from the coffee berry borer were used to develop a novel screening method aimed at selecting strains with the highest biocontrol potential. The screening method is based on percent insect mortality, average survival time, mortality distribution, percent spore germination, fungal life cycle duration, and spore production on the insect. Based on these parameters, only 11 strains merited further study. The use of a sound scientific protocol for the selection of promising fungal entomopathogens should lead to more efficient use of time, labor, and financial resources in biological control programs.

  13. Systematics of methanol assimilating yeasts and neighboring taxa from multigene sequence analysis and the proposal of Peterozyma gen. nov., a new member of the Saccharomycetales.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2010-05-01

    The relatedness among methanol-assimilating yeasts assigned to the genus Ogataea and neighboring taxa (Phylum Ascomycota, Subphylum Saccharomycotina, Class Saccharomycetes, Order Saccharomycetales) was determined from phylogenetic analyses of gene sequences for nuclear large and small subunit (SSU) rRNAs, translation elongation factor-1alpha and mitochondrial SSU rRNA. On the basis of the analyses, Williopsis salicorniae and seven species of Pichia are proposed for transfer to the genus Ogataea, which has been emended, and Pichia angophorae, a nonhyphal species, is proposed for transfer to the mycelium forming genus Ambrosiozyma. Pichia toletana and Pichia xylosa form an independent lineage and are assigned to the genus Peterozyma, which is newly proposed.

  14. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013.

    PubMed

    Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    2013-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii.

  15. Alectorioid Morphologies in Paleogene Lichens: New Evidence and Re-Evaluation of the Fossil Alectoria succini Mägdefrau.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Heinrichs, Jochen; Krings, Michael; Myllys, Leena; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important issues in molecular dating studies concerns the incorporation of reliable fossil taxa into the phylogenies reconstructed from DNA sequence variation in extant taxa. Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Several lichen fossils have been used as minimum age constraints in recent studies concerning the diversification of the Ascomycota. Recent evolutionary studies of Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-forming class in the Ascomycota, have utilized the Eocene amber inclusion Alectoria succinic as a minimum age constraint. However, a re-investigation of the type material revealed that this inclusion in fact represents poorly preserved plant remains, most probably of a root. Consequently, this fossil cannot be used as evidence of the presence of the genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) or any other lichens in the Paleogene. However, newly discovered inclusions from Paleogene Baltic and Bitterfeld amber verify that alectorioid morphologies in lichens were in existence by the Paleogene. The new fossils represent either a lineage within the alectorioid group or belong to the genus Oropogon.

  16. Genome of Diaporthe sp. provides insights into the potential inter-phylum transfer of a fungal sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    de Sena Filho, Jose Guedes; Quin, Maureen B; Spakowicz, Daniel J; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Kucera, Kaury; Dunican, Brian; Strobel, Scott A; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Fungi have highly active secondary metabolic pathways which enable them to produce a wealth of sesquiterpenoids that are bioactive. One example is Δ6-protoilludene, the precursor to the cytotoxic illudins, which are pharmaceutically relevant as anticancer therapeutics. To date, this valuable sesquiterpene has only been identified in members of the fungal division Basidiomycota. To explore the untapped potential of fungi belonging to the division Ascomycota in producing Δ6-protoilludene, we isolated a fungal endophyte Diaporthe sp. BR109 and show that it produces a diversity of terpenoids including Δ6-protoilludene. Using a genome sequencing and mining approach 17 putative novel sesquiterpene synthases were identified in Diaporthe sp. BR109. A phylogenetic approach was used to predict which gene encodes Δ6-protoilludene synthase, which was then confirmed experimentally. These analyses reveal that the sesquiterpene synthase and its putative sesquiterpene scaffold modifying cytochrome P450(s) may have been acquired by inter-phylum horizontal gene transfer from Basidiomycota to Ascomycota. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that inter-phylum transfer of these minimal sequiterpenoid secondary metabolic pathways may have occurred in other fungi. This work provides insights into the evolution of fungal sesquiterpenoid secondary metabolic pathways in the production of pharmaceutically relevant bioactive natural products.

  17. Fluid mechanical responses to nutrient depletion in fungi and biofilmsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Michael P.

    2014-10-01

    In both fungi and bacterial biofilms, when nutrients are depleted, the organisms cannot physically migrate to find a new source, but instead must develop adaptations that allow them to survive. This paper reviews our work attempting to discover design principles for these adaptations. We develop fluid mechanical models, and aim to understand whether these suggest organizing principles for the observed morphological diversity. Determining whether a proposed organizing principle explains extant biological designs is fraught with difficulty: simply because a design principle predicts characteristics similar to an organism's morphology could just as well be accidental as revealing. In each of the two sets of examples, we adopt different strategies to develop understanding in spite of this difficulty. Within the fungal phylum Ascomycota, we use the large observed diversity of different morphological solutions to the fundamental fluid mechanical problem to measure how far each solution is from a design optimum, thereby measuring how far the extant designs deviate from the hypothesized optimum. This allows comparing different design principles to each other. For biofilms, we use engineering principles to make qualitative predictions of what types of adaptations might exist given the physicochemical properties of the repertoire of proteins that bacteria can create, and then find evidence for these adaptations in experiments. While on the surface this paper addresses the particular adaptations used by the fungal phylum Ascomycota and bacterial biofilms, we also aim to motivate discussion of different approaches to using design principles, fluid mechanical or otherwise, to rationalize observed engineering solutions in biology.

  18. Watershed-Scale Fungal Community Characterization along a pH Gradient in a Subsurface Environment Cocontaminated with Uranium and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan J.; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will A.; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Denis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution, and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semiquantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic small-subunit rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from the subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH <4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta, which were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples, were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota and within a single genus of the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions. PMID:24389927

  19. Expanding the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase Protein Family to the Fungal Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Anthony G.; Preiner, Chelsea S.

    2013-01-01

    The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria. PMID:24039269

  20. Activity of the novel fungicide SYP-Z048 against plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengping; Han, Ping; Liu, Pengfei; Si, Naiguo; Liu, Junli; Liu, Xili

    2014-09-25

    In in vitro tests with 18 plant pathogens, the fungicide 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinyl] pyridine (SYP-Z048) was highly effective on inhibiting mycelial growth of various ascomycota and basidiomycota, with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 1.140 μg/ml. SYP-Z048 had much weaker activity against growth of oomycota with EC50 values > 100 μg/ml. In a second in vitro test with Monilinia fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 inhibited mycelial growth (EC50 = 0.013 μg/ml), germ tube elongation (EC50 = 0.007 μg/ml), and sporulation but did not affect spore germination. In a detached pear fruit assay inoculated with M. fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 showed protective and curative activity. Field tests indicated that SYP-Z048 was an efficacious fungicide for control of brown rot disease in two peach orchards. When applied to a single spot on a tomato leaflet in a compound leaf, SYP-Z048 suppressed the growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates on the rest 4 leaflets, indicating that the fungicide has systemic movement in plant tissues. These results indicate that SYP-Z048 has potential for management of brown rot causing by M. fructicola and other diseases caused by ascomycota and basidiomycota.

  1. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences.

  2. Watershed-scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan J; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will A; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Denis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher W; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel E

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution, and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semiquantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic small-subunit rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from the subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH <4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta, which were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples, were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota and within a single genus of the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  3. Assessment of the fungal diversity and succession of ligninolytic endophytes in Camellia japonica leaves using clone library analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Dai; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Osono, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Fungal assemblages in live, newly shed and partly decomposed leaves of Camellia japonica were investigated with a clone library analysis to assess the fungal diversity and succession in a subtropical forest in southern Japan. Partly decomposed leaves were divided into bleached and adjacent nonbleached portions to estimate the fungi functionally associated with lignin decomposition in the bleached portions, with an emphasis on Coccomyces sinensis (Rhytismataceae, Ascomycota). From 144 cloned 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined based on a sequence similarity threshold of 98%. Forty-one (85%) of the 48 OTUs belonged to the Ascomycota and seven OTUs (15%) to the Basidiomycota. Twenty-six OTUs (54%) were detected only once (singletons). The number of OTUs and the diversity indices of the fungal assemblages in the different leaves were in this order: live leaves > newly shed leaves > bleached portions > nonbleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. The fungal assemblages were similar in newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. Ligninolytic fungi of the genera Coccomyces, Lophodermium and Xylaria were frequently detected in the bleached portions. OTU3, identified as Coccomyces sinensis, was detected in live and newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves, suggesting that this fungus latently infects live leaves, persists after leaf fall and takes part in lignin decomposition.

  4. Traversing the fungal terpenome

    PubMed Central

    Quin, Maureen B.; Flynn, Christopher M.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are prolific producers of structurally diverse terpenoid compounds. Classes of terpenoids identified in fungi include the sesqui-, di- and triterpenoids. Biosynthetic pathways and enzymes to terpenoids from each of these classes have been described. These typically involve the scaffold generating terpene synthases and cyclases, and scaffold tailoring enzymes such as e.g. cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, NAD(P)+ and flavin dependent oxidoreductases, and various group transferases that generate the final bioactive structures. The biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins and bioactive diterpenoids has been well-studied in Ascomycota (e.g. filamentous fungi). Little is known about the terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in Basidiomycota (e.g. mushroom forming fungi), although they produce a huge diversity of terpenoid natural products. Specifically, many trans-humulyl cation derived sesquiterpenoid natural products with potent bioactivities have been isolated. Biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the production of trans-humulyl cation derived protoilludanes, and other sesquiterpenoids, can be rapidly identified by genome sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Genome mining combined with heterologous biosynthetic pathway refactoring has the potential to facilitate discovery and production of pharmaceutically relevant fungal terpenoids. PMID:25171145

  5. Seasonal Succession of Fungi Associated with Ips typographus Beetles and Their Phoretic Mites in an Outbreak Region of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Mahilainen, Saila; Harrington, Alison; Vanhanen, Henri; Eriksson, Miikka; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Pappinen, Ari; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The ophiostomatoid fungi (Microascales and Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are common associates of Ips typographus, and include tree pathogens and species responsible for blue-stain of timber. Fungal assemblages associated with I. typographus have varied considerably between studies but few investigations have attempted to explain this variation. For this reason, we assessed the overall cultivable fungal diversity associated with I. typographus in a storm-felled spruce forest in south-eastern Finland. Fungi were isolated from the individually collected beetles as well as their phoretic mites in spring, summer and autumn, including different life stages of the beetle (hibernation, dispersal flight and first generation). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify the fungi. A total of 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found and these resided in four fungal phyla/subphyla (24 Ascomycota, 2 Basidiomycota, 5 Mucoromycotina, 1 Mortierellomycotina) in association with adult bark beetles. Ophiostomatoid species were the most commonly detected fungal associates. A generalized linear model analysis showed a clear association between fungal communities and season, indicating seasonal succession among I. typographus-associated fungi. The season of sampling appears to be an important factor that has resulted in inconsistencies between results in previous studies. Many of these fungi were also found on phoretic mites and their presence or absence could have influenced variation in patterns of association. PMID:27187192

  6. Molecular analysis of fungal diversity associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Xiang, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-09-01

    The fungal communities associated with three bryophytes species (the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata) in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, were studied using clone library analysis. Fungal communities showed low diversity; the 680 clones belonged to 93 OTUs. Of these, 78 belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, 13 to the phylum Basidiomycota, 1 to the phylum Zygomycota, and 1 to an unknown phylum. Among the OTUs, the most common orders in the Ascomycota were Helotiales (42 OTUs) and Chaetothyriales (14 OTUs) and the most common orders in the Basidiomycota were Sebacinales (3 OTUs) and Platygloeales (3 OTUs). Most OTUs clustered within clades that contained phylotypes identified from samples in Antarctic or Arctic ecosystems or from bryophytes in other ecosystems. In addition, we found that host-related factor may shape the fungal communities associated with bryophytes in this region. This is the first systematic study of the fungal community in Antarctic bryophytes to be performed using culture-independent method and the results may improve understanding of the endophytic fungal evolution and ecology in the Antarctic ecosystem.

  7. Fungal communities from the calcareous deep-sea sediments in the Southwest India Ridge revealed by Illumina sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Huang, Yangchao; Yang, Lixiang

    2016-05-01

    The diversity and ecological significance of bacteria and archaea in deep-sea environments have been thoroughly investigated, but eukaryotic microorganisms in these areas, such as fungi, are poorly understood. To elucidate fungal diversity in calcareous deep-sea sediments in the Southwest India Ridge (SWIR), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes from two sediment metagenomic DNA samples were amplified and sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform. The results revealed that 58-63 % and 36-42 % of the ITS sequences (97 % similarity) belonged to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, respectively. These findings suggest that Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are the predominant fungal phyla in the two samples. We also found that Agaricomycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Pezizomycetes were the major fungal classes in the two samples. At the species level, Thelephoraceae sp. and Phialocephala fortinii were major fungal species in the two samples. Despite the low relative abundance, unidentified fungal sequences were also observed in the two samples. Furthermore, we found that there were slight differences in fungal diversity between the two sediment samples, although both were collected from the SWIR. Thus, our results demonstrate that calcareous deep-sea sediments in the SWIR harbor diverse fungi, which augment the fungal groups in deep-sea sediments. This is the first report of fungal communities in calcareous deep-sea sediments in the SWIR revealed by Illumina sequencing.

  8. The soil carbon/nitrogen ratio and moisture affect microbial community structures in alkaline permafrost-affected soils with different vegetation types on the Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfang; Xu, Shijian; Li, Changming; Zhao, Lin; Feng, Huyuan; Yue, Guangyang; Ren, Zhengwei; Cheng, Guogdong

    2014-01-01

    In the Tibetan permafrost region, vegetation types and soil properties have been affected by permafrost degradation, but little is known about the corresponding patterns of their soil microbial communities. Thus, we analyzed the effects of vegetation types and their covariant soil properties on bacterial and fungal community structure and membership and bacterial community-level physiological patterns. Pyrosequencing and Biolog EcoPlates were used to analyze 19 permafrost-affected soil samples from four principal vegetation types: swamp meadow (SM), meadow (M), steppe (S) and desert steppe (DS). Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated bacterial communities and the main fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycotina. The ratios of Proteobacteria/Acidobacteria decreased in the order: SM>M>S>DS, whereas the Ascomycota/Basidiomycota ratios increased. The distributions of carbon and nitrogen cycling bacterial genera detected were related to soil properties. The bacterial communities in SM/M soils degraded amines/amino acids very rapidly, while polymers were degraded rapidly by S/DS communities. UniFrac analysis of bacterial communities detected differences among vegetation types. The fungal UniFrac community patterns of SM differed from the others. Redundancy analysis showed that the carbon/nitrogen ratio had the main effect on bacteria community structures and their diversity in alkaline soil, whereas soil moisture was mainly responsible for structuring fungal communities. Thus, microbial communities and their functioning are probably affected by soil environmental change in response to permafrost degradation.

  9. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Fungal Communities in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic): Aquatic Fungi in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the diversity and distribution of fungi in 13 water samples collected from four aquatic environments (stream, pond, melting ice water, and estuary) in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Aquatic fungal communities in this region showed high diversity, with a total of 43,061 reads belonging to 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 200 belonged to Ascomycota, 196 to Chytridiomycota, 120 to Basidiomycota, 13 to Glomeromycota, and 10 to early diverging fungal lineages (traditional Zygomycota), whereas 102 belonged to unknown fungi. The major orders were Helotiales, Eurotiales, and Pleosporales in Ascomycota; Chytridiales and Rhizophydiales in Chytridiomycota; and Leucosporidiales and Sporidiobolales in Basidiomycota. The common fungal genera Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Epicoccum, Glaciozyma, Holtermanniella, Betamyces, and Phoma were identified. Interestingly, the four aquatic environments in this region harbored different aquatic fungal communities. Salinity, conductivity, and temperature were important factors in determining the aquatic fungal diversity and community composition. The results suggest the presence of diverse fungal communities and a considerable number of potentially novel fungal species in Arctic aquatic environments, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological and evolutionary responses of fungi to climate change in the Arctic ecosystem.

  10. Employing 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to reveal intragenomic divergence in the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region in fungi.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Daniel L; Carlsen, Tor; Henrik Nilsson, R; Davey, Marie; Schumacher, Trond; Kauserud, Håvard

    2013-06-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been accepted as a DNA barcoding marker for fungi and is widely used in phylogenetic studies; however, intragenomic ITS variability has been observed in a broad range of taxa, including prokaryotes, plants, animals, and fungi, and this variability has the potential to inflate species richness estimates in molecular investigations of environmental samples. In this study 454 amplicon pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region was applied to 99 phylogenetically diverse axenic single-spore cultures of fungi (Dikarya: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) to investigate levels of intragenomic variation. Three species (one Basidiomycota and two Ascomycota), in addition to a positive control species known to contain ITS paralogs, displayed levels of molecular variation indicative of intragenomic variation; taxon inflation due to presumed intragenomic variation was ≈9%. Intragenomic variability in the ITS region appears to be widespread but relatively rare in fungi (≈3-5% of species investigated in this study), suggesting this problem may have minor impacts on species richness estimates relative to PCR and/or pyrosequencing errors. Our results indicate that 454 amplicon pyrosequencing represents a powerful tool for investigating levels of ITS intragenomic variability across taxa, which may be valuable for better understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying concerted evolution of repetitive DNA regions.

  11. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, A. M.; Artaxo, P. E.; Ishida, F. Y.; Mueller, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  12. Survey of Microbial Diversity in Flood Areas during Thailand 2011 Flood Crisis Using High-Throughput Tagged Amplicon Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Wongwilaiwalin, Sarunyou; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Pattaragulwanit, Kobchai; Punmatharith, Thantip; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak; Rachakornkij, Manaskorn; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-01-01

    The Thailand flood crisis in 2011 was one of the largest recorded floods in modern history, causing enormous damage to the economy and ecological habitats of the country. In this study, bacterial and fungal diversity in sediments and waters collected from ten flood areas in Bangkok and its suburbs, covering residential and agricultural areas, were analyzed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences. Analysis of microbial community showed differences in taxa distribution in water and sediment with variations in the diversity of saprophytic microbes and sulfate/nitrate reducers among sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial activity in the habitats. Overall, Proteobacteria represented a major bacterial group in waters, while this group co-existed with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in sediments. Anaeromyxobacter, Steroidobacter, and Geobacter were the dominant bacterial genera in sediments, while Sulfuricurvum, Thiovirga, and Hydrogenophaga predominated in waters. For fungi in sediments, Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, and Basidiomycota, particularly in genera Philipsia, Rozella, and Acaulospora, were most frequently detected. Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were the major fungal phyla, and Rhizophlyctis and Mortierella were the most frequently detected fungal genera in water. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, related to odor problems, was further investigated using analysis of the dsrB gene which indicated the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria of families Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrobacteraceae, and Desulfoarculaceae in the flood sediments. The work provides an insight into the diversity and function of microbes related to biological processes in flood areas. PMID:26020967

  13. High fungal diversity and abundance recovered in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Pang, Ka-Lai; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge about the presence and ecological significance of bacteria and archaea in the deep-sea environments has been well recognized, but the eukaryotic microorganisms, such as fungi, have rarely been reported. The present study investigated the composition and abundance of fungal community in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean. In this study, a total of 1,947 internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA gene clones were recovered from five sediment samples at the Pacific Ocean (water depths ranging from 5,017 to 6,986 m) using three different PCR primer sets. There were 16, 17, and 15 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from fungal-universal, Ascomycota-, and Basidiomycota-specific clone libraries, respectively. Majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of Ascomycota (25 phylotypes) and Basidiomycota (18 phylotypes). The multiple primer approach totally recovered 27 phylotypes which showed low similarities (≤97 %) with available fungal sequences in the GenBank, suggesting possible new fungal taxa occurring in the deep-sea environments or belonging to taxa not represented in the GenBank. Our results also recovered high fungal LSU rRNA gene copy numbers (3.52 × 10(6) to 5.23 × 10(7)copies/g wet sediment) from the Pacific Ocean sediment samples, suggesting that the fungi might be involved in important ecological functions in the deep-sea environments.

  14. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as “DongChong XiaCao”, is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats. PMID:27625176

  15. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-09-14

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as "DongChong XiaCao", is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats.

  16. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Dennis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka,

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  17. Widespread occurrence and phylogenetic placement of a soil clone group adds a prominant new branch to the fungal tree of life

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Terri M.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Rizvi, L; Martin, Andrew P.; Schmidt, Steven K.; Scott-Denton, Laura; Vilgalys, Rytas; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Fungi are one of the most diverse groups of Eukarya and play essential roles in terrestrial ecosystems as decomposers, pathogens and mutualists. This study unifies disparate reports of unclassified fungal sequences from soils of diverse origins and anchors many of them in a well-supported clade of the Ascomycota equivalent to a subphylum. We refer to this clade as Soil Clone Group I (SCGI). We expand the breadth of environments surveyed and develop a taxon-specific primer to amplify 2.4 kbp rDNA fragments directly from soil. Our results also expand the known range of this group from North America to Europe and Australia. The ancient origin of SCGI implies that it may represent an important transitional form among the basal Ascomycota groups. SCGI is unusual because it currently represents the only major fungal lineage known only from sequence data. This is an important contribution towards building a more complete fungal phylogeny and highlights the need for further work to determine the function and biology of SCGI taxa.

  18. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveal Divergent Lifestyle Features of Nematode Endoparasitic Fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yiling; Liu, Keke; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Wang, Niuniu; Shu, Chi; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Chengshu; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Hirsutella minnesotensis [Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)] is a dominant endoparasitic fungus by using conidia that adhere to and penetrate the secondary stage juveniles of soybean cyst nematode. Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota). The genome of H. minnesotensis is 51.4 Mb and encodes 12,702 genes enriched with transposable elements up to 32%. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that H. minnesotensis was diverged from entomopathogenic fungi in Hypocreales. Genome of H. minnesotensis is similar to those of entomopathogenic fungi to have fewer genes encoding lectins for adhesion and glycoside hydrolases for cellulose degradation, but is different from those of nematode-trapping fungi to possess more genes for protein degradation, signal transduction, and secondary metabolism. Those results indicate that H. minnesotensis has evolved different mechanism for nematode endoparasitism compared with nematode-trapping fungi. Transcriptomics analyses for the time-scale parasitism revealed the upregulations of lectins, secreted proteases and the genes for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites that could be putatively involved in host surface adhesion, cuticle degradation, and host manipulation. Genome and transcriptome analyses provided comprehensive understanding of the evolution and lifestyle of nematode endoparasitism. PMID:25359922

  19. Survey of Microbial Diversity in Flood Areas during Thailand 2011 Flood Crisis Using High-Throughput Tagged Amplicon Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Wongwilaiwalin, Sarunyou; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Pattaragulwanit, Kobchai; Punmatharith, Thantip; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak; Rachakornkij, Manaskorn; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-01-01

    The Thailand flood crisis in 2011 was one of the largest recorded floods in modern history, causing enormous damage to the economy and ecological habitats of the country. In this study, bacterial and fungal diversity in sediments and waters collected from ten flood areas in Bangkok and its suburbs, covering residential and agricultural areas, were analyzed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences. Analysis of microbial community showed differences in taxa distribution in water and sediment with variations in the diversity of saprophytic microbes and sulfate/nitrate reducers among sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial activity in the habitats. Overall, Proteobacteria represented a major bacterial group in waters, while this group co-existed with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in sediments. Anaeromyxobacter, Steroidobacter, and Geobacter were the dominant bacterial genera in sediments, while Sulfuricurvum, Thiovirga, and Hydrogenophaga predominated in waters. For fungi in sediments, Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, and Basidiomycota, particularly in genera Philipsia, Rozella, and Acaulospora, were most frequently detected. Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were the major fungal phyla, and Rhizophlyctis and Mortierella were the most frequently detected fungal genera in water. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, related to odor problems, was further investigated using analysis of the dsrB gene which indicated the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria of families Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrobacteraceae, and Desulfoarculaceae in the flood sediments. The work provides an insight into the diversity and function of microbes related to biological processes in flood areas.

  20. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  1. Contrasting land uses in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral systems generated patchy diversity patterns of vascular plants and below-ground microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bagella, Simonetta; Filigheddu, Rossella; Caria, Maria Carmela; Girlanda, Mariangela; Roggero, Pier Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this paper were (i) to define how contrasting land uses affected plant biodiversity in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral-systems across a gradient of disturbance regimes: cork oak forests, secondary grasslands, hay crops, grass covered vineyards, tilled vineyards; (ii) to determine whether these patterns mirrored those of below-ground microorganisms and whether the components of γ-diversity followed a similar model. The disturbance regimes affected plant assemblage composition. Species richness decreased with increasing land use intensity, the Shannon index showed the highest values in grasslands and hay crops. Plant assemblage composition patterns mirrored those of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Richness in Basidiomycota, denitrifying bacteria and microbial biomass showed the same trend as that observed for vascular plant richness. The Shannon index pattern of below-ground microorganisms was different from that of plants. The plant γ-diversity component model weakly mirrored those of Ascomycota. Patchy diversity patterns suggest that the maintenance of contrasting land uses associated with different productions typical of agro-silvo-pastoral-systems can guarantee the conservation of biodiversity.

  2. Fungal communities in soils along a vegetative ecotone.

    PubMed

    Karst, Justine; Piculell, Bridget; Brigham, Christy; Booth, Michael; Hoeksema, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the community composition and diversity of soil fungi along a sharp vegetative ecotone between coastal sage scrub (CSS) and nonnative annual grassland habitat at two sites in coastal California. USA- We pooled soil samples across 29 m transects on either side of the ecotone at each of the two sites, and. using clone libraries of fungal ribosomal DNA, we identified 280 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from a total 40 g soil. We combined information from partial LSU and ITS sequences and found that the majority of OTUs belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota. Within the Ascomycota. a quarter of OTUs were Sordariomycetes. 17% were Leotiomycet.es, 16% were Dothideomycetes and the remaining OTUs were distributed among the classes Eurotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Orbiliomycetes and Arthoniomycetes. Within the Basidiomycota. all OTUs but one belonged to the subphylum Agaricomycotina. We also sampled plant communities at the same sites to offer a point of comparison for patterns in richness of fungal communities. Fungal communities had higher alpha and beta diversity than plant communities; fungal communities were approximately 20 times as rich as plant communities and the majority of OTUs were found in single soil samples. Soils harbored a unique mycoflora that did not reveal vegetative boundaries or site differences. High alpha and beta diversity and possible sampling artifacts necessitate extensive sampling to reveal differentiation in these fungal communities.

  3. Employing 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to reveal intragenomic divergence in the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Daniel L; Carlsen, Tor; Henrik Nilsson, R; Davey, Marie; Schumacher, Trond; Kauserud, Håvard

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been accepted as a DNA barcoding marker for fungi and is widely used in phylogenetic studies; however, intragenomic ITS variability has been observed in a broad range of taxa, including prokaryotes, plants, animals, and fungi, and this variability has the potential to inflate species richness estimates in molecular investigations of environmental samples. In this study 454 amplicon pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region was applied to 99 phylogenetically diverse axenic single-spore cultures of fungi (Dikarya: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) to investigate levels of intragenomic variation. Three species (one Basidiomycota and two Ascomycota), in addition to a positive control species known to contain ITS paralogs, displayed levels of molecular variation indicative of intragenomic variation; taxon inflation due to presumed intragenomic variation was ≈9%. Intragenomic variability in the ITS region appears to be widespread but relatively rare in fungi (≈3–5% of species investigated in this study), suggesting this problem may have minor impacts on species richness estimates relative to PCR and/or pyrosequencing errors. Our results indicate that 454 amplicon pyrosequencing represents a powerful tool for investigating levels of ITS intragenomic variability across taxa, which may be valuable for better understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying concerted evolution of repetitive DNA regions. PMID:23789083

  4. Effect of water activity on the production of volatile organic compounds by Muscodor albus and their effect on three pathogens in stored potato.

    PubMed

    Corcuff, Ronan; Mercier, Julien; Tweddell, Russell; Arul, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    Muscodor albus (Xylariaceae, Ascomycetes) isolate CZ-620 produces antimicrobial volatile organic compounds (VOC), which appear to have potential for the control of various postharvest diseases. The effect of water activity (Aw) on the production of VOC by M. albus culture, and their inhibitory effects on the growth of three pathogens of potato tuber (Fusarium sambucinum, Helminthosporium solani, and Pectobacterium atrosepticum) and the development of diseases caused by the three pathogens (dry rot, silver scurf, and bacterial soft rot, respectively) were investigated. Rye grain culture of the fungus produced six alcohols, three aldehydes, five acids or esters, and two terpenoids. The most abundant VOC were: isobutyric acid; bulnesene, a sesquiterpene; an unidentified terpene; 2 and 3-methyl-1-butanol; and ethanol. However, the level of each of those VOC varied with Aw of the culture. Emission activity occurred mainly at Aw above 0.75 and high emission of most VOC occurred only at Aw above 0.90. The aldehydes (2-methyl-propanal and 3-methyl-butanal) were the only VOC produced in quantities below an Aw of 0.90. An Aw value of 0.96 favored maximum emission of acids, esters, and terpenoids. There was a higher production of alcohols and a decrease in aldehydes with increase in Aw. Isobutyric acid, which has been the main M. albus VOC monitored in previous studies as an indicator of antifungal activity, had a rather narrow optimum, peaking at Aw of 0.96 and declining sharply above 0.98. Results showed that substrate Aw affects the production dynamics of each group of VOC by the fungus, and suggest that VOC production can be prolonged by maintaining M. albus culture at a constant optimum Aw. The VOC was inhibitory to F. sambucinum, H. solani, and P. atrosepticum; and biofumigation with M. albus significantly reduced dry rot and soft rot development, and completely controlled silver scurf in inoculated tubers incubated at both 8°C and 22°C. The results show that Aw

  5. Molecular evolution of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase in fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Urea amidolyase breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide in a two-step process, while another enzyme, urease, does this in a one step-process. Urea amidolyase has been found only in some fungal species among eukaryotes. It contains two major domains: the amidase and urea carboxylase domains. A shorter form of urea amidolyase is known as urea carboxylase and has no amidase domain. Eukaryotic urea carboxylase has been found only in several fungal species and green algae. In order to elucidate the evolutionary origin of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase, we studied the distribution of urea amidolyase, urea carboxylase, as well as other proteins including urease, across kingdoms. Results Among the 64 fungal species we examined, only those in two Ascomycota classes (Sordariomycetes and Saccharomycetes) had the urea amidolyase sequences. Urea carboxylase was found in many but not all of the species in the phylum Basidiomycota and in the subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota). It was completely absent from the class Saccharomycetes (phylum Ascomycota; subphylum Saccharomycotina). Four Sordariomycetes species we examined had both the urea carboxylase and the urea amidolyase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two enzymes appeared to have gone through independent evolution since their bacterial origin. The amidase domain and the urea carboxylase domain sequences from fungal urea amidolyases clustered strongly together with the amidase and urea carboxylase sequences, respectively, from a small number of beta- and gammaproteobacteria. On the other hand, fungal urea carboxylase proteins clustered together with another copy of urea carboxylases distributed broadly among bacteria. The urease proteins were found in all the fungal species examined except for those of the subphylum Saccharomycotina. Conclusions We conclude that the urea amidolyase genes currently found only in fungi are the results of a horizontal gene transfer event from

  6. Geomyces and Pseudogymnoascus: Emergence of a primary pathogen, the causative agent of bat white-nose syndrome: Chapter 28

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verant, Michelle L.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Blehert, David

    2017-01-01

    Geomyces and Pseudogymnoascus (Fungi, Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes, aff. Thelebolales) are closely related groups of globally occurring soil-associated fungi. Recently, these genera of fungi have received attention because a newly identified species, Pseudogymnoascus (initially classified as Geomyces) destructans, was discovered in association with significant and unusual mortality of hibernating bats in North America (Blehert et al. 2009; Gargas et al. 2009; Minnis and Linder 2013). This emergent disease called bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), has since caused drastic declines in populations of hibernating bats in the United States and Canada (Turner, Reeder, and Coleman 2011; Thogmartin et al. 2012) and threatens some species with regional extinction (Frick et al. 2010; Langwig et al. 2012; Thogmartin et al. 2013). As primary predators of insects and keystone species for cave ecosystems, the loss of bats due to WNS has important economic and ecological implications.

  7. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines). All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine). Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes. PMID:25513893

  8. Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. PMID:25401065

  9. Fungi on the Skin: Dermatophytes and Malassezia

    PubMed Central

    White, Theodore C.; Findley, Keisha; Dawson, Thomas L.; Scheynius, Annika; Boekhout, Teun; Cuomo, Christina A.; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Several human skin diseases and disorders are associated with two groups of fungi, the dermatophytes and Malassezia. Although these skin-related problems are not generally life threatening, they are among the most common diseases and disorders of mankind. These fungi are phylogenetically divergent, with the dermatophytes within the Ascomycota and Malassezia within Basidiomycota. Genome analysis indicates that the adaptations to the skin environment are different in these two groups of fungi. Malassezia are dependent on host lipids and secrete lipases and phospholipases that likely release host fatty acids. The dermatophytes encode multiple enzymes with potential roles in modulating host interactions: polyketide synthases, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, LysM, proteases, kinases, and pseudokinases. These two fungal groups have maximized their interactions with the host using two very different mechanisms. PMID:25085959

  10. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  11. Potential of non-ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2015-12-25

    In previous decades, white-rot fungi as bioremediation agents have been the subjects of scientific research due to the potential use of their unspecific oxidative enzymes. However, some non-white-rot fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycota and Zygomycota phylum, have demonstrated their potential in the enzymatic transformation of environmental pollutants, thus overcoming some of the limitations observed in white-rot fungi with respect to growth in neutral pH, resistance to adverse conditions and the capacity to surpass autochthonous microorganisms. Despite their presence in so many soil and water environments, little information exists on the enzymatic mechanisms and degradation pathways involved in the transformation of hydrocarbons by these fungi. This review describes the bioremediation potential of non-ligninolytic fungi with respect to chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also shows known conversion pathways and the prospects for future research.

  12. Lichensphere: a protected natural microhabitat of the non-lichenised fungal communities living in extreme environments of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Iara F; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed the diversity, distribution and ecology of non-lichenised fungal communities associated with the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra across Antarctica. The phylogenetic study of the 438 fungi isolates identified 74 taxa from 21 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The most abundant taxa were Pseudogymnoascus sp., Thelebolus sp., Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus and Cryptococcus victoriae, which are considered endemic and/or highly adapted to Antarctica. Thirty-five fungi may represent new and/or endemic species. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, the similarity among the communities was variable. After discovering rich and diverse fungal communities composed of symbionts, decomposers, parasites and endemic and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, we introduced the term "lichensphere". We hypothesised that the lichensphere may represent a protected natural microhabitat with favourable conditions able to help non-lichenised fungi and other Antarctic life forms survive and disperse in the extreme environments of Antarctica.

  13. Endophytic Fungal Communities Associated with Vascular Plants in the High Arctic Zone Are Highly Diverse and Host-Plant Specific

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Yao, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of endophytic fungal communities associated with the leaves and stems of four vascular plant species in the High Arctic using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the ITS region. Endophytic fungal communities showed high diversity. The 76,691 sequences obtained belonged to 250 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 190 belonged to Ascomycota, 50 to Basidiomycota, 1 to Chytridiomycota, and 9 to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Pleosporales, Capnodiales, and Tremellales, whereas the common known fungal genera were Cryptococcus, Rhizosphaera, Mycopappus, Melampsora, Tetracladium, Phaeosphaeria, Mrakia, Venturia, and Leptosphaeria. Both the climate and host-related factors might shape the fungal communities associated with the four Arctic plant species in this region. These results suggested the presence of an interesting endophytic fungal community and could improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26067836

  14. DNA barcoding in Mexico: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Elías-Gutiérrez, M; León-Regagnon, V

    2013-11-01

    DNA barcoding has become an important current scientific trend to the understanding of the world biodiversity. In the case of mega-diverse hot spots like Mexico, this technique represents an important tool for taxonomists, allowing them to concentrate in highlighted species by the barcodes instead of analyzing entire sets of specimens. This tendency resulted in the creation of a national network named Mexican Barcode of Life (MEXBOL) which main goals are to train students, and to promote the interaction and collective work among researchers interested in this topic. As a result, the number of records in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) for some groups, such as the Mammalia, Actinopterygii, Polychaeta, Branchiopoda, Ostracoda, Maxillopoda, Nematoda, Pinophyta, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota place Mexico among the top ten countries in the generation of these data. This special number presents only few of the many interesting findings in this region of the world, after the use of this technique and its integration with other methodologies.

  15. Vector affinity and diversity of Geosmithia fungi living on subcortical insects inhabiting Pinaceae species in central and northeastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Jankowiak, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Fungi from the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), though little is known about ecology, diversity, and distribution of these fungi across beetle and its host tree species. This study surveyed the diversity, distribution and vector affinity of Geosmithia isolated from subcortical insects that colonized trees from the family Pinaceae in Central and Northeastern Europe. Twelve Geosmithia species were isolated from 85 plant samples associated with 23 subcortical insect species (including 14 bark beetle species). Geosmithia community composition was similar across different localities and vector species; although the fungal communities associated with insects that colonized Pinus differed from that colonizing other tree species (Abies, Larix, and Picea). Ten Geosmithia species from four independent phylogenetic lineages were not reported previously from vectors feeding on other plant families and seem to be restricted to the vectors from Pinaceae only. We conclude that presence of such substrate specificity suggests a long and stable association between Geosmithia and bark beetles.

  16. First record of Talaromyces udagawae in soil related to decomposing human remains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, María C; Centeno, Néstor D; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N

    2016-01-01

    The morphologic features of Talaromyces udagawae Stolk and Samson are here described and illustrated. This teleomorphic Ascomycota fungus was isolated from soil obtained in Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from beneath a human cadaver in an advanced state of decomposition. After washing and serial dilution of the soil along with moist-chamber techniques for fungal cultivation, T. udagawae formed very restricted colonies of bright yellow color on different growth media with 8-ascospored asci. The ascospores were ellipsoidal and ornamented. The anamorphic state was not observed. Molecular-genetic techniques identified the species. The present record is the first of the species in Argentina, pointing it as a tool to identify soils where cadaver decomposition occurs.

  17. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Taraxacum coreanum and Their Antifungal Activity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Kim, Won Ki; Woo, Sung Kyoon; Park, Myung Soo; Yu, Seung Hun

    2006-12-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaf and root samples of Taraxacum coreanum. Of the 72 isolates recovered, 39 were from leaves and 33 from roots with an isolation frequency of 54% and 46%, respectively. Based on ITS sequence analysis, 72 isolates were classified into 19 genera of which 17 were under the phylum Ascomycota and 2 were under Basidiomycota. Diverse genera were found and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Phoma were dominant. Out of 19 genera, Apodus, Ceriporia, Dothideales, Leptodontidium, Nemania, Neoplaconema, Phaeosphaeria, Plectosphaerella and Terfezia were new to Korea. Seventy two isolates were screened for antifungal activity, of which 10 isolates (14%) were found active at least against one of the tested fungi. Isolate 050603 had the widest antifungal spectra of activity, and isolates 050592 and 050611 were active against three plant pathogenic fungi.

  18. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 μm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. PMID:19617562

  19. Fungal regulatory evolution: cis and trans in the balance

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Dawn Anne; Regev, Aviv

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory divergence is likely a major driving force in evolution. Comparative genomics is being increasingly used to infer the evolution of gene regulation. Ascomycota fungi are uniquely suited among eukaryotes for regulatory evolution studies, due to broad phylogenetic scope, many sequenced genomes, and tractability of genomic analysis. Here we review recent advances in the identification of the contribution of cis and trans factors to expression divergence. Whereas current strategies have led to the discovery of surprising signatures and mechanisms, we still understand very little about the adaptive role of regulatory evolution. Empirical studies including experimental evolution, comparative functional genomics and hybrid and engineered strains are showing early promise toward deciphering the contribution of regulatory divergence to adaptation. PMID:19914250

  20. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tonouchi, Akio

    2009-01-01

    A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. PMID:20148171

  1. Subaerial biofilms on granitic historic buildings: microbial diversity and development of phototrophic multi-species cultures.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nion, D; Rodríguez-Castro, J; López-Rodríguez, M C; Fernández-Silva, I; Prieto, B

    2016-07-01

    Microbial communities of natural subaerial biofilms developed on granitic historic buildings of a World Heritage Site (Santiago de Compostela, NW Spain) were characterized and cultured in liquid BG11 medium. Environmental barcoding through next-generation sequencing (Pacific Biosciences) revealed that the biofilms were mainly composed of species of Chlorophyta (green algae) and Ascomycota (fungi) commonly associated with rock substrata. Richness and diversity were higher for the fungal than for the algal assemblages and fungi showed higher heterogeneity among samples. Cultures derived from natural biofilms showed the establishment of stable microbial communities mainly composed of Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. Although most taxa found in these cultures were not common in the original biofilms, they are likely common pioneer colonizers of building stone surfaces, including granite. Stable phototrophic multi-species cultures of known microbial diversity were thus obtained and their reliability to emulate natural colonization on granite should be confirmed in further experiments.

  2. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  3. Antimicrobial dihydrobenzofurans and xanthenes from a foliar endophyte of Pinus strobus.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Susan N; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Walker, Allison K; McMullin, David R; Miller, J David

    2015-09-01

    Foliar fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) were collected from different sites across south-eastern New Brunswick, Canada and screened for the production of bioactive metabolites. From one site, two fungal isolates representing a formerly unknown genus and species within the family Massarinaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were resolved by phylogenetic analysis. These isolates produced crude organic extracts that were active against Microbotryum violaceum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From these strains, DAOM 242779 and 242780, four dihydrobenzofurans (1-4) and two xanthenes (5-6) were characterized. Structures were elucidated by HRMS, interpretation of NMR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. All isolated metabolites displayed antimicrobial activity against the biotrophic fungal pathogen M. violaceum and Bacillus subtilis.

  4. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26839503

  5. Liquid Culture Production of Fungal Microsclerotia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark A; Payne, Angela R

    2016-01-01

    Fungal microsclerotia ("small" sclerotia) are compact hyphal aggregates, typically 50-600 μm in diameter, that are formed under unfavorable nutritional and/or environmental conditions. These structures are often melanized and desiccated to some degree containing endogenous nutritional reserves for use when favorable conditions return. Many fungi, mostly plant pathogens, produce microsclerotia as a survival structure. Liquid culture methods have been developed for producing microsclerotia of the Ascomycota Metarhizium spp, Colletotrichum truncatum, Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, and Trichoderma spp. While these fungi have varying culture conditions that optimize microsclerotia production, all share common nutritional and environmental requirements for microsclerotia formation. Described are the general liquid culture techniques, media components, and harvesting and drying methods necessary to produce stable microsclerotial granules of these fungi.

  6. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J Bruce; Gillies, Laura A; Almada, Luis A G; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2013-09-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified.

  7. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335 UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385 IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

  8. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang; Li, You-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds.

  10. Cercosporoid fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) 3. Species on monocots (Poaceae, true grasses).

    PubMed

    Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Nakashima, Chiharu

    2015-06-01

    The third part of a series of monographic treatments of cercosporoid fungi (formerly Cercospora s. lat., Mycosphaerellaceae, Ascomycota) continues with a treatment of taxa on monocots (Liliopsida; Equisetopsida, Magnoliidae, Lilianae), covering asexual and holomorph species with mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs on true grasses (Poaceae), which were excluded from the second part. The species concerned are keyed out, alphabetically listed, described, illustrated and supplemented by references to previously published descriptions, illustrations, and exsiccatae. A key to the recognised genera and a discussion of taxonomically relevant characters was published in the first part of this series. Several species are lecto- or neotypified. The following taxonomic novelties are introduced: Cercospora barretoana comb. nov., C. cymbopogonicola nom. nov., Cladosporium elymi comb. nov., Passalora agrostidicola sp. nov., P. brachyelytri comb. nov., and P. dichanthii-annulati comb. nov.

  11. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division. PMID:26310442

  12. Geosmithia morbida sp. nov., a new phytopathogenic species living in symbiosis with the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) on Juglans in USA.

    PubMed

    Kolarík, Miroslav; Freeland, Emily; Utley, Curtis; Tisserat, Ned

    2011-01-01

    Widespread morbidity and mortality of Juglans nigra has occurred in the western USA over the past decade. Tree mortality is the result of aggressive feeding by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) and subsequent canker development around beetle galleries caused by a filamentous ascomycete in genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). Thirty-seven Geosmithia strains collected from J. californica, J. hindsii, J. major and J. nigra in seven USA states (AZ, CA, CO, ID, OR, UT, WA) were compared with morphological and molecular methods (ITS rDNA sequences). Strains had common characteristics including yellowish conidia en masse, growth at 37 C and absence of growth on Czapek-Dox agar and belonged to a single species described here as G. morbida. Whereas Geosmithia are common saprobes associated with bark beetles attacking hardwoods and conifers worldwide, G. morbida is the first species documented as a plant pathogen.

  13. Zombie bugs? The fungus Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum may manipulate the behavior of its host bug Edessa rufomarginata.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, William; Pacheco-Esquivel, Jessica; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah; Christopher, Yuliana; Gonzalez, Cely; Ramos, Daniel; Urbina, Hector; Blackwell, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Just before dying, Edessa rufomarginata (Hemiptera, Pentotomidae) individuals that are infected with the fungus Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum (Ascomycota: Ophiocordycipitaceae) move from the leaves onto the stems of their Solanum sp. host and firmly grasp the stems in ways seldom employed by uninfected bugs. These alterations in host behavior probably improve the chances that the subsequently produced fungal spores will be dispersed aerially. Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum is a member of the Ophiocordycipitaceae, a group in which other species also modify the behavior of their hosts. As in the case of newly distinguished relatives of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis associated with "zombie ants" the discovery of P. cf. lilacinum infecting bugs reveals that P. lilacinum may be more diverse than previously appreciated.

  14. Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: A keystone species for unraveling ecosystem functioning and biodiversity of fungi in tropical forests?

    PubMed

    Evans, Harry C; Elliot, Simon L; Hughes, David P

    2011-09-01

    Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is a specialized parasite that infects, manipulates and kills formicine ants, predominantly in tropical forest ecosystems. We have reported previously, based on a preliminary study in remnant Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais (Brazil), that O. unilateralis represents a species complex. On each of the four species of infected carpenter ant (Camponotus) collected, the fungus-characterized macroscopically by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region on which the sexual structures (stromatal plates) are borne laterally-can readily be distinguished both microscopically and functionally. Here, we describe and discuss the biology, life cycle and infection strategies of O. unilateralis s.l. and hypothesize that there may be hundreds of species within the complex parasitizing formicine ants worldwide. We then address the diversity within related hypocrealean fungi, with particular reference to symbionts (mutualists through to parasites), and argue that the widely-quoted total of extant fungi (1.5 million species) may be grossly underestimated.

  15. Structural and functional characterization of the GalNAc/Gal-specific lectin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

    PubMed

    Candy, Laure; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Menu-Bouaouiche, Laurence; Erard, Monique; Rougé, Pierre

    2003-08-22

    The lectin found in mycelium and sclerotes of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a homodimer consisting of two identical non-covalently bound subunits of 16,000 Da. CD spectra analysis revealed that the S. sclerotiorum agglutinin (SSA) contains predominantly beta-sheet structures. SSA exhibits specificity towards GalNAc whereby the hydroxyls at positions 4 and 6 of the pyranose ring play a key role in the interaction with simple sugars. The carbohydrate-binding site of SSA can also accommodate disaccharides. The N-terminal sequence of SSA shares no significant similarity with any other protein except a lectin from the Sclerotiniaceae species Ciborinia camelliae. A comparison of SSA and the lectins from C. camelliae and some previously characterized lectins indicates that the Sclerotiniaceae lectins form a homogeneous family of fungal lectins. This newly identified lectin family, which is structurally unrelated to any other family of fungal lectins, is most probably confined to the Ascomycota.

  16. Biodiversity and succession of mycobiota associated to agricultural lignocellulosic waste-based composting.

    PubMed

    López-González, Juan Antonio; Vargas-García, María Del Carmen; López, María José; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Jurado, Macarena Del Mar; Moreno, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive characterization of the culturable mycobiota associated to all stages of lignocellulose-based composting was achieved. A total of 77 different isolates were detected, 69 of which were identified on the basis of the 5.8-ITS region sequencing. All the isolates were assigned to the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, with prevalence of the Sordariomycetes (19) and Eurotiomycetes (17) classes. Penicillium was the most represented genus (11 species), while the species Gibellulopsis nigrescens and Microascus brevicaulis were detected at all the composting stages and showed the highest relative abundances. Fungal diversity decreased as the process proceed, while similarity between fungal communities associated to different samples were maximal for those phases closely connected chronologically and showing similar biological activity degree. Thus, the structure of the lignocellulose-based composting mycobiota can be divided into two major stages corresponding to bio-oxidative phase and maturation phase together with the final product, with a transitional cooling stage joining both of them.

  17. Microbial specialists in below-grade foundation walls in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Nunez, M; Hammer, H

    2014-10-01

    Below-grade foundation walls are often exposed to excessive moisture by water infiltration, condensation, leakage, or lack of ventilation. Microbial growth in these structures depends largely on environmental factors, elapsed time, and the type of building materials and construction setup. The ecological preferences of Actinomycetes (Actinobacteria) and the molds Ascotricha chartarum, Myxotrichum chartarum (Ascomycota), Geomyces pannorum, and Monocillium sp. (Hyphomycetes) have been addressed based on analyses of 1764 samples collected in below-grade spaces during the period of 2001-2012. Our results show a significant correlation between these taxa and moist foundation walls as ecological niches. Substrate preference was the strongest predictor of taxa distribution within the wall, but the taxa's physiological needs, together with gradients of abiotic factors within the wall structure, also played a role. Our study describes for the first time how the wall environment affects microbial growth.

  18. Endophytic Fungal Communities Associated with Vascular Plants in the High Arctic Zone Are Highly Diverse and Host-Plant Specific.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Yao, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of endophytic fungal communities associated with the leaves and stems of four vascular plant species in the High Arctic using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the ITS region. Endophytic fungal communities showed high diversity. The 76,691 sequences obtained belonged to 250 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 190 belonged to Ascomycota, 50 to Basidiomycota, 1 to Chytridiomycota, and 9 to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Pleosporales, Capnodiales, and Tremellales, whereas the common known fungal genera were Cryptococcus, Rhizosphaera, Mycopappus, Melampsora, Tetracladium, Phaeosphaeria, Mrakia, Venturia, and Leptosphaeria. Both the climate and host-related factors might shape the fungal communities associated with the four Arctic plant species in this region. These results suggested the presence of an interesting endophytic fungal community and could improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystems.

  19. Distribution and Diversity of Planktonic Fungi in the West Pacific Warm Pool

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Singh, Purnima; Gao, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaobo; Johnson, Zackary I.; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    Fungi contribute substantially to biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine habitats by decomposing matter and recycling nutrients. Yet, the diversity of their planktonic forms in the open ocean is poorly described. In this study, culture-independent and molecular approaches were applied to investigate fungal diversity and abundance derived from samples collected from a broad swath of the Pacific Warm Pool across major environmental gradients Our results revealed that planktonic fungi were molecularly diverse and their diversity patterns were related to major phytoplankton taxa and various nutrients including nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate and silicic acid. Over 400 fungal phylotypes were recovered across this region and nearly half of them grouped into two major fungal lineages of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, whose abundance varied among stations. These results suggest that planktonic fungi are a diverse and integral component of the marine microbial community and should be included in future marine microbial ecosystem models. PMID:24992154

  20. Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Singh, Purnima; Liu, Ying; Pan, Shenquan; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment.

  1. Description and phylogenetic placement of Beauveria hoplocheli sp. nov. used in the biological control of the sugarcane white grub, Hoplochelus marginalis, on Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Jouen, Emmanuel; Pastou, Didier; Payet-Hoarau, Magali; Goble, Tarryn; Linderme, Daphné; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Calmès, Cédric; Reynaud, Bernard; Nibouche, Samuel; Costet, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    On Reunion Island successful biological control of the sugarcane white grub Hoplochelus marginalis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) has been conducted for decades with strains from the entomopathogenic fungal genus Beauveria (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). A study based on morphological characters combined with a multisequence phylogenetic analysis of genes that encode the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and the Bloc nuc intergenic region was carried out on Beauveria strains isolated on Reunion and Madagascar from H. marginalis. This study revealed that these strains, previously identified as Beauveria brongniartii, did not match that species and are closely related to but still distinct from B. malawiensis strains. Therefore we describe the Reunion Island fungus as the new species B. hoplocheli.

  2. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland.

    PubMed

    Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin; Miettinen, Hanna; Nyyssönen, Mari; Salavirta, Heikki; Vikman, Minna; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community.

  3. Human Fungal Pathogens of Mucorales and Entomophthorales

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Leonel; Vilela, Raquel; Voelz, Kerstin; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Voigt, Kerstin; Lee, Soo Chan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen an increase in the number of immunocompromised cohorts as a result of infections and/or medical conditions, which has resulted in an increased incidence of fungal infections. Although rare, the incidence of infections caused by fungi belonging to basal fungal lineages is also continuously increasing. Basal fungal lineages diverged at an early point during the evolution of the fungal lineage, in which, in a simplified four-phylum fungal kingdom, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota belong to the basal fungi, distinguishing them from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Currently there are no known human infections caused by fungi in Chytridiomycota; only Zygomycotan fungi are known to infect humans. Hence, infections caused by zygomycetes have been called zygomycosis, and the term “zygomycosis” is often used as a synonym for “mucormycosis.” In the four-phylum fungal kingdom system, Zygomycota is classified mainly based on morphology, including the ability to form coenocytic (aseptated) hyphae and zygospores (sexual spores). In the Zygomycota, there are 10 known orders, two of which, the Mucorales and Entomophthorales, contain species that can infect humans, and the infection has historically been known as zygomycosis. However, recent multilocus sequence typing analyses (the fungal tree of life [AFTOL] project) revealed that the Zygomycota forms not a monophyletic clade but instead a polyphyletic clade, whereas Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are monophyletic. Thus, the term “zygomycosis” needed to be further specified, resulting in the terms “mucormycosis” and “entomophthoramycosis.” This review covers these two different types of fungal infections. PMID:25377138

  4. Morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from contrasting locations in southern tropical India - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, Aswathy E.; Priyamvada, Hema; Ravikrishna, R.; Després, Viviane R.; Biju, C. V.; Sahu, Lokesh K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols, which are ubiquitous in the earth's atmosphere, are poorly characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Improved knowledge of their physical and chemical properties is essential to have a better understanding of their dispersion and long-range transport in the atmosphere and at the same time to assess their role as potential Ice Nuclei (IN). In the present work, possibly for the first time we report the morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from marine urban and high altitude continental regions in Southern India. The samples were collected using polycarbonate filter paper and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy-dispersive Spectra Detector (EDX/EDS). The observed bioaerosols exhibited great variability in their morphological features over this region of the world. At these contrasting environments, we found that fungal spores constituted the major fraction of the total observed bioaerosols. Pollen grains, plant and insect fragments, and lot of other non-identified bio-particles were also observed constituting the remaining fraction. Further, the classification of fungal spores exhibited strong variability over this region. For example, fungal spores of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota class were seen in abundance in marine environment, while Ascomycota especially Cladosporium were seen in abundance in high altitude continental environment. Our findings also suggest that increase in diversity of bioaerosol particles at marine site appeared to coincide with precipitation. It appears that vast diversity in the morphological features of bioaerosols exists over this region, which should further be studied using advanced online techniques for better quantification under contrasting environments. However, the diversity observed in morphological characteristics of bioaerosols at these two contrasting locations is limited and restricted to these two sites and season of the year, and should therefore

  5. Effects of hydrophobicity on the antifungal activity of α-helical antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ziqing; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Lee, Hein van der; Vasil, Adriana I.; Hale, John D.; Mant, Colin T.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Vasil, Michael L.; Netea, Mihai G.; Hodges, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    We utilized a series of analogs of D-V13K (a 26-residue amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptide, denoted D1) to compare and contrast the role of hydrophobicity on antifungal and antibacterial activity to the results obtained previously with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Antifungal activity for Zygomycota fungi decreased with increasing hydrophobicity (D-V13K/A12L/A20L/A23L, denoted D4, the most hydrophobic analog was 6-fold less active than D1, the least hydrophobic analog). In contrast, antifungal activity for Ascomycota fungi increased with increasing hydrophobicity (D4, the most hydrophobic analog was 5-fold more active than D1). Hemolytic activity is dramatically affected by increasing hydrophobicity with peptide D4 being 286-fold more hemolytic than peptide D1. The therapeutic index for peptide D1 is 1569-fold and 62-fold better for Zygomycota fungi and Ascomycota fungi, respectively, compared to peptide D4. To reduce the hemolytic activity of peptide D4 and improve/maintain the antifungal activity of D4, we substituted another lysine residue in the center of the nonpolar face (V16K) to generate D5 (D-V13K/V16K/A12L/A20L/A23L). This analog D5 decreased hemolytic activity by 13-fold, enhanced antifungal activity to Zygomycota fungi by 16-fold and improved the therapeutic index by 201-fold compared to D4 and represents a unique approach to control specificity while maintaining high hydrophobicity in the two hydrophobic segments on the nonpolar face of D5. PMID:19090916

  6. Diverse Bacteria Inhabit Living Hyphae of Phylogenetically Diverse Fungal Endophytes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur. PMID:20435775

  7. Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

  8. Assessment of fungal diversity in a water-damaged office building.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett J; Lemons, Angela R; Park, Yeonmi; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Park, Ju-Hyeong

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have described fungal communities in indoor environments using gene sequencing-based approaches. In this study, dust-borne fungal communities were elucidated from a water-damaged office building located in the northeastern region of the United States using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA gene sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from 5 mg of floor dust derived from 22 samples collected from either the lower floors (n = 8) or a top floor (n = 14) of the office building. ITS gene sequencing resolved a total of 933 ITS sequences and was clustered into 216 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Analysis of fungal OTUs at the 97% similarity threshold showed a difference between the lower and top floors that was marginally significant (p = 0.049). Species richness and diversity indices were reduced in the lower floor samples compared to the top floor samples and there was a high degree of compositional dissimilarity within and between the two different areas within the building. Fungal OTUs were placed in the phyla Ascomycota (55%), Basidiomycota (41%), Zygomycota (3%), Glomeromycota (0.4%), Chytridiomycota (0.3%), and unassigned fungi (0.5%). The Ascomycota classes with the highest relative abundances included the Dothideomycetes (30%) and Eurotiomycetes (16%). The Basidiomycota consisted of the classes Ustilaginomycetes (14%), Tremellomycetes (11%), and Agaricomycetes (8%). Sequence reads derived from the plant pathogen Ustilago syntherismae were the most abundant in the analysis as were obligate Basidiomycota yeast species that accounted for 12% and 11% of fungal ITS sequences, respectively. ITS gene sequencing provides additional insight into the diversity of fungal OTUs. These data further highlight the contribution of fungi placed in the phylum Basidiomycota, obligate yeasts, as well as xerophilic species that are typically not resolved using traditional culture methods.

  9. Evaluation of the functional roles of fungal endophytes of Phragmites australis from high saline and low saline habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soares, Marcos Antonio; Li, Hai-Yan; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bergen, Marshall; Torres, Monica S.; White, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native Phragmites australis decreases biodiversity and produces dense stands in North America. We surveyed the endophyte communities in the stems, leaves and roots of collections of P. australis obtained from two sites with a low and high salt concentration to determine differences in endophyte composition and assess differences in functional roles of microbes in plants from both sites. We found differences in the abundance, richness and diversity of endophytes between the low saline collections (18 species distributed in phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Stramenopiles (Oomycota); from orders Dothideales, Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Eurotiales, Cantharellales and Pythiales; Shannon H = 2.639; Fisher alpha = 7.335) and high saline collections (15 species from phylum Ascomycota; belonging to orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Diaporthales, Xylariales and Dothideales; Shannon H = 2.289; Fisher alpha = 4.181). Peyronellaea glomerata, Phoma macrostoma and Alternaria tenuissima were species obtained from both sites. The high salt endophyte community showed higher resistance to zinc, mercury and salt stress compared to fungal species from the low salt site. These endophytes also showed a greater propensity for growth promotion of rice seedlings (a model species) under salt stress. The results of this study are consistent with the ‘habitat-adapted symbiosis hypothesis’ that holds that endophytic microbes may help plants adapt to extreme habitats. The capacity of P. australis to establish symbiotic relationships with diverse endophytic microbes that enhance its tolerance to abiotic stresses could be a factor that contributes to its invasiveness in saline environments. Targeting the symbiotic associates of P. australis could lead to more sustainable control of non-native P. australis.

  10. Determining the Pathogenic Potential of Non-sporulating Molds Isolated from Cutaneous Specimens.

    PubMed

    Jeyaprakasam, Nantha Kumar; Razak, Mohd Fuat Abdul; Ahmad, Noor Azimah Binti; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-06-01

    Although non-sporulating molds (NSM) are frequently isolated from patients and have been recognized as agents of pulmonary disease, their clinical significance in cutaneous specimens is relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify NSM and to determine the keratinolytic activity of isolates from cutaneous sites. NSM isolates from clinical specimens such as skin, nail, and body fluids were identified based on their ribosomal DNA sequences. Of 17 NSM isolates (7 Ascomycota, 10 Basidiomycota), eleven were identified to species level while five were identified to the genus level. These include Schizophyllum commune, a known human pathogen, Phoma multirostrata, a plant pathogen, and Perenniporia tephropora, a saprophyte. To determine fungal pathogenicity, keratinolytic activity, a major virulence factor, was evaluated ex vivo using human nail samples by measuring dye release from keratin azure, for NSM along with pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Fusarium spp.) and nonpathogenic (endophyte) fungi for comparison. This study showed that pathogenic fungi had the highest keratinolytic activity (7.13 ± 0.552 keratinase units) while the nonpathogenic endophytes had the lowest activity (2.37 ± 0.262 keratinase units). Keratinolytic activity of two Ascomycota NSM (Guignardia mangiferae and Hypoxylon sp.) and one Basidiomycota NSM (Fomitopsis cf. meliae) was equivalent to that of pathogenic fungi, while Xylaria feejeensis showed significantly higher activity (p < 0.05) than nonpathogenic endophytes. These results indicate that the pathogenic ability of NSM is species dependent; clinical isolates, especially more frequently isolated species, may be involved in disease etiology.

  11. Illumina sequencing of fungi associated with manganese oxide deposits in cave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, B. T.; Santelli, C. M.; Carmichael, S. K.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Roble, L.; Carmichael, M.; Bräuer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The environmental cycling of manganese (Mn) remains relatively poorly characterized when compared with other metals such as iron. However, fungi have been observed to produce Mn(III/IV) oxides resembling buserite, birnessite, and todorokite on the periphery of vegetative hyphae, hyphal branching points and at the base of fruiting bodies. Recent studies indicate that some of these oxides may be generated by a two-stage reaction with soluble Mn(II) and biogenic reactive oxygen species for some groups of fungi, in particular the Ascomycota. These oxides can provide a versatile protective barrier or aid in the capture of trace metals in the environment, although the exact evolutionary function and trigger is unclear. In this study, two caves in the southern Appalachians, a pristine cave and an anthropogenically impacted cave, were compared by analyzing fungal community assemblages in manganese oxide rich deposits. Quantitative PCR data indicated that fungi are present in a low abundance (<1%) in all locations sampled within the caves. Among amplified DNA sequences retrieved in an 18S rDNA clone library, over 88% were representative of the phylum Basidiomycota (predominantly Agaricomycetes), 2.74% of Ascomycota, 2.28% of Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota, 0.46% of Zygomycota, and 3.65% of Eukarya or Fungi incertae sedis. Using Illumina's MiSeq to sequence amplicons of the fungal ITS1 gene has yielded roughly 100,000-200,000 paired-end reads per sample. These data are currently being analyzed to compare fungal communities before and after induced Mn oxidation in the field. In addition, sites within the pristine cave are being compared with analogous sites in the impacted cave. Culturing efforts have thus far yielded Mn oxide producing members of the orders Glomerales and Pleosporales as well as two Genus incertae sedis (Fungal sp. YECT1, and Fungal sp. YECT3, growing on discarded electrical tape) that do not appear to be closely related to any other known Mn

  12. Metaproteome analysis of the microbial community during leaf litter decomposition - the impact of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Leitner, S.; Hämmerle, I.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2012-04-01

    Leaf litter decomposition is the breakdown of dead plant material, a terrestrial ecosystem process of paramount importance. Nutrients released during decomposition play a key role for microbial growth and plant productivity. These processes are controlled by abiotic factors, such as climate, and by biotic factors, such as litter nutrient concentration and stoichiometry (carbon:nutrient ratio) and activity of soil organisms. Future climate change scenarios predict temperature perturbations, therefore following changes of microbial community composition and possible feedbacks on ecosystem processes are of key interest; especially as our knowledge about the microbial regulation of these processes is still scarce. Our aim was to elucidate how temperature perturbations and leaf litter stoichiometry affect the composition of the microbial decomposer community. To this end a terrestrial microcosm experiment using beech (Fagus sylvatica) litter with different stoichiometry was conducted. In a semi-quantitative metaproteomics approach (1D-SDS PAGE combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; unique spectral counting) we used the intrinsic metabolic function of proteins to relate specific microbial activities to their phylogenetic origin in multispecies communities. Decomposer communities varied on litter with different stoichiometry so that microbial decomposers (fungi and bacteria) were favoured in litter with narrow C:nutrient ratios. The fungal community was dominated by Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes) and Basidiomycota (Agaricomycetes) and the bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The extracellular enzymes we detected belonged mainly to classes of xylanases, pectinases, cellulases and proteases and were almost exclusively of fungal origin (particularly Ascomycota). Temperature stress (heat and frost) evoked strong changes in community composition, enzyme activities, dissolved organic

  13. Response of Soil Fungi Community Structure to Salt Vegetation Succession in the Yellow River Delta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Yun; Guo, Du-Fa

    2016-10-01

    High-throughput sequencing technology was used to reveal the composition and distribution of fungal community structure in the Yellow River Delta under bare land and four kinds of halophyte vegetation (saline seepweed, Angiospermae, Imperata and Apocynum venetum [A. venetum]). The results showed that the soil quality continuously improved with the succession of salt vegetation types. The soil fungi richness of mild-salt communities (Imperata and A. venetum) was relatively higher, with Shannon index values of 5.21 and 5.84, respectively. The soil fungi richness of severe-salt-tolerant communities (saline seepweed, Angiospermae) was relatively lower, with Shannon index values of 4.64 and 4.66, respectively. The UniFrac metric values ranged from 0.48 to 0.67 when the vegetation was in different succession stages. A total of 60,174 valid sequences were obtained for the five vegetation types, and they were classified into Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina. Ascomycota had the greatest advantage among plant communities of Imperata and A. venetum, as indicated by relative abundances of 2.69 and 69.97 %, respectively. Basidiomycota had the greatest advantage among mild-salt communities of saline seepweed and Angiospermae, with relative abundances of 9.43 and 6.64 %, respectively. Soil physical and chemical properties were correlated with the distribution of the fungi, and Mucor was significantly correlated with soil moisture (r = 0.985; P < 0.01). Soil quality, salt vegetation and soil fungi were influenced by each other.

  14. Evolution of Chemical Diversity in Echinocandin Lipopeptide Antifungal Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Qun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Sun, Jingzu; Liu, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    The echinocandins are a class of antifungal drugs that includes caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. Gene clusters encoding most of the structural complexity of the echinocandins provided a framework for hypotheses about the evolutionary history and chemical logic of echinocandin biosynthesis. Gene orthologs among echinocandin-producing fungi were identified. Pathway genes, including the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), were analyzed phylogenetically to address the hypothesis that these pathways represent descent from a common ancestor. The clusters share cooperative gene contents and linkages among the different strains. Individual pathway genes analyzed in the context of similar genes formed unique echinocandin-exclusive phylogenetic lineages. The echinocandin NRPSs, along with the NRPS from the inp gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans and its orthologs, comprise a novel lineage among fungal NRPSs. NRPS adenylation domains from different species exhibited a one-to-one correspondence between modules and amino acid specificity that is consistent with models of tandem duplication and subfunctionalization. Pathway gene trees and Ascomycota phylogenies are congruent and consistent with the hypothesis that the echinocandin gene clusters have a common origin. The disjunct Eurotiomycete-Leotiomycete distribution appears to be consistent with a scenario of vertical descent accompanied by incomplete lineage sorting and loss of the clusters from most lineages of the Ascomycota. We present evidence for a single evolutionary origin of the echinocandin family of gene clusters and a progression of structural diversification in two fungal classes that diverged approximately 290 to 390 million years ago. Lineage-specific gene cluster evolution driven by selection of new chemotypes contributed to diversification of the molecular functionalities. PMID:26024901

  15. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin; Miettinen, Hanna; Nyyssönen, Mari; Salavirta, Heikki; Vikman, Minna; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community. PMID:26106376

  16. Fungal diversity in major oil-shale mines in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Wang, Wenxing; Xue, Xiangxin; Cao, Chengyou; Zhang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    As an insufficiently utilized energy resource, oil shale is conducive to the formation of characteristic microbial communities due to its special geological origins. However, little is known about fungal diversity in oil shale. Polymerase chain reaction cloning was used to construct the fungal ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) clone libraries of Huadian Mine in Jilin Province, Maoming Mine in Guangdong Province, and Fushun Mine in Liaoning Province. Pure culture and molecular identification were applied for the isolation of cultivable fungi in fresh oil shale of each mine. Results of clone libraries indicated that each mine had over 50% Ascomycota (58.4%-98.9%) and 1.1%-13.5% unidentified fungi. Fushun Mine and Huadian Mine had 5.9% and 28.1% Basidiomycota, respectively. Huadian Mine showed the highest fungal diversity, followed by Fushun Mine and Maoming Mine. Jaccard indexes showed that the similarities between any two of three fungal communities at the genus level were very low, indicating that fungi in each mine developed independently during the long geological adaptation and formed a community composition fitting the environment. In the fresh oil-shale samples of the three mines, cultivable fungal phyla were consistent with the results of clone libraries. Fifteen genera and several unidentified fungi were identified as Ascomycota and Basidiomycota using pure culture. Penicillium was the only genus found in all three mines. These findings contributed to gaining a clear understanding of current fungal resources in major oil-shale mines in China and provided useful information for relevant studies on isolation of indigenous fungi carrying functional genes from oil shale.

  17. Genetics of mating in members of the Chaetomiaceae as revealed by experimental and genomic characterization of reproduction in Myceliophthora heterothallica.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Miriam I; Powell, Amy J; Tsang, Adrian; O'Toole, Nicholas; Berka, Randy M; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V; Natvig, Donald O

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Chaetomiaceae are among the most studied fungi in industry and among the most reported in investigations of biomass degradation in both natural and laboratory settings. The family is recognized for production of carbohydrate-active enzymes and antibiotics. Thermophilic species are of special interest for their abilities to produce thermally stable enzymes and to be grown under conditions that are unsuitable for potential contaminant microorganisms. Such interests led to the recent acquisition of genome sequences from several members of the family, including thermophilic species, several of which are reported here for the first time. To date, however, thermophilic fungi in industry have served primarily as parts reservoirs and there has been no good genetic model for species in the family Chaetomiaceae or for thermophiles in general. We report here on the reproductive biology of the thermophile Myceliophthora heterothallica, which is heterothallic, unlike most described species in the family. We confirmed heterothallism genetically by following the segregation of mating type idiomorphs and other markers. We have expanded the number of known sexually-compatible individuals from the original isolates from Indiana and Germany to include several isolates from New Mexico. An interesting aspect of development in M. heterothallica is that ascocarp formation is optimal at approximately 30 °C, whereas vegetative growth is optimal at 45 °C. Genome sequences obtained from several strains, including isolates of each mating type, revealed mating-type regions whose genes are organized similarly to those of other members of the Sordariales, except for the presence of a truncated version of the mat A-1 (MAT1-1-1) gene in mating-type a (MAT1-2) strains. In M. heterothallica and other Chaetomiaceae, mating-type A (MAT1-1) strains have the full-length version of mat A-1 that is typical of mating-type A strains of diverse Ascomycota, whereas a strains have only the

  18. Ice nucleation and its effect on the atmospheric transport of fungal spores from the classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, D. I.; Burrows, S. M.; Iannone, R.; Wheeler, M. J.; Mason, R.; Chen, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Pöschl, U.; Bertram, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    Ice nucleation on fungal spores may affect the frequency and properties of ice and mixed-phase clouds. We studied the ice nucleation properties of 12 different species of fungal spores chosen from three classes: Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. Agaricomycetes include many types of mushroom species and are cosmopolitan. Ustilaginomycetes are agricultural pathogens and have caused widespread damage to crops. Eurotiomycetes are found on all types of decaying material and include important human allergens. We focused on these classes since they are thought to be abundant in the atmosphere and because there is very little information on the ice nucleation ability of these classes of spores in the literature. All of the fungal spores investigated were found to cause freezing of water droplets at temperatures warmer than homogeneous freezing. The cumulative number of ice nuclei per spore was 0.001 at temperatures between -19 °C and -29 °C, 0.01 between -25.5 °C and -31 °C, and 0.1 between -26 °C and -36 °C. On average, the order of ice nucleating ability for these spores is Ustilaginomycetes > Agaricomycetes ≃ Eurotiomycetes. We show that at temperatures below -20 °C, all of the fungal spores studied here are less efficient ice nuclei compared to Asian mineral dust on a per surface area basis. We used our new freezing results together with data in the literature to compare the freezing temperatures of spores from the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which together make up 98% of known fungal species found on Earth. The data show that within both phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) there is a wide range of freezing properties, and also that the variation within a phylum is greater than the variation between the average freezing properties of the phyla. Using a global chemistry-climate transport model, we investigated whether ice nucleation on the studied spores, followed by precipitation, can influence the atmospheric transport and

  19. Ice nucleation by fungal spores from the classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the atmospheric transport of these spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, D. I.; Burrows, S. M.; Iannone, R.; Wheeler, M. J.; Mason, R. H.; Chen, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Pöschl, U.; Bertram, A. K.

    2014-08-01

    We studied the ice nucleation properties of 12 different species of fungal spores chosen from three classes: Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. Agaricomycetes include many types of mushroom species and are widely distributed over the globe. Ustilaginomycetes are agricultural pathogens and have caused widespread damage to crops. Eurotiomycetes are found on all types of decaying material and include important human allergens. We focused on these classes because they are thought to be abundant in the atmosphere and because there is very little information on the ice nucleation ability of these classes of spores in the literature. All of the fungal spores investigated contained some fraction of spores that serve as ice nuclei at temperatures warmer than homogeneous freezing. The cumulative number of ice nuclei per spore was 0.001 at temperatures between -19 °C and -29 °C, 0.01 between -25.5 °C and -31 °C, and 0.1 between -26 °C and -31.5 °C. On average, the order of ice nucleating ability for these spores is Ustilaginomycetes > Agaricomycetes ≃ Eurotiomycetes. The freezing data also suggests that, at temperatures ranging from -20 °C to -25 °C, all of the fungal spores studied here are less efficient ice nuclei compared to Asian mineral dust on a per surface area basis. We used our new freezing results together with data in the literature to compare the freezing temperatures of spores from the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which together make up 98% of known fungal species found on Earth. The data show that within both phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), there is a wide range of freezing properties, and also that the variation within a phylum is greater than the variation between the average freezing properties of the phyla. Using a global chemistry-climate transport model, we investigated whether ice nucleation on the studied spores, followed by precipitation, can influence the transport and global distributions of these spores in

  20. Molecular Tools for Monitoring the Ecological Sustainability of a Stone Bio-Consolidation Treatment at the Royal Chapel, Granada

    PubMed Central

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Gonzalez-Muñoz, Maria Teresa; Sterflinger, Katja; Piñar, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomineralization processes have recently been applied in situ to protect and consolidate decayed ornamental stone of the Royal Chapel in Granada (Spain). While this promising method has demonstrated its efficacy regarding strengthening of the stone, little is known about its ecological sustainability. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report molecular monitoring of the stone-autochthonous microbiota before and at 5, 12 and 30 months after the bio-consolidation treatment (medium/long-term monitoring), employing the well-known molecular strategy of DGGE analyses. Before the bio-consolidation treatment, the bacterial diversity showed the exclusive dominance of Actinobacteria (100%), which decreased in the community (44.2%) after 5 months, and Gamma-proteobacteria (30.24%) and Chloroflexi (25.56%) appeared. After 12 months, Gamma-proteobacteria vanished from the community and Cyanobacteria (22.1%) appeared and remained dominant after thirty months, when the microbiota consisted of Actinobacteria (42.2%) and Cyanobacteria (57.8%) only. Fungal diversity showed that the Ascomycota phylum was dominant before treatment (100%), while, after five months, Basidiomycota (6.38%) appeared on the stone, and vanished again after twelve months. Thirty months after the treatment, the fungal population started to stabilize and Ascomycota dominated on the stone (83.33%) once again. Members of green algae (Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae) appeared on the stone at 5, 12 and 30 months after the treatment and accounted for 4.25%, 84.77% and 16.77%, respectively. Conclusions The results clearly show that, although a temporary shift in the bacterial and fungal diversity was observed during the first five months, most probably promoted by the application of the bio-consolidation treatment, the microbiota tends to regain its initial stability in a few months. Thus, the treatment does not seem to have any negative side effects on the stone-autochthonous microbiota over that time

  1. Ice Nucleation of Fungal Spores from the Classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the Atmospheric Transport of these Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, D. I.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Iannone, R.; Wheeler, M. J.; Mason, R.; Chen, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Poschl, U.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2014-08-26

    Ice nucleation on fungal spores may affect the frequency and properties of ice and mixed-phase clouds. We studied the ice nucleation properties of 12 different species of fungal spores chosen from three classes: Agaricomycetes, Ustilagomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. Agaricomycetes include many types of mushroom species and are cosmopolitan all over the globe. Ustilagomycetes are agricultural pathogens and have caused widespread damage to crops. Eurotiomycetes are found on all types of decaying material and include important human allergens. We focused on these classes since they are thought to be abundant in the atmosphere and because there is very little information on the ice nucleation ability of these classes of spores in the literature. All of the fungal spores investigated were found to cause freezing of water droplets at temperatures warmer than homogeneous freezing. The cumulative number of ice nuclei per spore was 0.001 at temperatures between -19 °C and -29 °C, 0.01 between -25.5 °C and -31 °C, and 0.1 between -26 °C and -36 °C. On average, the order of ice nucleating ability for these spores is Ustilagomycetes > Agaricomycetes ≅ Eurotiomycetes. We show that at temperatures below -20 °C, all of the fungal spores studied here are less efficient ice nuclei compared to Asian mineral dust on a per surface area basis. We used our new freezing results together with data in the literature to compare the freezing temperatures of spores from the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which together make up 98 % of known fungal species found on Earth. The data show that within both phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) there is a wide range of freezing properties, and also that the variation within a phylum is greater than the variation between the average freezing properties of the phyla. Using a global chemistry-climate transport model, we investigated whether ice nucleation on the studied spores, followed by precipitation, can influence the atmospheric

  2. Soil Microbial Community Responses to Short-term Multiple Experimental Climate Change Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guanlin; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Sohye; Roh, Yujin; Son, Yowhan

    2016-04-01

    It is agreed that soil microbial communities are responsible for the cycling of carbon and nutrients in ecosystems; however, the response of these microbial communities to climate change has not been clearly understood. In this study, we measured the direct and interactive effects of climate change drivers on soil bacterial and fungal communities (abundance and composition) in an open-field multifactor climate change experiment. The experimental treatment system was established with two-year-old Pinus densiflora seedlings at Korea University in April 2013, and consisted of six different treatments with three replicates: two levels of air temperature warming (control and +3° C) were crossed with three levels of precipitation manipulation (control, -30% and +30%). After 2.5 years of treatments, in August, 2015, soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-15cm) of all plots (n=18). High-throughput sequencing technology was used to assess the abundance and composition of soil bacterial and fungal community. Analysis of variance for a blocked split-plot design was used to detect the effects of climate change drivers and their interaction on the abundance and composition of soil bacterial and fungal community. Our results showed that 1) only the significant effect of warming on fungal community abundance was observed (P <0.05); 2) on average, warming decreased both bacterial and fungal community abundance by 20.90% and 32.30%, 6.69% and 45.89%, 14.71% and 19.56% in control, decreased, and increased precipitation plots, respectively; 3) however, warming increased the relative bacterium/fungus ratio on average by 14.03%, 37.03% and 14.31% in control, decreased, and increased precipitation plots, respectively; 4) the phylogenetic distribution of bacterial and fungal groups and their relative abundance varied among treatments; 5) treatments altered the relative abundance of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, where Ascomycota decreased with a concomitant increase in the

  3. Unequal Recombination and Evolution of the Mating-Type (MAT) Loci in the Pathogenic Fungus Grosmannia clavigera and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Clement K.-M.; DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Feau, Nicolas; Dhillon, Braham; Bohlmann, Jörg; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(α)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The α-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to

  4. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  5. Indole-3-acetic acid-producing yeasts in the phyllosphere of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pei-Feng; Fang, Wei-Ta; Shin, Li-Ying; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Fu, Shih-Feng; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and exist in association with other microorganisms as normal inhabitants of soil, vegetation, and aqueous environments. In this study, 12 yeast strains were enriched and isolated from leaf samples of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L., which is currently threatened because of restricted habitats and use in herbal industries. According to similarities in large subunit and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we identified 2 yeast species in 2 genera of the phylum Ascomycota, and 5 yeast species in 5 genera of the phylum Basidiomycota. All of the isolated yeasts produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) when cultivated in YPD broth supplemented with 0.1% L-tryptophan. Growth conditions, such as the pH and temperature of the medium, influenced yeast IAA production. Our results also suggested the existence of a tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthetic pathway. We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of exogenous IAA on yeast growth and observed that IAA produced by wild yeasts modifies auxin-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that yeasts can promote plant growth and support ongoing prospecting of yeast strains for inclusion into biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture.

  6. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia

    PubMed Central

    Linnakoski, Riikka; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Niemelä, Pekka; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota) that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them. PMID:26467956

  7. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  8. Unveiling the fungal mycobiota present throughout the cork stopper manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Maria C; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Brito, Dulce; Gadanho, Mário; San Romão, Maria V

    2012-10-01

    A particular fungal population is present in the main stages of the manufacturing process of cork discs. Its diversity was studied using both dependent (isolation) and independent culture methods (denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and cloning of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region). The mycobiota in the samples taken in the stages before and after the first boiling seems to be distinct from the population in the subsequent manufacturing stages. Most isolated fungi belong to the genera Penicillium, Eurotium and Cladosporium. The presence of uncultivable fungi, Ascomycota and endophytes in raw cork was confirmed by sequencing. The samples taken after the first boiling contained uncultivable fungi, but in a few samples some isolated fungi were also detected. The main taxa present in the following stages were Chrysonilia sitophila, Penicillium glabrum and Penicillium spp. All applied techniques had complementary outcomes. The main factors driving the shift in cork fungal colonization seem to be the high levels of humidity and temperature to which the slabs are subjected during the boiling process.

  9. Identification of virulence genes in the corn pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Münch, Steffen; Ludwig, Nancy; Floss, Daniela S; Sugui, Janyce A; Koszucka, Anna M; Voll, Lars M; Sonnewald, Uwe; Deising, Holger B

    2011-01-01

    A previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola led to high rates of tandem integration of the whole Ti-plasmid, and was therefore considered to be unsuitable for the identification of pathogenicity and virulence genes by insertional mutagenesis in this pathogen. We used a modified ATMT protocol with acetosyringone present only during the co-cultivation of C. graminicola and A. tumefaciens. Analysis of 105 single-spore isolates randomly chosen from a collection of approximately 2000 transformants, indicated that almost 70% of the transformants had single T-DNA integrations. Of 500 independent transformants tested, 10 exhibited attenuated virulence in infection assays on whole plants. Microscopic analyses primarily revealed defects at different pre-penetration stages of infection-related morphogenesis. Three transformants were characterized in detail. The identification of the T-DNA integration sites was performed by amplification of genomic DNA ends after endonuclease digestion and polynucleotide tailing. In one transformant, the T-DNA had integrated into the 5'-flank of a gene with similarity to allantoicase genes of other Ascomycota. In the second and third transformants, the T-DNA had integrated into an open reading frame (ORF) and into the 5'-flank of an ORF. In both cases, the ORFs have unknown function.

  10. Proteomics shows new faces for the old penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Carlos; Martín, Juan F; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi), the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi), and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi) that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as β-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude). The new "omics" era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus.

  11. Microbial Diversity in Engineered Haloalkaline Environments Shaped by Shared Geochemical Drivers Observed in Natural Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Lesley A.; Kendra, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in engineered terrestrial haloalkaline environments have been poorly characterized relative to their natural counterparts and are geologically recent in formation, offering opportunities to explore microbial diversity and assembly in dynamic, geochemically comparable contexts. In this study, the microbial community structure and geochemical characteristics of three geographically dispersed bauxite residue environments along a remediation gradient were assessed and subsequently compared with other engineered and natural haloalkaline systems. In bauxite residues, bacterial communities were similar at the phylum level (dominated by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) to those found in soda lakes, oil sands tailings, and nuclear wastes; however, they differed at lower taxonomic levels, with only 23% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared with other haloalkaline environments. Although being less diverse than natural analogues, bauxite residue harbored substantial novel bacterial taxa, with 90% of OTUs nonmatchable to cultured representative sequences. Fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, consistent with previous studies of hypersaline environments, and also harbored substantial novel (73% of OTUs) taxa. In bauxite residues, community structure was clearly linked to geochemical and physical environmental parameters, with 84% of variation in bacterial and 73% of variation in fungal community structures explained by environmental parameters. The major driver of bacterial community structure (salinity) was consistent across natural and engineered environments; however, drivers differed for fungal community structure between natural (pH) and engineered (total alkalinity) environments. This study demonstrates that both engineered and natural terrestrial haloalkaline environments host substantial repositories of microbial diversity, which are strongly shaped by geochemical drivers. PMID:25979895

  12. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed.

  13. Destructuring plant biomass: Focus on fungal and extremophilic cell wall hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Gea; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Strauss, Joseph; Ertan, Haluk; Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant biomass as feedstock for biomaterial and biofuel production is relevant in the current bio-based economy scenario of valorizing renewable resources. Fungi, which degrade complex and recalcitrant plant polymers, secrete different enzymes that hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides. The present review discusses the current research trends on fungal, as well as extremophilic cell wall hydrolases that can withstand extreme physico-chemical conditions required in efficient industrial processes. Secretomes of fungi from the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Neocalli-mastigomycota are presented along with metabolic cues (nutrient sensing, coordination of carbon and nitrogen metabolism) affecting their composition. We conclude the review by suggesting further research avenues focused on the one hand on a comprehensive analysis of the physiology and epigenetics underlying cell wall degrading enzyme production in fungi and on the other hand on the analysis of proteins with unknown function and metagenomics of extremophilic consortia. The current advances in consolidated bioprocessing, altered secretory pathways and creation of designer plants are also examined. Furthermore, recent developments in enhancing the activity, stability and reusability of enzymes based on synergistic, proximity and entropic effects, fusion enzymes, structure-guided recombination between homologous enzymes and magnetic enzymes are considered with a view to improving saccharification. PMID:25804821

  14. Yucatán in black and red: Linking edaphic analysis and pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial and fungal community structures in the two main kinds of soil of Yucatán State.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Medina, Héctor; Canto-Canché, Blondy B; De Los Santos-Briones, César; O'Connor-Sánchez, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Yucatán State is dominated by two kinds of soil, named "Black Leptosol" and "Red Leptosol", which are interwoven across the State. In this work, we analyzed the relation between the edaphic characteristics and the bacterial and fungal community structures in these two kinds of Leptosol. The results revealed that Black Leptosol (BlaS) had a higher content of calcium carbonates, organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus than Red Leptosol (RedS). The most outstanding difference in the bacterial community structure between BlaS and RedS was that while in BlaS Actinobacteria was the most abundant phylum (43.7%), followed by Acidobacteria (26.9%) and Proteobacteria (23.6%), in RedS the bacterial community was strongly dominated by Acidobacteria (83%). Two fungal phyla were identified in both kinds of soil; Ascomycota, with 77% in BlaS and 56% in RedS, and Basidiomycota, with 22% in RedS and only 0.67% in BlaS. The most relevant difference between the two fungal communities was that excepting for Fusarium sp., all the species they had were different. Thus, in contrast with bacterial communities, where most of the major OTUs were present in both kinds of soil, fungal communities appeared to be unique to each kind of Leptosol.

  15. Evolution of Chemical Diversity in a Group of Non-Reduced Polyketide Gene Clusters: Using Phylogenetics to Inform the Search for Novel Fungal Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Throckmorton, Kurt; Wiemann, Philipp; Keller, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal polyketides are a diverse class of natural products, or secondary metabolites (SMs), with a wide range of bioactivities often associated with toxicity. Here, we focus on a group of non-reducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) in the fungal phylum Ascomycota that lack a thioesterase domain for product release, group V. Although widespread in ascomycete taxa, this group of NR-PKSs is notably absent in the mycotoxigenic genus Fusarium and, surprisingly, found in genera not known for their secondary metabolite production (e.g., the mycorrhizal genus Oidiodendron, the powdery mildew genus Blumeria, and the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, Pseudogymnoascus destructans). This group of NR-PKSs, in association with the other enzymes encoded by their gene clusters, produces a variety of different chemical classes including naphthacenediones, anthraquinones, benzophenones, grisandienes, and diphenyl ethers. We discuss the modification of and transitions between these chemical classes, the requisite enzymes, and the evolution of the SM gene clusters that encode them. Integrating this information, we predict the likely products of related but uncharacterized SM clusters, and we speculate upon the utility of these classes of SMs as virulence factors or chemical defenses to various plant, animal, and insect pathogens, as well as mutualistic fungi. PMID:26378577

  16. Network-assisted genetic dissection of pathogenicity and drug resistance in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanhae; Jung, Kwang-Woo; Maeng, Shinae; Chen, Ying-Lien; Shin, Junha; Shim, Jung Eun; Hwang, Sohyun; Janbon, Guilhem; Kim, Taeyup; Heitman, Joseph; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2015-03-05

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human pathogenic fungus that causes meningoencephalitis. Due to the increasing global risk of cryptococcosis and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, the development of predictive genetics platforms for the rapid identification of novel genes governing pathogenicity and drug resistance of C. neoformans is imperative. The analysis of functional genomics data and genome-scale mutant libraries may facilitate the genetic dissection of such complex phenotypes but with limited efficiency. Here, we present a genome-scale co-functional network for C. neoformans, CryptoNet, which covers ~81% of the coding genome and provides an efficient intermediary between functional genomics data and reverse-genetics resources for the genetic dissection of C. neoformans phenotypes. CryptoNet is the first genome-scale co-functional network for any fungal pathogen. CryptoNet effectively identified novel genes for pathogenicity and drug resistance using guilt-by-association and context-associated hub algorithms. CryptoNet is also the first genome-scale co-functional network for fungi in the basidiomycota phylum, as Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the ascomycota phylum. CryptoNet may therefore provide insights into pathway evolution between two distinct phyla of the fungal kingdom. The CryptoNet web server (www.inetbio.org/cryptonet) is a public resource that provides an interactive environment of network-assisted predictive genetics for C. neoformans.

  17. Bacterial, archaeal and fungal succession in the forefield of a receding glacier.

    PubMed

    Zumsteg, Anita; Luster, Jörg; Göransson, Hans; Smittenberg, Rienk H; Brunner, Ivano; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Zeyer, Josef; Frey, Beat

    2012-04-01

    Glacier forefield chronosequences, initially composed of barren substrate after glacier retreat, are ideal locations to study primary microbial colonization and succession in a natural environment. We characterized the structure and composition of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in exposed rock substrates along the Damma glacier forefield in central Switzerland. Soil samples were taken along the forefield from sites ranging from fine granite sand devoid of vegetation near the glacier terminus to well-developed soils covered with vegetation. The microbial communities were studied with genetic profiling (T-RFLP) and sequencing of clone libraries. According to the T-RFLP profiles, bacteria showed a high Shannon diversity index (H) (ranging from 2.3 to 3.4) with no trend along the forefield. The major bacterial lineages were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria. An interesting finding was that Euryarchaeota were predominantly colonizing young soils and Crenarchaeota mainly mature soils. Fungi shifted from an Ascomycota-dominated community in young soils to a more Basidiomycota-dominated community in old soils. Redundancy analysis indicated that base saturation, pH, soil C and N contents and plant coverage, all related to soil age, correlated with the microbial succession along the forefield.

  18. Widespread horizontal transfer of the cerato-ulmin gene between Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and Geosmithia species.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Priscilla P; Frascella, Arcangela; Kolařík, Miroslav; Comparini, Cecilia; Pepori, Alessia L; Santini, Alberto; Scala, Felice; Scala, Aniello

    2014-08-01

    Previous work had shown that a sequence homologous to the gene encoding class II hydrophobin cerato-ulmin from the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causal agent of Dutch Elm Disease (DED), was present in a strain of the unrelated species Geosmithia species 5 (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) isolated from Ulmus minor affected by DED. As both fungi occupy the same habitat, even if different ecological niches, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer was proposed. In the present work we have analysed for the presence of the cerato-ulmin gene 70 Geosmithia strains representing 29 species, isolated from different host plants and geographic locations. The gene was found in 52.1 % of the strains derived from elm trees, while none of those isolated from nonelms possessed it. The expression of the gene in Geosmithia was also assessed by real time PCR in different growth conditions (liquid culture, solid culture, elm sawdust, dual culture with O. novo-ulmi), and was found to be extremely low in all conditions tested. On the basis of these results we propose that the cerato-ulmin gene is not functional in Geosmithia, but can be considered instead a marker of more extensive transfers of genetic material as shown in other fungi.

  19. Specialized proteinine rove beetles shed light on insect-fungal associations in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chenyang; Newton, Alfred F; Thayer, Margaret K; Leschen, Richard A B; Huang, Diying

    2016-12-28

    Insects and fungi have a long history of association in shared habitats. Fungus-feeding, or mycophagy, is remarkably widespread in beetles (Coleoptera) and appears to be a primitive feeding habit that preceded feeding on plant tissues. Numerous Mesozoic beetles belonging to extant fungus-associated families are known, but direct fossil evidence elucidating mycophagy in insects has remained elusive. Here, we report a remarkable genus and species, Vetuproteinus cretaceus gen. et sp. nov., belonging to a new tribe (Vetuproteinini trib. nov.) of the extant rove beetle subfamily Proteininae (Staphylinidae) in Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. The mouthparts of this beetle have a markedly enlarged protruding galea bearing an apparent spore brush, a specialized structure we infer was used to scrape spores off surfaces and direct them into the mouth, as in multiple modern spore-feeding beetles. Considering the long evolutionary history of Fungi, the Mid-Cretaceous beetles likely fed on ancient Basidiomycota and/or Ascomycota fungi or spore-producing organisms such as slime moulds (Myxomycetes). The discovery of the first Mesozoic proteinine illustrates the antiquity of the subfamily, and suggests that ancestral Proteininae were already diverse and widespread in Pangaea before the supercontinent broke up.

  20. Molecular Diversity of Fungal Phylotypes Co-Amplified Alongside Nematodes from Coastal and Deep-Sea Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lambshead, John D.; Austen, Melanie C.; Smerdon, Gary R.; Rogers, Alex D.

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes and fungi are both ubiquitous in marine environments, yet few studies have investigated relationships between these two groups. Microbial species share many well-documented interactions with both free-living and parasitic nematode species, and limited data from previous studies have suggested ecological associations between fungi and nematodes in benthic marine habitats. This study aimed to further document the taxonomy and distribution of fungal taxa often co-amplified from nematode specimens. A total of 15 fungal 18S rRNA phylotypes were isolated from nematode specimens representing both deep-sea and shallow water habitats; all fungal isolates displayed high pairwise sequence identities with published data in Genbank (99–100%) and unpublished high-throughput 454 environmental datasets (>95%). BLAST matches indicate marine fungal sequences amplified in this study broadly represent taxa within the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and several phylotypes showed robust groupings with known taxa in phylogenetic topologies. In addition, some fungal phylotypes appeared to be present in disparate geographic habitats, suggesting cosmopolitan distributions or closely related species complexes in at least some marine fungi. The present study was only able to isolate fungal DNA from a restricted set of nematode taxa; further work is needed to fully investigate the taxonomic scope and function of nematode-fungal interactions. PMID:22046287

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of Fungal Diversity on Strawberry Plants and the Effect of Management Practices on the Fungal Community Structure of Aerial Organs

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga

    2016-01-01

    An amplicon metagenomic approach based on the ITS2 region of fungal rDNA was used to identify the composition of fungal communities associated with different strawberry organs (leaves, flowers, immature and mature fruits), grown on a farm using management practices that entailed the routine use of various chemical pesticides. ITS2 sequences clustered into 316 OTUs and Ascomycota was the dominant phyla (95.6%) followed by Basidiomycota (3.9%). Strawberry plants supported a high diversity of microbial organisms, but two genera, Botrytis and Cladosporium, were the most abundant, representing 70–99% of the relative abundance (RA) of all detected sequences. According to alpha and beta diversity analyses, strawberry organs displayed significantly different fungal communities with leaves having the most diverse fungal community, followed by flowers, and fruit. The interruption of chemical treatments for one month resulted in a significant modification in the structure of the fungal community of leaves and flowers while immature and mature fruit were not significantly affected. Several plant pathogens of other plant species, that would not be intuitively expected to be present on strawberry plants such as Erysiphe, were detected, while some common strawberry pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia, were less evident or absent. PMID:27490110

  2. Superimposed Pristine Limestone Aquifers with Marked Hydrochemical Differences Exhibit Distinct Fungal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Ali; Purahong, Witoon; Lehmann, Robert; Herrmann, Martina; Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai U.; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are one important group of eukaryotic microorganisms in a diverse range of ecosystems, but their diversity in groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. We used DNA-based pyro-tag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene to investigate the presence and community structure of fungi at different sampling sites of two superimposed limestone aquifers ranging from 8.5 to 84 m depth in the newly established Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Hainich CZE). We detected a diversity of fungal OTUs in groundwater samples of all sampling sites. The relative percentage abundance of Basidiomycota was higher in the upper aquifer assemblage, whilst Ascomycota dominated the lower one. In parallel to differences in the hydrochemistry we found distinct fungal communities at all sampling sites. Classification into functional groups revealed an overwhelming majority of saprotrophs. Finding taxa common to all analyzed groundwater sites, point to a groundwater specific fungal microbiome. The presence of different functional groups and, in particular plant and cattle pathogens that are not typical of subsurface habitats, suggests links between the surface and subsurface biogeosphere due to rapid transportation across the fracture networks typical of karstic regions during recharge episodes. However, further studies including sampling series extended in both time and space are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27242696

  3. Atlas of nonribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthetic pathways reveals common occurrence of nonmodular enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Fewer, David P; Holm, Liisa; Rouhiainen, Leo; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2014-06-24

    Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides are a diverse group of natural products with complex chemical structures and enormous pharmaceutical potential. They are synthesized on modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme complexes by a conserved thiotemplate mechanism. Here, we report the widespread occurrence of NRPS and PKS genetic machinery across the three domains of life with the discovery of 3,339 gene clusters from 991 organisms, by examining a total of 2,699 genomes. These gene clusters display extraordinarily diverse organizations, and a total of 1,147 hybrid NRPS/PKS clusters were found. Surprisingly, 10% of bacterial gene clusters lacked modular organization, and instead catalytic domains were mostly encoded as separate proteins. The finding of common occurrence of nonmodular NRPS differs substantially from the current classification. Sequence analysis indicates that the evolution of NRPS machineries was driven by a combination of common descent and horizontal gene transfer. We identified related siderophore NRPS gene clusters that encoded modular and nonmodular NRPS enzymes organized in a gradient. A higher frequency of the NRPS and PKS gene clusters was detected from bacteria compared with archaea or eukarya. They commonly occurred in the phyla of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria in bacteria and the phylum of Ascomycota in fungi. The majority of these NRPS and PKS gene clusters have unknown end products highlighting the power of genome mining in identifying novel genetic machinery for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

  4. Differential gene retention as an evolutionary mechanism to generate biodiversity and adaptation in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Morel, Guillaume; Sterck, Lieven; Swennen, Dominique; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Onesime, Djamila; Levasseur, Anthony; Jacques, Noémie; Mallet, Sandrine; Couloux, Arnaux; Labadie, Karine; Amselem, Joëlle; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Henrissat, Bernard; Van de Peer, Yves; Wincker, Patrick; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Gabaldón, Toni; Tinsley, Colin R; Casaregola, Serge

    2015-06-25

    The evolutionary history of the characters underlying the adaptation of microorganisms to food and biotechnological uses is poorly understood. We undertook comparative genomics to investigate evolutionary relationships of the dairy yeast Geotrichum candidum within Saccharomycotina. Surprisingly, a remarkable proportion of genes showed discordant phylogenies, clustering with the filamentous fungus subphylum (Pezizomycotina), rather than the yeast subphylum (Saccharomycotina), of the Ascomycota. These genes appear not to be the result of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT), but to have been specifically retained by G. candidum after the filamentous fungi-yeasts split concomitant with the yeasts' genome contraction. We refer to these genes as SRAGs (Specifically Retained Ancestral Genes), having been lost by all or nearly all other yeasts, and thus contributing to the phenotypic specificity of lineages. SRAG functions include lipases consistent with a role in cheese making and novel endoglucanases associated with degradation of plant material. Similar gene retention was observed in three other distantly related yeasts representative of this ecologically diverse subphylum. The phenomenon thus appears to be widespread in the Saccharomycotina and argues that, alongside neo-functionalization following gene duplication and HGT, specific gene retention must be recognized as an important mechanism for generation of biodiversity and adaptation in yeasts.

  5. Novel chytrid lineages dominate fungal sequences in diverse marine and freshwater habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeau, André M.; Vincent, Warwick F.; Bernier, Louis; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-07-01

    In aquatic environments, fungal communities remain little studied despite their taxonomic and functional diversity. To extend the ecological coverage of this group, we conducted an in-depth analysis of fungal sequences within our collection of 3.6 million V4 18S rRNA pyrosequences originating from 319 individual marine (including sea-ice) and freshwater samples from libraries generated within diverse projects studying Arctic and temperate biomes in the past decade. Among the ~1.7 million post-filtered reads of highest taxonomic and phylogenetic quality, 23,263 fungal sequences were identified. The overall mean proportion was 1.35%, but with large variability; for example, from 0.01 to 59% of total sequences for Arctic seawater samples. Almost all sample types were dominated by Chytridiomycota-like sequences, followed by moderate-to-minor contributions of Ascomycota, Cryptomycota and Basidiomycota. Species and/or strain richness was high, with many novel sequences and high niche separation. The affinity of the most common reads to phytoplankton parasites suggests that aquatic fungi deserve renewed attention for their role in algal succession and carbon cycling.

  6. Spores of many common airborne fungi reveal no ice nucleation activity in oil immersion freezing experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Grothe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Fungal spores are ubiquitous biological aerosols, which are considered to act as ice nuclei. In this study the ice nucleation (IN) activity of spores harvested from 29 fungal strains belonging to 21 different species was tested in the immersion freezing mode by microscopic observation of water-in-oil emulsions. Spores of 8 of these strains were also investigated in a microdroplet freezing array instrument. The focus was laid on species of economical, ecological or sanitary significance. Besides common molds (Ascomycota), some representatives of the widespread group of mushrooms (Basidiomycota) were also investigated. Fusarium avenaceum was the only sample showing IN activity at relatively high temperatures (about 264 K), while the other investigated fungal spores showed no freezing above 248 K. Many of the samples indeed froze at homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures (about 237 K). In combination with other studies, this suggests that only a limited number of species may act as atmospheric ice nuclei. This would be analogous to what is already known for the bacterial ice nuclei. Apart from that, we selected a set of fungal strains from different sites and exposed them to occasional freezing stress during their cultivation. This was in order to test if the exposure to a cold environment encourages the expression of ice nuclei during growth as a way of adaptation. Although the total protein expression was altered by this treatment, it had no significant impact on the IN activity.

  7. Proteomics Shows New Faces for the Old Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro, Carlos; Martín, Juan F.; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi), the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi), and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi) that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as β-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude). The new “omics” era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus. PMID:22318718

  8. Phylogenomic relationships between amylolytic enzymes from 85 strains of fungi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-01-01

    Fungal amylolytic enzymes, including α-amylase, gluocoamylase and α-glucosidase, have been extensively exploited in diverse industrial applications such as high fructose syrup production, paper making, food processing and ethanol production. In this paper, amylolytic genes of 85 strains of fungi from the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota were annotated on the genomic scale according to the classification of glycoside hydrolase (GH) from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy) Database. Comparisons of gene abundance in the fungi suggested that the repertoire of amylolytic genes adapted to their respective lifestyles. Amylolytic enzymes in family GH13 were divided into four distinct clades identified as heterologous α-amylases, eukaryotic α-amylases, bacterial and fungal α-amylases and GH13 α-glucosidases. Family GH15 had two branches, one for gluocoamylases, and the other with currently unknown function. GH31 α-glucosidases showed diverse branches consisting of neutral α-glucosidases, lysosomal acid α-glucosidases and a new clade phylogenetically related to the bacterial counterparts. Distribution of starch-binding domains in above fungal amylolytic enzymes was related to the enzyme source and phylogeny. Finally, likely scenarios for the evolution of amylolytic enzymes in fungi based on phylogenetic analyses were proposed. Our results provide new insights into evolutionary relationships among subgroups of fungal amylolytic enzymes and fungal evolutionary adaptation to ecological conditions.

  9. Novel chytrid lineages dominate fungal sequences in diverse marine and freshwater habitats

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, André M.; Vincent, Warwick F.; Bernier, Louis; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-01-01

    In aquatic environments, fungal communities remain little studied despite their taxonomic and functional diversity. To extend the ecological coverage of this group, we conducted an in-depth analysis of fungal sequences within our collection of 3.6 million V4 18S rRNA pyrosequences originating from 319 individual marine (including sea-ice) and freshwater samples from libraries generated within diverse projects studying Arctic and temperate biomes in the past decade. Among the ~1.7 million post-filtered reads of highest taxonomic and phylogenetic quality, 23,263 fungal sequences were identified. The overall mean proportion was 1.35%, but with large variability; for example, from 0.01 to 59% of total sequences for Arctic seawater samples. Almost all sample types were dominated by Chytridiomycota-like sequences, followed by moderate-to-minor contributions of Ascomycota, Cryptomycota and Basidiomycota. Species and/or strain richness was high, with many novel sequences and high niche separation. The affinity of the most common reads to phytoplankton parasites suggests that aquatic fungi deserve renewed attention for their role in algal succession and carbon cycling. PMID:27444055

  10. Glucosylation and Other Biotransformations of T-2 Toxin by Yeasts of the Trichomonascus Clade

    PubMed Central

    Price, Neil P. J.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.

    2012-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid toxins produced by Fusarium species. Since these mycotoxins are very stable, there is interest in microbial transformations that can remove toxins from contaminated grain or cereal products. Twenty-three yeast species assigned to the Trichomonascus clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota), including four Trichomonascus species and 19 anamorphic species presently classified in Blastobotrys, were tested for their ability to convert the trichothecene T-2 toxin to less-toxic products. These species gave three types of biotransformations: acetylation to 3-acetyl T-2 toxin, glycosylation to T-2 toxin 3-glucoside, and removal of the isovaleryl group to form neosolaniol. Some species gave more than one type of biotransformation. Three Blastobotrys species converted T-2 toxin into T-2 toxin 3-glucoside, a compound that has been identified as a masked mycotoxin in Fusarium-infected grain. This is the first report of a microbial whole-cell method for producing trichothecene glycosides, and the potential large-scale availability of T-2 toxin 3-glucoside will facilitate toxicity testing and development of methods for detection of this compound in agricultural and other products. PMID:23042183

  11. 13C pulse-labeling assessment of the community structure of active fungi in the rhizosphere of a genetically starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline.

    PubMed

    Hannula, S E; Boschker, H T S; de Boer, W; van Veen, J A

    2012-05-01

    • The aim of this study was to gain understanding of the carbon flow from the roots of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline to the soil fungal community using stable isotope probing (SIP). • The microbes receiving (13)C from the plant were assessed through RNA/phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) at three time-points (1, 5 and 12 d after the start of labeling). The communities of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota were analysed separately with RT-qPCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). • Ascomycetes and glomeromycetes received carbon from the plant as early as 1 and 5 d after labeling, while basidiomycetes were slower in accumulating the labeled carbon. The rate of carbon allocation in the GM variety differed from that in its parental variety, thereby affecting soil fungal communities. • We conclude that both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi rapidly metabolize organic substrates flowing from the root into the rhizosphere, that there are large differences in utilization of root-derived compounds at a lower phylogenetic level within investigated fungal phyla, and that active communities in the rhizosphere differ between the GM plant and its parental cultivar through effects of differential carbon flow from the plant.

  12. Molecular phylogenetic analysis reveals the new genus Hemisphaericaspora of the family Debaryomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Hui, Fengli; Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Qiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU) rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T ( = CICC 33021 = NYNU 13717). Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants.

  13. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals the New Genus Hemisphaericaspora of the Family Debaryomycetaceae

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Fengli; Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Qiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU) rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T ( = CICC 33021 = NYNU 13717). Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. PMID:25075963

  14. Fungal communities in sediments of subtropical Chinese seas as estimated by DNA metabarcoding

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Meng Meng; Wang, Xi Guang; Cheng, Xiao Li; Guo, Jia Jia; Bian, Xiao Meng; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) metabarcoding was used to investigate the distribution patterns of fungal communities and the factors influencing these patterns in subtropical Chinese seas, including the southern and northern Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. These seas were found to harbor high levels of fungal diversity, with 816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that span 130 known genera, 36 orders, 14 classes and 5 phyla. Ascomycota was the most abundant phylum, containing 72.18% and 79.61% of all OTUs and sequences, respectively, followed by Basidiomycota (19.98%, 18.64%), Zygomycota (1.10%, 0.11%), Chytridiomycota (0.25%, 0.04%) and Rozellomycota (0.12%, 0.006%). The compositions of fungal communities across these three sea regions were found to be vary, which may be attributed to sediment source, geographical distance, latitude and some environmental factors such as the temperature and salinity of bottom water, water depth, total nitrogen, and the ratio of total organic carbon to nitrogen. Among these environmental factors, the temperature of bottom water is the most important driver that governs the distribution patterns of fungal communities across the sampled seas. Our data also suggest that the cold-water mass of the Yellow Sea likely balances competitive relationships between fungal taxa rather than increasing species richness levels. PMID:27198490

  15. Chalkbrood transmission in the alfalfa leafcutting bee: the impact of disinfecting bee cocoons in loose cell management systems.

    PubMed

    James, R R

    2011-08-01

    Understanding pathogen transmission could illuminate new methods for disease prevention. A case in point is chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.)]. Propagation of this solitary bee is severely hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata (Ascomycota). Alfalfa leafcutting bees nest in existing cavities in wood or hollow reeds and overwinter as larvae. In the early summer, emerging adults frequently must chew through dead, diseased siblings that block their exit, becoming contaminated with chalkbrood spores in the process. When alfalfa leafcutting bees are used as a commercial pollinator, the cocoons are removed from nesting boards to reduce chalkbrood transmission, but the disease is still common. To determine if these removed cocoons (called loose cells) are an important source of disease transmission, they were disinfected with a fungicide before bees were incubated, and released in the field. Chalkbrood prevalence among the progeny of the treated bees was reduced up to 50% in one field trial, but not significantly when tested in an on-farm trial. Thus, substantial disease transmission still occurred when the loose cells were disinfected, and even when clean nesting materials were used. In conclusion, pathogen transmission must still be occurring from another source that has yet to be identified. Another possible source of transmission could arise from bees that emerge midsummer in populations with a high percent of multivoltinism, but dirty nesting boards and feral bees also may be minor sources of transmission.

  16. Phylogenomic analysis uncovers the evolutionary history of nutrition and infection mode in rice blast fungus and other Magnaporthales

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Qiu, Huan; Cai, Guohong; Wagner, Nicole E.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Zhang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The order Magnaporthales (Ascomycota, Fungi) includes devastating pathogens of cereals, such as the rice blast fungus Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) oryzae, which is a model in host-pathogen interaction studies. Magnaporthales also includes saprotrophic species associated with grass roots and submerged wood. Despite its scientific and economic importance, the phylogenetic position of Magnaporthales within Sordariomycetes and the interrelationships of its constituent taxa, remain controversial. In this study, we generated novel transcriptome data from 21 taxa that represent key Magnaporthales lineages of different infection and nutrition modes and phenotypes. Phylogenomic analysis of >200 conserved genes allowed the reconstruction of a robust Sordariomycetes tree of life that placed the monophyletic group of Magnaporthales sister to Ophiostomatales. Among Magnaporthales, three major clades were recognized: 1) an early diverging clade A comprised of saprotrophs associated with submerged woods; 2) clade B that includes the rice blast fungus and other pathogens that cause blast diseases of monocot plants. These species infect the above-ground tissues of host plants using the penetration structure, appressorium; and 3) clade C comprised primarily of root-associated species that penetrate the root tissue with hyphopodia. The well-supported phylogenies provide a robust framework for elucidating evolution of pathogenesis, nutrition modes, and phenotypic characters in Magnaporthales. PMID:25819715

  17. Evolution of complex symbiotic relationships in a morphologically derived family of lichen-forming fungi.

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Crespo, Ana; Wedin, Mats; Leavitt, Steven D; Hawksworth, David L; Myllys, Leena; McCune, Bruce; Randlane, Tiina; Bjerke, Jarle W; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Schmitt, Imke; Boluda, Carlos G; Alors, David; Roca-Valiente, Beatriz; Del-Prado, Ruth; Ruibal, Constantino; Buaruang, Kawinnat; Núñez-Zapata, Jano; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rico, Víctor J; Molina, M Carmen; Elix, John A; Esslinger, Theodore L; Tronstad, Inger Kristin K; Lindgren, Hanna; Ertz, Damien; Gueidan, Cécile; Saag, Lauri; Mark, Kristiina; Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Beck, Andreas; Benatti, Michel Navarro; Blanchon, Dan; Candan, Mehmet; Clerc, Philippe; Goward, Trevor; Grube, Martin; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kantvilas, Gintaras; Kirika, Paul M; Lendemer, James; Mattsson, Jan-Eric; Messuti, María Inés; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Nelsen, Matthew; Ohlson, Jan I; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Saag, Andres; Sipman, Harrie J M; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Thell, Arne; Thor, Göran; Truong, Camille; Yahr, Rebecca; Upreti, Dalip K; Cubas, Paloma; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-12-01

    We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi. In all cases, the independent origins occurred c. 24 million yr ago. Further, we show that the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene were key periods when diversification of major lineages within Parmeliaceae occurred, with subsequent radiations occurring primarily during the Oligocene and Miocene. Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the independent origin of lichenicolous fungi associated with climatic shifts at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Moreover, diversification bursts at different times may be crucial factors driving the diversification of Parmeliaceae. Additionally, our study provides novel insight into evolutionary relationships in this large and diverse family of lichen-forming ascomycetes.

  18. Absence of genome reduction in diverse, facultative endohyphal bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Kevin; Arendt, Kayla R.; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T. B. K.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Fungi interact closely with bacteria, both on the surfaces of the hyphae and within their living tissues (i.e. endohyphal bacteria, EHB). These EHB can be obligate or facultative symbionts and can mediate diverse phenotypic traits in their hosts. Although EHB have been observed in many lineages of fungi, it remains unclear how widespread and general these associations are, and whether there are unifying ecological and genomic features can be found across EHB strains as a whole. We cultured 11 bacterial strains after they emerged from the hyphae of diverse Ascomycota that were isolated as foliar endophytes of cupressaceous trees, and generated nearly complete genome sequences for all. Unlike the genomes of largely obligate EHB, the genomes of these facultative EHB resembled those of closely related strains isolated from environmental sources. Although all analysed genomes encoded structures that could be used to interact with eukaryotic hosts, pathways previously implicated in maintenance and establishment of EHB symbiosis were not universally present across all strains. Independent isolation of two nearly identical pairs of strains from different classes of fungi, coupled with recent experimental evidence, suggests horizontal transfer of EHB across endophytic hosts. Given the potential for EHB to influence fungal phenotypes, these genomes could shed light on the mechanisms of plant growth promotion or stress mitigation by fungal endophytes during the symbiotic phase, as well as degradation of plant material during the saprotrophic phase. As such, these findings contribute to the illumination of a new dimension of functional biodiversity in fungi. PMID:28348879

  19. A dehydration-inducible gene in the truffle Tuber borchii identifies a novel group of dehydrins

    PubMed Central

    Abba', Simona; Ghignone, Stefano; Bonfante, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Background The expressed sequence tag M6G10 was originally isolated from a screening for differentially expressed transcripts during the reproductive stage of the white truffle Tuber borchii. mRNA levels for M6G10 increased dramatically during fruiting body maturation compared to the vegetative mycelial stage. Results Bioinformatics tools, phylogenetic analysis and expression studies were used to support the hypothesis that this sequence, named TbDHN1, is the first dehydrin (DHN)-like coding gene isolated in fungi. Homologs of this gene, all defined as "coding for hypothetical proteins" in public databases, were exclusively found in ascomycetous fungi and in plants. Although complete (or almost complete) fungal genomes and EST collections of some Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota are already available, DHN-like proteins appear to be represented only in Ascomycota. A new and previously uncharacterized conserved signature pattern was identified and proposed to Uniprot database as the main distinguishing feature of this new group of DHNs. Expression studies provide experimental evidence of a transcript induction of TbDHN1 during cellular dehydration. Conclusion Expression pattern and sequence similarities to known plant DHNs indicate that TbDHN1 is the first characterized DHN-like protein in fungi. The high similarity of TbDHN1 with homolog coding sequences implies the existence of a novel fungal/plant group of LEA Class II proteins characterized by a previously undescribed signature pattern. PMID:16512918

  20. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem.

  1. Molecular characterization of microbial communities in bioaerosols of a coal mine by 454 pyrosequencing and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Yu, Zhisheng; Zhang, Hongxun

    2015-04-01

    Microbial diversity and abundance in bioaerosols of a coal mine were analyzed based on 454 pyrosequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 37,191 high quality sequences were obtained and could be classified into 531, 1730 and 448 operational taxonomic units respectively for archaea, bacteria and fungi at 97% sequence similarity. The Shannon diversity index for archaea, bacteria and fungi was respectively 4.71, 6.29 and 3.86, indicating a high diversity in coal mine bioaerosols. Crenarchaeota, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were the dominant phyla for archaea, bacteria and fungi, respectively. The concentrations of total archaea, bacteria and fungi were 1.44×10(8), 1.02×10(8) and 9.60×10(4) cells/m3, respectively. Methanotrophs observed in bioaerosols suggested possible methane oxidation in the coal mine. The identified potential pathogens to coal miners, such as Acinetobacter schindleri, Aeromonas cavernicola, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus penicillioides, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium brevicompactum were also observed. This was the first investigation of microbial diversity and abundance in coal mine bioaerosols. The investigation of microbial communities would be favorable in promoting the progress of methane control based on microbial technique and concern on coal miners' health.

  2. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other’s development

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Martina A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  3. 454-Pyrosequencing Reveals Variable Fungal Diversity Across Farming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kazeeroni, Elham A.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Oasis farming system is common in some parts of the world, especially in the Arabian Peninsula and several African countries. In Oman, the farming system in the majority of farms follows a semi-oasis farming (SOF) system, which is characterized by growing multiple crops mainly for home consumption, but also for local market. This study was conducted to investigate fungal diversity using pyrosequencing approach in soils from a farm utilizing a SOF system which is cultivated with date palms, acid limes and cucumbers. Fungal diversity from this farm was compared to that from an organic farm (OR) growing cucumbers and tomatoes. Fungal diversity was found to be variable among different crops in the same farm. The observed OTUs, Chao1 richness estimates and Shannon diversity values indicated that soils from date palms and acid limes have higher fungal diversity compared to soil from cucumbers (SOF). In addition, they also indicated that the level of fungal diversity is higher in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in OR compared to SOF. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum in most of the samples from the OR and SOF farms. Other dominant phyla are Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, and Basidiomycota. The differential level of fungal diversity within the SOF could be related to the variation in the cultural practices employed for each crop. PMID:27014331

  4. Characterization of early microbial communities on volcanic deposits along a vegetation gradient on the island of Miyake, Japan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Suda, Wataru; Kim, Seok-won; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The 2000 eruption of Mount Oyama on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima) created a unique opportunity to study the early ecosystem development on newly exposed terrestrial substrates. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities on 9- and 11-year-old volcanic deposits at poorly to fully vegetation-recovered sites in Miyake-jima, Japan, were characterized by conventional culture-based methods and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Despite the differences in the vegetation cover, the upper volcanic deposit layer samples displayed low among-site variation for chemical properties (pH, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen) and microbial population densities (total direct count and culturable count). Statistical analyses of pyrosequencing data revealed that the microbial communities of volcanic deposit samples were phylogenetically diverse, in spite of very low-carbon environmental conditions, and their diversity was comparable to that in the lower soil layer (buried soil) samples. Comparing with the microbial communities in buried soil, the volcanic deposit communities were characterized by the presence of Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria as the main bacterial class, Deinococcus- Thermus as the minor bacterial phyla, and Ascomycota as the major fungal phyla. Multivariate analysis revealed that several bacterial families and fungal classes correlated positively or negatively with plant species.

  5. Dust Rains Deliver Diverse Assemblages of Microorganisms to the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Itani, Ghida Nouhad; Smith, Colin Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Dust rains may be particularly effective at delivering microorganisms, yet their biodiversities have been seldom examined. During 2011 and 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon, 16 of 21 collected rainfalls appeared dusty. Trajectory modelling of air mass origins was consistent with North African sources and at least one Southwest Asian source. As much as ~4 g particulate matter, ~20 μg DNA, and 50 million colony forming units were found deposited per square meter during rainfalls each lasting less than one day. Sequencing of 93 bacteria and 25 fungi cultured from rain samples revealed diverse bacterial phyla, both Gram positive and negative, and Ascomycota fungi. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of amplified 16S rDNA of 13 rains revealed distinct and diverse assemblages of bacteria. Dust rain 16S libraries yielded 131 sequences matching, in decreasing order of abundance, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria. Clean rain 16S libraries yielded 33 sequences matching only Betaproteobacteria family Oxalobacteraceae. Microbial composition varied between dust rains, and more diverse and different microbes were found in dust rains than clean rains. These results show that dust rains deliver diverse communities of microorganisms that may be complex products of revived desert soil species and fertilized cloud species. PMID:26939571

  6. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wurzbacher, Christian; Grimmett, Ivan J.; Bärlocher, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM , coarse particulate organic matter). Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU), of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina), Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota) dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:26918122

  7. Impact of seasonal changes on fungal diversity of a semi-arid ecosystem revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Gastélum, Lluvia; Romero-Olivares, Adriana L; Escalante, Ana E; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Brizuela, Carlos; Riquelme, Meritxell

    2015-05-01

    Fungi play fundamental ecological roles in terrestrial ecosystems. However, their distribution and diversity remain poorly described in natural communities, particularly in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. In order to identify environmental factors determining fungal community structure in these systems, we assessed their diversity in conjunction with soil physicochemical characteristics in a semi-arid ecosystem in Baja California, Mexico, endemic for Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever). Two different microhabitats, burrows (influenced by rodent activity) and topsoil, were compared in winter and summer. Using a metagenomic approach, the ITS1 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA was used as barcode. A total of 1940 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified from 362 332 ITS1 sequences obtained by 454 pyrosequencing. Differences in fungal composition between seasons were clearly identified. Moreover, differences in composition between microhabitats were mainly correlated to significant differences in environmental factors, such as moisture and clay content in topsoil samples, and temperature and electrical conductivity in burrow samples. Overall, the fungal community structure (dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) was less variable between seasons in burrow than in topsoil samples. Coccidioides spp. went undetected by pyrosequencing. However, a nested PCR approach revealed its higher prevalence in burrows.

  8. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  9. The earliest records of internally stratified cyanobacterial and algal lichens from the Lower Devonian of the Welsh Borderland.

    PubMed

    Honegger, Rosmarie; Edwards, Dianne; Axe, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Lichenization is assumed to be a very ancient mode of fungal nutrition, but fossil records are rare. Here we describe two fragments of exceptionally preserved, probably charred, lichen thalli with internal stratification. Cyanolichenomycites devonicus has a cyanobacterial and Chlorolichenomycites salopensis a unicellular, presumably green algal photobiont. Fruiting bodies are missing. Cyanolichenomycites devonicus forms asexual spores in a pycnidium. All specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy techniques. The fossils were extracted by maceration. Extant lichens and free-living cyanobacteria were either experimentally charcoalified for comparison or conventionally prepared. Based on their septate hyphal structure, both specimens are tentatively interpreted as representatives of the Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota). Their presence in 415 million yr (Myr) old rocks from the Welsh Borderland predates existing Late Cretaceous records of pycnidial conidiomata by some 325 Myr and Triassic records of lichens with broadly similar organization by some 195 Myr. These fossils represent the oldest known record of lichens with symbionts and anatomy as typically found in morphologically advanced taxa today. The latter does not apply to Winfrenatia reticulata, the enigmatic crustose lichen fossil from the Lower Devonian, nor to presumed lichen-like organisms such as the Cambrian Farghera robusta or to the Lower Devonian Spongiophyton minutissimum.

  10. Do photobionts influence the ecology of lichens? A case study of environmental preferences in symbiotic green alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Peksa, Ondřej; Skaloud, Pavel

    2011-09-01

    The distribution patterns of symbiotic algae are thought to be conferred mainly by their hosts, however, they may originate in algal environmental requirements as well. In lichens, predominantly terrestrial associations of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria, the ecological preferences of photobionts have not been directly studied so far. Here, we examine the putative environmental requirements in lichenized alga Asterochloris, and search for the existence of ecological guilds in Asterochloris-associating lichens. Therefore, the presence of phylogenetic signal in several environmental traits was tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated set of internal transcribed spacer rDNA and actin type I intron sequences from photobionts associated with lichens of the genera Lepraria and Stereocaulon (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) revealed 13 moderately to well-resolved clades. Photobionts from particular algal clades were found to be associated with taxonomically different, but ecologically similar lichens. The rain and sun exposure were the most significant environmental factor, clearly distinguishing the Asterochloris lineages. The photobionts from ombrophobic and ombrophilic lichens were clustered in completely distinct clades. Moreover, two photobiont taxa were obviously differentiated based on their substrate and climatic preferences. Our study, thus reveals that the photobiont, generally the subsidiary member of the symbiotic lichen association, could exhibit clear preferences for environmental factors. These algal preferences may limit the ecological niches available to lichens and lead to the existence of specific lichen guilds.

  11. Phylogenetic diversity and antibacterial activity of culturable fungi derived from the zoanthid Palythoa haddoni in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Kai-Lin; Li, Jing; Wang, Chang-Yun; Shao, Chang-Lun

    2015-02-01

    Investigation on diversity of culturable fungi mainly focused on sponges and corals, yet little attention had been paid to the fungal communities associated with zoanthid corals. In this study, a total of 193 culturable fungal strains were isolated from the zoanthid Palythoa haddoni collected in the South China Sea, of which 49 independent isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses. Thirty-five strains were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on fungal ITS sequences. The results indicated that 18 genera within eight taxonomic orders of two phyla (seven orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) together with one unidentified fungal strain have been achieved, and Cladosporium sp. represented the dominant culturable genus. Particularly, 14 genera were isolated from a zoanthid for the first time. The antibacterial activities of organic extracts of mycelia and fermentation broth of 49 identified fungi were evaluated, and 29 (59.2 %) of the isolates displayed broad-spectrum or selective antibacterial activity. More interestingly, more than 60 % of the active fungal strains showed strong activity against two aquatic pathogenic bacteria Nocardia brasiliensis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, compared with other pathogenic bacteria, indicating that zoanthid-derived fungi may protect its host against pathogens. This is the first report of systematically phylogenetic diversity and extensively antibacterial activity of zoanthid-derived fungi.

  12. Cercosporoid fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) 4. Species on dicots (Acanthaceae to Amaranthaceae).

    PubMed

    Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Nakashima, Chiharu

    2015-12-01

    The present paper continues a series of comprehensive taxonomic treatments of cercosporoid fungi (formerly Cercospora s. lat.), belonging to the Mycosphaerellaceae (Ascomycota). The fourth contribution of this series initiates treatments of cercosporoid fungi on dicots and comprises species occurring on hosts belonging the the families Acanthaceae, Actinidiaceae, Adoxaceae, Aizoaceae, Altingiaceae, and Amaranthaceae. The species are described and illustrated in alphabetical order under the particular cercosporoid genera, supplemented by keys to the species concerned. A detailed introduction, a survey of currently recognised cercosporoid genera, a key to the genera concerned, and a discussion of taxonomically relevant characters were published in the first part of this series. The following taxonomic novelties are introduced: Cercospora blepharidicola nom. nov., C. celosiigena sp. nov., C. justiciae-adhatodae sp. nov., C. justiciigena nom. nov., C. sambucicola nom. nov., C. thunbergiigena nom. nov., Cercosporella pseudachyranthis comb. nov., Pseudocercospora cyathulae comb. nov., P. depazeoides comb. nov., P. varia var. viburni-sargentii var. nov., P. viburnicola sp. nov., P. viburni-erosi sp. nov., and P. viburni-nudi sp. nov.

  13. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines.

  14. Profiling Microbial Communities in Manganese Remediation Systems Treating Coal Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Colleen M.; Burgos, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Water discharging from abandoned coal mines can contain extremely high manganese levels. Removing this metal is an ongoing challenge. Passive Mn(II) removal beds (MRBs) contain microorganisms that oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble Mn(III/IV) minerals, but system performance is unpredictable. Using amplicon pyrosequencing, we profiled the bacterial, fungal, algal, and archaeal communities in four MRBs, performing at different levels, in Pennsylvania to determine whether they differed among MRBs and from surrounding soil and to establish the relative abundance of known Mn(II) oxidizers. Archaea were not detected; PCRs with archaeal primers returned only nontarget bacterial sequences. Fungal taxonomic profiles differed starkly between sites that remove the majority of influent Mn and those that do not, with the former being dominated by Ascomycota (mostly Dothideomycetes) and the latter by Basidiomycota (almost entirely Agaricomycetes). Taxonomic profiles for the other groups did not differ significantly between MRBs, but operational taxonomic unit-based analyses showed significant clustering by MRB with all three groups (P < 0.05). Soil samples clustered separately from MRBs in all groups except fungi, whose soil samples clustered loosely with their respective MRB. Known Mn(II) oxidizers accounted for a minor proportion of bacterial sequences (up to 0.20%) but a greater proportion of fungal sequences (up to 14.78%). MRB communities are more diverse than previously thought, and more organisms may be capable of Mn(II) oxidation than are currently known. PMID:25595765

  15. Fungal Community Successions in Rhizosphere Sediment of Seagrasses Enhalus acoroides under PAHs Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Juan; Zhang, Yanying; Wu, Meilin; Wang, Youshao; Dong, Junde; Jiang, Yufeng; Yang, Qingsong; Zeng, Siquan

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows represent one of the highest productive marine ecosystems and are of great ecological and economic values. Recently, they have been confronted with worldwide decline. Fungi play important roles in sustaining the ecosystem health as degraders of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but fewer studies have been conducted in seagrass ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the dynamic variations of the fungal community succession under PAH stress in rhizosphere sediment of seagrasses Enhalus acoroides in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a clone library have been employed to analyze the fungal community’s shifts. Sequencing results of DGGE and the clone library showed that the predominant species belong to phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The abundance of three groups decreased sharply over the incubation period, whereas they demonstrated different fungal diversity patterns. Both the exposure time and the PAH concentrations affected the microbial diversity as assessed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that significant factors driving community shifts were ammonium and pH (p < 0.05). Significant amounts of the variations (31.1%) were explained by pH and ammonium, illustrating that those two parameters were the most likely ones to influence or be influenced by the fungal communities’ changes. Investigation results also indicated that fungal communities in seagrass meadow were very sensitive to PAH-induced stress and may be used as potential indicators for the PAH contamination. PMID:26096007

  16. Epipolythiodiketopiperazines from the Marine Derived Fungus Dichotomomyces cejpii with NF-κB Inhibitory Potential

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Henrik; Orlikova, Barbora; Ji, Seungwon; Nesaei-Mosaferan, Damun; König, Gabriele M.; Diederich, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The Ascomycota Dichotomomyces cejpii was isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia cf. C. flammea. A new gliotoxin derivative, 6-acetylmonodethiogliotoxin (1) was obtained from fungal extracts. Compounds 2 and 3, methylthio-gliotoxin derivatives were formerly only known as semi-synthetic compounds and are here described as natural products. Additionally the polyketide heveadride (4) was isolated. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 dose-dependently down-regulated TNFα-induced NF-κB activity in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells with IC50s of 38.5 ± 1.2 µM, 65.7 ± 2.0 µM and 82.7 ± 11.3 µM, respectively. The molecular mechanism was studied with the most potent compound 1 and results indicate downstream inhibitory effects targeting binding of NF-κB to DNA. Compound 1 thus demonstrates potential of epimonothiodiketopiperazine-derived compounds for the development of NF-κB inhibitors. PMID:26258781

  17. [Organization and preservation of the collection of pathogenic and fungal symbionts of insects and other arthropods from CEPAVE (CONICET-UNLP), La Plata, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandra Concepción; Tornesello-Galván, Julieta; Manfrino, Romina Guadalupe; Hipperdinger, Marcela; Falvo, Marianel; D'Alessandro, Celeste; López Lastra, Claudia Cristina

    2017-03-17

    The collection of fungal pathogens and symbionts of insects and other arthropods of the Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores, La Plata, Argentina, is unique because it preserves in vivo and in vitro cultures of fungal pathogens. This culture collection is open for research, teaching, consulting services, and strain deposit. It contains 421 strains belonging to 23 genera (16 Ascomycota, 4 Entomophthoromycotina, 2 Glomeromycota and 1 Oomycota), and the cultures are preserved by different methods such as cryopreservation in freezer at -20°C and -70°C, paper, distilled water and lyophilization. Fungi were isolated from insects, other arthropods, and soil (by using insect baits and selective media). Species were identified by morphological features and in a few strains by molecular taxonomy (PCR of rDNA). This collection is a reference center for species identification/certifications, research and teaching purposes, strain deposit, transference and consultancy services, and its overall goal is to preserve the fungal germplasm and ex situ diversity. Most of the strains are native of Argentina. The collection was originated in 1988 and is registered in the Latin American Federation for Culture Collections and in the World Federation of Culture Collections.

  18. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, María E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  19. Growth Inhibition of Beauveria bassiana by Bacteria Isolated from the Cuticular Surface of the Corn Leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis and the Planthopper, Delphacodes kuscheli, Two Important Vectors of Maize Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, A.V.; Alippi, A.M.; de Remes Lenicov, A.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The phytosanitary importance of the corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (De Long and Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and the planthopper, Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) lies in their ability to transmit phloem-associated plant pathogens, mainly viruses and mollicutes, and to cause considerable mechanical damage to corn plants during feeding and oviposition. Fungi, particularly some members of the Ascomycota, are likely candidates for biocontrol agents against these insect pests, but several studies revealed their failure to invade the insect cuticle possibly because of the presence of inhibitory compounds such as phenols, quinones, and lipids and also by the antibiosis effect of the microbiota living on the cuticular surface of the host. The present work aims to understand interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamao-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and bacterial antagonists isolated from the cuticular surface of D. maidis and D. kuscheli. A total of 155 bacterial isolates were recovered from the insect's cuticle and tested against B. bassiana. Ninety-one out of 155 strains inhibited the growth of B. bassiana. Bacterial strains isolated from D. maidis were significantly more antagonistic against B. bassiana than those isolates from D. kuscheli. Among the most effective antagonistic strains, six isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaeae (after B. subtilis)), one isolate of B. mycoides Flügge, eight isolates of B. megaterium de Bary, five isolates of B.pumilus Meyer and Gottheil, one isolate of B. licheniformis (Weigmann) Chester, and four isolates of B. subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn were identified. PMID:21529147

  20. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations

    DOE PAGES

    Caio T.C.C. Rachid; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; ...

    2015-02-23

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments:more » monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.« less

  1. Cellulose utilization in forest litter and soil: identification of bacterial and fungal decomposers.

    PubMed

    Stursová, Martina; Zifčáková, Lucia; Leigh, Mary Beth; Burgess, Robert; Baldrian, Petr

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter decomposition in the globally widespread coniferous forests has an important role in the carbon cycle, and cellulose decomposition is especially important in this respect because cellulose is the most abundant polysaccharide in plant litter. Cellulose decomposition was 10 times faster in the fungi-dominated litter of Picea abies forest than in the bacteria-dominated soil. In the soil, the added (13)C-labelled cellulose was the main source of microbial respiration and was preferentially accumulated in the fungal biomass and cellulose induced fungal proliferation. In contrast, in the litter, bacterial biomass showed higher labelling after (13)C-cellulose addition and bacterial biomass increased. While 80% of the total community was represented by 104-106 bacterial and 33-59 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 80% of the cellulolytic communities of bacteria and fungi were only composed of 8-18 highly abundant OTUs. Both the total and (13)C-labelled communities differed substantially between the litter and soil. Cellulolytic bacteria in the acidic topsoil included Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria, whereas these typically found in neutral soils were absent. Most fungal cellulose decomposers belonged to Ascomycota; cellulolytic Basidiomycota were mainly represented by the yeasts Trichosporon and Cryptococcus. Several bacteria and fungi demonstrated here to derive their carbon from cellulose were previously not recognized as cellulolytic.

  2. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  3. Application of temperature gradient gel electrophoresis to the study of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2004-12-01

    Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was employed for the assessment of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river (Portugal). The molecular detection of yeasts was carried out directly from water samples and, in parallel, a cultivation approach by means of an enrichment step was employed. A nested PCR was employed to obtain a fungal amplicon containing the D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For identification the TGGE bands were extracted, re-amplified, and sequenced. Fourteen fungal taxa were detected and all except one were yeasts. Most yeast sequences corresponded to members of the Ascomycota and only three belonged to the Basidiomycota. Five yeasts (four ascomycetes and one basidiomycete) could not be identified to the species level due to the uniqueness of their sequences. The number of species detected after enrichment was higher than the number of taxa found using the direct detection method. This suggests that some yeast populations are present in densities that are below the detection threshold of the method. With respect to the analysis of the yeast community structure, our results indicate that the dominant populations belong to Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus longus, and to an uncultured basidiomycetous yeast phylogenetically close to Cr. longus. The combined analysis of direct detection and cultivation approaches indicates a similar community structure at the two sampled sites since nine species were present at both localities.

  4. The Polyketide Synthase Gene pks4 of Trichoderma reesei Provides Pigmentation and Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Lea; Knox, Benjamin P.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are well-known for their production of various secondary metabolites. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides represent a major portion of these products. In a recent phylogenomic investigation of Trichoderma polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding genes, the pks4 from T. reesei was shown to be an orthologue of pigment-forming PKSs involved in synthesis of aurofusarin and bikaverin in Fusarium spp. In this study, we show that deletion of this gene in T. reesei results in loss of green conidial pigmentation and in pigmentation alteration of teleomorph structures. It also has an impact on conidial cell wall stability and the antagonistic abilities of T. reesei against other fungi, including formation of inhibitory metabolites. In addition, deletion of pks4 significantly influences the expression of other PKS-encoding genes of T. reesei. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that a low-molecular-weight pigment-forming PKS is involved in defense, mechanical stability, and stress resistance in fungi. PMID:24036343

  5. Novel Introner-Like Elements in fungi Are Involved in Parallel Gains of Spliceosomal Introns

    PubMed Central

    Crous, Pedro W.; de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; van der Burgt, Ate

    2015-01-01

    Spliceosomal introns are key components of the eukaryotic gene structure. Although they contributed to the emergence of eukaryotes, their origin remains elusive. In fungi, they might originate from the multiplication of invasive introns named Introner-Like Elements (ILEs). However, so far ILEs have been observed in six fungal species only, including Fulvia fulva and Dothistroma septosporum (Dothideomycetes), arguing against ILE insertion as a general mechanism for intron gain. Here, we identified novel ILEs in eight additional fungal species that are phylogenetically related to F. fulva and D. septosporum using PCR amplification with primers derived from previously identified ILEs. The ILE content appeared unique to each species, suggesting independent multiplication events. Interestingly, we identified four genes each containing two gained ILEs. By analysing intron positions in orthologues of these four genes in Ascomycota, we found that three ILEs had inserted within a 15 bp window that contains regular spliceosomal introns in other fungal species. These three positions are not the result of intron sliding because ILEs are newly gained introns. Furthermore, the alternative hypothesis of an inferred ancestral gain followed by independent losses contradicts the observed degeneration of ILEs. These observations clearly indicate three parallel intron gains in four genes that were randomly identified. Our findings suggest that parallel intron gain is a phenomenon that has been highly underestimated in ILE-containing fungi, and likely in the whole fungal kingdom. PMID:26046656

  6. Hydrocarbon-degrading filamentous fungi isolated from flare pit soils in northern and western Canada.

    PubMed

    April, T M; Foght, J M; Currah, R S

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-four species of filamentous fungi from five flare pits in northern and western Canada were tested for their ability to degrade crude oil using gas chromatographic analysis of residual hydrocarbons following incubation. Nine isolates were tested further using radiorespirometry to determine the extent of mineralization of model radiolabelled aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in crude oil. Hydrocarbon biodegradation capability was observed in species representing six orders of the Ascomycota. Gas chromatography indicated that species capable of hydrocarbon degradation attacked compounds within the aliphatic fraction of crude oil, n-C12-n-C26; degradation of compounds within the aromatic fraction was not observed. Radiorespirometry, using n-[1-14C]hexadecane and [9-14C]phenanthrene, confirmed the gas chromatographic results and verified that aliphatic compounds were being mineralized, not simply transformed to intermediate metabolites. This study shows that filamentous fungi may play an integral role in the in situ biodegradation of aliphatic pollutants in flare pit soils.

  7. An Endohyphal Bacterium (Chitinophaga, Bacteroidetes) Alters Carbon Source Use by Fusarium keratoplasticum (F. solani Species Complex, Nectriaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Justin P.; U'Ren, Jana M.; Gallery, Rachel E.; Baltrus, David A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts occur in diverse fungi, including members of many lineages of Ascomycota that inhabit living plants. These endosymbiotic bacteria (endohyphal bacteria, EHB) often can be removed from living fungi by antibiotic treatment, providing an opportunity to assess their effects on functional traits of their fungal hosts. We examined the effects of an endohyphal bacterium (Chitinophaga sp., Bacteroidetes) on substrate use by its host, a seed-associated strain of the fungus Fusarium keratoplasticum, by comparing growth between naturally infected and cured fungal strains across 95 carbon sources with a Biolog® phenotypic microarray. Across the majority of substrates (62%), the strain harboring the bacterium significantly outperformed the cured strain as measured by respiration and hyphal density. These substrates included many that are important for plant- and seed-fungus interactions, such as D-trehalose, myo-inositol, and sucrose, highlighting the potential influence of EHB on the breadth and efficiency of substrate use by an important Fusarium species. Cases in which the cured strain outperformed the strain harboring the bacterium were observed in only 5% of substrates. We propose that additive or synergistic substrate use by the fungus-bacterium pair enhances fungal growth in this association. More generally, alteration of the breadth or efficiency of substrate use by dispensable EHB may change fungal niches in short timeframes, potentially shaping fungal ecology and the outcomes of fungal-host interactions. PMID:28382021

  8. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad

    PubMed Central

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Kirchner, Timothy; de Quadros, Patricia Dorr; Triplett, Eric W; Broughton, William J; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-01-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that the samples contained a large variety of microbes well adapted to the harsh desert conditions. The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes—Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria—Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria—Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes—Cytophagaceae. Ascomycota was the overwhelmingly dominant fungal group followed by Basidiomycota and traces of Chytridiomycota, Microsporidia and Glomeromycota. Two freshwater algae (Trebouxiophyceae) were isolated. Most predominant taxa are widely distributed land inhabitants that are common in soil and on the surfaces of plants. Examples include Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate and fix nitrogen in Acacia species, the predominant trees of the Sahara as well as Herbaspirillum (Oxalobacteraceae), a group of chemoorganotrophic free-living soil inhabitants that fix nitrogen in association with Gramineae roots. Few pathogenic strains were found, suggesting that African dust is not a large threat to public health. PMID:23254516

  9. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs.

  10. Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/ PMID:21622642

  11. The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Cameron R.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

    1999-01-01

    Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized parasites that are only known from attine gardens and that are found in most attine nests. These specialized garden parasites, belonging to the microfungus genus Escovopsis (Ascomycota: anamorphic Hypocreales), are horizontally transmitted between colonies. Consistent with theory of virulence evolution under this mode of pathogen transmission, Escovopsis is highly virulent and has the potential for rapid devastation of ant gardens, leading to colony mortality. The specialized parasite Escovopsis is more prevalent in gardens of the more derived ant lineages than in gardens of the more “primitive” (basal) ant lineages. Because fungal cultivars of derived attine lineages are asexual clones of apparently ancient origin whereas cultivars of primitive ant lineages were domesticated relatively recently from free-living sexual stocks, the increased virulence of pathogens associated with ancient asexual cultivars suggests an evolutionary cost to cultivar clonality, perhaps resulting from slower evolutionary rates of cultivars in the coevolutionary race with their pathogens. PMID:10393936

  12. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria bassiana associated with auger beetle (Sinoxylon anale) infesting allspice (Pimenta dioica).

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; D'Silva, Sharon; Nandeesh, P G

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of auger beetle, Sinoxylon anale Lesne (Bostrichidae: Coleoptera), a destructive pest of cosmopolitan occurrence is reported for the first time on allspice trees, Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. in Kerala, India. The insects bored through the basal region of fresh twigs resulting in dieback symptoms. Morphological characterization and sequencing of a partially amplified fragment of the mitochondrial CO1 gene (696bp) revealed the insect to be Sinoxylon anale. An entomopathogenic fungus was isolated from infected cadavers of S. anale that was identified as Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., sensu stricto (s.s.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) based on morphological and molecular studies. The partial sequences of the ITS, TUB, TEF and Bloc gene regions were sequenced. The fungus grew well in ambient room temperature conditions (28-32±2°C; 60-70% relative humidity) and the infection process on the insect was documented by scanning electron microscopy. Bioassay studies with the isolate indicated that the fungus was virulent against adult beetles as evidenced by the LC50 (3.6×10(6)conidia/ml) and ST50 values (6.8days at a dose of 1×10(7)conidia/ml and 5.8days at a dose of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, respectively). This is the first record of B. bassiana naturally infecting S. anale and the fungus holds promise to be developed as a mycoinsecticide.

  13. Blackpatch of Clover, Cause of Slobbers Syndrome: A Review of the Disease and the Pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Isabelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine) that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine causes livestock to salivate profusely, and swainsonine causes neurological problems. Although the blackpatch fungus was classified as a Rhizoctonia species (phylum Basidiomycota), morphological studies have indicated that it is in the phylum Ascomycota, and sequencing data have indicated that it may be a new genus of ascomycete. The effects of the alkaloids on grazing mammals and their biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied. In contrast, few studies have been done on management of the disease, which requires a greater understanding of the pathogen. Methods of disease management have included seed treatments and fungicides, but these have not been investigated since the 1950s. Searches for resistant cultivars have been limited. This review summarizes the biological effects and biosynthetic precursors of slaframine and swainsonine. Emphasis is placed on current knowledge about the epidemiology of blackpatch disease and the ecology and taxonomy of the pathogen. Possibilities for future research and disease management efforts are suggested. PMID:26858953

  14. [Isolation of wood-decaying fungi and evaluation of their enzymatic activity (Quindío, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Deisy Fernanda; Rosas, Diana Carolina; Varela, Amanda

    2009-12-31

    White rot fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) were collected on fallen trunks with different decay stages, in a subandean forest (La Montaña del Ocaso nature reserve), and it was evaluated their ligninolitic activity. They were cultured on malt extract agar. Then it was performed semiquantitative tests for laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) activity using ABTS and DCPIP as enzymatic inducers. Based on the results of these tests, the fungi with higher activities from trunks with different decay stages were selected: Cookeina sulcipes (for stage 1), a fungus from the family Corticiaceae (for stage 2), Xylaria polymorpha (for stage 3) and Earliella sp. (for stage 4). A fermentation was performed at 28 degrees C, during 11 days, in a rotatory shaker at 150 rpm. Biomass, glucose, proteins and enzyme activities measurements were performed daily. The fungi that were in the trunks with decay states from 1 to 3, showed higher laccase activity as the state of decay increased. A higher DCH activity was also associated with a higher. Also, there was a positive relationship between both enzymes' activities. Erliella was the fungus which presented the highest biomass production (1140,19 g/l), laccase activity (157 UL(-1)) and CDH activity (43,50 UL(-1)). This work is the first report of laccase and CDH activity for Cookeina sulcipes and Earliella sp. Moreover, it gives basis for the use of these native fungi in biotechnological applications and the acknowledgment of their function in the wood decay process in native forest.

  15. Molecular Phylogeny and Morphology of Mycosphaerella nawae, the Causal Agent of Circular Leaf Spot on Persimmon

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Yeol; Lim, Yang-Sook

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phylogeny and morphology of Mycosphaerella nawae (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were examined using Korean and Japanese isolates, to establish the phylogenetic relationship between M. nawae and its allied species. Korean and Japanese isolates of M. nawae were collected from circular leaf spot-diseased leaves and were confirmed based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using multiple genes, including the ITS region, 28S rDNA, β-tubulin, translation elongation factor-1α, and actin genes. Our results revealed that M. nawae is closely related to members of the genus Phaeophleospora but are distant from the Ramularia spp. In addition, microscopic analysis revealed pseudothecia on the adaxial and abaxial surface of overwintered diseased leaves (ODL) and only on the abaxial surface of diseased leaves. Ascospores are oval to fusiform, one-septate, tapered at both ends, 1.7~3.1 × 8.1~14.1 µm, and were observed in ODL. Conidia are oval, guttulate, one-septate, 3.5~4.9 × 12.8~19.8 µm, and barely discernable on 30-day cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the phylogeny of M. nawae, which is closely related to the genus Phaeophleospora, especially P. scytalidii. PMID:28154478

  16. The Distribution and Identity of Edaphic Fungi in the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    PubMed Central

    Dreesens, Lisa L.; Lee, Charles K.; Cary, S. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to earlier assumptions, molecular evidence has demonstrated the presence of diverse and localized soil bacterial communities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Meanwhile, it remains unclear whether fungal signals so far detected in Dry Valley soils using both culture-based and molecular techniques represent adapted and ecologically active biomass or spores transported by wind. Through a systematic and quantitative molecular survey, we identified significant heterogeneities in soil fungal communities across the Dry Valleys that robustly correlate with heterogeneities in soil physicochemical properties. Community fingerprinting analysis and 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer region revealed different levels of heterogeneity in fungal diversity within individual Dry Valleys and a surprising abundance of Chytridiomycota species, whereas previous studies suggested that Dry Valley soils were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Critically, we identified significant differences in fungal community composition and structure of adjacent sites with no obvious barrier to aeolian transport between them. These findings suggest that edaphic fungi of the Antarctic Dry Valleys are adapted to local environments and represent an ecologically relevant (and possibly important) heterotrophic component of the ecosystem. PMID:25079129

  17. Amid the possible causes of a very famous foxing: molecular and microscopic insight into Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait

    PubMed Central

    Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja; Pinzari, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait is affected by foxing spots. The portrait has no fungal or bacterial infections in place, but is contaminated with airborne spores and fungal material that could play a role in its disfigurement. The knowledge of the nature of the stains is of great concern because future conservation treatments should be derived from scientific investigations. The lack of reliable scientific data, due to the non‐culturability of the microorganisms inhabiting the portrait, prompted the investigation of the drawing using non‐invasive and micro‐invasive sampling, in combination with scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and molecular techniques. The fungus E urotium halophilicum was found in foxing spots using SEM analyses. Oxalates of fungal origin were also documented. Both findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tonophilic fungi germinate on paper metabolizing organic acids, oligosaccharides and proteic compounds, which react chemically with the material at a low water activity, forming brown products and oxidative reactions resulting in foxing spots. Additionally, molecular techniques enabled a screening of the fungi inhabiting the portrait and showed differences when different sampling techniques were employed. Swabs samples showed a high abundance of lichenized Ascomycota, while the membrane filters showed a dominance of A cremonium sp. colonizing the drawing. PMID:26111623

  18. [Treatment of fungal infections of upper respiratory tract and ear].

    PubMed

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Kurnatowska, Agnieszka K

    2007-01-01

    Fungi, in comparison with other pathogenic factors, have high pathogenicity. The number of fungal species which are able to infect people is over 500. The upper respiratory tract and ear have permanent contact with external environment which makes their ontocenoses open to continuous exchange of microorganisms of which they consist. In etiology of inflammatory processes 21 species which belonging to 3 genera (Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) of fungi play important role. Administration of antifungal drugs can be: prophylactic, empiric preemptive and therapeutic. Physicians may prescribe antibiotics (mainly pollens: amphotericin B, natamycin and nystatin) and chemiotherapeutics (mainly azoles and fluorpirymidins, pigments, chlorhexidine and chlorquinaldol). In ENT practice topical and systemic drugs can be administrated. Topical lozenges include amphotericin B, clotrimazole, chlorhexidine or chlorquinaldol and oral gels: nystatin and miconazole. Some of drugs are in the form of suspension/solution, which can be used for inhalation, into the sinus, for swabbing or for lavage: amphotericin B, natamycin, nystatin, clotrimazol, flucytosine, miconazole, fluconazole, vorykonazole, caspofungin. It should be underlined that only a few of dugs can be absorbed from the digestive tract: flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, vorykonazole.

  19. Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma

    PubMed Central

    Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Stadler, Marc; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) are described from recent collections in southern Europe and the Canary Islands. They have been characterized by morphological and molecular methods, including microscopic examination of the teleomorph in thin sections, the anamorph, growth rate experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on a part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1) containing the two last introns and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Analyses involving tef1 did not unequivocally resolve the sister clade relationship of Hypocrea caerulescens relative to the Koningii and Viride clades, while analyses based on rpb2 clearly suggest a close relationship with the former, although the phenotype of H. caerulescens is similar to H. viridescens, particularly by its warted conidia and a coconut-like odor in CMD culture. Hypocrea hispanica and T. samuelsii however are clearly related to the Viride clade by both phylogenetic markers, despite their morphological similarity to H. koningii and its relatives. An apparently specific blue pigment is formed in CMD cultures by Hypocrea caerulescens but could not be obtained by extraction with organic solvents. PMID:22453122

  20. Diversity and community structure of fungi through a permafrost core profile from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Li, Dingyao; Cheng, Gang; Mu, Jing; Wu, Qingbai; Niu, Fujun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-12-01

    While a vast number of studies have addressed the prokaryotic diversity in permafrost, characterized by subzero temperatures, low water activity, and extremely low rates of nutrient and metabolite transfer, fungal patterns have received surprisingly limited attention. Here, the fungal diversity and community structure were investigated by culture-dependent technique combined with cloning-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of sediments in a 10-m-long permafrost core from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. A total of 62 fungal phylotypes related to 10 distinct classes representing three phyla were recovered from 5031 clones generated in 13 environmental gene libraries. A large proportion of the phylotypes (25/62) that were distantly related to described fungal species appeared to be novel diversity. Ascomycota was the predominant group of fungi, with respect to both clone and phylotype number. Our results suggested there was the existence of cosmopolitan psychrophilic or psychrotolerant fungi in permafrost sediments, the community composition of fungi varied with increasing depth, while these communities largely distributed according to core layers.

  1. Systematic search for cultivatable fungi that best deconstruct cell walls of Miscanthus and sugarcane in the field.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prachand; Szaro, Timothy M; Bruns, Thomas D; Taylor, John W

    2011-08-01

    The goals of our project were to document the diversity and distributions of cultivable fungi associated with decaying Miscanthus and sugarcane plants in nature and to further assess biodegradation of host plant cell walls by these fungi in pure cultures. Late in 2008 and early in 2009 we collected decaying Miscanthus and Saccharum from 8 sites in Illinois and 11 sites in Louisiana, respectively. To recover fungi that truly decay plants and to recover slow-growing fungi, we washed the plant material repeatedly to remove spores and cultivated fungi from plant fragments small enough to harbor at most one mycelium. We randomly selected 950 fungal colonies out of 4,560 microwell colonies and used molecular identification to discover that the most frequently recovered fungal species resided in Hypocreales (Sordariomycetes), Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes), and Chaetothryiales (Eurotiomycetes) and that only a few weedy species were recovered. We were particularly interested in Pleosporales and Chaetothyriales, groups that have not been mined for plant decay fungi. To confirm that we had truly recovered fungi that deconstruct plant cell walls, we assayed the capacity of the fungi to consume whole, alkali-pretreated, ground Miscanthus. Solid substrate cultures of the nine most commonly encountered Ascomycota resulted in Miscanthus weight loss of 8 to 13% over 4 weeks. This is the first systematic, high-throughput, isolation and biodegradation assessment of fungi isolated from decaying bioenergy grasses.

  2. Marine Drugs from Sponge-Microbe Association—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tresa Remya A.; Kavlekar, Devanand P.; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam A.

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this review is the biodiversity of marine sponges and associated microbes which have been reported to produce therapeutically important compounds, along with the contextual information on their geographic distribution. Class Demospongiae and the orders Halichondrida, Poecilosclerida and Dictyoceratida are the richest sources of these compounds. Among the microbial associates, members of the bacterial phylum Actinobacteria and fungal division Ascomycota have been identified to be the dominant producers of therapeutics. Though the number of bacterial associates outnumber the fungal associates, the documented potential of fungi to produce clinically active compounds is currently more important than that of bacteria. Interestingly, production of a few identical compounds by entirely different host-microbial associations has been detected in both terrestrial and marine environments. In the Demospongiae, microbial association is highly specific and so to the production of compounds. Besides, persistent production of bioactive compounds has also been encountered in highly specific host-symbiont associations. Though spatial and temporal variations are known to have a marked effect on the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds, only a few studies have covered these dimensions. The need to augment production of these compounds through tissue culture and mariculture has also been stressed. The reviewed database of these compounds is available at www.niobioinformatics.in/drug.php. PMID:20479984

  3. Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan; Lian, Bin

    2012-06-01

    The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis.

  4. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Vívian N; Cantrell, Charles L; Wedge, David E; Ferreira, Mariana C; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Jacob, Melissa R; Oliveira, Fabio S; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Junior, Policarpo A S; Murta, Silvane; Romanha, Alvaro J; Barbosa, Emerson C; Kroon, Erna G; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Galetovic, Alexandra; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity of cultivable rock-associated fungi from Atacama Desert. A total of 81 fungal isolates obtained were identified as 29 Ascomycota taxa by sequencing different regions of DNA. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium cf. citrinum were the most frequent species, which occur at least in four different altitudes. The diversity and similarity indices ranged in the fungal communities across the latitudinal gradient. The Fisher-α index displayed the higher values for the fungal communities obtained from the siltstone and fine matrix of pyroclastic rocks with finer grain size, which are more degraded. A total of 23 fungal extracts displayed activity against the different targets screened. The extract of P. chrysogenum afforded the compounds α-linolenic acid and ergosterol endoperoxide, which were active against Cryptococcus neoformans and methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Our study represents the first report of a new habitat of fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert and indicated the presence of interesting fungal community, including species related with saprobes, parasite/pathogen and mycotoxigenic taxa. The geological characteristics of the rocks, associated with the presence of rich resident/resilient fungal communities suggests that the rocks may provide a favourable microenvironment fungal colonization, survival and dispersal in extreme conditions.

  5. Seasonal trends in the biomass and structure of bryophyte-associated fungal communities explored by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Davey, Marie L; Heegaard, Einar; Halvorsen, Rune; Ohlson, Mikael; Kauserud, Håvard

    2012-09-01

    Bryophytes are a dominant vegetation component of the boreal forest, but little is known about their associated fungal communities, including seasonal variation within them. Seasonal variation in the fungal biomass and composition of fungal communities associated with three widespread boreal bryophytes was investigated using HPLC assays of ergosterol and amplicon pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA. The bryophyte phyllosphere community was dominated by Ascomycota. Fungal biomass did not decline appreciably in winter (P=0.272). Significant host-specific patterns in seasonal variation of biomass were detected (P=0.003). Although seasonal effects were not the primary factors structuring community composition, collection date significantly explained (P=0.001) variation not attributed to locality, host, and tissue. Community homogenization and a reduction in turnover occurred with the onset of frost events and subzero air and soil temperatures. Fluctuations in the relative abundance of particular fungal groups seem to reflect the nature of their association with mosses, although conclusions are drawn with caution because of potential methodological bias. The moss-associated fungal community is dynamic, exhibiting seasonal turnover in composition and relative abundance of different fungal groups, and significant fungal biomass is present year-round, suggesting a winter-active fungal community.

  6. Cyberlindnera xylosilytica sp. nov., a xylitol-producing yeast species isolated from lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Cadete, Raquel M; Cheab, Monaliza A M; Santos, Renata O; Safar, Silvana V B; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Basso, Luiz C; Lee, Ching-Fu; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-09-01

    Independent surveys of yeasts associated with lignocellulosic-related materials led to the discovery of a novel yeast species belonging to the Cyberlindnera clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to C. japonica, C. maesa and C. easanensis. Six isolates were obtained from different sources, including rotting wood, tree bark and sugar cane filter cake in Brazil, frass from white oak in the USA and decayed leaf in Taiwan. A novel species is suggested to accommodate these isolates, for which the name C. xylosilytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of C. xylosilytica sp. nov. is NRRL YB-2097(T) ( = CBS 13984(T) = UFMG-CM-Y347(T)) and the allotype is UFMG-CM-Y409 ( = CBS 14083). The novel species is heterothallic and complementary mating types are represented by the type and allotype strains. The MycoBank number is MB 811428.

  7. Phylogenetic species recognition and hybridisation in Lasiodiplodia: A case study on species from baobabs.

    PubMed

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Slippers, Bernard; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Lasiodiplodia species (Botryosphaeriaceae, Ascomycota) infect a wide range of typically woody plants on which they are associated with many different disease symptoms. In this study, we determined the identity of Lasiodiplodia isolates obtained from baobab (Adansonia species) trees in Africa and reviewed the molecular markers used to describe Lasiodiplodia species. Publicly available and newly produced sequence data for some of the type strains of Lasiodiplodia species showed incongruence amongst phylogenies of five nuclear loci. We conclude that several of the previously described Lasiodiplodia species are hybrids of other species. Isolates from baobab trees in Africa included nine species of Lasiodiplodia and two hybrid species. Inoculation trials with the most common Lasiodiplodia species collected from these trees produced significant lesions on young baobab trees. There was also variation in aggressiveness amongst isolates from the same species. The apparently widespread tendency of Lasiodiplodia species to hybridise demands that phylogenies from multiple loci (more than two and preferably four or more) are compared for congruence prior to new species being described. This will avoid hybrids being incorrectly described as new taxa, as has clearly occurred in the past.

  8. Root-associated fungi of Vaccinium carlesii in subtropical forests of China: intra- and inter-annual variability and impacts of human disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanhua; Ni, Jian; Tang, Fangping; Pei, Kequan; Luo, Yiqi; Jiang, Lifen; Sun, Lifu; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Ericoid mycorrhiza (ERM) are expected to facilitate establishment of ericaceous plants in harsh habitats. However, diversity and driving factors of the root-associated fungi of ericaceous plants are poorly understood. In this study, hair-root samples of Vaccinium carlesii were taken from four forest types: old growth forests (OGF), secondary forests with once or twice cutting (SEC I and SEC II), and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation (PLF). Fungal communities were determined using high-throughput sequencing, and impacts of human disturbances and the intra- and inter-annual variability of root-associated fungal community were evaluated. Diverse fungal taxa were observed and our results showed that (1) Intra- and inter-annual changes in root-associated fungal community were found, and the Basidiomycota to Ascomycota ratio was related to mean temperature of the sampling month; (2) Human disturbances significantly affected structure of root-associated fungal community of V. carlesii, and two secondary forest types were similar in root-associated fungal community and were closer to that of the old growth forest; (3) Plant community composition, edaphic parameters, and geographic factors significantly affected root-associated fungal communities of V. carlesii. These results may be helpful in better understanding the maintenance mechanisms of fungal diversity associated with hair roots of ERM plants under human disturbances. PMID:26928608

  9. Endophytic Fungi from Lycium chinense Mill and Characterization of Two New Korean Records of Colletotrichum

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Ji Hye; Shin, Kyu Seop; Ryu, Tae Hee; Kwon, Hye Ri; Kim, Yeong Kuk; Youn, Young Nam; Yu, Seung Hun

    2014-01-01

    Chinese boxthorn or matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill) is found primarily in southeastern Europe and Asia, including Korea. The dried ripe fruits are commonly used as oriental medicinal purposes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized tissues and fruits of the medicinal plant in 2013 to identify the new or unreported species in Korea. Among 14 isolates, 10 morphospecies were selected for molecular identification with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to Ascomycota including the genera Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Hypocrea and Nemania. Two Colletotrichum species were identified at the species level, using three genes including internal transcribed spacer (ITS), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Actin (ACT) for PCR and molecular data analysis along with morphological observations. The fungal isolates, CNU122031 and CNU122032 were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. brevisporum, respectively. Morphological observations also well supported the molecular identification. C. brevisporum is represented unrecorded species in Korea and C. fructicola is the first record from the host plant. PMID:25170812

  10. Amid the possible causes of a very famous foxing: molecular and microscopic insight into Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait.

    PubMed

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja; Pinzari, Flavia

    2015-12-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait is affected by foxing spots. The portrait has no fungal or bacterial infections in place, but is contaminated with airborne spores and fungal material that could play a role in its disfigurement. The knowledge of the nature of the stains is of great concern because future conservation treatments should be derived from scientific investigations. The lack of reliable scientific data, due to the non-culturability of the microorganisms inhabiting the portrait, prompted the investigation of the drawing using non-invasive and micro-invasive sampling, in combination with scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and molecular techniques. The fungus Eurotium halophilicum was found in foxing spots using SEM analyses. Oxalates of fungal origin were also documented. Both findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tonophilic fungi germinate on paper metabolizing organic acids, oligosaccharides and proteic compounds, which react chemically with the material at a low water activity, forming brown products and oxidative reactions resulting in foxing spots. Additionally, molecular techniques enabled a screening of the fungi inhabiting the portrait and showed differences when different sampling techniques were employed. Swabs samples showed a high abundance of lichenized Ascomycota, while the membrane filters showed a dominance of Acremonium sp. colonizing the drawing.

  11. Truffles contain endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes and anandamide.

    PubMed

    Pacioni, Giovanni; Rapino, Cinzia; Zarivi, Osvaldo; Falconi, Anastasia; Leonardi, Marco; Battista, Natalia; Colafarina, Sabrina; Sergi, Manuel; Bonfigli, Antonella; Miranda, Michele; Barsacchi, Daniela; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Truffles are the fruiting body of fungi, members of the Ascomycota phylum endowed with major gastronomic and commercial value. The development and maturation of their reproductive structure are dependent on melanin synthesis. Since anandamide, a prominent member of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), is responsible for melanin synthesis in normal human epidermal melanocytes, we thought that ECS might be present also in truffles. Here, we show the expression, at the transcriptional and translational levels, of most ECS components in the black truffle Tuber melanosporum Vittad. at maturation stage VI. Indeed, by means of molecular biology and immunochemical techniques, we found that truffles contain the major metabolic enzymes of the ECS, while they do not express the most relevant endocannabinoid-binding receptors. In addition, we measured anandamide content in truffles, at different maturation stages (from III to VI), through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, whereas the other relevant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol was below the detection limit. Overall, our unprecedented results suggest that anandamide and ECS metabolic enzymes have evolved earlier than endocannabinoid-binding receptors, and that anandamide might be an ancient attractant to truffle eaters, that are well-equipped with endocannabinoid-binding receptors.

  12. Resource Partitioning between Bacteria, Fungi, and Protists in the Detritusphere of an Agricultural Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Susanne; Dibbern, Dörte; Moll, Julia; Huenninghaus, Maike; Koller, Robert; Krueger, Dirk; Marhan, Sven; Urich, Tim; Wubet, Tesfaye; Bonkowski, Michael; Buscot, François; Lueders, Tillmann; Kandeler, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil. Carbon flow was traced by rRNA stable isotope probing and amplicon sequencing across three microbial kingdoms. Distinct lineages within the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota as well as Peronosporomycetes were identified as important primary substrate consumers. A dynamic succession of primary consumers was observed especially in the cellulose treatments, but also in plant amendments over time. While intra-kingdom niche partitioning was clearly observed, distinct bacterial and fungal energy channels were not apparent. Furthermore, while the diversity of primary substrate consumers did not notably increase with substrate complexity, consumer succession and secondary trophic links to bacterivorous and fungivorous microbes resulted in increased food web complexity in the more recalcitrant substrates. This suggests that rather than substrate-defined energy channels, consumer succession as well as intra- and inter-kingdom cross-feeding should be considered as mechanisms supporting food web complexity in the detritusphere. PMID:27725815

  13. A novel fungal family of oligopeptide transporters identified by functional metatranscriptomics of soil eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Damon, Coralie; Vallon, Laurent; Zimmermann, Sabine; Haider, Muhammad Z; Galeote, Virginie; Dequin, Sylvie; Luis, Patricia; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Marmeisse, Roland

    2011-12-01

    Functional environmental genomics has the potential to identify novel biological functions that the systematic sequencing of microbial genomes or environmental DNA may fail to uncover. We targeted the functions expressed by soil eukaryotes using a metatranscriptomic approach based on the use of soil-extracted polyadenylated messenger RNA to construct environmental complementary DNA expression libraries. Functional complementation of a yeast mutant defective in di/tripeptide uptake identified a novel family of oligopeptide transporters expressed by fungi. This family has a patchy distribution in the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota and is present in the genome of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain. High throughput phenotyping of yeast mutants expressing two environmental transporters showed that they both displayed broad substrate specificity and could transport more than 60-80 dipeptides. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes one environmental transporter induced currents upon dipeptide addition, suggesting proton-coupled co-transport of dipeptides. This transporter was also able to transport specifically cysteine. Deletion of the two copies of the corresponding gene family members in the genome of the wine yeast strain severely reduced the number of dipeptides that it could assimilate. These results demonstrate that these genes are functional and can be used by fungi to efficiently scavenge the numerous, low concentration, oligopeptides continuously generated in soils by proteolysis.

  14. A totivirus infecting the mutualistic fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae.

    PubMed

    Romo, María; Leuchtmann, Adrian; García, Balbino; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

    2007-03-01

    Epichloë festucae (Ascomycota) infects the grass Festuca rubra. Infected plants may be more resistant to herbivores and obtain other benefits. The 5109bp dsRNA genome of a virus which infects E. festucae was sequenced, and its incidence in natural populations and transmission were studied. The viral genome has characteristics of the family Totiviridae. Its two ORFs are overlapped by four nucleotides; ORF1 codes a 765 amino acid putative coat protein (CP); ORF2 is in a -1 frameshift with respect to ORF1, and codes a 826 amino acid RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). This virus, denominated Epichloë festucae virus 1 (EfV1), is closely related to members of the genus Totivirus which infect filamentous fungi, as deduced from phylogenetic analyses of CPs and RdRps. In two natural populations of Epichloë festucae, 36.4% of the isolates were infected by EfV1. The virus was efficiently transmitted to asexual fungal spores. However, when ascospore progeny of matings between virus-free and infected strains was analyzed, it was found that the virus was not transmitted to progeny of sexual spores.

  15. First Record of Fusarium verticillioides as an Entomopathogenic Fungus of Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Pelizza, SA; Stenglein, SA; Cabello, MN; Dinolfo, MI; Lange, CE

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is the most common fungus reported on infected corn kernels and vegetative tissues, but has not yet been documented as being entomopathogenic for grasshoppers. Grasshoppers and locusts represent a large group of insects that cause economic damage to forage and crops. Tropidacris collaris (Stoll) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae) is a large and voracious grasshopper that in recent years has become an increasingly recurrent and widespread pest in progressively more greatly extended areas of some of in Argentina's northern provinces, with chemical insecticides being currently the only means of control. During February and March of 2008–09, nymphs and adults of T. collaris were collected with sweep nets in dense woodland vegetation at a site near Tres Estacas in western Chaco Province, Argentina, and kept in screened cages. F. verticillioides was isolated from insects that died within 10 days and was cultured in PGA medium. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and positive results recorded. Using traditional and molecular-biological methods, an isolate of F. verticillioides was obtained from T. collaris, and its pathogenecity in the laboratory was shown against another harmful grasshopper, Ronderosia bergi (Stål) (Acridoidea: Acrididae: Melanoplinae). The mortality caused by F. verticillioides on R. bergi reached 58 ± 6.53% by 10 days after inoculation. This is the first record of natural infection caused by F. verticillioides in grasshoppers. PMID:21867437

  16. Species Richness and Adaptation of Marine Fungi from Deep-Subseafloor Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Rédou, Vanessa; Navarri, Marion; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbier, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The fungal kingdom is replete with unique adaptive capacities that allow fungi to colonize a wide variety of habitats, ranging from marine habitats to freshwater and terrestrial habitats. The diversity, importance, and ecological roles of marine fungi have recently been highlighted in deep-subsurface sediments using molecular methods. Fungi in the deep-marine subsurface may be specifically adapted to life in the deep biosphere, but this can be demonstrated only using culture-based analyses. In this study, we investigated culturable fungal communities from a record-depth sediment core sampled from the Canterbury Basin (New Zealand) with the aim to reveal endemic or ubiquist adapted isolates playing a significant ecological role(s). About 200 filamentous fungi (68%) and yeasts (32%) were isolated. Fungal isolates were affiliated with the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, including 21 genera. Screening for genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis also revealed their bioactive compound synthesis potential. Our results provide evidence that deep-subsurface fungal communities are able to survive, adapt, grow, and interact with other microbial communities and highlight that the deep-sediment habitat is another ecological niche for fungi. PMID:25769836

  17. Identification of Cellulose-Responsive Bacterial and Fungal Communities in Geographically and Edaphically Different Soils by Using Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Many bacteria and fungi are known to degrade cellulose in culture, but their combined response to cellulose in different soils is unknown. Replicate soil microcosms amended with [13C]cellulose were used to identify bacterial and fungal communities responsive to cellulose in five geographically and edaphically different soils. The diversity and composition of the cellulose-responsive communities were assessed by DNA-stable isotope probing combined with Sanger sequencing of small-subunit and large-subunit rRNA genes for the bacterial and fungal communities, respectively. In each soil, the 13C-enriched, cellulose-responsive communities were of distinct composition compared to the original soil community or 12C-nonenriched communities. The composition of cellulose-responsive taxa, as identified by sequence operational taxonomic unit (OTU) similarity, differed in each soil. When OTUs were grouped at the bacterial order level, we found that members of the Burkholderiales, Caulobacteriales, Rhizobiales, Sphingobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and the subdivision 1 Acidobacteria were prevalent in the 13C-enriched DNA in at least three of the soils. The cellulose-responsive fungi were identified as members of the Trichocladium, Chaetomium, Dactylaria, and Arthrobotrys genera, along with two novel Ascomycota clusters, unique to one soil. Although similarities were identified in higher-level taxa among some soils, the composition of cellulose-responsive bacteria and fungi was generally unique to a certain soil type, suggesting a strong potential influence of multiple edaphic factors in shaping the community. PMID:22287013

  18. Molecular identification and characterization of the edible and medicinal Morchellaceae germplasm collection of "mulch morels".

    PubMed

    Ondrej, Vladan; Havránek, Pavel; Kitner, Miloslav; Nemcová, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    The accessions of the morel (Morchellaceae, Ascomycota) germplasm collection were genetically analyzed, in order to determine both their inter- and intraspecific relationships. This was done as a starting point for cultivation experiments, as well as to provide a genetic description of invasive morel populations linked to mulched garden patches, as compared with outdoor morels. The phylogenetic data, which was based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and supported by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses, divided the germplasm isolates and accessions from the sequence database into three groups of yellow morels, and three groups of black morels, involving a remarkable monotypic genus of half-free morels (Mitrophora semilibera), the groups Morchella conica and M. angusticeps. Both Morchella groups include morel samples that use mulch bark as a vector for their spread across gardens in various locations in the Czech Republic. The AFLP analysis supported the ITS-based phylogenetic data and determined the intraspecific genetic profile of these, as a rule, almost entirely unstudied isolates.

  19. Exploration of cultivable fungal communities in deep coal-bearing sediments from ∼1.3 to 2.5 km below the ocean floor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Hong; Huang, Xin; Xie, Tian-Ning; Duan, Ning; Xue, Ya-Rong; Zhao, Tan-Xi; Lever, Mark A; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Inagaki, Fumio

    2017-02-01

    Although subseafloor sediments are known to harbour a vast number of microbial cells, the distribution, diversity, and origins of fungal populations remain largely unexplored. In this study, we cultivated fungi from 34 of 47 deep coal-associated sediment samples collected at depths ranging from 1289 to 2457 m below the seafloor (mbsf) off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan (1118 m water depth). We obtained a total of 69 fungal isolates under strict contamination controls, representing 61 Ascomycota (14 genera, 23 species) and 8 Basidiomycota (4 genera, 4 species). Penicillium and Aspergillus relatives were the most dominant genera within the Ascomycetes, followed by the members of genera Cladosporium, Hamigera, Chaetomium, Eutypella, Acremonium, Aureobasidium, Candida, Eurotium, Exophiala, Nigrospora, Bionectria and Pseudocercosporella. Four Basidiomycota species were identified as genera Schizophyllum, Irpex, Bjerkandera and Termitomyces. Among these isolates, Cladosporium sphaerospermum and Aspergillus sydowii relatives were isolated from a thin lignite coal-sandstone formation at 2457 mbsf. Our results indicate that these cultivable fungal populations are indigenous, originating from past terrigenous environments, which have persisted, possibly as spores, through ∼20 million years of depositional history.

  20. The adaptive radiation of lichen-forming Teloschistaceae is associated with sunscreening pigments and a bark-to-rock substrate shift.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Ester; Fernández-Brime, Samantha; Vargas, Reinaldo; Lachlan, Robert F; Gueidan, Cécile; Ramírez-Mejía, Martín; Lutzoni, François

    2015-09-15

    Adaptive radiations play key roles in the generation of biodiversity and biological novelty, and therefore understanding the factors that drive them remains one of the most important challenges of evolutionary biology. Although both intrinsic innovations and extrinsic ecological opportunities contribute to diversification bursts, few studies have looked at the synergistic effect of such factors. Here we investigate the Teloschistales (Ascomycota), a group of >1,000 lichenized species with variation in species richness and phenotypic traits that hinted at a potential adaptive radiation. We found evidence for a dramatic increase in diversification rate for one of four families within this order--Teloschistaceae--which occurred ∼ 100 Mya (Late Cretaceous) and was associated with a switch from bark to rock and from shady to sun-exposed habitats. This adaptation to sunny habitats is likely to have been enabled by a contemporaneous key novel phenotypic innovation: the production in both vegetative structure (thallus) and fruiting body (apothecia) of anthraquinones, secondary metabolites known to protect against UV light. We found that the two ecological factors (sun exposure and rock substrate) and the phenotypic innovation (anthraquinones in the thallus) were all significant when testing for state-dependent shifts in diversification rates, and together they seem likely to be responsible for the success of the Teloschistaceae, one of the largest lichen-forming fungal lineages. Our results support the idea that adaptive radiations are driven not by a single factor or key innovation, but require a serendipitous combination of both intrinsic biotic and extrinsic abiotic and ecological factors.

  1. Assembly, Annotation, and Analysis of Multiple Mycorrhizal Fungal Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Initiative Consortium, Mycorrhizal Genomics; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis

    2013-03-08

    Mycorrhizal fungi play critical roles in host plant health, soil community structure and chemistry, and carbon and nutrient cycling, all areas of intense interest to the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI). To this end we are building on our earlier sequencing of the Laccaria bicolor genome by partnering with INRA-Nancy and the mycorrhizal research community in the MGI to sequence and analyze dozens of mycorrhizal genomes of all Basidiomycota and Ascomycota orders and multiple ecological types (ericoid, orchid, and ectomycorrhizal). JGI has developed and deployed high-throughput sequencing techniques, and Assembly, RNASeq, and Annotation Pipelines. In 2012 alone we sequenced, assembled, and annotated 12 draft or improved genomes of mycorrhizae, and predicted ~;;232831 genes and ~;;15011 multigene families, All of this data is publicly available on JGI MycoCosm (http://jgi.doe.gov/fungi/), which provides access to both the genome data and tools with which to analyze the data. Preliminary comparisons of the current total of 14 public mycorrhizal genomes suggest that 1) short secreted proteins potentially involved in symbiosis are more enriched in some orders than in others amongst the mycorrhizal Agaricomycetes, 2) there are wide ranges of numbers of genes involved in certain functional categories, such as signal transduction and post-translational modification, and 3) novel gene families are specific to some ecological types.

  2. Diversity and distribution of lichen-associated fungi in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xin-Li; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2015-10-14

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities associated with seven lichen species in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Lichen-associated fungal communities showed high diversity, with a total of 42,259 reads belonging to 370 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 294 belonged to Ascomycota, 54 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Zygomycota, and 20 to unknown fungi. Leotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were the major classes, whereas the dominant orders were Helotiales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Interestingly, most fungal OTUs were closely related to fungi from various habitats (e.g., soil, rock, plant tissues) in the Arctic, Antarctic and alpine regions, which suggests that living in association with lichen thalli may be a transient stage of life cycle for these fungi and that long-distance dispersal may be important to the fungi in the Arctic. In addition, host-related factors shaped the lichen-associated fungal communities in this region. Taken together, these results suggest that lichens thalli act as reservoirs of diverse fungi from various niches, which may improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic.

  3. Diversity and biotransformative potential of endophytic fungi associated with the medicinal plant Kadsura angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian; An, Hongmei; Song, Hongchuan; Mao, Hongqiang; Shen, Weiyun; Dong, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the diversity and host component-transforming activity of endophytic fungi in medicinal plant Kadsura angustifolia. A total of 426 isolates obtained were grouped into 42 taxa belonging to Fungi Imperfecti (65.96%), Ascomycota (27.00%), Zygomycota (1.64%), Basidiomycota (0.47%) and Mycelia Sterilia (4.93%). The abundance, richness, and species composition of endophytic assemblages were significantly dependent on the tissue and the sampling site. Many phytopathogenic species associated with healthy K. angustifolia were found prevalent. Among them, Verticillium dahliae was dominant with 16.43% abundance. From 134 morphospecies selected, 39 showed remarkable biocatalytic activity and were further identified as species belonging to the genera Colletotrichum, Eupenicillium, Fusarium, Hypoxylon, Penicillium, Phomopsis, Trametes, Trichoderma, Umbelopsis, Verticillium and Xylaria on the basis of the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). The results obtained in this work show that K. angustifolia is an interesting reservoir of pathogenic fungal species, and could be a community model for further ecological and evolutionary studies. Additionally, the converting potency screening of some endophytic fungi from this specific medicinal plant may provide an interesting niche on the search for novel biocatalysts.

  4. Species richness and adaptation of marine fungi from deep-subseafloor sediments.

    PubMed

    Rédou, Vanessa; Navarri, Marion; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbier, Georges; Burgaud, Gaëtan

    2015-05-15

    The fungal kingdom is replete with unique adaptive capacities that allow fungi to colonize a wide variety of habitats, ranging from marine habitats to freshwater and terrestrial habitats. The diversity, importance, and ecological roles of marine fungi have recently been highlighted in deep-subsurface sediments using molecular methods. Fungi in the deep-marine subsurface may be specifically adapted to life in the deep biosphere, but this can be demonstrated only using culture-based analyses. In this study, we investigated culturable fungal communities from a record-depth sediment core sampled from the Canterbury Basin (New Zealand) with the aim to reveal endemic or ubiquist adapted isolates playing a significant ecological role(s). About 200 filamentous fungi (68%) and yeasts (32%) were isolated. Fungal isolates were affiliated with the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, including 21 genera. Screening for genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis also revealed their bioactive compound synthesis potential. Our results provide evidence that deep-subsurface fungal communities are able to survive, adapt, grow, and interact with other microbial communities and highlight that the deep-sediment habitat is another ecological niche for fungi.

  5. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C; Crous, Pedro W; Lavrov, Dennis V; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we attempted to infer their origins by means of ancestral state reconstruction on a phylogenetic tree built utilizing genes for the nuc 28S rDNA (approx. 830 bp from near the 59 end) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The analyzed taxa included the well-known genera of SBFS as well as non-SBFS fungi from seven families within the Capnodiales. The non-SBFS taxa were selected based on their distinct ecological niches, including plant-parasitic and saprophytic species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that most SBFS species in the Capnodiales are closely related to plant-parasitic fungi. Ancestral state reconstruction provided strong evidence that plant-parasitic fungi were the ancestors of the major SBFS lineages. Knowledge gained from this study may help to better understand the ecology and evolution of epiphytic fungi.

  6. Exploring the potential of fungi isolated from PAH-polluted soil as a source of xenobiotics-degrading fungi.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Patricia; Reina, Rocío; Calderón, Andrea; Wittich, Regina-Michaela; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading fungi adapted to polluted environments for further application in bioremediation processes. In this study, a total of 23 fungal species were isolated from a historically pyrogenic PAH-polluted soil in Spain and taxonomically identified. The dominant groups in these samples were the ones associated with fungi belonging to the Ascomycota phylum and two isolates belonging to the Mucoromycotina subphylum and Basiodiomycota phylum. We tested their ability to convert the three-ring PAH anthracene in a 42-day time course and analysed their ability to secrete extracellular oxidoreductase enzymes. Among the 23 fungal species screened, 12 were able to oxidize anthracene, leading to the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone as the main metabolite, a less toxic one than the parent compound. The complete removal of anthracene was achieved by three fungal species. In the case of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, extracellular enzyme independent degradation of the initial 100 μM anthracene occurred, whilst in the case of the ligninolytic fungus Fomes (Basidiomycota), the same result was obtained with extracellular enzyme-dependent transformation. The yield of accumulated 9,10-anthraquinone was 80 and 91 %, respectively, and Fomes sp. could slowly deplete it from the growth medium when offered alone. These results are indicative for the effectiveness of these fungi for pollutant removal. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  7. Analysis of the community compositions of rhizosphere fungi in soybeans continuous cropping fields.

    PubMed

    Bai, Li; Cui, Jiaqi; Jie, Weiguang; Cai, Baiyan

    2015-11-01

    We used rhizosphere soil sampled from one field during zero year and two years of continuous cropping of high-protein soybean to analyze the taxonomic community compositions of fungi during periods of high-incidence of root rot. Our objectives were to identify the dominant pathogens in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis as well as control tactics for soybean root rot induced by continuous cropping. A total of 17,801 modified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from three different soybean rhizosphere soil samples after zero year and 1 or 2 years of continuous cropping using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The dominant eumycote fungal were identified to be Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the three soil samples. Continuous cropping of soybean affected the diversity of fungi in rhizosphere soils and increased the abundance of Thelebolus and Mortierellales significantly. Thanatephorus, Fusarium, and Alternaria were identified to be the dominant pathogenic fungal genera in rhizosphere soil from continuously cropped soybean fields.

  8. Multigene phylogenies and morphological characterization of five new Ophiostoma spp. associated with spruce-infesting bark beetles in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mingliang; Wingfield, Michael J; Zhou, Xudong; de Beer, Z Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ophiostoma spp. (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are well-known fungi associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Some of these are serious tree pathogens, while the majority is blue-stain agents of timber. In recent years, various bark beetle species have been attacking spruce forests in Qinghai province, China, causing significant damage. A preliminary survey was done to explore the diversity of the ophiostomatoid fungal associates of these beetles. The aims of the present study were to identify and characterize new Ophiostoma spp. associated with spruce-infesting bark beetles in Qinghai Province, and to resolve phylogenetic relationships of Ophiostoma spp. related to the Chinese isolates, using multigene phylogenetic analyses. Results obtained from four gene regions (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions, β-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor-1α) revealed five new Ophiostoma spp. from Qinghai. These included O. nitidus sp. nov., O. micans sp. nov., and O. qinghaiense sp. nov. in a newly defined O. piceae complex. The other two new species, O. poligraphi sp. nov. and O. shangrilae sp. nov., grouped in the O. brunneo-ciliatum complex. Based on DNA sequence and morphological comparisons, we also show that O. arduennense and O. torulosum are synonyms of O. distortum, while O. setosum is a synonym of O. cupulatum.

  9. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia.

    PubMed

    Linnakoski, Riikka; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Niemelä, Pekka; Wingfield, Michael J

    2012-02-15

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota) that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them.

  10. Coevolution between a family of parasite virulence effectors and a class of LINE-1 retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Sacristán, Soledad; Vigouroux, Marielle; Pedersen, Carsten; Skamnioti, Pari; Thordal-Christensen, Hans; Micali, Cristina; Brown, James K M; Ridout, Christopher J

    2009-10-15

    Parasites are able to evolve rapidly and overcome host defense mechanisms, but the molecular basis of this adaptation is poorly understood. Powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales, Ascomycota) are obligate biotrophic parasites infecting nearly 10,000 plant genera. They obtain their nutrients from host plants through specialized feeding structures known as haustoria. We previously identified the AVR(k1) powdery mildew-specific gene family encoding effectors that contribute to the successful establishment of haustoria. Here, we report the extensive proliferation of the AVR(k1) gene family throughout the genome of B. graminis, with sequences diverging in formae speciales adapted to infect different hosts. Also, importantly, we have discovered that the effectors have coevolved with a particular family of LINE-1 retrotransposons, named TE1a. The coevolution of these two entities indicates a mutual benefit to the association, which could ultimately contribute to parasite adaptation and success. We propose that the association would benefit 1) the powdery mildew fungus, by providing a mechanism for amplifying and diversifying effectors and 2) the associated retrotransposons, by providing a basis for their maintenance through selection in the fungal genome.

  11. Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica.

  12. Distribution and diversity of fungi in freshwater sediments on a river catchment scale

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Jianan; Gao, Guanghai; Bartlam, Mark G.; Wang, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities perform essential functions in biogeochemical cycles. However, knowledge of fungal community structural changes in river ecosystems is still very limited. In the present study, we combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to investigate fungal distribution and diversity in sediment on a regional scale in the Songhua River catchment, located in North-East Asia. A total of 147 samples over the whole river catchment were analyzed. The results showed that compared to the mainstream, the tributaries have a higher fungal community organization and culturable fungal concentration, but possess lower community dynamics as assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of DGGE bands showed that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the predominant community in the Songhua River catchment. Redundancy analysis revealed that longitude was the primary factor determining the variation of fungal community structure, and fungal biomass was mainly related to the total nutrient content. Our findings provide new insights into the characteristics of fungal community distribution in a temperate zone river at a regional scale, and demonstrate that fungal dispersal is restricted by geographical barriers in a whole river catchment. PMID:25954259

  13. Mechanisms of Bacterial (Serratia marcescens) Attachment to, Migration along, and Killing of Fungal Hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Hover, Tal; Maya, Tal; Ron, Sapir; Sandovsky, Hani; Shadkchan, Yana; Kijner, Nitzan; Mitiagin, Yulia; Fichtman, Boris; Harel, Amnon; Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Bruna, Roberto E.; García-Véscovi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    We have found a remarkable capacity for the ubiquitous Gram-negative rod bacterium Serratia marcescens to migrate along and kill the mycelia of zygomycete molds. This migration was restricted to zygomycete molds and several basidiomycete species. No migration was seen on any molds of the phylum Ascomycota. S. marcescens migration did not require fungal viability or surrounding growth medium, as bacteria migrated along aerial hyphae as well. S. marcescens did not exhibit growth tropism toward zygomycete mycelium. Bacterial migration along hyphae proceeded only when the hyphae grew into the bacterial colony. S. marcescens cells initially migrated along the hyphae, forming attached microcolonies that grew and coalesced to generate a biofilm that covered and killed the mycelium. Flagellum-defective strains of S. marcescens were able to migrate along zygomycete hyphae, although they were significantly slower than the wild-type strain and were delayed in fungal killing. Bacterial attachment to the mycelium does not necessitate type 1 fimbrial adhesion, since mutants defective in this adhesin migrated equally well as or faster than the wild-type strain. Killing does not depend on the secretion of S. marcescens chitinases, as mutants in which all three chitinase genes were deleted retained wild-type killing abilities. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which S. marcescens binds to, spreads on, and kills fungal hyphae might serve as an excellent model system for such interactions in general; fungal killing could be employed in agricultural fungal biocontrol. PMID:26896140

  14. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad.

    PubMed

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Kirchner, Timothy; de Quadros, Patricia Dorr; Triplett, Eric W; Broughton, William J; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-04-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that the samples contained a large variety of microbes well adapted to the harsh desert conditions. The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes-Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria-Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria-Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes-Cytophagaceae. Ascomycota was the overwhelmingly dominant fungal group followed by Basidiomycota and traces of Chytridiomycota, Microsporidia and Glomeromycota. Two freshwater algae (Trebouxiophyceae) were isolated. Most predominant taxa are widely distributed land inhabitants that are common in soil and on the surfaces of plants. Examples include Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate and fix nitrogen in Acacia species, the predominant trees of the Sahara as well as Herbaspirillum (Oxalobacteraceae), a group of chemoorganotrophic free-living soil inhabitants that fix nitrogen in association with Gramineae roots. Few pathogenic strains were found, suggesting that African dust is not a large threat to public health.

  15. Surprising spectra of root-associated fungi in submerged aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Kohout, Petr; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Ctvrtlíková, Martina; Rydlová, Jana; Suda, Jan; Vohník, Martin; Sudová, Radka

    2012-04-01

    Similarly to plants from terrestrial ecosystems, aquatic species harbour wide spectra of root-associated fungi (RAF). However, comparably less is known about fungal diversity in submerged roots. We assessed the incidence and diversity of RAF in submerged aquatic plants using microscopy, culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We studied RAF of five submerged isoetid species collected in four oligotrophic freshwater lakes in Norway. Levels of dark septate endophytes (DSE) colonization differed among the lakes and were positively related to the organic matter content and negatively related to pH. In total, we identified 41 fungal OTUs using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, belonging to Mucoromycotina, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota as well as Basidiomycota. Sequences corresponding to aquatic hyphomycetes (e.g. Nectria lugdunensis, Tetracladium furcatum and Varicosporium elodeae) were obtained. Eight arbuscular mycorrhizal taxa belonging to the orders Archaeosporales, Diversisporales and Glomerales were also detected. However, the vast majority of the fungal species detected (e.g. Ceratobasidium sp., Cryptosporiopsis rhizophila, Leptodontidium orchidicola, and Tuber sp.) have previously been known only from roots of terrestrial plants. The abundance and phylogenetic distribution of mycorrhizal as well as nonmycorrhizal fungi in the roots of submerged plants have reshaped our views on the fungal diversity in aquatic environment.

  16. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy) annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs). A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars), chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. PMID:21241472

  17. Ice Nucleation Activity in the Widespread Soil Fungus Mortierella alpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Pummer, B. G.; Franc, G. D.; Pöschl, U.

    2014-08-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). So far, however, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, and role of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. Across all investigated soils, 8% of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5 to -6 °C, and belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. M. alpina is known to be saprobic, widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic-elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be proteinaceous, <300 kDa in size, and can be easily washed off the mycelium. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, their contribution might accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties.

  18. Diversity and distribution of cultured endolichenic fungi in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xin-Li; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Endolichenic fungi within 17 lichen species in the area near Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard, High Arctic) were studied by a culture-based method. The 247 fungal isolates were obtained from 2712 lichen thallus segments. The colonization rate of endolichenic fungi ranged from 1.6 to 26.5 %, respectively. These isolates were identified to 40 fungal taxa, including 35 Ascomycota (10 orders), 4 Basidiomycota (3 orders), and 1 unidentified fungus. Thelebolales was the most abundant order, while Sordariales were the most diverse order. The common fungal taxa shared by more than 3 lichen species were Thelebolus microsporus (93 isolates), Coniochaeta hoffmannii (7 isolates), Sarocladium kiliense (33 isolates), Coniochaeta sp. 1 (5 isolates), Coniochaeta sp. 4 (28 isolates), and Coniochaeta sp. 2 (5 isolates). Low Sorenson's similarity coefficients were observed among different lichen species, indicating that host-related factor may shape the endolichenic fungal communities in this region. In addition, no endolichenic fungal taxa were previously found in the Antarctica and Austrian Alps, suggesting endolichenic fungal communities in this region might be also shaped by the Arctic climate. The results demonstrate the existence of specific cultured endolichenic fungal species, which may be suitable objects for further study of their possible functional roles in the lichen thalli.

  19. Fungi Sailing the Arctic Ocean: Speciose Communities in North Atlantic Driftwood as Revealed by High-Throughput Amplicon Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rämä, Teppo; Davey, Marie L; Nordén, Jenni; Halvorsen, Rune; Blaalid, Rakel; Mathiassen, Geir H; Alsos, Inger G; Kauserud, Håvard

    2016-08-01

    High amounts of driftwood sail across the oceans and provide habitat for organisms tolerating the rough and saline environment. Fungi have adapted to the extremely cold and saline conditions which driftwood faces in the high north. For the first time, we applied high-throughput sequencing to fungi residing in driftwood to reveal their taxonomic richness, community composition, and ecology in the North Atlantic. Using pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons obtained from 49 marine logs, we found 807 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on clustering at 97 % sequence similarity cut-off level. The phylum Ascomycota comprised 74 % of the OTUs and 20 % belonged to Basidiomycota. The richness of basidiomycetes decreased with prolonged submersion in the sea, supporting the general view of ascomycetes being more extremotolerant. However, more than one fourth of the fungal OTUs remained unassigned to any fungal class, emphasising the need for better DNA reference data from the marine habitat. Different fungal communities were detected in coniferous and deciduous logs. Our results highlight that driftwood hosts a considerably higher fungal diversity than currently known. The driftwood fungal community is not a terrestrial relic but a speciose assemblage of fungi adapted to the stressful marine environment and different kinds of wooden substrates found in it.

  20. Diversity and distribution of fungal communities in the marine sediments of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (High Arctic).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Yu Qin; Liu, Hong Yu; Yu, Li Yan

    2015-10-23

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities in eight marine sediments of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Sedimentary fungal communities showed high diversity with 42,219 reads belonging to 113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 62 belonged to the Ascomycota, 26 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Chytridiomycota, 1 to Zygomycota, 1 to Glomeromycota, and 21 to unknown fungi. The major known orders included Hypocreales and Saccharomycetales. The common fungal genera were Pichia, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Malassezia. Interestingly, most fungi occurring in these Arctic sediments may originate from the terrestrial habitats and different basins in Kongsfjorden (i.e., inner basin, central basin, and outer basin) harbor different sedimentary fungal communities. These results suggest the existence of diverse fungal communities in the Arctic marine sediments, which may serve as a useful community model for further ecological and evolutionary study of fungi in the Arctic.

  1. High abundance and role of antifungal bacteria in compost-treated soils in a wildfire area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Kim, In Sung; Moon, Eun Young; Park, Jeong Soo; Kim, Sang-Jong; Lim, Joo-Hoon; Park, Byung Tae; Lee, Eun Ju

    2011-10-01

    Compost has been widely used in order to promote vegetation growth in post-harvested and burned soils. The effects on soil microorganisms were scarcely known, so we performed the microbial analyses in a wildfire area of the Taebaek Mountains, Korea, during field surveys from May to September 2007. Using culture-dependent and -independent methods, we found that compost used in burned soils influenced a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria. Compost-treated soils contained higher levels of antifungal strains in the genera Bacillus and Burkholderia than non-treated soils. When the antifungal activity of Burkholderia sp. strain O1a_RA002, which had been isolated from a compost-treated soil, was tested for the growth inhibition of bacteria and fungi isolated from burned soils, the membrane-filtered culture supernatant inhibited 19/37 fungal strains including soil fungi, Eupenicillium spp. and Devriesia americana; plant pathogens, Polyschema larviformis and Massaria platani; an animal pathogen, Mortierella verticillata; and an unidentified Ascomycota. However, this organism only inhibited 11/151 bacterial strains tested. These patterns were compatible with the culture-independent DGGE results, suggesting that the compost used in burned soils had a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria through the promotion of the growth of antifungal bacteria. Our findings indicate that compost used in burned soils is effective in restoring soil conditions to a state closer to those of nearby unburned forest soils at the early stage of secondary succession.

  2. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C; Pascual, Jose A; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67-75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases.

  3. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control

    PubMed Central

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67–75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases. PMID:27490955

  4. Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis

    DOE PAGES

    Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis M.; ...

    2014-11-04

    The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolvemore » through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism.« less

  5. Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-11-04

    The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism.

  6. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Caio T.C.C. Rachid; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-02-23

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.

  7. Phylogenetic and chemical diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn. (milk thistle)

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Huzefa A.; Kaur, Amninder; El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Kumar, Rahul; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H.; Cech, Nadja B.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is widespread, and its chemistry has been studied for over 50 years. However, milk thistle endophytes have not been studied previously for their fungal and chemical diversity. We examined the fungal endophytes inhabiting this medicinal herb to determine: (1) species composition and phylogenetic diversity of fungal endophytes; (2) chemical diversity of secondary metabolites produced by these organisms; and (3) cytotoxicity of the pure compounds against the human prostate carcinoma (PC-3) cell line. Forty-one fungal isolates were identified from milk thistle comprising 25 operational taxonomic units based on BLAST search via GenBank using published authentic sequences from nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence data. Maximum likelihood analyses of partial 28S rRNA gene showed that these endophytes had phylogenetic affinities to four major classes of Ascomycota, the Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Leotiomycetes. Chemical studies of solid–substrate fermentation cultures led to the isolation of four new natural products. In addition, 58 known secondary metabolites, representing diverse biosynthetic classes, were isolated and characterized using a suite of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques. Selected pure compounds were tested against the PC-3 cell line, where six compounds displayed cytotoxicity. PMID:26000195

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and microbial community shifts during co-composting of creosote-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Covino, Stefano; Fabianová, Tereza; Křesinová, Zdena; Čvančarová, Monika; Burianová, Eva; Filipová, Alena; Vořísková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    The feasibility of decontaminating creosote-treated wood (CTW) by co-composting with agricultural wastes was investigated using two bulking agents, grass cuttings (GC) and broiler litter (BL), each employed at a 1:1 ratio with the matrix. The initial concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in CTW (26,500 mg kg(-1)) was reduced to 3 and 19% after 240 d in GC and BL compost, respectively. PAH degradation exceeded the predicted bioaccesible threshold, estimated through sequential supercritical CO2 extraction, together with significant detoxification, assessed by contact tests using Vibrio fisheri and Hordeum vulgare. GC composting was characterized by high microbial biomass growth in the early phases, as suggested by phospholipid fatty acid analyses. Based on the 454-pyrosequencing results, fungi (mostly Saccharomycetales) constituted an important portion of the microbial community, and bacteria were characterized by rapid shifts (from Firmicutes (Bacilli) and Actinobacteria to Proteobacteria). However, during BL composting, larger amounts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic PLFA markers were observed during the cooling and maturation phases, which were dominated by Proteobacteria and fungi belonging to the Ascomycota and those putatively related to the Glomeromycota. This work reports the first in-depth analysis of the chemical and microbiological processes that occur during the co-composting of a PAH-contaminated matrix.

  9. A novel sponge disease caused by a consortium of micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Michael; Bulling, Mark; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In healthy sponges, microbes have been shown to account for up to 40 % of tissues. The majority of these are thought to originate from survivors evading digestion and immune responses of the sponge and growing and residing in the microenvironments of the mesophyll. Although a large percentage of these microbes are likely commensals, they may also include potentially pathogenic agents, which under specific conditions, such as temperature stress, may cause disease. Here we report a novel disease (sponge necrosis syndrome) that is severely affecting populations of the sponge Callyspongia ( Euplacella) aff biru. Both ITS fungal and 16S rDNA bacterial diversities were assessed in healthy and diseased individuals, highlighting six potential primary causal agents for this new disease: two bacteria, a Rhodobacteraceae sp. and a cyanobacterium, Hormoscilla spongeliae (formally identified as Oscillatoria spongeliae), and four fungi, a Ascomycota sp., a Pleosporales sp., a Rhabdocline sp., and a Clasosporium sp. Furthermore, histological analysis showed the dominance of fungal hyphae rather than bacteria throughout the disease lesion, which was absent or rare in healthy tissues. Inoculation trails showed that only a combination of one bacterium and one fungus could replicate the disease, fulfilling Henle-Koch's postulates and showing that this sponge disease is caused by a poly-microbial consortium.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal diversity and community structure in stands of Quercus oleoides in the seasonally dry tropical forests of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Nikhilesh S.; Wilson, Andrew W.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Mueller, Gregory M.; Egerton-Warburton, Louise M.

    2016-12-01

    Most conservation efforts in seasonally dry tropical forests have overlooked less obvious targets for conservation, such as mycorrhizal fungi, that are critical to plant growth and ecosystem structure. We documented the diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) fungal communities in Quercus oleoides (Fagaceae) in Guanacaste province, Costa Rica. Soil cores and sporocarps were collected from regenerating Q. oleoides plots differing in stand age (early vs late regeneration) during the wet season. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region in EMF root tips and sporocarps identified 37 taxa in the Basidiomycota; EMF Ascomycota were uncommon. The EMF community was dominated by one species (Thelephora sp. 1; 70% of soil cores), more than half of all EMF species were found only once in an individual soil core, and there were few conspecific taxa. Most EMF taxa were also restricted to either Early or Late plots. Levels of EMF species richness and diversity, and AMF root colonization were similar between plots. Our results highlight the need for comprehensive spatiotemporal samplings of EMF communities in Q. oleoides to identify and prioritize rare EMF for conservation, and document their genetic and functional diversity.

  11. Unearthing microbial diversity of Taxus rhizosphere via MiSeq high-throughput amplicon sequencing and isolate characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Song, Si Meng; Mu, Jun; Hu, Wen Li; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2016-04-01

    The species variability and potential environmental functions of Taxus rhizosphere microbial community were studied by comparative analyses of 15 16S rRNA and 15 ITS MiSeq sequencing libraries from Taxus rhizospheres in subtropical and temperate regions of China, as well as by isolating laccase-producing strains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strains. Total reads could be assigned to 2,141 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to 31 bacteria phyla and 2,904 OTUs of at least seven fungi phyla. The abundance of Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi was higher in T. cuspidata var. nana and T. × media rhizospheres than in T. mairei rhizosphere (NF), while Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, and unclassified bacteria were more abundant in the latter. Ascomycota and Zygomycota were predominant in NF, while two temperate Taxus rhizospheres had more unclassified fungi, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota. The bacterial/fungal community richness and diversity were lower in NF than in other two. Three dye decolorizing fungal isolates were shown to be highly efficient in removing three classes of reactive dye, while two PAH-degrading fungi were able to degrade recalcitrant benzo[a]pyrene. The present studies extend the knowledge pedigree of the microbial diversity populating rhizospheres, and exemplify the method shift in research and development of resource plant rhizosphere.

  12. Diversity and distribution of fungal communities in the marine sediments of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (High Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Fei Wang, Neng; Qin Zhang, Yu; Yu Liu, Hong; Yan Yu, Li

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities in eight marine sediments of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Sedimentary fungal communities showed high diversity with 42,219 reads belonging to 113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 62 belonged to the Ascomycota, 26 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Chytridiomycota, 1 to Zygomycota, 1 to Glomeromycota, and 21 to unknown fungi. The major known orders included Hypocreales and Saccharomycetales. The common fungal genera were Pichia, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Malassezia. Interestingly, most fungi occurring in these Arctic sediments may originate from the terrestrial habitats and different basins in Kongsfjorden (i.e., inner basin, central basin, and outer basin) harbor different sedimentary fungal communities. These results suggest the existence of diverse fungal communities in the Arctic marine sediments, which may serve as a useful community model for further ecological and evolutionary study of fungi in the Arctic.

  13. Fungal community analysis in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean assessed by comparison of ITS, 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Luo, Zhu-Hua; Guo, Shuangshuang; Pang, Ka-Lai

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in 6 different deep-sea sediment samples of the Pacific Ocean based on three different types of clone libraries, including internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 18S rDNA, and 28S rDNA regions. A total of 1978 clones were generated from 18 environmental clone libraries, resulting in 140 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 18 OTUs from ITS, 44 OTUs from 18S rDNA, and 78 OTUs from 28S rDNA gene primer sets. The majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Additionally, our study revealed a total of 46 novel fungal phylotypes, which showed low similarities (<97%) with available fungal sequences in the GenBank, including a novel Zygomycete lineage, suggesting possible new fungal taxa occurring in the deep-sea sediments. The results suggested that 28S rDNA is an efficient target gene to describe fungal community in deep-sea environment.

  14. Characterization of Early Microbial Communities on Volcanic Deposits along a Vegetation Gradient on the Island of Miyake, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yong; Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Suda, Wataru; Kim, Seok-won; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The 2000 eruption of Mount Oyama on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima) created a unique opportunity to study the early ecosystem development on newly exposed terrestrial substrates. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities on 9- and 11-year-old volcanic deposits at poorly to fully vegetation-recovered sites in Miyake-jima, Japan, were characterized by conventional culture-based methods and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Despite the differences in the vegetation cover, the upper volcanic deposit layer samples displayed low among-site variation for chemical properties (pH, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen) and microbial population densities (total direct count and culturable count). Statistical analyses of pyrosequencing data revealed that the microbial communities of volcanic deposit samples were phylogenetically diverse, in spite of very low-carbon environmental conditions, and their diversity was comparable to that in the lower soil layer (buried soil) samples. Comparing with the microbial communities in buried soil, the volcanic deposit communities were characterized by the presence of Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria as the main bacterial class, Deinococcus- Thermus as the minor bacterial phyla, and Ascomycota as the major fungal phyla. Multivariate analysis revealed that several bacterial families and fungal classes correlated positively or negatively with plant species. PMID:24463576

  15. Diversity and distribution of fungal communities in the marine sediments of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (High Arctic)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Fei Wang, Neng; Qin Zhang, Yu; Yu Liu, Hong; Yan Yu, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities in eight marine sediments of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Sedimentary fungal communities showed high diversity with 42,219 reads belonging to 113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 62 belonged to the Ascomycota, 26 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Chytridiomycota, 1 to Zygomycota, 1 to Glomeromycota, and 21 to unknown fungi. The major known orders included Hypocreales and Saccharomycetales. The common fungal genera were Pichia, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Malassezia. Interestingly, most fungi occurring in these Arctic sediments may originate from the terrestrial habitats and different basins in Kongsfjorden (i.e., inner basin, central basin, and outer basin) harbor different sedimentary fungal communities. These results suggest the existence of diverse fungal communities in the Arctic marine sediments, which may serve as a useful community model for further ecological and evolutionary study of fungi in the Arctic. PMID:26494429

  16. Utilizing ITS1 and ITS2 to study environmental fungal diversity using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Monard, Cécile; Gantner, Stephan; Stenlid, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The shorter reads generated by high-throughput sequencing has led to a focus on either the ITS1 or the ITS2 sublocus in fungal diversity analyses. Our study aimed to determine how making this choice would influence the datasets obtained and our vision of environmental fungal diversity. DNA was extracted from different environmental samples (water, sediments and soil) and the total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus was amplified. 454-sequencing was performed targeting both ITS1 and ITS2. No significant differences in the number of sequences, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and in the dominant OTUs were detected but less diversity was observed in the ITS2 dataset. In the soil samples, differences in the fungal taxonomic identification were observed, with more Basidiomycota in the ITS1 dataset and more Ascomycota in the ITS2 dataset. Only one-third of the OTUs were detected in both datasets which could be due to (1) more short sequences removed in the ITS2 dataset, (2) different taxonomic affiliation depending on the sublocus used as BLASTn query and/or (3) selectivity in how a primer amplifies the true community. Although ITS1 and ITS2 datasets led to similar results at the fungal community level, for further in-depth diversity analysis this study suggests the analysis of both ITS regions, as they provided different information and were complementary.

  17. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    PubMed Central

    Coleine, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Ventura, Stefano; D’Acqui, Luigi Paolo; Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward. PMID:27682108

  18. Woody plant encroachment, and its removal, impact bacterial and fungal communities across stream and terrestrial habitats in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Veach, Allison M; Dodds, Walter K; Jumpponen, Ari

    2015-10-01

    Woody plant encroachment has become a global threat to grasslands and has caused declines in aboveground richness and changes in ecosystem function; yet we have a limited understanding on the effects of these phenomena on belowground microbial communities. We completed riparian woody plant removals at Konza Prairie Biological Station, Kansas and collected soils spanning land-water interfaces in removal and woody vegetation impacted areas. We measured stream sediments and soils for edaphic variables (C and N pools, soil water content, pH) and bacterial (16S rRNA genes) and fungal (ITS2 rRNA gene repeat) communities using Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding. Bacterial richness and diversity decreased with distance from streams. Fungal richness decreased with distance from the stream in wooded areas, but was similar across landscape position while Planctomycetes and Basidiomycota relative abundance was lower in removal areas. Cyanobacteria, Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota and Glomeromycota relative abundance was greater in removal areas. Ordination analyses indicated that bacterial community composition shifted more across land-water interfaces than fungi yet both were marginally influenced by treatment. This study highlights the impacts of woody encroachment restoration on grassland bacterial and fungal communities which likely subsequently affects belowground processes and plant health in this ecosystem.

  19. Diversity and Plant Growth Promoting Capacity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Halophytic Plants from the West Coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Khalmuratova, Irina; Kim, Hyun; Nam, Yoon-Jong; Oh, Yoosun; Jeong, Min-Ji; Choi, Hye-Rim; You, Young-Hyun; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-12-01

    Five halophytic plant species, Suaeda maritima, Limonium tetragonum, Suaeda australis, Phragmites australis, and Suaeda glauca Bunge, which are native to the Muan salt marsh of South Korea, were examined for fungal endophytes by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region containing ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, and ITS2. In total, 160 endophytic fungal strains were isolated and identified from the roots of the 5 plant species. Taxonomically, all 160 strains belonged to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota. The most dominant genus was Fusarium, followed by the genera Penicillium and Alternaria. Subsequently, using 5 statistical methods, the diversity indices of the endophytes were determined at genus level. Among these halophytic plants, P. australis was found to host the greatest diversity of endophytic fungi. Culture filtrates of endophytic fungi were treated to Waito-C rice seedlings for plant growth-promoting effects. The fungal strain Su-3-4-3 isolated from S. glauca Bunge provide the maximum plant length (20.1 cm) in comparison with wild-type Gibberella fujikuroi (19.6 cm). Consequently, chromatographic analysis of the culture filtrate of Su-3-4-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1 (0.465 ng/mL), GA3 (1.808 ng/mL) along with other physiologically inactive GA9 (0.054 ng/mL) and GA24 (0.044 ng/mL). The fungal isolate Su-3-4-3 was identified as Talaromyces pinophilus.

  20. Unearthing microbial diversity of Taxus rhizosphere via MiSeq high-throughput amplicon sequencing and isolate characterization

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Da Cheng; Song, Si Meng; Mu, Jun; Hu, Wen Li; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2016-01-01

    The species variability and potential environmental functions of Taxus rhizosphere microbial community were studied by comparative analyses of 15 16S rRNA and 15 ITS MiSeq sequencing libraries from Taxus rhizospheres in subtropical and temperate regions of China, as well as by isolating laccase-producing strains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strains. Total reads could be assigned to 2,141 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to 31 bacteria phyla and 2,904 OTUs of at least seven fungi phyla. The abundance of Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi was higher in T. cuspidata var. nana and T. × media rhizospheres than in T. mairei rhizosphere (NF), while Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, and unclassified bacteria were more abundant in the latter. Ascomycota and Zygomycota were predominant in NF, while two temperate Taxus rhizospheres had more unclassified fungi, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota. The bacterial/fungal community richness and diversity were lower in NF than in other two. Three dye decolorizing fungal isolates were shown to be highly efficient in removing three classes of reactive dye, while two PAH-degrading fungi were able to degrade recalcitrant benzo[a]pyrene. The present studies extend the knowledge pedigree of the microbial diversity populating rhizospheres, and exemplify the method shift in research and development of resource plant rhizosphere. PMID:27080869

  1. Bioremediation potential of a highly mercury resistant bacterial strain Sphingobium SA2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain, SA2, was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate showed 99% sequence similarity to the genera Sphingobium and Sphingomonas of α-proteobacteria group. However, the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with the genus Sphingobium suggesting the strain belongs to Sphingobium sp. Toxicity studies indicated resistance to high levels of mercury with estimated EC50 values 4.5 mg L(-1) and 44.15 mg L(-1) and MIC values 5.1 mg L(-1) and 48.48 mg L(-1) in minimal and rich media, respectively. The strain SA2 was able to volatilize mercury by producing mercuric reductase enzyme which makes it potential candidate for remediating mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of Hg supplemented culture solutions confirmed that almost 79% mercury in the culture suspension was volatilized in 6 h. A very small amount of mercury was observed to accumulate in cell pellets which was also evident according to ESEM-EDX analysis. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated sequence homology with α-proteobacteria and Ascomycota group.

  2. Mercury remediation potential of a mercury resistant strain Sphingopyxis sp. SE2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-01-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain SE2 was isolated from contaminated soil. The 16s rRNA gene sequencing confirms the strain as Sphingopyxis belongs to the Sphingomonadaceae family of the α-Proteobacteria group. The isolate showed high resistance to mercury with estimated concentrations of Hg that caused 50% reduction in growth (EC50) of 5.97 and 6.22mg/L and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 32.19 and 34.95mg/L in minimal and rich media, respectively. The qualitative detection of volatilized mercury and the presence of mercuric reductase enzyme proved that the strain SE2 can potentially remediate mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of the remaining mercury in experimental broths indicated that a maximum of 44% mercury was volatilized within 6hr by live SE2 culture. Furthermore a small quantity (23%) of mercury was accumulated in live cell pellets. While no volatilization was caused by dead cells, sorption of mercury was confirmed. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. Homology was observed among the amino acid sequences of mercuric reductase enzyme of different organisms from α-Proteobacteria and ascomycota groups.

  3. Intraspecific and interspecific tolerance to copper sulphate in five Iberian amphibian species at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, E; Guerrero, F; Parra, G

    2010-08-01

    Intraspecific and interspecific variations have been observed across many taxa with respect to resistance to natural environmental stressors. It has already been well documented that amphibians are sensitive to habitat degradation and are regarded as bioindicators of aquatic and agricultural ecosystems. In southern Spain, different toxic substances, including copper sulphate, which is used to control Cycloconium oleaginum (Fungi, Ascomycota, Venturiaceae) during spring and autumn, are used in intensive olive tree agriculture. In this context, many wetlands are affected by a diffuse pollution process. Thus, toxicological studies using different species living in wetlands surrounded by agricultural activity are needed to understand the alterations suffered by these ecosystems. To achieve this understanding, individuals of five amphibian species (Bufo bufo, Epidalea calamita, Discoglossus jeanneae, Pelobates cultripes, and Pelophylax perezi) at Gosner developmental stages 19 and 25 were exposed to different copper sulphate concentrations in 96 h acute toxicity tests. Exposure to copper sulphate had a negative effect on total larval length reached at the end of the experimental period and generated approximately 30% of growth reduction respect to control treatments. P. perezi was the most tolerant species studied and showed no mortality at the maximum concentration tested (0.20 mg Cu L(-1)), whereas the most sensitive species (B. bufo, E. calamita, and D. jeanneae) showed approximately 90% mortality at the same concentration. These results indicates that the sole presence in wetlands of P. perezi, the most abundant species in southeast of Iberian Peninsula, might be correlated with its high tolerance to agrochemicals.

  4. Degradation of oil by fungi isolated from Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    PubMed

    Simister, R L; Poutasse, C M; Thurston, A M; Reeve, J L; Baker, M C; White, H K

    2015-11-15

    Fungi of the Ascomycota phylum were isolated from oil-soaked sand patties collected from beaches following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. To examine their ability to degrade oil, fungal isolates were grown on oiled quartz at 20°C, 30°C and 40°C. Consistent trends in oil degradation were not related to fungal species or temperature and all isolates degraded variable quantities of oil (32-65%). Fungal isolates preferentially degraded short (

  5. Negative Fitness Consequences and Transmission Dynamics of a Heritable Fungal Symbiont of a Parasitic Wasp▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Cara M.; Hunter, Martha S.

    2009-01-01

    Heritable bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and can have many important effects on host ecology and fitness. Fungal symbionts are also important in shaping their hosts' behavior, interactions, and evolution, but they have been largely overlooked. Experimental tests to determine the relevance of fungal symbionts to their insect hosts are currently extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there have been no such tests for strictly predacious insects. We investigated the fitness consequences for a parasitic wasp (Comperia merceti) of an inherited fungal symbiont in the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) that was long presumed to be a mutualist. In comparisons of wasp lines with and without this symbiont, we found no evidence of mutualism. Instead, there were significant fitness costs to the wasps in the presence of the yeast; infected wasps attacked fewer hosts and had longer development times. We also examined the relative competitive abilities of the larval progeny of infected and uninfected mothers, as well as horizontal transmission of the fungal symbiont among larval wasps that shared a single host cockroach egg case. We found no difference in larval competitive ability when larvae whose infection status differed shared a single host. We did find high rates of horizontal transmission of the fungus, and we suggest that this transmission is likely responsible for the maintenance of this infection in wasp populations. PMID:19286783

  6. Profiling microbial communities in manganese remediation systems treating coal mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Dominique L; Hansel, Colleen M; Burgos, William D; Santelli, Cara M

    2015-03-01

    Water discharging from abandoned coal mines can contain extremely high manganese levels. Removing this metal is an ongoing challenge. Passive Mn(II) removal beds (MRBs) contain microorganisms that oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble Mn(III/IV) minerals, but system performance is unpredictable. Using amplicon pyrosequencing, we profiled the bacterial, fungal, algal, and archaeal communities in four MRBs, performing at different levels, in Pennsylvania to determine whether they differed among MRBs and from surrounding soil and to establish the relative abundance of known Mn(II) oxidizers. Archaea were not detected; PCRs with archaeal primers returned only nontarget bacterial sequences. Fungal taxonomic profiles differed starkly between sites that remove the majority of influent Mn and those that do not, with the former being dominated by Ascomycota (mostly Dothideomycetes) and the latter by Basidiomycota (almost entirely Agaricomycetes). Taxonomic profiles for the other groups did not differ significantly between MRBs, but operational taxonomic unit-based analyses showed significant clustering by MRB with all three groups (P < 0.05). Soil samples clustered separately from MRBs in all groups except fungi, whose soil samples clustered loosely with their respective MRB. Known Mn(II) oxidizers accounted for a minor proportion of bacterial sequences (up to 0.20%) but a greater proportion of fungal sequences (up to 14.78%). MRB communities are more diverse than previously thought, and more organisms may be capable of Mn(II) oxidation than are currently known.

  7. Specific in situ visualization of the pathogenic endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take, the cause of witches' broom in bamboo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae) causes continuous shoot growth in bamboo. The colonized shoot eventually results in witches' broom formation but maintains normal leaf arrangement and branching pattern. To analyze the mechanism of well-regulated symptom development, the location of the fungal endophytic hyphae in host tissues was visualized. A colorimetric in situ hybridization technique using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting the 18S rRNA of A. take was used. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue sections of diseased shoots with or without external signs of fungal colonization. Specific signals were detected in intercellular spaces of the bamboo tissues. Most signals were detected in the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia. In addition, fewer signals were detected in the lateral buds, juvenile leaves, and stems. These results indicate that A. take grows endophytically, particularly in the shoot apical meristem of the host. The location of A. take hyphae suggests that the mechanism of symptom development can be explained by the action of exogenous fungal auxin, which continuously induces primordium initiation within the host.

  8. Phylogenomic analysis uncovers the evolutionary history of nutrition and infection mode in rice blast fungus and other Magnaporthales.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Qiu, Huan; Cai, Guohong; Wagner, Nicole E; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Zhang, Ning

    2015-03-30

    The order Magnaporthales (Ascomycota, Fungi) includes devastating pathogens of cereals, such as the rice blast fungus Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) oryzae, which is a model in host-pathogen interaction studies. Magnaporthales also includes saprotrophic species associated with grass roots and submerged wood. Despite its scientific and economic importance, the phylogenetic position of Magnaporthales within Sordariomycetes and the interrelationships of its constituent taxa, remain controversial. In this study, we generated novel transcriptome data from 21 taxa that represent key Magnaporthales lineages of different infection and nutrition modes and phenotypes. Phylogenomic analysis of >200 conserved genes allowed the reconstruction of a robust Sordariomycetes tree of life that placed the monophyletic group of Magnaporthales sister to Ophiostomatales. Among Magnaporthales, three major clades were recognized: 1) an early diverging clade A comprised of saprotrophs associated with submerged woods; 2) clade B that includes the rice blast fungus and other pathogens that cause blast diseases of monocot plants. These species infect the above-ground tissues of host plants using the penetration structure, appressorium; and 3) clade C comprised primarily of root-associated species that penetrate the root tissue with hyphopodia. The well-supported phylogenies provide a robust framework for elucidating evolution of pathogenesis, nutrition modes, and phenotypic characters in Magnaporthales.

  9. New PCR assay detects rare tooth fungi in wood where traditional approaches fail.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, David; Hynes, Juliet; Rogers, Hilary J; Boddy, Lynne

    2005-11-01

    Lu et al. (2002) described a method for identifying Hericium species by PCR, using the primers HT-U1 and HT-L1 which they specifically designed for this purpose. In our hands these primers do not appear to discriminate between tooth fungi and other wood decay species. Therefore PCR primers were designed that discriminated Creolophus cirrhatus from other species (HER2F/HER3R), and which discriminate Hericium alpestre, H. coralloides and H. erinaceus from other wood decay Ascomycota and Basidiomycota but not from each other (HER2F/HER2R). Using the HER2F/HER3R primers together with traditional isolation and direct incubation procedures, the location of C. cirrhatus in Turkey oak logs was mapped. The PCR approach often detected C. cirrhatus in locations where it was suspected to be, based on patterns of staining and decay, but where it was not revealed by isolation onto agar media, emphasising the value of adopting several approaches to unravel fungal community structure in wood.

  10. Coelomycetous Fungi in the Clinical Setting: Morphological Convergence and Cryptic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Lopez, Nicomedes; Sutton, Deanna A; Cano-Lira, José F; Paredes, Katihuska; Wiederhold, Nathan; Guarro, Josep; Stchigel, Alberto M

    2017-02-01

    Human infections by coelomycetous fungi are becoming more frequent and range from superficial to systemic dissemination. Traumatic implantation of contaminated plant material is the most common cause. The typical morphological feature of these fungi is the production of asexual spores (conidia) within fruiting bodies called conidiomata. This study aimed to determine the distribution of the coelomycetes in clinical samples by a phenotypic and molecular study of a large set of isolates received from a U.S. reference mycological institution and by obtaining the in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of nine antifungals against a selected group of isolates. A total of 230 isolates were identified by sequencing the D1 and D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) nuclear ribosomal RNA (nrRNA) gene and by morphological characterization. Eleven orders of the phylum Ascomycota were identified: Pleosporales (the largest group; 66.1%), Botryosphaeriales (19.57%), Glomerellales (4.35%), Diaporthales (3.48%), Xylariales (2.17%), Hysteriales and Valsariales (0.87%), and Capnodiales, Helotiales, Hypocreales and Magnaporthales (0.43% each). The most prevalent species were Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, Paraconiothyrium spp., Phoma herbarum, Didymella heteroderae, and Epicoccum sorghinum The most common anatomical site of isolation was superficial tissue (66.5%), followed by the respiratory tract (17.4%). Most of the isolates tested were susceptible to the majority of antifungals, and only flucytosine showed poor antifungal activity.

  11. Patterns of fungal diversity and composition along a salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Devon J; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2011-03-01

    Estuarine salinity gradients are known to influence plant, bacterial and archaeal community structure. We sequenced 18S rRNA genes to investigate patterns in sediment fungal diversity (richness and evenness of taxa) and composition (taxonomic and phylogenetic) along an estuarine salinity gradient. We sampled three marshes--a salt, brackish and freshwater marsh--in Rhode Island. To compare the relative effect of the salinity gradient with that of plants, we sampled fungi in plots with Spartina patens and in plots from which plants were removed 2 years prior to sampling. The fungal sediment community was unique compared with previously sampled fungal communities; we detected more Ascomycota (78%), fewer Basidiomycota (6%) and more fungi from basal lineages (16%) (Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and four additional groups) than typically found in soil. Across marshes, fungal composition changed substantially, whereas fungal diversity differed only at the finest level of genetic resolution, and was highest in the intermediate, brackish marsh. In contrast, the presence of plants had a highly significant effect on fungal diversity at all levels of genetic resolution, but less of an effect on fungal composition. These results suggest that salinity (or other covarying parameters) selects for a distinctive fungal composition, and plants provide additional niches upon which taxa within these communities can specialize and coexist. Given the number of sequences from basal fungal lineages, the study also suggests that further sampling of estuarine sediments may help in understanding early fungal evolution.

  12. Genetic and genomic evidence of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation in mountain pine beetle fungal symbionts.

    PubMed

    Ojeda Alayon, Dario I; Tsui, Clement K M; Feau, Nicolas; Capron, Arnaud; Dhillon, Braham; Zhang, Yiyuan; Massoumi Alamouti, Sepideh; Boone, Celia K; Carroll, Allan L; Cooke, Janice E K; Roe, Amanda D; Sperling, Felix A H; Hamelin, Richard C

    2017-02-23

    Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These fungal symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defences and modifying host tissues to favour brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the mountain pine beetle is the result of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation using SNP genotyping coupled with genotype-environment association analysis and phenotypic characterization of growth rate under different temperatures. We found that genetic variation and population structure within each species is best explained by distinct spatial and environmental variables. We observed both common (temperature seasonality and the host species) and distinct (drought, cold stress, precipitation) environmental and spatial factors that shaped the genomes of these fungi resulting in contrasting outcomes. Phenotypic intraspecific variations in Grosmannia clavigera and Leptographium longiclavatum, together with high heritability, suggest potential for adaptive selection in these species. By contrast, Ophiostoma montium displayed narrower intraspecific variation but greater tolerance to extreme high temperatures. Our study highlights unique phenotypic and genotypic characteristics in these symbionts that are consistent with our hypothesis. By maintaining this multipartite relationship, the bark beetles have a greater likelihood of obtaining the benefits afforded by the fungi and reduce the risk of being left aposymbiotic. Complementarity among species could facilitate colonization of new habitats and survival under adverse conditions.

  13. High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

  14. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of microbial community in soy-daddawa, a Nigerian fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment.

    PubMed

    Ezeokoli, Obinna T; Gupta, Arvind K; Mienie, Charlotte; Popoola, Temitope O S; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius C

    2016-03-02

    Soy-daddawa, a fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment, plays a significant role in the culinary practice of West Africa. It is essential to understand the microbial community of soy-daddawa for a successful starter culture application. This study investigated the microbial community structure of soy-daddawa samples collected from Nigerian markets, by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungi. Six bacterial and 16 fungal (nine yeasts and seven molds) operational taxonomic units (OTUs)/species were obtained at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic assignments revealed that bacterial OTUs belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and included species from the genera Atopostipes, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Nosocomiicoccus. Densitometric analysis of DGGE image/bands revealed that Bacillus spp. were the dominant OTU/species in terms of population numbers. Fungal OTUs belonged to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, and included species from the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Dokmaia, Issatchenkia, Kodamaea, Lecythophora, Phoma, Pichia, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces and Starmerella. The majority of fungal species have not been previously reported in soy-daddawa. Potential opportunistic human pathogens such as Atopostipes suicloacalis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis, and Kodamaea ohmeri were detected. Variation in soy-daddawa microbial communities amongst samples and presence of potential opportunistic pathogens emphasises the need for starter culture employment and good handling practices in soy-daddawa processing.

  15. Phylogenic diversity and tissue specificity of fungal endophytes associated with the pharmaceutical plant, Stellera chamaejasme L. revealed by a cultivation-independent approach.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Dengxue; Li, Chunjie; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zeng, Liming; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-01

    The fungal endophytes associated with medicinal plants have been demonstrated as a reservoir with novel natural products useful in medicine and agriculture. It is desirable to explore the species composition, diversity and tissue specificity of endophytic fungi that inhabit in different tissues of medicinal plants. In this study, a culture-independent survey of fungal diversity in the rhizosphere, leaves, stems and roots of a toxic medicinal plant, Stellera chamaejasme L., was conducted by sequence analysis of clone libraries of the partial internal transcribed spacer region. Altogether, 145 fungal OTUs (operational taxonomic units), represented by 464 sequences, were found in four samples, of these 109 OTUs (75.2 %) belonging to Ascomycota, 20 (13.8 %) to Basidiomycota, 14 (9.7 %) to Zygomycota, 1 (0.7 %) to Chytridiomycota, and 1 (0.7 %) to Glomeromycota. The richness and diversity of fungal communities were strongly influenced by plant tissue environments, and the roots are associated with a surprisingly rich endophyte community. The endophyte assemblages associated with S. chamaejasme were strongly shaped by plant tissue environments, and exhibited a certain degree of tissue specificity. Our results suggested that a wide variety of fungal assemblages inhabit in S. chamaejasme, and plant tissue environments conspicuously influence endophyte community structure.

  16. [Phylogenetic diversity of airborne microbes in Qingdao downtown in autumn].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Song, Zhi-wen; Xu, Ai-ling; Wu, Deng-deng; Xia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    To determine the community structure of airborne microbes in Qingdao downtown in autumn, the airborne bacteria and fungi were collected by the KC-6120 air sampler and analyzed using the 16S/18S rDNA gene clone library method. Phylogenetic analysis of airborne bacteria showed that they belonged to six major phylogenetic groups: Proteobacteria (78. 8%), Firmicutes (14.6%), Actinobacteria (4.0%), Planctomycetes (1.3%), Cyanobacteria (0.7%), and Deinococcus-Thermus (0.7%). The dominant genera of airborne bacteria included Acinetobacter (39.7%), Staphylococcus (11.3%), Sphingomonas (8.6%), Paracoccus (6.0%) and Massilia (5.3%). The main types of airborne fungi were Ascomycota (97.5%) and Basidiomycota (2.5%). Dominant genera of airborne fungi included Pyrenophora (76.5%), Xylaria (13.6%) and Exophiala (2.5%). The pathogens or conditioned pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, or Sphingomonas were detected in the airborne bacteria, whereas certain kinds of fungi, such as P. graminea, X. hypoxylon and Zasmidium angulare that could cause a variety of crop diseases were also detected.

  17. Elucidating the Diversity of Aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia diclina

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; de Bruijn, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security. Due to the prohibition of several chemical control agents, novel sustainable measures are required to control Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Previously, fungal community analysis by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) revealed that the Ascomycota, specifically the genus Microdochium, was an abundant fungal phylum associated with salmon eggs from a commercial fish farm. Here, phylogenetic analyses showed that most fungal isolates obtained from salmon eggs were closely related to Microdochium lycopodinum/Microdochium phragmitis and Trichoderma viride species. Phylogenetic and quantitative PCR analyses showed both a quantitative and qualitative difference in Trichoderma population between diseased and healthy salmon eggs, which was not the case for the Microdochium population. In vitro antagonistic activity of the fungi against Saprolegnia diclina was isolate-dependent; for most Trichoderma isolates, the typical mycoparasitic coiling around and/or formation of papilla-like structures on S. diclina hyphae were observed. These results suggest that among the fungal community associated with salmon eggs, Trichoderma species may play a role in Saprolegnia suppression in aquaculture. PMID:26805821

  18. Land-use types and soil chemical properties influence soil microbial communities in the semiarid Loess Plateau region in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qin; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Shi, Wei-Yu; Li, Guoqing; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Du, Sheng

    2017-03-28

    Similar land-use types usually have similar soil properties, and, most likely, similar microbial communities. Here, we assessed whether land-use types or soil chemical properties are the primary drivers of soil microbial community composition, and how changes in one part of the ecosystem affect another. We applied Ion Torrent sequencing to the bacterial and fungal communities of five different land-use (vegetation) types in the Loess Plateau of China. We found that the overall trend of soil quality was natural forest > plantation > bare land. Dominant bacterial phyla consisted of Proteobacteria (42.35%), Actinobacteria (15.61%), Acidobacteria (13.32%), Bacteroidetes (8.43%), and Gemmatimonadetes (6.0%). The dominant fungi phyla were Ascomycota (40.39%), Basidiomycota (38.01%), and Zygomycota (16.86%). The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and Redundancy Analysis (RDA) based on land-use types displayed groups according to the land-use types. Furthermore, the bacterial communities were mainly organized by soil organic carbon (SOC). The fungal communities were mainly related to available phosphorus (P). The results suggested that the changes of land use type generated changes in soil chemical properties, controlling the composition of microbial community in the semiarid Loess Plateau region. The microbial community could be an indicator for soil quality with respect to ecological restoration.

  19. Elucidating the Diversity of Aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia diclina.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2016-01-21

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security. Due to the prohibition of several chemical control agents, novel sustainable measures are required to control Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Previously, fungal community analysis by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) revealed that the Ascomycota, specifically the genus Microdochium, was an abundant fungal phylum associated with salmon eggs from a commercial fish farm. Here, phylogenetic analyses showed that most fungal isolates obtained from salmon eggs were closely related to Microdochium lycopodinum/Microdochium phragmitis and Trichoderma viride species. Phylogenetic and quantitative PCR analyses showed both a quantitative and qualitative difference in Trichoderma population between diseased and healthy salmon eggs, which was not the case for the Microdochium population. In vitro antagonistic activity of the fungi against Saprolegnia diclina was isolate-dependent; for most Trichoderma isolates, the typical mycoparasitic coiling around and/or formation of papilla-like structures on S. diclina hyphae were observed. These results suggest that among the fungal community associated with salmon eggs, Trichoderma species may play a role in Saprolegnia suppression in aquaculture.

  20. DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species.

    PubMed

    López-Quintero, Carlos A; Atanasova, Lea; Franco-Molano, A Esperanza; Gams, Walter; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Theelen, Bart; Müller, Wally H; Boekhout, Teun; Druzhinina, Irina

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and the partial sequence of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) gene revealed that the diversity of Trichoderma was dominated (71 %) by three common cosmopolitan species, namely Trichoderma harzianum sensu lato (41 %), Trichoderma spirale (17 %) and Trichoderma koningiopsis (13 %). Four ITS 1 and 2 phylotypes (13 strains) could not be identified with certainty. Multigene phylogenetic analysis and phenotype profiling of four strains with an ITS1 and 2 phylotype similar to Trichoderma strigosum revealed a new sister species of the latter that is described here as Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. Sequence similarity searches revealed that this species also occurs in soils of Malaysia and Cameroon, suggesting a pantropical distribution.

  1. Diversity of Marine-Derived Aspergillus from Tidal Mudflats and Sea Sand in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seobihn; Park, Myung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus (Trichocomaceae, Eurotiales, and Ascomycota) is a genus of well-defined asexual spore-forming fungi that produce valuable compounds such as secondary metabolites and enzymes; however, some species are also responsible for diseases in plants and animals, including humans. To date, 26 Aspergillus species have been reported in Korea, with most species located in terrestrial environments. In our study, Aspergillus species were isolated from mudflats and sea sand along the western and southern coasts of Korea. A total of 84 strains were isolated and identified as 17 Aspergillus species in 11 sections on the basis of both morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the calmodulin gene (CaM) locus. Commonly isolated species were A. fumigatus (26 strains), A. sydowii (14 strains), and A. terreus (10 strains). The diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from mudflats (13 species) was higher than the diversity of those from sea sand (five species). Four identified species—A. caesiellus, A. montenegroi, A. rhizopodus, and A. tabacinus—are in the first records in Korea. Here, we provide detailed descriptions of the morphological characteristics of these four species. PMID:28154481

  2. Indole-3-Acetic Acid-Producing Yeasts in the Phyllosphere of the Carnivorous Plant Drosera indica L

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Li-Ying; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Fu, Shih-Feng; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and exist in association with other microorganisms as normal inhabitants of soil, vegetation, and aqueous environments. In this study, 12 yeast strains were enriched and isolated from leaf samples of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L., which is currently threatened because of restricted habitats and use in herbal industries. According to similarities in large subunit and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we identified 2 yeast species in 2 genera of the phylum Ascomycota, and 5 yeast species in 5 genera of the phylum Basidiomycota. All of the isolated yeasts produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) when cultivated in YPD broth supplemented with 0.1% L-tryptophan. Growth conditions, such as the pH and temperature of the medium, influenced yeast IAA production. Our results also suggested the existence of a tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthetic pathway. We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of exogenous IAA on yeast growth and observed that IAA produced by wild yeasts modifies auxin-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that yeasts can promote plant growth and support ongoing prospecting of yeast strains for inclusion into biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. PMID:25464336

  3. Evolution of nematode-trapping cells of predatory fungi of the Orbiliaceae based on evidence from rRNA-encoding DNA and multiprotein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Yang, Ence; An, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xingzhong

    2007-01-01

    Among fungi, the basic life strategies are saprophytism, parasitism, and predation. Fungi in Orbiliaceae (Ascomycota) prey on animals by means of specialized trapping structures. Five types of trapping devices are recognized, but their evolutionary origins and divergence are not well understood. Based on comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of three protein-coding genes (RNA polymerase II subunit gene, rpb2; elongation factor 1-α gene, ef1-α; and ß tubulin gene, bt) and ribosomal DNA in the internal transcribed spacer region, we have demonstrated that the initial trapping structure evolved along two lineages yielding two distinct trapping mechanisms: one developed into constricting rings and the other developed into adhesive traps. Among adhesive trapping devices, the adhesive network separated from the others early and evolved at a steady and gentle speed. The adhesive knob evolved through stalk elongation, with a final development of nonconstricting rings. Our data suggest that the derived adhesive traps are at a highly differentiated stage. The development of trapping devices is felicitous proof of adaptive evolution. PMID:17494736

  4. Unravelling the Diversity of Grapevine Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; C. Gomes, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines. PMID:24454903

  5. Land-use types and soil chemical properties influence soil microbial communities in the semiarid Loess Plateau region in China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qin; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Shi, Wei-Yu; Li, Guoqing; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Du, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Similar land-use types usually have similar soil properties, and, most likely, similar microbial communities. Here, we assessed whether land-use types or soil chemical properties are the primary drivers of soil microbial community composition, and how changes in one part of the ecosystem affect another. We applied Ion Torrent sequencing to the bacterial and fungal communities of five different land-use (vegetation) types in the Loess Plateau of China. We found that the overall trend of soil quality was natural forest > plantation > bare land. Dominant bacterial phyla consisted of Proteobacteria (42.35%), Actinobacteria (15.61%), Acidobacteria (13.32%), Bacteroidetes (8.43%), and Gemmatimonadetes (6.0%). The dominant fungi phyla were Ascomycota (40.39%), Basidiomycota (38.01%), and Zygomycota (16.86%). The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and Redundancy Analysis (RDA) based on land-use types displayed groups according to the land-use types. Furthermore, the bacterial communities were mainly organized by soil organic carbon (SOC). The fungal communities were mainly related to available phosphorus (P). The results suggested that the changes of land use type generated changes in soil chemical properties, controlling the composition of microbial community in the semiarid Loess Plateau region. The microbial community could be an indicator for soil quality with respect to ecological restoration. PMID:28349918

  6. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils

    PubMed Central

    Pereira de Castro, Alinne; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture. PMID:26849674

  7. Genetics, Genomics and Evolution of Ergot Alkaloid Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Carolyn A.; Schardl, Christopher L.; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Moore, Neil; Webb, Jennifer S.; Jaromczyk, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The ergot alkaloid biosynthesis system has become an excellent model to study evolutionary diversification of specialized (secondary) metabolites. This is a very diverse class of alkaloids with various neurotropic activities, produced by fungi in several orders of the phylum Ascomycota, including plant pathogens and protective plant symbionts in the family Clavicipitaceae. Results of comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses reveal multiple examples of three evolutionary processes that have generated ergot-alkaloid diversity: gene gains, gene losses, and gene sequence changes that have led to altered substrates or product specificities of the enzymes that they encode (neofunctionalization). The chromosome ends appear to be particularly effective engines for gene gains, losses and rearrangements, but not necessarily for neofunctionalization. Changes in gene expression could lead to accumulation of various pathway intermediates and affect levels of different ergot alkaloids. Genetic alterations associated with interspecific hybrids of Epichloë species suggest that such variation is also selectively favored. The huge structural diversity of ergot alkaloids probably represents adaptations to a wide variety of ecological situations by affecting the biological spectra and mechanisms of defense against herbivores, as evidenced by the diverse pharmacological effects of ergot alkaloids used in medicine. PMID:25875294

  8. Culturable endophytic microbial communities in the circumpolar grass, Deschampsia flexuosa in a sub-Arctic inland primary succession are habitat and growth stage specific.

    PubMed

    Poosakkannu, Anbu; Nissinen, Riitta; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about endophytic microbes in cold climate plants and how their communities are formed.We compared culturable putative endophytic bacteria and fungi in the ecologically important circumpolargrass, Deschampsia flexuosa growing in two successional stages of subarctic sand dune (68°29′N).Sequence analyses of partial 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of culturable endophytes showed that diverse bacteria and fungi inhabit different tissues of D. flexuosa. A total of 178 bacterial isolates representing seven taxonomic divisions, Alpha, Beta and Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Acidobacteria, and 30 fungal isolates representing the phylum Ascomycota were identified. Several endophytes were affiliated with specific plant tissues or successional stages. This first report of bacterial endophytes in D. flexuosa revealed that the genus Pseudomonas is tightly associated with D. flexuosa, and encompassed 39% of the bacterial isolates, and 58% of seed isolates. Based on 16S rRNA and ITS sequence data, most of the D. flexuosa endophytes were closely related to microbes from other cold environments. The majority of seed endophytic bacterial isolates were able to solubilize organic form of phosphate suggesting that these endophytes could play a role in resource mobilization in germinating seeds in nutrient-poor habitat.

  9. Respiratory tract clinical sample selection for microbiota analysis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes in respiratory tract microbiota have been associated with diseases such as tuberculosis, a global public health problem that affects millions of people each year. This pilot study was carried out using sputum, oropharynx, and nasal respiratory tract samples collected from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy control individuals, in order to compare sample types and their usefulness in assessing changes in bacterial and fungal communities. Findings Most V1-V2 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria, with differences in relative abundances and in specific taxa associated with each sample type. Most fungal ITS1 sequences were classified as Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, but abundances differed for the different samples. Bacterial and fungal community structures in oropharynx and sputum samples were similar to one another, as indicated by several beta diversity analyses, and both differed from nasal samples. The only difference between patient and control microbiota was found in oropharynx samples for both bacteria and fungi. Bacterial diversity was greater in sputum samples, while fungal diversity was greater in nasal samples. Conclusions Respiratory tract microbial communities were similar in terms of the major phyla identified, yet they varied in terms of relative abundances and diversity indexes. Oropharynx communities varied with respect to health status and resembled those in sputum samples, which are collected from tuberculosis patients only due to the difficulty in obtaining sputum from healthy individuals, suggesting that oropharynx samples can be used to analyze community structure alterations associated with tuberculosis. PMID:25225609

  10. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens. PMID:23717111

  11. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  12. Novel Introner-Like Elements in fungi Are Involved in Parallel Gains of Spliceosomal Introns.

    PubMed

    Collemare, Jérôme; Beenen, Henriek G; Crous, Pedro W; de Wit, Pierre J G M; van der Burgt, Ate

    2015-01-01

    Spliceosomal introns are key components of the eukaryotic gene structure. Although they contributed to the emergence of eukaryotes, their origin remains elusive. In fungi, they might originate from the multiplication of invasive introns named Introner-Like Elements (ILEs). However, so far ILEs have been observed in six fungal species only, including Fulvia fulva and Dothistroma septosporum (Dothideomycetes), arguing against ILE insertion as a general mechanism for intron gain. Here, we identified novel ILEs in eight additional fungal species that are phylogenetically related to F. fulva and D. septosporum using PCR amplification with primers derived from previously identified ILEs. The ILE content appeared unique to each species, suggesting independent multiplication events. Interestingly, we identified four genes each containing two gained ILEs. By analysing intron positions in orthologues of these four genes in Ascomycota, we found that three ILEs had inserted within a 15 bp window that contains regular spliceosomal introns in other fungal species. These three positions are not the result of intron sliding because ILEs are newly gained introns. Furthermore, the alternative hypothesis of an inferred ancestral gain followed by independent losses contradicts the observed degeneration of ILEs. These observations clearly indicate three parallel intron gains in four genes that were randomly identified. Our findings suggest that parallel intron gain is a phenomenon that has been highly underestimated in ILE-containing fungi, and likely in the whole fungal kingdom.

  13. A taxonomic and ecological overview of cheese fungi.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Jeanne; Cruaud, Corinne; Lacoste, Sandrine; Dupont, Joëlle

    2012-04-16

    Cheese is made from milk by a succession of microbes (bacteria, yeasts and fungi) that determine the consistency and flavor of the cheese. Apart from the emblematic species, Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti, cheese fungi are not well known. Here we present a taxonomic and phylogenetic overview of the most important filamentous cheese Ascomycota based on 133 isolates provided by the producers of cheese and cheese starter cultures and 97 isolates from culture collections. We checked the congruence of different gene genealogies to circumscribe cheese species and our results allow us to propose molecular targets for their identification. To study their phylogenetic affiliation, we used LSU rDNA and showed that cheese fungi are found in two classes, the Eurotiomycetes with Penicillium species (Eurotiales) and Sporendonema casei/Sphaerosporium equinum (Onygenales), and the Sordariomycetes with Scopulariopsis species (Microascales) and Fusarium domesticum (Hypocreales). Some of these fungi, such as, P. camemberti, F. domesticum, Scopulariopsis flava and S. casei, are only known from cheeses and are probably adapted to this particular habitat, which is extremely rich in protein and fat. Other cheese fungi are ubiquitous, such as, P. roqueforti, Scopulariopsis candida and Scopulariopsis fusca.

  14. Phylogenetic Diversity of Sponge-Associated Fungi from the Caribbean and the Pacific of Panama and Their In Vitro Effect on Angiotensin and Endothelin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Jessica; De León, Luis Fernando; Ochoa, Edgardo; Darias, José; Raja, Huzefa A; Shearer, Carol A; Miller, Andrew N; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2015-10-01

    Fungi occupy an important ecological niche in the marine environment, and marine fungi possess an immense biotechnological potential. This study documents the fungal diversity associated with 39 species of sponges and determines their potential to produce secondary metabolites capable of interacting with mammalian G-protein-coupled receptors involved in blood pressure regulation. Total genomic DNA was extracted from 563 representative fungal strains obtained from marine sponges collected by SCUBA from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Panama. A total of 194 operational taxonomic units were found with 58% represented by singletons based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA regions. Marine sponges were highly dominated by Ascomycota fungi (95.6%) and represented by two major classes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. Rarefaction curves showed no saturation, indicating that further efforts are needed to reveal the entire diversity at this site. Several unique clades were found during phylogenetic analysis with the highest diversity of unique clades in the order Pleosporales. From the 65 cultures tested to determine their in vitro effect on angiotensin and endothelin receptors, the extracts of Fusarium sp. and Phoma sp. blocked the activation of these receptors by more than 50% of the control and seven others inhibited between 30 and 45%. Our results indicate that marine sponges from Panama are a "hot spot" of fungal diversity as well as a rich resource for capturing, cataloguing, and assessing the pharmacological potential of substances present in previously undiscovered fungi associated with marine sponges.

  15. The polyketide synthase gene pks4 of Trichoderma reesei provides pigmentation and stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Lea; Knox, Benjamin P; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S; Baker, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are well-known for their production of various secondary metabolites. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides represent a major portion of these products. In a recent phylogenomic investigation of Trichoderma polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding genes, the pks4 from T. reesei was shown to be an orthologue of pigment-forming PKSs involved in synthesis of aurofusarin and bikaverin in Fusarium spp. In this study, we show that deletion of this gene in T. reesei results in loss of green conidial pigmentation and in pigmentation alteration of teleomorph structures. It also has an impact on conidial cell wall stability and the antagonistic abilities of T. reesei against other fungi, including formation of inhibitory metabolites. In addition, deletion of pks4 significantly influences the expression of other PKS-encoding genes of T. reesei. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that a low-molecular-weight pigment-forming PKS is involved in defense, mechanical stability, and stress resistance in fungi.

  16. Comparative Analysis of DNA Methyltransferase Gene Family in Fungi: A Focus on Basidiomycota

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruirui; Ding, Qiangqiang; Xiang, Yanan; Gu, Tingting; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Mushrooms belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota are highly valued for both nutritional and pharmaceutical uses. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the significance of DNA methylation in the development of plants and animals. However, our understanding of DNA methylation in mushrooms is limited. In this study, we identified and conducted comprehensive analyses on DNA methyltransferases (DNMtases) in representative species from Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, and obtained new insights into their classification and characterization in fungi. Our results revealed that DNMtases in basidiomycetes can be divided into two classes, the Dnmt1 class and the newly defined Rad8 class. We also demonstrated that the fusion event between the characteristic domains of the DNMtases family and Snf2 family in the Rad8 class is fungi-specific, possibly indicating a functional novelty of Rad8 DNMtases in fungi. Additionally, expression profiles of DNMtases in the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus revealed diverse expression patterns in various organs and developmental stages. For example, DNMtase genes displayed higher expression levels in dikaryons than in monokaryons. Consistent with the expression profiles, we found that dikaryons are more susceptible to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine. Taken together, our findings pinpoint an important role of DNA methylation during the growth of mushrooms and provide a foundation for understanding of DNMtases in basidiomycetes. PMID:27818666

  17. Resource Partitioning between Bacteria, Fungi, and Protists in the Detritusphere of an Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Susanne; Dibbern, Dörte; Moll, Julia; Huenninghaus, Maike; Koller, Robert; Krueger, Dirk; Marhan, Sven; Urich, Tim; Wubet, Tesfaye; Bonkowski, Michael; Buscot, François; Lueders, Tillmann; Kandeler, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil. Carbon flow was traced by rRNA stable isotope probing and amplicon sequencing across three microbial kingdoms. Distinct lineages within the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota as well as Peronosporomycetes were identified as important primary substrate consumers. A dynamic succession of primary consumers was observed especially in the cellulose treatments, but also in plant amendments over time. While intra-kingdom niche partitioning was clearly observed, distinct bacterial and fungal energy channels were not apparent. Furthermore, while the diversity of primary substrate consumers did not notably increase with substrate complexity, consumer succession and secondary trophic links to bacterivorous and fungivorous microbes resulted in increased food web complexity in the more recalcitrant substrates. This suggests that rather than substrate-defined energy channels, consumer succession as well as intra- and inter-kingdom cross-feeding should be considered as mechanisms supporting food web complexity in the detritusphere.

  18. Composition, taxonomy and functional diversity of the oropharynx microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia and controls

    PubMed Central

    Bendall, Matthew L.; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Sabuncyan, Sarven; Severance, Emily G.; Dickerson, Faith B.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Yolken, Robert H.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the human microbiome in schizophrenia remains largely unexplored. The microbiome has been shown to alter brain development and modulate behavior and cognition in animals through gut-brain connections, and research in humans suggests that it may be a modulating factor in many disorders. This study reports findings from a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the oropharyngeal microbiome in 16 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 controls. High-level differences were evident at both the phylum and genus levels, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria dominating both schizophrenia patients and controls, and Ascomycota being more abundant in schizophrenia patients than controls. Controls were richer in species but less even in their distributions, i.e., dominated by fewer species, as opposed to schizophrenia patients. Lactic acid bacteria were relatively more abundant in schizophrenia, including species of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium, which have been shown to modulate chronic inflammation. We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species. Functionally, the microbiome of schizophrenia patients was characterized by an increased number of metabolic pathways related to metabolite transport systems including siderophores, glutamate, and vitamin B12. In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls. These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups. Confirmation of these findings in larger and more diverse samples, e.g., gut microbiome, will contribute to elucidating potential links between schizophrenia and the human microbiota. PMID:26336637

  19. Organization and Evolutionary Trajectory of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus in Dermatophyte and Dimorphic Fungal Pathogens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size (∼3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755

  20. The Trichoderma harzianum demon: complex speciation history resulting in coexistence of hypothetical biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The mitosporic fungus Trichoderma harzianum (Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae) is an ubiquitous species in the environment with some strains commercially exploited for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. Although T. harzianum is asexual (or anamorphic), its sexual stage (or teleomorph) has been described as Hypocrea lixii. Since recombination would be an important issue for the efficacy of an agent of the biological control in the field, we investigated the phylogenetic structure of the species. Results Using DNA sequence data from three unlinked loci for each of 93 strains collected worldwide, we detected a complex speciation process revealing overlapping reproductively isolated biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages with unresolved phylogenetic positions. Genealogical concordance and recombination analyses confirm the existence of two genetically isolated agamospecies including T. harzianum sensu stricto and two hypothetical holomorphic species related to but different from H. lixii. The exact phylogenetic position of the majority of strains was not resolved and therefore attributed to a diverse network of recombining strains conventionally called 'pseudoharzianum matrix'. Since H. lixii and T. harzianum are evidently genetically isolated, the anamorph - teleomorph combination comprising H. lixii/T. harzianum in one holomorph must be rejected in favor of two separate species. Conclusions Our data illustrate a complex speciation within H. lixii - T. harzianum species group, which is based on coexistence and interaction of organisms with different evolutionary histories and on the absence of strict genetic borders between them. PMID:20359347

  1. Communities of Cultivable Root Mycobionts of the Seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea Are Dominated by a Hitherto Undescribed Pleosporalean Dark Septate Endophyte.

    PubMed

    Vohník, Martin; Borovec, Ondřej; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses, a small group of submerged marine macrophytes, were reported to lack mycorrhizae, i.e., the root-fungus symbioses most terrestrial plants use for nutrient uptake. On the other hand, several authors detected fungal endophytes in seagrass leaves, shoots, rhizomes, and roots, and an anatomically and morphologically unique dark septate endophytic (DSE) association has been recently described in the roots of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Nevertheless, the global diversity of seagrass mycobionts is not well understood, and it remains unclear what fungus forms the DSE association in P. oceanica roots. We isolated and determined P. oceanica root mycobionts from 11 localities in the northwest Mediterranean Sea with documented presence of the DSE association and compared our results with recent literature. The mycobiont communities were low in diversity (only three species), were dominated by a single yet unreported marine fungal species (ca. 90 % of the total 177 isolates), and lacked common terrestrial and freshwater root mycobionts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the dominating species represents a new monotypic lineage within the recently described Aigialaceae family (Pleosporales, Ascomycota), probably representing a new genus. Most of its examined colonies developed from intracellular microsclerotia occupying host hypodermis and resembling microsclerotia of terrestrial DSE fungi. Biological significance of this hitherto overlooked seagrass root mycobiont remains obscure, but its presence across the NW Mediterranean Sea and apparent root intracellular lifestyle indicate an intriguing symbiotic relationship with the dominant Mediterranean seagrass. Our microscopic observations suggest that it may form the DSE association recently described in P. oceanica roots.

  2. Yeast Communities of Diverse Drosophila Species: Comparison of Two Symbiont Groups in the Same Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Jonathan A.; Kopp, Artyom

    2012-01-01

    The combination of ecological diversity with genetic and experimental tractability makes Drosophila a powerful model for the study of animal-associated microbial communities. Despite the known importance of yeasts in Drosophila physiology, behavior, and fitness, most recent work has focused on Drosophila-bacterial interactions. In order to get a more complete understanding of the Drosophila microbiome, we characterized the yeast communities associated with different Drosophila species collected around the world. We focused on the phylum Ascomycota because it constitutes the vast majority of the Drosophila-associated yeasts. Our sampling strategy allowed us to compare the distribution and structure of the yeast and bacterial communities in the same host populations. We show that yeast communities are dominated by a small number of abundant taxa, that the same yeast lineages are associated with different host species and populations, and that host diet has a greater effect than host species on yeast community composition. These patterns closely parallel those observed in Drosophila bacterial communities. However, we do not detect a significant correlation between the yeast and bacterial communities of the same host populations. Comparative analysis of different symbiont groups provides a more comprehensive picture of host-microbe interactions. Future work on the role of symbiont communities in animal physiology, ecological adaptation, and evolution would benefit from a similarly holistic approach. PMID:22885750

  3. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  4. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas.

    PubMed

    Knapp, D G; Kovács, G M; Zajta, E; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-12-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages belonging to Pleosporales that were found previously in semiarid sandy grasslands. For molecular phylogenetic studies seven loci (ITS, partial 18S nrRNA, 28S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, transcription-elongation factor 1- α and ß -tubulin genes) were amplified and sequenced. Based on morphology and the resulting molecular phylogeny these isolates were found to represent three novel genera within the Pleosporales, namely Aquilomyces, Flavomyces and Darksidea, with eight novel species. Molecular data revealed that monotypic Aquilomyces belongs to Morosphaeriaceae, monotypic Flavomyces represents an incertae sedis lineage related to Massarinaceae, and Darksidea, with six new species, is allied to the Lentitheciaceae. During this study we tested numerous conditions to induce sporulation, and managed for the first time to induce several DSE to form their sexual morphs.

  5. Colonization of roots of cultivated Solanum lycopersicum by dark septate and other ascomycetous endophytes.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Franken, Philipp; Rexer, Karl-Heinz; Kost, Gerhard; Restrepo, Silvia; de Garcia, Maria Caridad Cepero; Maximova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots from four different crop sites in Colombia were surface sterilized and 51 fungal isolates were obtained and conserved for further analysis. Based on microscopical observations and growth characteristics, 20 fungal isolates corresponded to genus Fusarium, six presented asexual conidia different from Fusarium, eight were sterile mycelia, seven of which had dark septate hyphae and 17 did not continue to grow on plates after being recovered from conservation. Growth on different media, detailed morphological characterization and ITS region sequencing of the six sporulating and eight sterile isolates revealed that they belonged to different orders of Ascomycota and that the sterile dark septate endophytes did not correspond to the well known Phialocephala group. Interactions of nine isolates with tomato plantlets were assessed in vitro. No effect on shoot development was revealed, but three isolates caused brown spots in roots. Colonization patterns as analyzed by confocal microscopy differed among the isolates and ranged from epidermal to cortical penetration. Altogether 11 new isolates from root endophytic fungi were obtained, seven of which showed features of dark septate endophytes. Four known morphotypes were represented by five isolates, while six isolates belonged to five morphotypes of putative new unknown species.

  6. Differential gene retention as an evolutionary mechanism to generate biodiversity and adaptation in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Guillaume; Sterck, Lieven; Swennen, Dominique; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Onesime, Djamila; Levasseur, Anthony; Jacques, Noémie; Mallet, Sandrine; Couloux, Arnaux; Labadie, Karine; Amselem, Joëlle; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Henrissat, Bernard; Van de Peer, Yves; Wincker, Patrick; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Gabaldón, Toni; Tinsley, Colin R.; Casaregola, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the characters underlying the adaptation of microorganisms to food and biotechnological uses is poorly understood. We undertook comparative genomics to investigate evolutionary relationships of the dairy yeast Geotrichum candidum within Saccharomycotina. Surprisingly, a remarkable proportion of genes showed discordant phylogenies, clustering with the filamentous fungus subphylum (Pezizomycotina), rather than the yeast subphylum (Saccharomycotina), of the Ascomycota. These genes appear not to be the result of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT), but to have been specifically retained by G. candidum after the filamentous fungi–yeasts split concomitant with the yeasts’ genome contraction. We refer to these genes as SRAGs (Specifically Retained Ancestral Genes), having been lost by all or nearly all other yeasts, and thus contributing to the phenotypic specificity of lineages. SRAG functions include lipases consistent with a role in cheese making and novel endoglucanases associated with degradation of plant material. Similar gene retention was observed in three other distantly related yeasts representative of this ecologically diverse subphylum. The phenomenon thus appears to be widespread in the Saccharomycotina and argues that, alongside neo-functionalization following gene duplication and HGT, specific gene retention must be recognized as an important mechanism for generation of biodiversity and adaptation in yeasts. PMID:26108467

  7. Reconstructing the fungal tree of life using phylogenomics and a preliminary investigation of the distribution of yeast prion-like proteins in the fungal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Medina, Edgar M; Jones, Gary W; Fitzpatrick, David A

    2011-10-01

    We have used three independent phylogenomic approaches (concatenated alignments, single-, and multi-gene supertrees) to reconstruct the fungal tree of life (FTOL) using publicly available fungal genomes. This is the first time multi-gene families have been used in fungal supertree reconstruction and permits us to use up to 66% of the 1,001,217 genes in our fungal database. Our analyses show that different phylogenomic datasets derived from varying clustering criteria and alignment orientation do not have a major effect on phylogenomic supertree reconstruction. Overall the resultant phylogenomic trees are relatively congruent with one another and successfully recover the major fungal phyla, subphyla and classes. We find that where incongruences do occur, the inferences are usually poorly supported. Within the Ascomycota phylum, our phylogenies reconstruct monophyletic Saccharomycotina and Pezizomycotina subphyla clades and infer a sister group relationship between these to the exclusion of the Taphrinomycotina. Within the Pezizomycotina subphylum, all three phylogenies infer a sister group relationship between the Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes classes. However, there is conflict regarding the relationships with the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes classes. Within the Basidiomycota phylum, supertrees derived from single- and multi-gene families infer a sister group relationship between the Pucciniomycotina and Agaricomycotina subphyla while the concatenated phylogeny infers a poorly supported relationship between the Agaricomycotina and Ustilagomycotina. The reconstruction of a robust FTOL is important for future fungal comparative analyses. We illustrate this point by performing a preliminary investigation into the phyletic distribution of yeast prion-like proteins in the fungal kingdom.

  8. Systematic analyses reveal uniqueness and origin of the CFEM domain in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Na; Wu, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Zhu, Yue-Yan; Murphy, Robert W.; Liu, Zhen; Zou, Cheng-Gang

    2015-01-01

    CFEM domain commonly occurs in fungal extracellular membrane proteins. To provide insights for understanding putative functions of CFEM, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of CFEM domains by systematic comparative genomic analyses among diverse animals, plants, and more than 100 fungal species, which are representative across the entire group of fungi. We here show that CFEM domain is unique to fungi. Experiments using tissue culture demonstrate that the CFEM-containing ESTs in some plants originate from endophytic fungi. We also find that CFEM domain does not occur in all fungi. Its single origin dates to the most recent common ancestors of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, instead of multiple origins. Although the length and architecture of CFEM domains are relatively conserved, the domain-number varies significantly among different fungal species. In general, pathogenic fungi have a larger number of domains compared to other species. Domain-expansion across fungal genomes appears to be driven by domain duplication and gene duplication via recombination. These findings generate a clear evolutionary trajectory of CFEM domains and provide novel insights into the functional exchange of CFEM-containing proteins from cell-surface components to mediators in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26255557

  9. Fungal succession in an in-vessel composting system characterized using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Langarica-Fuentes, Adrian; Zafar, Urooj; Heyworth, Alan; Brown, Thomas; Fox, Graeme; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Fungi are known to have an important role in the composting process as degraders of recalcitrant materials such as cellulose and lignin. Previous attempts to study the diversity and succession of fungi in compost systems have relied on the use of culture-dependent analyses and low-resolution DNA-fingerprinting techniques, lacking the necessary depth to analyse such a rich ecosystem. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to characterize the fungal community composition at the different stages of an in-vessel composting process. A complex succession of fungi was revealed, with 251 fungal OTUs identified throughout the monitoring period. The Ascomycota were the dominant phylum (82.5% of all sequences recovered), followed by the Basidiomycota (10.4%) and the subphylum Mucoromycotina (4.9%). In the starting materials and early stages of the process, yeast species from the Saccharomycetales were abundant, while in latter stages and in the high temperature regions of the pile, fungi from the orders Eurotiales, Sordariales, Mucorales, Agaricales and Microascales were the most prominent. This study provides an improved understanding of the fungal diversity occurring during the composting of municipal solid waste, and this knowledge can lead to the development of more efficient composting practices and a better evaluation of the end-product quality.

  10. Phylogenetic Relationships Matter: Antifungal Susceptibility among Clinically Relevant Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Schmalreck, A. F.; Becker, K.; Fegeler, W.; Czaika, V.; Ulmer, H.; Lass-Flörl, C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: to evaluate whether phylogenetically closely related yeasts share common antifungal susceptibility profiles (ASPs) and whether these ASPs can be predicted from phylogeny. To address this question, 9,627 yeast strains were collected and tested for their antifungal susceptibility. Isolates were reidentified by considering recent changes in taxonomy and nomenclature. A phylogenetic (PHYLO) code based on the results of multilocus sequence analyses (large-subunit rRNA, small-subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor 1α, RNA polymerase II subunits 1 and 2) and the classification of the cellular neutral sugar composition of coenzyme Q and 18S ribosomal DNA was created to group related yeasts into PHYLO groups. The ASPs were determined for fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole in each PHYLO group. The majority (95%) of the yeast strains were Ascomycetes. After reclassification, a total of 23 genera and 54 species were identified, resulting in an increase of 64% of genera and a decrease of 5% of species compared with the initial identification. These taxa were assigned to 17 distinct PHYLO groups (Ascomycota, n = 13; Basidiomycota, n = 4). ASPs for azoles were similar among members of the same PHYLO group and different between the various PHYLO groups. Yeast phylogeny may be an additional tool to significantly enhance the assessment of MIC values and to predict antifungal susceptibility, thereby more rapidly initiating appropriate patient management. PMID:24366735

  11. Forest Age and Plant Species Composition Determine the Soil Fungal Community Composition in a Chinese Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Trogisch, Stefan; Both, Sabine; Scholten, Thomas; Bruelheide, Helge; Buscot, François

    2013-01-01

    Fungal diversity and community composition are mainly related to soil and vegetation factors. However, the relative contribution of the different drivers remains largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. We studied the fungal diversity and community composition of soils sampled from 12 comparative study plots representing three forest age classes (Young: 10–40 yrs; Medium: 40–80 yrs; Old: ≥80 yrs) in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in South-eastern China. Soil fungal communities were assessed employing ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Members of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota dominated the fungal community, with 22 putative ectomycorrhizal fungal families, where Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae were the most abundant taxa. Analysis of similarity showed that the fungal community composition significantly differed among the three forest age classes. Forest age class, elevation of the study plots, and soil organic carbon (SOC) were the most important factors shaping the fungal community composition. We found a significant correlation between plant and fungal communities at different taxonomic and functional group levels, including a strong relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal and non-ectomycorrhizal plant communities. Our results suggest that in subtropical forests, plant species community composition is the main driver of the soil fungal diversity and community composition. PMID:23826151

  12. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0–10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40–50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60–70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment. PMID:26840453

  13. Novel and highly diverse fungal endophytes in soybean revealed by the consortium of two different techniques.

    PubMed

    de Souza Leite, Tiago; Cnossen-Fassoni, Andréia; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Mizubuti, Eduardo Seiti Gomide; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2013-02-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from the leaves of soybean cultivars in Brazil using two different isolation techniques - fragment plating and the innovative dilution-to-extinction culturing - to increase the species richness, frequency of isolates and diversity. A total of 241 morphospecies were obtained corresponding to 62 taxa that were identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The Phylum Ascomycota predominated, representing 99% and 95.2% of isolates in the Monsoy and Conquista cultivars, respectively, whereas the Phylum Basidiomycota represented 1% and 4.8% of isolates, respectively. The genera Ampelomyces, Annulohypoxylon, Guignardia, Leptospora, Magnaporthe, Ophiognomonia, Paraconiothyrium, Phaeosphaeriopsis, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and Xylaria for the first time were isolated from soybean; this suggests that soybean harbours novel and highly diverse fungi. The yeasts genera Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces (subphylum Pucciniomycotina) represent the Phylum Basidiomycota. The species richness was greater when both isolation techniques were used. The diversity of fungal endophytes was similar in both cultivars when the same isolation technique was used except for Hill's index, N1. The use of ITS region sequences allowed the isolates to be grouped according to Order, Class and Phylum. Ampelomyces, Chaetomium, and Phoma glomerata are endophytic species that may play potential roles in the biological control of soybean pathogens. This study is one of the first to apply extinction-culturing to isolate fungal endophytes in plant leaves, thus contributing to the development and improvement of this technique for future studies.

  14. Phylogenomic analysis of type I polyketide synthase genes in pathogenic and saprobic ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Kroken, Scott; Glass, N Louise; Taylor, John W; Yoder, O C; Turgeon, B Gillian

    2003-12-23

    Fungal type I polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by PK synthases (PKSs) and include well known secondary metabolites such as the anticholesterol drug lovastatin and the potent natural carcinogen aflatoxin. Other type I PKs are known to be virulence factors for some plant pathogens and pigments such as melanin. In this study, a phylogenomic approach was used to investigate the origin and diversity of fungal genes encoding putative PKSs that are predicted to synthesize type I PKs. The resulting genealogy, constructed by using the highly conserved PKS ketosynthase (KS) domain, indicated that: (i). Species within subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota) but not early diverging ascomycetes, like Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Saccharomycotina) or Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Taphrinomycotina), had large numbers (7-25) of PKS genes. (ii). Bacteria and fungi had separate groups of PKS genes; the few exceptions are the likely result of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to various sublineages of fungi. (iii). The bulk of genes encoding fungal PKSs fell into eight groups. Four groups were predicted to synthesize variously reduced PKs, and four groups were predicted to make unreduced PKs. (iv). Species within different classes of Pezizomycotina shared the same groups of PKS genes. (v). Different fungal genomes shared few putative orthologous PKS genes, even between closely related genomes in the same class or genus. (vi) The discontinuous distributions of orthologous PKSs among fungal species can be explained by gene duplication, divergence, and gene loss; horizontal gene transfer among fungi does not need to be invoked.

  15. gfsA encodes a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of galactofuranose antigen of O-glycan in Aspergillus nidulans and A. fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Futagami, Taiki; Kizjakina, Karina; Sobrado, Pablo; Ekino, Keisuke; Takegawa, Kaoru; Goto, Masatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Oka, Takuji

    2013-01-01

    The cell walls of filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus have galactofuranose-containing polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, including O-glycans, N-glycans, fungal-type galactomannan, and glycosylinositolphosphoceramide, which are important for cell wall integrity. Here, we attempted to identify galactofuranosyltransferases that couple galactofuranose monomers onto other wall components in Aspergillus nidulans. Using reverse-genetic and biochemical approaches, we identified that the AN8677 gene encoded a galactofuranosyltransferase, which we called GfsA, involved in galactofuranose (Galf) antigen biosynthesis. Disruption of gfsA reduced binding of β-Galf-specific antibody EB-A2 to O-glycosylated WscA protein and galactomannoproteins. The results of an in-vitro galactofuranose antigen synthase assay revealed that GfsA has β1,5- or β1,6- galactofuranosyltransferase activity for O-glycans in glycoproteins, uses UDP-D-galactofuranose as a sugar donor, and requires a divalent manganese cation for activity. GfsA was found to be localized at the Golgi apparatus based on cellular fractionation experiments. ΔgfsA cells exhibited an abnormal morphology characterized by poor hyphal extension, hyphal curvature, and limited formation of conidia. Several gfsA orthologs were identified in members of the Pezizomycotina subphylum of Ascomycota, including the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of a fungal β-galactofuranosyltransferase, which was shown to be involved in galactofuranose antigen biosynthesis of O-glycans in the Golgi. PMID:24118544

  16. Phylogenetics of Saccharomycetales, the ascomycete yeasts.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André

    2006-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts (phylum Ascomycota: subphylum Saccharomycotina: class Saccharomycetes: order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals and their interfaces. A few species account for most human mycotic infections, and fewer than 10 species are plant pathogens. Yeasts are responsible for important industrial and biotechnological processes, including baking, brewing and synthesis of recombinant proteins. Species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are model organisms in research, some of which led to a Nobel Prize. Yeasts usually reproduce asexually by budding, and their sexual states are not enclosed in a fruiting body. The group also is well defined by synapomorphies visible at the ultrastructural level. Yeast identification and classification changed dramatically with the availability of DNA sequencing. Species identification now benefits from a constantly updated sequence database and no longer relies on ambiguous growth tests. A phylogeny based on single gene analyses has shown the order to be remarkably divergent despite morphological similarities among members. The limits of many previously described genera are not supported by sequence comparisons, and multigene phylogenetic studies are under way to provide a stable circumscription of genera, families and orders. One recent multigene study has resolved species of the Saccharomycetaceae into genera that differ markedly from those defined by analysis of morphology and growth responses, and similar changes are likely to occur in other branches of the yeast tree as additional sequences become available.

  17. Roles of Forkhead-box Transcription Factors in Controlling Development, Pathogenicity, and Stress Response in Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaejin; Kong, Sunghyung; Kim, Seryun; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Although multiple transcription factors (TFs) have been characterized via mutagenesis to understand their roles in controlling pathogenicity and infection-related development in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast, if and how forkhead-box (FOX) TFs contribute to these processes remain to be characterized. Four putative FOX TF genes were identified in the genome of M. oryzae, and phylogenetic analysis suggested that two of them (MoFKH1 and MoHCM1) correspond to Ascomycota-specific members of the FOX TF family while the others (MoFOX1 and MoFOX2) are Pezizomycotina-specific members. Deletion of MoFKH1 (ΔMofkh1) resulted in reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination, abnormal septation and stress response, and reduced virulence. Similarly, ΔMohcm1 exhibited reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination. Conidia of ΔMofkh1 and ΔMohcm1 were more sensitive to one or both of the cell cycle inhibitors hydroxyurea and benomyl, suggesting their role in cell cycle control. On the other hand, loss of MoFOX1 (ΔMofox1) did not show any noticeable changes in development, pathogenicity, and stress response. Deletion of MoFOX2 was not successful even after repeated attempts. Taken together, these results suggested that MoFKH1 and Mo-HCM1 are important in fungal development and that MoFKH1 is further implicated in pathogenicity and stress response in M. oryzae. PMID:25288996

  18. Mechanisms of Bacterial (Serratia marcescens) Attachment to, Migration along, and Killing of Fungal Hyphae.

    PubMed

    Hover, Tal; Maya, Tal; Ron, Sapir; Sandovsky, Hani; Shadkchan, Yana; Kijner, Nitzan; Mitiagin, Yulia; Fichtman, Boris; Harel, Amnon; Shanks, Robert M Q; Bruna, Roberto E; García-Véscovi, Eleonora; Osherov, Nir

    2016-05-01

    We have found a remarkable capacity for the ubiquitous Gram-negative rod bacterium Serratia marcescens to migrate along and kill the mycelia of zygomycete molds. This migration was restricted to zygomycete molds and several basidiomycete species. No migration was seen on any molds of the phylum Ascomycota. S. marcescens migration did not require fungal viability or surrounding growth medium, as bacteria migrated along aerial hyphae as well.S. marcescens did not exhibit growth tropism toward zygomycete mycelium. Bacterial migration along hyphae proceeded only when the hyphae grew into the bacterial colony. S. marcescens cells initially migrated along the hyphae, forming attached microcolonies that grew and coalesced to generate a biofilm that covered and killed the mycelium. Flagellum-defective strains of S. marcescens were able to migrate along zygomycete hyphae, although they were significantly slower than the wild-type strain and were delayed in fungal killing. Bacterial attachment to the mycelium does not necessitate type 1 fimbrial adhesion, since mutants defective in this adhesin migrated equally well as or faster than the wild-type strain. Killing does not depend on the secretion of S. marcescens chitinases, as mutants in which all three chitinase genes were deleted retained wild-type killing abilities. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which S. marcescens binds to, spreads on, and kills fungal hyphae might serve as an excellent model system for such interactions in general; fungal killing could be employed in agricultural fungal biocontrol.

  19. First record of Fusarium verticillioides as an entomopathogenic fungus of grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, S A; Stenglein, S A; Cabello, M N; Dinolfo, M I; Lange, C E

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is the most common fungus reported on infected corn kernels and vegetative tissues, but has not yet been documented as being entomopathogenic for grasshoppers. Grasshoppers and locusts represent a large group of insects that cause economic damage to forage and crops. Tropidacris collaris (Stoll) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae) is a large and voracious grasshopper that in recent years has become an increasingly recurrent and widespread pest in progressively more greatly extended areas of some of in Argentina's northern provinces, with chemical insecticides being currently the only means of control. During February and March of 2008-09, nymphs and adults of T. collaris were collected with sweep nets in dense woodland vegetation at a site near Tres Estacas in western Chaco Province, Argentina, and kept in screened cages. F. verticillioides was isolated from insects that died within 10 days and was cultured in PGA medium. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and positive results recorded. Using traditional and molecular-biological methods, an isolate of F. verticillioides was obtained from T. collaris, and its pathogenecity in the laboratory was shown against another harmful grasshopper, Ronderosia bergi (Stål) (Acridoidea: Acrididae: Melanoplinae). The mortality caused by F. verticillioides on R. bergi reached 58 ± 6.53% by 10 days after inoculation. This is the first record of natural infection caused by F. verticillioides in grasshoppers.

  20. Intercropped Silviculture Systems, a Key to Achieving Soil Fungal Community Management in Eucalyptus Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that. PMID:25706388

  1. Interannual variation and host affiliations of endophytic fungi associated with ferns at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Del Olmo-Ruiz, Mariana; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are an ancient and diverse lineage of vascular plants that differ morphologically, chemically and in growth habits from the angiosperms with which they co-occur. We used a culture-based approach coupled with phylogenetic analyses to characterize the incidence, diversity and composition of fungal endophyte assemblages in ferns, with a focus on healthy aboveground tissues of seven species of eupolypods at La Selva, Costa Rica. Endophytes were isolated from every individual plant and were similarly abundant and diverse in frond blades and stalks, in different vegetation types, in epiphytic vs. terrestrial species, and between sampling years. However, abundance, diversity and community structure differed significantly among fern species, and composition differed markedly between sampling years. Phylogenetic classification using separate and combined datasets revealed that as for many Neotropical angiosperms, the majority (95%) of endophyte taxa were Ascomycota, with particular dominance by Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes. However, our data suggest higher phylogenetic richness and stronger host affinities in fern associated endophytes relative to those studied in angiosperms thus far.

  2. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions.

  3. Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-01-01

    The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism. PMID:25408690

  4. Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings.

  5. Dust Rains Deliver Diverse Assemblages of Microorganisms to the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itani, Ghida Nouhad; Smith, Colin Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Dust rains may be particularly effective at delivering microorganisms, yet their biodiversities have been seldom examined. During 2011 and 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon, 16 of 21 collected rainfalls appeared dusty. Trajectory modelling of air mass origins was consistent with North African sources and at least one Southwest Asian source. As much as ~4 g particulate matter, ~20 μg DNA, and 50 million colony forming units were found deposited per square meter during rainfalls each lasting less than one day. Sequencing of 93 bacteria and 25 fungi cultured from rain samples revealed diverse bacterial phyla, both Gram positive and negative, and Ascomycota fungi. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of amplified 16S rDNA of 13 rains revealed distinct and diverse assemblages of bacteria. Dust rain 16S libraries yielded 131 sequences matching, in decreasing order of abundance, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria. Clean rain 16S libraries yielded 33 sequences matching only Betaproteobacteria family Oxalobacteraceae. Microbial composition varied between dust rains, and more diverse and different microbes were found in dust rains than clean rains. These results show that dust rains deliver diverse communities of microorganisms that may be complex products of revived desert soil species and fertilized cloud species.

  6. Producing cell-free culture broth of rhamnolipids as a cost-effective fungicide against plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sha, Ruyi; Jiang, Lifang; Meng, Qin; Zhang, Guoliang; Song, Zhirong

    2012-08-01

    Biosurfactants of rhamnolipids have been enthusiastically investigated for substitutes of synthetic agrochemicals against plant pathogens. However, all such studies have been conducted on rhamnolipids with high purity which have limitations due to high costs. This paper focused on the applicability of rhamnolipid-containing cell-free culture broth. It was found that rhamnolipids in cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZJU211 were largely composed of di-rhamnolipid and mono-rhamnolipid with the ratio varying with culture time. After 96 h of fermentation, the mass ratio of di-rhamnolipid over mono-rhamnolipid increased to 2.6:1. Crude rhamnolipids in a form of cell-free culture broth showed high antifungal activity against colony growth and biomass accumulation of seven plant pathogens comprising two Oomycetes, three Ascomycota and two Mucor spp. fungi, among which three plant pathogens were firstly reported in this paper showing inhibition to rhamnolipids. Particularly, rhamnolipids showed potent activity against two Oomycetes that acquire resistance to commercial compound of metalaxyal. Furthermore, di-rhamnolipid was elucidated to dominate the antifungal activity of crude rhamnolipids by in vitro studies. At last, the efficacy and safety of cell-free culture broth was preliminarily illustrated on plants in vivo. So cell-free culture broth as a crude rhamnolipid product could be served as a potential cost-effective and environmental-friendly fungicide in agriculture.

  7. Phylogenetic analyses and nitrate-reducing activity of fungal cultures isolated from the permanent, oceanic oxygen minimum zone of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Cathrine Sumathi; Menezes, Larissa Danielle; Ramasamy, Kesava Priyan; Meena, Ram M

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the active role of fungi as denitrifiers in terrestrial ecosystems have stimulated an interest in the study of the role of fungi in oxygen-deficient marine systems. In this study, the culturable diversity of fungi was investigated from 4 stations within the permanent, oceanic, oxygen minimum zone of the Arabian Sea. The isolated cultures grouped within the 2 major fungal phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota; diversity estimates in the stations sampled indicated that the diversity of the oxygen-depleted environments is less than that of mangrove regions and deep-sea habitats. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA sequences revealed a few divergent isolates that clustered with environmental sequences previously obtained by others. This is significant, as these isolates represent phylotypes that so far were known only from metagenomic studies and are of phylogenetic importance. Nitrate reduction activity, the first step in the denitrification process, was recorded for isolates under simulated anoxic, deep-sea conditions showing ecological significance of fungi in the oxygen-depleted habitats. This report increases our understanding of fungal diversity in unique, poorly studied habitats and underlines the importance of fungi in the oxygen-depleted environments.

  8. Antioxidant and Antimycotic Activities of Two Native Lavandula Species from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Rafael; Madureira, Ana Margarida; Jorge, Rita; Adão, Rita; Duarte, Aida; Duarte, Noélia; Lopes, Maria Manuel; Teixeira, Generosa

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antimycotic activities of the essential oils and extracts of two native Portuguese Lavandula species, L. stoechas subsp. luisieri and L. pedunculata, were evaluated by in vitro assays. The total phenolics and flavonoids content were also determined. The antioxidant potential was assessed through DPPH radical scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation (ILP), and DNA protection assays. All samples displayed a high DPPH scavenging activity, some of them showing concentration dependence. The majority of the samples were also able to inhibit lipid peroxidation. A strong correlation was observed between the results of DPPH and ILP assays and the flavonoids content of the samples. In the DNA protection assay, all the extracts were able to preserve DNA integrity. The antimycotic activity was performed against twelve fungi belonging to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota Divisions. L. stoechas subsp. luisieri exhibited the broadest activity spectra. L. pedunculata extracts were active against five fungi. Cryptococcus neoformans was the most sensitive, being inhibited by all the extracts. Our results led to the conclusion that L. stoechas subsp. luisieri and L. pedunculata can be useful as new sources of natural antioxidants and antimycotic agents, providing a possible valorization of the existing biodiversity and resources of Portuguese flora. PMID:25922611

  9. Familiar Stranger: Ecological Genomics of the Model Saprotroph and Industrial Enzyme Producer Trichoderma reesei Breaks the Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Druzhinina, I S; Kubicek, C P

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) has properties of an efficient cell factory for protein production that is exploited by the enzyme industry, particularly with respect to cellulase and hemicellulase formation. Under conditions of industrial fermentations it yields more than 100g secreted protein L(-1). Consequently, T. reesei has been intensively studied in the 20th century. Most of these investigations focused on the biochemical characteristics of its cellulases and hemicellulases, on the improvement of their properties by protein engineering, and on enhanced enzyme production by recombinant strategies. However, as the fungus is rare in nature, its ecology remained unknown. The breakthrough in the understanding of the fundamental biology of T. reesei only happened during 2000s-2010s. In this review, we compile the current knowledge on T. reesei ecology, physiology, and genomics to present a holistic view on the natural behavior of the organism. This is not only critical for science-driven further improvement of the biotechnological applications of this fungus, but also renders T. reesei as an attractive model of filamentous fungi with superior saprotrophic abilities.

  10. The N‐acetylglucosamine catabolic gene cluster in Trichoderma reesei is controlled by the Ndt80‐like transcription factor RON1

    PubMed Central

    Kappel, Lisa; Gaderer, Romana; Flipphi, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chitin is an important structural constituent of fungal cell walls composed of N‐acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) monosaccharides, but catabolism of GlcNAc has not been studied in filamentous fungi so far. In the yeast C andida albicans, the genes encoding the three enzymes responsible for stepwise conversion of GlcNAc to fructose‐6‐phosphate are clustered. In this work, we analysed GlcNAc catabolism in ascomycete filamentous fungi and found that the respective genes are also clustered in these fungi. In contrast to C . albicans, the cluster often contains a gene for an Ndt80‐like transcription factor, which we named RON1 (regulator of N‐acetylglucosamine catabolism 1). Further, a gene for a glycoside hydrolase 3 protein related to bacterial N‐acetylglucosaminidases can be found in the GlcNAc gene cluster in filamentous fungi. Functional analysis in T richoderma reesei showed that the transcription factor RON1 is a key activator of the GlcNAc gene cluster and essential for GlcNAc catabolism. Furthermore, we present an evolutionary analysis of Ndt80‐like proteins in Ascomycota. All GlcNAc cluster genes, as well as the GlcNAc transporter gene ngt1, and an additional transcriptional regulator gene, csp2, encoding the homolog of N eurospora crassa  CSP2/GRHL, were functionally characterised by gene expression analysis and phenotypic characterisation of knockout strains in T . reesei. PMID:26481444

  11. Current understanding on Villosiclava virens, a unique flower-infecting fungus causing rice false smut disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Yang, Juan; Wang, Yu-Qiu; Li, Guo-Bang; Li, Yan; Huang, Fu; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Villosiclava virens (Vv) is an ascomycete fungal pathogen that causes false smut disease in rice. Recent reports have revealed some interesting aspects of the enigmatic pathogen to address the question of why it specifically infects rice flowers and converts a grain into a false smut ball. Comparative and functional genomics have suggested specific adaptation of Vv in the colonization of rice flowers. Anatomical studies have disclosed that Vv specifically infects rice stamen filaments before heading and intercepts seed formation. In addition, Vv can occupy the whole inner space of a spikelet embracing all floral organs and activate the rice grain-filling network, presumably for nutrient acquisition to support the development of the false smut ball. This profile provides a general overview of the rice false smut pathogen, and summarizes advances in the Vv life cycle, genomics and genetics, and the molecular Vv-rice interaction. Current understandings of the Vv-rice pathosystem indicate that it is a unique and interesting system which can enrich the study of plant-pathogen interactions. Taxonomy: Ustilaginoidea virens is the anamorph form of the pathogen (Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Ascomycetes; Subclass Incertae sedis; Order Incertae sedis; Family Incertae sedis; Genus Ustilaginoidea). The teleomorph form is Villosiclava virens (Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Ascomycetes; Subclass Sordariomycetes; Order Hypocreales; Family Clavicipitaceae; Genus Villosiclava). Disease symptoms: The only visible symptom is the replacement of rice grains by ball-shaped fungal mycelia, namely false smut balls. When maturing, the false smut ball is covered with powdery chlamydospores, and the colour changes to yellowish, yellowish orange, green, olive green and, finally, to greenish black. Sclerotia are often formed on the false smut balls in autumn. Identification and detection: Vv conidia are round to elliptical, measuring 3-5 μm in diameter. Chlamydospores are

  12. Safeguarding saproxylic fungal biodiversity in Apennine beech forest priority habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Oriana; Lunghini, Dario; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Sabatini, Francesco Maria; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    The FAGUS LIFE Project (LIFE11/NAT/IT/135) targets two European priority habitats, i.e. Habitat 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex, and Habitat 9220* Apennine beech forests with Abies alba, within two National Parks: Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni; Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga. The current limited distribution of the target habitats is also due to the impact of human activities on forest systems, such as harvesting and grazing. The FAGUS project aims at developing and testing management strategies able to integrate the conservation of priority forest habitats (9210* and 9220*) and the sustainable use of forest resources. In order to assess the responses to different management treatments the BACI monitoring design (Before-After, Control-Intervention) has been applied on forest structure and diversity of focus taxa before and after experimental harvesting treatments. Conventional management of Apennine beech forests impacts a wealth of taxonomic groups, such as saproxylic beetles and fungi, which are threatened throughout Europe by the lack of deadwood and of senescing trees, and by the homogeneous structure of managed forests. Deadwood has been denoted as the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests not only for supporting a wide diversity of organisms, but also for playing a prominent role in several ecological processes, creating the basis for the cycling of photosynthetic energy, carbon, and nutrients stored in woody material. Especially fungi can be regarded as key group for understanding and managing biodiversity associated with decaying wood. The before-intervention field sampling was carried out in Autumn 2013 in 33 monitoring plots across the two national Parks. The occurrence at plot level of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota sporocarps was surveyed. All standing and downed deadwood with a minimum diameter of 10 cm was sampled for sporocarps larger than 1 mm, and information on decay class and fungal morphogroups

  13. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Baiying; Wang, Hongmei; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Yun, Yuan; Gong, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in

  14. A High-Level Fungal Diversity in the Intertidal Sediment of Chinese Seas Presents the Spatial Variation of Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Mengmeng; Bian, Xiaomeng; Guo, Jiajia; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal region is one of the most dynamic environments in the biosphere, which potentially supports vast biodiversity. Fungi have been found to play important roles in marine ecosystems, e.g., as parasites or symbionts of plants and animals, and as decomposers of organic materials. The fungal diversity in intertidal region, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, sediment samples from various intertidal habitats of Chinese seas were collected and investigated for determination of fungal community and spatial distribution. Through ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) metabarcoding, a high-level fungal diversity was revealed, as represented by 6,013 OTUs that spanned six phyla, 23 classes, 84 orders and 526 genera. The presence of typical decomposers (e.g., Corollospora in Ascomycota and Lepiota in Basidiomycota) and pathogens (e.g., Olpidium in Chytriomycota, Actinomucor in Zygomycota and unidentified Rozellomycota spp.), and even mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., Glomus in Glomeromycota) indicated a complicated origin of intertidal fungi. Interestingly, a small proportion of sequences were classified to obligate marine fungi (e.g., Corollospora, Lignincola, Remispora, Sigmoidea). Our data also showed that the East China Sea significantly differed from other regions in terms of species richness and community composition, indicating a profound effect of the huge discharge of the Yangtze River. No significant difference in fungal communities was detected, however, among habitat types (i.e., aquaculture, dock, plant, river mouth and tourism). These observations raise further questions on adaptation of these members to environments and the ecological functions they probably perform. PMID:28066402

  15. Spatial and compositional variation in the fungal communities of organic and conventionally grown apple fruit at the consumer point-of-purchase

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0.1%), and unidentified fungi (0.3%). Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed the presence of significantly different fungal populations in the investigated fruit parts. Among detected fungi, the genus Penicillium prevailed in the peel and in the wounded flesh while Alternaria spp. prevailed in the calyx and stem end samples that included apple core tissues. Several taxonomic units that appear to be closely related to pathogenic fungi associated with secondary human infections were present in peel and wounds. Moreover, significantly different populations were revealed in organic and conventional apples and this result was consistent in all investigated fruit parts (calyx end, peel, stem end, and wounded flesh). Several unique taxa were exclusively detected in organic apples suggesting that management practices may have been a contributing factor in determining the taxa present. In contrast, little differences were revealed in the two assessment times (T1 and T5). Results of the present study represent an advancement of the current knowledge on the fungal microbiota in collected fruit tissues of apple. PMID:27766161

  16. A High-Level Fungal Diversity in the Intertidal Sediment of Chinese Seas Presents the Spatial Variation of Community Composition.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Mengmeng; Bian, Xiaomeng; Guo, Jiajia; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal region is one of the most dynamic environments in the biosphere, which potentially supports vast biodiversity. Fungi have been found to play important roles in marine ecosystems, e.g., as parasites or symbionts of plants and animals, and as decomposers of organic materials. The fungal diversity in intertidal region, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, sediment samples from various intertidal habitats of Chinese seas were collected and investigated for determination of fungal community and spatial distribution. Through ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) metabarcoding, a high-level fungal diversity was revealed, as represented by 6,013 OTUs that spanned six phyla, 23 classes, 84 orders and 526 genera. The presence of typical decomposers (e.g., Corollospora in Ascomycota and Lepiota in Basidiomycota) and pathogens (e.g., Olpidium in Chytriomycota, Actinomucor in Zygomycota and unidentified Rozellomycota spp.), and even mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., Glomus in Glomeromycota) indicated a complicated origin of intertidal fungi. Interestingly, a small proportion of sequences were classified to obligate marine fungi (e.g., Corollospora, Lignincola, Remispora, Sigmoidea). Our data also showed that the East China Sea significantly differed from other regions in terms of species richness and community composition, indicating a profound effect of the huge discharge of the Yangtze River. No significant difference in fungal communities was detected, however, among habitat types (i.e., aquaculture, dock, plant, river mouth and tourism). These observations raise further questions on adaptation of these members to environments and the ecological functions they probably perform.

  17. Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Yordanova, Petya; Franc, Gary D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nucleators (IN). However, the sources and characteristics of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA, i.e., inducing ice formation in the probed range of temperature and concentration) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. For example, in harvested and ploughed sugar beet and potato fields, and in the organic horizon beneath Lodgepole pine forest, their relative abundances and concentrations among the cultivable fungi were 25% (8 x 103 CFU g-1), 17% (4.8 x 103 CFU g-1) and 17% (4 x 103 CFU g-1), respectively. Across all investigated soils, 8% (2.9 x 103 CFU g-1) of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5° C to -6° C and all belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. Mortierella alpina is known to be saprobic (utilizing non-living organic matter), widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be extracellular proteins of 100-300 kDa in size which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, these small cell-free IN might contribute to the as yet uncharacterized pool of atmospheric IN released by soils as dusts.

  18. Environmental and Geographical Factors Structure Soil Microbial Diversity in New Caledonian Ultramafic Substrates: A Metagenomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gourmelon, Véronique; Maggia, Laurent; Powell, Jeff R.; Gigante, Sarah; Hortal, Sara; Gueunier, Claire; Letellier, Kelly; Carriconde, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem functioning and are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as plant cover or edaphic parameters. New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot located in the southwest Pacific, is one-third covered by ultramafic substrates. These types of soils are notably characterised by low nutrient content and high heavy metal concentrations. Ultramafic outcrops harbour diverse vegetation types and remarkable plant diversity. In this study, we aimed to assess soil bacterial and fungal diversity in New Caledonian ultramafic substrates and to determine whether floristic composition, edaphic parameters and geographical factors affect this microbial diversity. Therefore, four plant formation types at two distinct sites were studied. These formations represent different stages in a potential chronosequence. Soil cores, according to a given sampling procedure, were collected to assess microbial diversity using a metagenomic approach, and to characterise the physico-chemical parameters. A botanical inventory was also performed. Our results indicated that microbial richness, composition and abundance were linked to the plant cover type and the dominant plant species. Furthermore, a large proportion of Ascomycota phylum (fungi), mostly in non-rainforest formations, and Planctomycetes phylum (bacteria) in all formations were observed. Interestingly, such patterns could be indicators of past disturbances that occurred on different time scales. Furthermore, the bacteria and fungi were influenced by diverse edaphic parameters as well as by the interplay between these two soil communities. Another striking finding was the existence of a site effect. Differences in microbial communities between geographical locations may be explained by dispersal limitation in the context of the biogeographical island theory. In conclusion, each plant formation at each site possesses is own microbial community resulting from multiple interactions

  19. Introns and Splicing Elements of Five Diverse Fungi†

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Doris M.; Drabenstot, Scott D.; Buchanan, Kent L.; Lai, Hongshing; Zhu, Hua; Dyer, David W.; Roe, Bruce A.; Murphy, Juneann W.

    2004-01-01

    Genomic sequences and expressed sequence tag data for a diverse group of fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, and Cryptococcus neoformans) provided the opportunity to accurately characterize conserved intronic elements. An examination of large intron data sets revealed that fungal introns in general are short, that 98% or more of them belong to the canonical splice site (ss) class (5′GU…AG3′), and that they have polypyrimidine tracts predominantly in the region between the 5′ ss and the branch point. Information content is high in the 5′ ss, branch site, and 3′ ss regions of the introns but low in the exon regions adjacent to the introns in the fungi examined. The two yeasts have broader intron length ranges and correspondingly higher intron information content than the other fungi. Generally, as intron length increases in the fungi, so does intron information content. Homologs of U2AF spliceosomal proteins were found in all species except for S. cerevisiae, suggesting a nonconventional role for U2AF in the absence of canonical polypyrimidine tracts in the majority of introns. Our observations imply that splicing in fungi may be different from that in vertebrates and may require additional proteins that interact with polypyrimidine tracts upstream of the branch point. Theoretical protein homologs for Nam8p and TIA-1, two proteins that require U-rich regions upstream of the branch point to function, were found. There appear to be sufficient differences between S. cerevisiae and S. pombe introns and the introns of two filamentous members of the Ascomycota and one member of the Basidiomycota to warrant the development of new model organisms for studying the splicing mechanisms of fungi. PMID:15470237

  20. Plant and Fungal Diversity in Gut Microbiota as Revealed by Molecular and Culture Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Gouba, Nina; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. Methodology/Principal Findings A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp.) species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta). Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda) are used as medicinal plants. Conclusions/Significance Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health. PMID:23555039

  1. Unexpectedly High Beta-Diversity of Root-Associated Fungal Communities in the Bolivian Andes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher J; Maldonado, Carla; Frøslev, Tobias G; Antonelli, Alexandre; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of -0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 and 7.2% of community variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full root-associated fungal diversity in subtropical regions. This study sheds further light on the diversity and distribution of the world's "hidden biodiversity."

  2. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p < 0.01), NO2 (p < 0.01), PM10 (p < 0.01), SO2(p < 0.01), CO (p < 0.01), and relative humidity (p < 0.05) were significant factors that determine airborne fungal community composition. The results suggest that diverse airborne fungal communities are associated with particulate matters and may provide reliable data for studying the responses of human body to the increasing level of air pollution in Beijing. PMID:27148180

  3. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology

    PubMed Central

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M.; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R. R.; Sahu, L. K.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols. PMID:28072853

  4. ITS-1 versus ITS-2 pyrosequencing: a comparison of fungal populations in truffle grounds.

    PubMed

    Mello, Antonietta; Napoli, Chiara; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Marceddu, Giuseppe; Bonfante, Paola

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study pyrosequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) has validated the effectiveness of such technology in the survey of soil fungal diversity. Here we compare the two ITS regions, ITS-1 and ITS-2, of the fungal populations occurring in Tuber melanosporum/Quercus pubescens truffle grounds and sampled in two areas, one devoid of vegetation ("burned", brulé in French) where T. melanosporum fruiting bodies are usually collected, and outside the brulé. TS1F/ITS2 and ITS3/ITS4 were used respectively for the amplification of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions. Two amplicon libraries were built, one for inside and the other for outside. A set of 15.788 reads was obtained. After the removal of low quality sequences, 3568 and 3156 sequences were obtained from inside the brulé with the ITS-1 and ITS-2 primers respectively. The sequences obtained from outside the brulé were 4490 with the ITS-1 primers and 2432 with the ITS-2 primers. Most of the sequences obtained for both ITS fragments could be attributed to fungal organisms. The pair of primers, ITS1-F/ITS2, was more selective, producing fewer non-fungal sequences (1% inside, 3% outside), in addition to a higher number of sequences, than the pair ITS3/ITS4 (6% inside, 11% outside). Although differences are present in the taxa percentages between ITS-1 and ITS-2, both reveal that Ascomycota were the dominant fungal phylum and that their number decreased moving from inside the brulé to outside, while the number of Basidiomycota increased. Taken together, both the short ITS-1 and ITS-2 reads obtained by the high throughput 454 sequencing provide adequate information for taxon assignment and are suitable to correlate the dynamics of the fungal populations to specific environments.

  5. Fungal Communities Respond to Long-Term CO2 Elevation by Community Reassembly

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Mengting; He, Zhili; Deng, Ye; Xue, Kai; Wu, Liyou; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities play a major role as decomposers in the Earth's ecosystems. Their community-level responses to elevated CO2 (eCO2), one of the major global change factors impacting ecosystems, are not well understood. Using 28S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and co-occurrence ecological network approaches, we analyzed the response of soil fungal communities in the BioCON (biodiversity, CO2, and N deposition) experimental site in Minnesota, USA, in which a grassland ecosystem has been exposed to eCO2 for 12 years. Long-term eCO2 did not significantly change the overall fungal community structure and species richness, but significantly increased community evenness and diversity. The relative abundances of 119 operational taxonomic units (OTU; ∼27% of the total captured sequences) were changed significantly. Significantly changed OTU under eCO2 were associated with decreased overall relative abundance of Ascomycota, but increased relative abundance of Basidiomycota. Co-occurrence ecological network analysis indicated that eCO2 increased fungal community network complexity, as evidenced by higher intermodular and intramodular connectivity and shorter geodesic distance. In contrast, decreased connections for dominant fungal species were observed in the eCO2 network. Community reassembly of unrelated fungal species into highly connected dense modules was observed. Such changes in the co-occurrence network topology were significantly associated with altered soil and plant properties under eCO2, especially with increased plant biomass and NH4+ availability. This study provided novel insights into how eCO2 shapes soil fungal communities in grassland ecosystems. PMID:25616796

  6. Rich and cold: diversity, distribution and drivers of fungal communities in patterned-ground ecosystems of the North American Arctic.

    PubMed

    Timling, I; Walker, D A; Nusbaum, C; Lennon, N J; Taylor, D L

    2014-07-01

    Fungi are abundant and functionally important in the Arctic, yet comprehensive studies of their diversity in relation to geography and environment are not available. We sampled soils in paired plots along the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT), which spans all five bioclimatic subzones of the Arctic. Each pair of plots contrasted relatively bare, cryoturbated patterned-ground features (PGFs) and adjacent vegetated between patterned-ground features (bPGFs). Fungal communities were analysed via sequencing of 7834 ITS-LSU clones. We recorded 1834 OTUs - nearly half the fungal richness previously reported for the entire Arctic. These OTUs spanned eight phyla, 24 classes, 75 orders and 120 families, but were dominated by Ascomycota, with one-fifth belonging to lichens. Species richness did not decline with increasing latitude, although there was a decline in mycorrhizal taxa that was offset by an increase in lichen taxa. The dominant OTUs were widespread even beyond the Arctic, demonstrating no dispersal limitation. Yet fungal communities were distinct in each subzone and were correlated with soil pH, climate and vegetation. Communities in subzone E were distinct from the other subzones, but similar to those of the boreal forest. Fungal communities on disturbed PGFs differed significantly from those of paired stable areas in bPGFs. Indicator species for PGFs included lichens and saprotrophic fungi, while bPGFs were characterized by ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi. Our results suggest that the Arctic does not host a unique mycoflora, while Arctic fungi are highly sensitive to climate and vegetation, with potential to migrate rapidly as global change unfolds.

  7. Yet More “Weeds” in the Garden: Fungal Novelties from Nests of Leaf-Cutting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Juliana O.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Nascimento, Robson J.; Mizubuti, Eduardo S. G.; Barreto, Robert W.; Elliot, Simon L.; Evans, Harry C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Symbiotic relationships modulate the evolution of living organisms in all levels of biological organization. A notable example of symbiosis is that of attine ants (Attini; Formicidae: Hymenoptera) and their fungal cultivars (Lepiotaceae and Pterulaceae; Agaricales: Basidiomycota). In recent years, this mutualism has emerged as a model system for studying coevolution, speciation, and multitrophic interactions. Ubiquitous in this ant-fungal symbiosis is the “weedy” fungus Escovopsis (Hypocreales: Ascomycota), known only as a mycoparasite of attine fungal gardens. Despite interest in its biology, ecology and molecular phylogeny—noting, especially, the high genetic diversity encountered—which has led to a steady flow of publications over the past decade, only two species of Escovopsis have formally been described. Methods and Results We sampled from fungal gardens and garden waste (middens) of nests of the leaf-cutting ant genus Acromyrmex in a remnant of subtropical Atlantic rainforest in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In culture, distinct morphotypes of Escovopsis sensu lato were recognized. Using both morphological and molecular analyses, three new species of Escovopsis were identified. These are described and illustrated herein—E. lentecrescens, E. microspora, and E. moelleri—together with a re-description of the genus and the type species, E. weberi. The new genus Escovopsioides is erected for a fourth morphotype. We identify, for the first time, a mechanism for horizontal transmission via middens. Conclusions The present study makes a start at assigning names and formal descriptions to these specific fungal parasites of attine nests. Based on the results of this exploratory and geographically-restricted survey, we expect there to be many more species of the genus Escovopsis and its relatives associated with nests of both the lower and higher Attini throughout their neotropical range, as suggested in previous studies. PMID:24376525

  8. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    PubMed

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  9. Vertical distribution of the soil microbiota along a successional gradient in a glacier forefield.

    PubMed

    Rime, Thomas; Hartmann, Martin; Brunner, Ivano; Widmer, Franco; Zeyer, Josef; Frey, Beat

    2015-03-01

    Spatial patterns of microbial communities have been extensively surveyed in well-developed soils, but few studies investigated the vertical distribution of micro-organisms in newly developed soils after glacier retreat. We used 454-pyrosequencing to assess whether bacterial and fungal community structures differed between stages of soil development (SSD) characterized by an increasing vegetation cover from barren (vegetation cover: 0%/age: 10 years), sparsely vegetated (13%/60 years), transient (60%/80 years) to vegetated (95%/110 years) and depths (surface, 5 and 20 cm) along the Damma glacier forefield (Switzerland). The SSD significantly influenced the bacterial and fungal communities. Based on indicator species analyses, metabolically versatile bacteria (e.g. Geobacter) and psychrophilic yeasts (e.g. Mrakia) characterized the barren soils. Vegetated soils with higher C, N and root biomass consisted of bacteria able to degrade complex organic compounds (e.g. Candidatus Solibacter), lignocellulolytic Ascomycota (e.g. Geoglossum) and ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota (e.g. Laccaria). Soil depth only influenced bacterial and fungal communities in barren and sparsely vegetated soils. These changes were partly due to more silt and higher soil moisture in the surface. In both soil ages, the surface was characterized by OTUs affiliated to Phormidium and Sphingobacteriales. In lower depths, however, bacterial and fungal communities differed between SSD. Lower depths of sparsely vegetated soils consisted of OTUs affiliated to Acidobacteria and Geoglossum, whereas depths of barren soils were characterized by OTUs related to Gemmatimonadetes. Overall, plant establishment drives the soil microbiota along the successional gradient but does not influence the vertical distribution of microbiota in recently deglaciated soils.

  10. Interspecific variability of class II hydrophobin GEO1 in the genus Geosmithia.

    PubMed

    Frascella, Arcangela; Bettini, Priscilla P; Kolařík, Miroslav; Comparini, Cecilia; Pazzagli, Luigia; Luti, Simone; Scala, Felice; Scala, Aniello

    2014-11-01

    The genus Geosmithia Pitt (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) comprises cosmopolite fungi living in the galleries built by phloeophagous insects. Following the characterization in Geosmithia species 5 of the class II hydrophobin GEO1 and of the corresponding gene, the presence of the geo1 gene was investigated in 26 strains derived from different host plants and geographic locations and representing the whole phylogenetic diversity of the genus. The geo1 gene was detected in all the species tested where it maintained the general organization shown in Geosmithia species 5, comprising three exons and two introns. Size variations were found in both introns and in the first exon, the latter being due to the presence of an intragenic tandem repeat sequence corresponding to a stretch of glycine residues in the deduced proteins. At the amino acid level the deduced proteins had 44.6 % identity and no major differences in the biochemical parameters (pI, GRAVY index, hydropathy plots) were found. GEO1 release in the fungal culture medium was also assessed by turbidimetric assay and SDS-PAGE, and showed high variability between species. The phylogeny based on the geo1 sequences did not correspond to that generated from a neutral marker (ITS rDNA), suggesting that sequence similarities could be influenced by other factors than phylogenetic relatedness, such as the intimacy of the symbiosis with insect vectors. The hypothesis of a strong selection pressure on the geo1 gene was sustained by the low values (<1) of non synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions ratios (Ka/Ks), which suggest that purifying selection might act on this gene. These results are compatible with either a birth-and-death evolution scenario or horizontal transfer of the gene between Geosmithia species.

  11. Molecular phylogenetic studies on the Diatrypaceae based on rDNA-ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Acero, Francisco Javier; González, Vicente; Sánchez-Ballesteros, Javier; Rubio, Víctor; Checa, Julia; Bills, Gerald F; Salazar, Oscar; Platas, Gonzalo; Peláez, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The order Diatrypales (Ascomycota) contains one single family, the Diatrypaceae. To obtain insight in the phylogenetic relationships within this family, the complete sequences of the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS2) of 53 isolates from the five main genera in the family (Diatrype, Diatrypella, Cryptosphaeria, Eutypa and Eutypella) were determined and aligned for phylogenetic reconstruction. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of tandem repeated motifs 11 nucleotides-long, placed in homologous positions along the ITS1 region. Parsimony analysis established the existence of nine monophyletic groups and one branch with a single isolate of Eutypella quaternata. The phylogenetic relationships established by parsimony analysis did not correlate well with classical taxonomic schemes. None of the five genera included in this study was found to be monophyletic. The genera Diatrype, Eutypa and Cryptosphaeria each were divided into two groups. Isolates of Diatrype flavovirens appeared in a clade separated from the one that grouped Diatrype disciformis and the rest of Diatrype species. The Eutypa strains appeared distributed into two clades, one grouping Eutypa lata and related species (Eutypa armeniacae, Eutypa laevata, Eutypa petrakii), and another with the remaining species of the genus. Eutypella (excluding Eutypella quaternaria) appeared as an unstable monophyletic group, which was lost when the sequence alignment was subjected to neighbor-joining analysis. The genus Diatrypella was not associated with any monophyletic group, suggesting that the multisporate asci character has appeared several times during the evolution of the group. Overall, our study suggests the need to revise many of the concepts usually applied to the classification of members of the family.

  12. Experimental Climate Change Modifies Degradative Succession in Boreal Peatland Fungal Communities.

    PubMed

    Asemaninejad, Asma; Thorn, R Greg; Lindo, Zoë

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands play an important role in global climate change through sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Climate-driven changes in the structure of fungal communities in boreal peatlands that favor saprotrophic fungi can substantially impact carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling in these crucial ecosystems. In a mesocosm study using a full factorial design, 100 intact peat monoliths, complete with living Sphagnum and above-ground vascular vegetation, were subjected to three climate change variables (increased temperature, reduced water table, and elevated CO2 concentrations). Peat litterbags were placed in mesocosms, and fungal communities in litterbags were monitored over 12 months to assess the impacts of climate change variables on peat-inhabiting fungi. Changes in fungal richness, diversity, and community composition were assessed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). While general fungal richness reduced under warming conditions, Ascomycota exhibited higher diversity under increased temperature treatments over the course of the experiment. Both increased temperature and lowered water table position drove shifts in fungal community composition with a strong positive effect on endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi (including one operational taxonomic unit (OTU) tentatively identified as Barrenia panicia) and different groups of saprotrophs identified as Mortierella, Galerina, and Mycena. These shifts were observed during a predicted degradative succession in the decomposer community as different carbon substrates became available. Since fungi play a central role in peatland communities, increased abundances of saprotrophic fungi under warming conditions, at the expense of reduced fungal richness overall, may increase decomposition rates under future climate scenarios and could potentially aggravate the impacts of climate change.

  13. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R; Verma, R S; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R R; Sahu, L K; Sudheer, K P; Gunthe, S S

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols.

  14. Evolutionary divergence of intrinsic and trans-regulated nucleosome positioning sequences reveals plastic rules for chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Tsankov, Alex; Yanagisawa, Yoshimi; Rhind, Nicholas; Regev, Aviv; Rando, Oliver J.

    2011-01-01

    The packaging of eukaryotic genomes into nuclesomes plays critical roles in chromatin organization and gene regulation. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that nucleosome occupancy is partially encoded by intrinsic antinucleosomal DNA sequences, such as poly(A) sequences, as well as by binding sites for trans-acting factors that can evict nucleosomes, such as Reb1 and the Rsc3/30 complex. Here, we use genome-wide nucleosome occupancy maps in 13 Ascomycota fungi to discover large-scale evolutionary reprogramming of both intrinsic and trans determinants of chromatin structure. We find that poly(G)s act as intrinsic antinucleosomal sequences, comparable to the known function of poly(A)s, but that the abundance of poly(G)s has diverged greatly between species, obscuring their antinucleosomal effect in low-poly(G) species such as S. cerevisiae. We also develop a computational method that uses nucleosome occupancy maps for discovering trans-acting general regulatory factor (GRF) binding sites. Our approach reveals that the specific sequences bound by GRFs have diverged substantially across evolution, corresponding to a number of major evolutionary transitions in the repertoire of GRFs. We experimental