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Sample records for campi flegrei italy

  1. Aseismic strain episodes at Campi Flegrei, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Roberto; Amoruso, Antonella; Bilham, Roger; Di Lieto, Bellina; Errico, Antonio; Linde, Alan; Sacks, Selwyn

    2014-05-01

    Since spring 2004 a research project has been developed in Italy to install borehole Sacks-Evertson strainmeters (dilatometers) aimed to improve monitoring systems of the Italian volcanoes. 6 borehole dilatometers have been installed around Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius during 2004-2005 (Scarpa et al., 2007). This small network has been implemented by two arrays of long-baseline water tube tiltmeters installed in underground tunnels since 2008. Relevant strainmeter and tiltmeter data have been collected and analyzed at the instruments installed at Campi Flegrei during the recent unrest episodes. Renewed activity started since 2004-2005, characterized by a quite low rate of vertical vertical displacement, amounting initially to a few cm/year. A long term strain episode occurred during summer 2006, in correspondence to an increase of CO2 emission and displacements measured also by tiltmeters and GPS transducers. This strain episode preceded the seismic activity by few months, as also observed during the 1982 most significant unrest. Other aseismic slip episodes have been recorded in 2009, in correspondence of the renewal of gas emission activity at Solfatara, in 2010, one day before a seismic swarm, and in September 2012, few days before the most significant seismic swarm occurred after the 1982-1984 uplift. The time scale of these phenomena is ranging from some hours to several days, putting further constraints on the origin of ground uplifts at Campi Flegrei. Their location is compatible with the source inferred from long term deformation signals, at about 4 km depth beneath Pozzuoli.

  2. Historical activity at Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dvorak, J.; Gasparini, P.

    1990-01-01

    We cannot forecast whether the activity since 968 will culminate in another eruption or whether Campi Flegrei will remain quiet for several hundred more years. This article summarizes the historical recorded of activity in Campi Flegrei, which, with varying degrees of reliability, spans 2,000 years, and emphasizes that further scientific studies of this caldera will improve our understanding of the behavior of longquiescent volcanic system. 

  3. Secondary hydrothermal mineral system in the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormone, A.; Piochi, M.; Di Vito, M. A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mineral systems generally develop around the deep root of the volcanoes down to the degassing magma chamber due the selective enrichment process of elements within the host-rock. The mineralization process depends on i) volcanic structure, ii) magma and fluid chemistry, iii) host-rock type and texture, iv) temperature and pressure conditions, and v) action timing that affect the transport and precipitation conditions of elements in the solution. Firstly, it generates a hydrothermal system that in a later phase may generate considerable metallogenic mineralization, in terms of both spatial extension and specie abundance. The study of secondary assemblages through depth and, possibly, through time, together with the definition of the general geological, structural, mineralogical and petrological context is the background to understand the genesis of mineral-to-metallogenic systems. We report our study on the Campi Flegrei volcano of potassic Southern Italy belt. It is a sub-circular caldera characterized by an active high-temperature and fluid-rich geothermal system affected by seismicity and ground deformation in the recent decades. The circulating fluids originate at deeper level within a degassing magma body and give rise at the surface up to 1500 tonnes/day of CO2 emissions. Their composition is intermediate between meteoric water and brines. Saline-rich fluids have been detected at ~3000 in downhole. The hydrothermal alteration varies from argillitic to phillitic, nearby the caldera boundary, to propilitic to thermo-metamorphic facies towards its centre. The Campi Flegrei caldera was defined as analogue of mineralized system such as White Island (New Zealand) that is an example of an active magmatic and embryonic copper porphyry system. In order to enhance the knowledge of such a type of embryonic-like metallogenic system, we have carried out macroscopic and microscopic investigations, SEM-EDS and electron microprobe analyses on selected samples from deep wells

  4. Controls on Recent Unrest at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J.; Bellucci, F.; Kilburn, C. R.; Rolandi, G.

    2005-05-01

    Campi Flegrei, in Southern Italy, is an active caldera that has shown signs of unrest since 1969. Because the caldera has a population of 400,000 people, it is especially important to understand the mechanisms driving the unrest and their implication for the probability of a future eruption. Since its last ignimbrite eruption 12,000 years ago (which produced the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff), volcanic activity in Campi Flegrei has consisted of numerous eruptions (volumes ~0.1 km3 or less) surrounding the inferred caldera rim. For at least the last 3,700 years, the caldera has been subsiding at mean rates of 14-17 mm per year, punctuated by two known periods of mean uplift (1430-1538 and 1969-Present). The first period produced a net uplift of about 30 m at the port of Pozzuoli and was followed in 1538 by the eruption of Monte Nuovo (20 million m3) some 4 km to the west. The second period has to date consisted of two episodes of uplift (in 1969-72 and 1982-84), each raising Pozzuoli by about 2 m. Studies of the second period have attributed uplift either to magmatic intrusion or to the expansion of water in heated aquifers. These interpretations assumed a stationary reference condition. It is here proposed that the reference condition in fact corresponds to subsidence at about 17 mm per year. Slower subsidence then reflects the difference between background subsidence and actual intrusion of magma. The revised interpretation suggests a two-component source for the recent episodes of uplift: (1) intrusion of two batches of magma of ~0.1 km3 that have produced a permanent uplift of about 2.8 m, and (2) the expansion and later dissipation of heated water, which produced a temporary uplift of about 0.7 m that has since disappeared. The similar volumes of recent intrusions and post-NYT eruptions further suggest that Campi Flegrei is fed by discrete batches of magma. The caldera today may thus be underlain by a collection of modest magma bodies rather than a single, large

  5. Timescales of magma residence at Campi Flegrei, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, V. C.; Saunders, K.; Isaia, R.

    2012-12-01

    Campi Flegrei caldera has produced many large explosive eruptions, including the largest in Europe in the last 200 kyrs. There have been more than 60 violent Strombolian-Vulcanian through to Plinian eruptions in the last 15 kyrs. Recent changes in ground displacement and composition of fumarole fluids indicate the caldera is still active and suggest that magma resides in the upper crust (Chiodini et al., 2012). Here we used zoned crystals within the post-15 ka eruption deposits to assess the timescales of upper crustal magma residence at Campi Flegrei. We present details of the major and trace element composition of the crystals, and diffusion chronometry results. These data provide detail on the crystallisation timescales and the changing nature of the magmatic system. It is clear that the magmas that fuel the eruptions are assembled in an open system and that upper crustal residence for most of the melt is short. Chiodini, G., Caliro, S., De Martino, P., Avino, R., Gherardi, F. 2012. Early signals of new volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera? Insights from geochemical data and physical simulations. Geology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G33251.1

  6. Understanding volcanic hazard at the most populated caldera in the world: Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Somma, Renato; Moretti, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Naples and its hinterland in Southern Italy are one of the most urbanized areas in the world under threat from volcanic activity. The region lies within range of three active volcanic centers: Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, and Ischia. The Campi Flegrei caldera, in particular, has been in unrest for six decades. The unrest followed four centuries of quiescence and has heightened concern about an increased potential for eruption. Innovative modeling and scientific drilling are being used to investigate Campi Flegrei, and the results highlight key directions for better understanding the mechanisms of caldera formation and the roles of magma intrusion and geothermal activity in determining the volcano's behavior. They also provide a framework for evaluating and mitigating the risk from this caldera and other large ones worldwide.

  7. Permeability of alkaline magmas: a study from Campi Flegrei, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polacci, M.; Bouvet de Maissoneuve, C.; Giordano, D.; Piochi, M.; Degruyter, W.; Bachmann, O.; Mancini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of permeability is of paramount importance for understanding the evolution of magma degassing during pre-, syn- and post-eruptive volcanic processes. Most permeability estimates existing to date refer to magmas of calc-alkaline compositions. We report here the preliminary results of permeability measurements performed on alkali-trachyte products erupted from the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) and Monte Nuovo (MTN), two explosive eruptions from Campi Flegrei (CF), an active, hazardous caldera west of Naples, Southern Italy. Darcian (viscous) permeability spans a wide range between 10^-11 and 10^-14 m^2. We observe that the most permeable samples are the scoria clasts from the upper units of MTN; pumice samples from the Breccia Museo facies of CI are instead the least permeable. Non-Darcian (inertial) permeability follows the same trend as Darcian permeability. The first implication of this study is that porosity in alkaline as well as calc-alkaline magmas does not exert a first order control on permeability (e.g. the MTN samples are the most permeable but not the most porous). Second, sample geometry exhibits permeability anisotropy (higher permeability in the direction of vesicle elongation), suggesting stronger degassing in the vertical direction in the conduit. In addition, inertial effects are higher across the sample. As inertial effects are potentially generated by tortuosity (or tortuous vesicle paths), tortuosity is likely higher horizontally than vertically in the conduit. Finally, the measured CF permeability values overlap with those of rhyolitic pumice clasts from the Kos Plateau Tuff (Bouvet de Maisonneuve et al., 2009), together with CI one of the major Quaternary explosive eruptions of the Mediterranean region. This indicates that gas flow is strongly controlled by the geometry of the porous media, which is generated by the bubble dynamics during magma ascent. Therefore, permeability will depend on composition through the rheological properties

  8. Tectonic stress and renewed uplift at Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy: New insights from caldera drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Deep drilling is a key tool for the investigation of active volcanoes in the modern Earth Sciences, as this provides the only means to obtain direct information on processes that occur at depth. Data acquired from drilling projects are fundamental to our understanding of volcano dynamics, and for mitigation of the hazards they pose for millions of people who live close to active volcanoes. We present here the first borehole measurement of the stress field in the crust of Campi Flegrei (southern Italy), a large active caldera, and one of the highest risk volcanoes worldwide. Measurements were performed to depths of ∼500 m during a pilot study for the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project. These data indicate an extensional stress field, with a minimum horizontal stress of ca. 75% to 80% of the maximum horizontal stress, which is approximately equal to the vertical stress. The deviation from lithostatic conditions is consistent with a progressive increase in applied horizontal stress during episodes of unrest, since at least 1969. As the stress field is evolving with time, the outcome of renewed unrest cannot be assessed by analogy with previous episodes. Interpretations of future unrest must therefore accommodate the possibility that Campi Flegrei is approaching conditions that are more favourable to a volcanic eruption than has previously been the case. Such long-term accumulation of stress is not expected to be unique to Campi Flegrei, and so might provide a basis for improved forecasts of eruptions at large calderas elsewhere.

  9. Progressive approach to eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; de Natale, Giuseppe; Carlino, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    Unrest at large calderas rarely ends in eruption, encouraging vulnerable communities to perceive emergency warnings of volcanic activity as false alarms. A classic example is the Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy, where three episodes of major uplift since 1950 have raised its central district by about 3 m without an eruption. Individual episodes have conventionally been treated as independent events, so that only data from an ongoing episode are considered pertinent to evaluating eruptive potential. An implicit assumption is that the crust relaxes accumulated stress after each episode. Here we apply a new model of elastic-brittle failure to test the alternative view that successive episodes promote a long-term accumulation of stress in the crust. The results provide the first quantitative evidence that Campi Flegrei is evolving towards conditions more favourable to eruption and identify field tests for predictions on how the caldera will behave during future unrest.

  10. Progressive approach to eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Christopher R J; De Natale, Giuseppe; Carlino, Stefano

    2017-05-15

    Unrest at large calderas rarely ends in eruption, encouraging vulnerable communities to perceive emergency warnings of volcanic activity as false alarms. A classic example is the Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy, where three episodes of major uplift since 1950 have raised its central district by about 3 m without an eruption. Individual episodes have conventionally been treated as independent events, so that only data from an ongoing episode are considered pertinent to evaluating eruptive potential. An implicit assumption is that the crust relaxes accumulated stress after each episode. Here we apply a new model of elastic-brittle failure to test the alternative view that successive episodes promote a long-term accumulation of stress in the crust. The results provide the first quantitative evidence that Campi Flegrei is evolving towards conditions more favourable to eruption and identify field tests for predictions on how the caldera will behave during future unrest.

  11. Progressive approach to eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Christopher R.J.; De Natale, Giuseppe; Carlino, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Unrest at large calderas rarely ends in eruption, encouraging vulnerable communities to perceive emergency warnings of volcanic activity as false alarms. A classic example is the Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy, where three episodes of major uplift since 1950 have raised its central district by about 3 m without an eruption. Individual episodes have conventionally been treated as independent events, so that only data from an ongoing episode are considered pertinent to evaluating eruptive potential. An implicit assumption is that the crust relaxes accumulated stress after each episode. Here we apply a new model of elastic-brittle failure to test the alternative view that successive episodes promote a long-term accumulation of stress in the crust. The results provide the first quantitative evidence that Campi Flegrei is evolving towards conditions more favourable to eruption and identify field tests for predictions on how the caldera will behave during future unrest. PMID:28504261

  12. Evidence for fluid migration as the source of deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Troise, Claudia; Obrizzo, Francesco; Pingue, Folco; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    We model the location, geometry and density of the source of the recent geological unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) by inverting levelling, trilateration and gravity measurements collected between 1980 and 1995. The best fitting source for the 1980-84 inflation is a horizontal penny-shaped crack with a density 142 to 1115 kg/m3. The source best fitting the deflation period (1990-95) is a vertical spheroid with density between 902 and 1015 kg/m3. These results exclude the intrusion of magma, and indicate the migration of fluid to and from the caldera hydrothermal system as the cause of ground deformation and consequent unrest.

  13. RTK DGPS Tecnique Applied to Campi Flegrei Caldera (Southern Italy) Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingue, F.; Obrizzo, F.; Pugliano, G.; Sepe, V.; Tammaro, U.

    2005-05-01

    The Campi Flegrei District (Naples - Italy) includes the volcanic areas of the Campi Flegrei and the islands of Ischia and Procida. The Campi Flegrei are characterized from a caldera 35,000 years old (eruption Campanian Ignimbrite) by which numerous volcanic monogenic apparatus developed inside. The last eruption of this caldera rose again in 1538 and carried to the origin of Mount Nuovo. From the geological point of view, the caldera is mainly formed by volcanic rocks and subordinately by clastic sea sediments; from the structural point of view, the configuration of Campi Flegrei is the result of deformations related to the regional and volcano-tectonic events. The regional tectonic is the cause of direct faults with NE-SW and NW-SE direction and subordinately with NS direction. The magmatic chamber is located at low depth (about 4-5 Km). The dynamics of this volcanic field was characterized by slow and continuous vertical movements as well known as Bradyseism. During 1969-72 (maximum uplift 170 cm) and 1982-84 (maximum uplift 184 cm) this area has been interested by two intense episodes with strong uplift of the ground and moderate seismic energy activity. Both the episodes were followed from a phase of subsidence interrupted by modest phenomena of uplifts, the last of which pointed out during the period March-September 2000 (maximum uplift about 4 cm). Even though the two main uplift crises are not culminated into an eruption, it is fundamental considering that these events caused significant damages to the buildings and to the economy of the Campi Flegrei, which has 250,000 inhabitants. The OV-INGV ground deformations studies are also carried out by the application of GPS and precise levelling techniques: in Campi Flegrei area were installed a CGPS network, consisting of 8 permanent stations, and a precise levelling network, consisting of about 300 benchmarks distributed along a distance of 120 km, with a mean distance of about 400 m, on twelve loops. Several

  14. The permeability and elastic moduli of tuff from Campi Flegrei, Italy: implications for ground deformation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, M. J.; Baud, P.; Meredith, P. G.; Vinciguerra, S.; Reuschlé, T.

    2013-07-01

    The accuracy of ground deformation modelling at active volcanoes is a principal requirement in volcanic hazard mitigation. However, the reliability of such models relies on the accuracy of the rock physical property (permeability and elastic moduli) input parameters. Unfortunately, laboratory-derived values on representative rocks are usually rare. To this end we have performed a systematic laboratory study of the influence of pressure and temperature on the permeability and elastic moduli of the two most widespread tuffs from the Campi Flegrei volcanic district, Italy. Our data show that the water permeability of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff and a tuff from the Campanian Ignimbrite differ by about two orders of magnitude, highlighting the heterogeneous nature of the tuffs at Campi Flegrei. As pressure (depth) increases beyond the critical point for inelastic pore collapse (at an effective pressure of 10-15 MPa, or a depth of about 750 m), permeability and porosity decrease significantly, and ultrasonic wave velocities and dynamic elastic moduli increase significantly. Increasing the thermal stressing temperature increases the permeability and decreases the ultrasonic wave velocities and dynamic elastic moduli of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff; whereas the tuff from the Campanian Ignimbrite remains unaffected. This difference is due the presence of thermally unstable zeolites within the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. For both rocks we also find, under the same pressure conditions, that the dynamic (calculated from ultrasonic wave velocities) and static (calculated from triaxial stress-strain data) elastic moduli differ significantly. The choice of elastic moduli in ground deformation modelling is therefore an important consideration. While we urge that these new laboratory data should be considered in routine ground deformation modelling, we highlight the heterogeneous nature of the rocks that comprise the caldera at Campi Flegrei.

  15. Magmatic processes evidenced by borehole dilatometer data at Campi Flegrei, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lieto, Bellina; Romano, Pierdomenico; Scarpa, Roberto; Orazi, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    Since spring 2004 a joint research project (AMRA, UniSa, INGV) has been developed in Italy to install borehole strainmeters aimed at enhanced INGV monitoring systems. Six Sacks-Evertson dilatometers were installed around Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius during 2004-2005, and in 2008 these were supplemented by two arrays of long-baseline underground water tube tiltmeters. Renewed activity started since 2004-2005, characterized by a low rate of vertical displacement, amounting initially to a few cm/year. Recent deformation in the Campi Flegrei caldera is dominated by aseismic inflation, interrupted by minor transient aseismic reversals in rate. These are typically below the noise level or are poorly sampled by the low sampling frequency of most geodetic techniques, but can be quantified relatively easily using high sensitivity strainmeters and tiltmeters. These instruments provide coherent views of deformation at several different time scales capturing reversals in rate with periods from minutes to months. Monotonic uplift episodes have been recorded with durations of several weeks to a few years. During the summer of 2006 a long term strain episode related to an increase of CO2 emission, evidenced by borehole tiltmeters and continuous GPS sensors, has been observed by the borehole dilatometers array. This strain episode preceded caldera microseismic activity by few months, as was also observed during the 1982 period of unrest. Other aseismic slip episodes were recorded in October 2006 and in March 2010, several minutes before the most significant seismic swarms (VT and/or LP events) occurred after the 1982-1984 uplift. The time scale of these transient strain events lasted less than one hour, putting further constraints on the origin of ground uplifts at Campi Flegrei. Their locations are compatible with the source inferred from long term deformation signals, at about 4 km depth beneath Pozzuoli. The current array provides us with a glimpse of the potential utility of a

  16. Quantifying volcanic hazard at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) with uncertainty assessment: 1. Vent opening maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Andrea; Isaia, Roberto; Neri, Augusto; Vitale, Stefano; Aspinall, Willy P.; Bisson, Marina; Flandoli, Franco; Baxter, Peter J.; Bertagnini, Antonella; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Iannuzzi, Enrico; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    Campi Flegrei is an active volcanic area situated in the Campanian Plain (Italy) and dominated by a resurgent caldera. The great majority of past eruptions have been explosive, variable in magnitude, intensity, and in their vent locations. In this hazard assessment study we present a probabilistic analysis using a variety of volcanological data sets to map the background spatial probability of vent opening conditional on the occurrence of an event in the foreseeable future. The analysis focuses on the reconstruction of the location of past eruptive vents in the last 15 ka, including the distribution of faults and surface fractures as being representative of areas of crustal weakness. One of our key objectives was to incorporate some of the main sources of epistemic uncertainty about the volcanic system through a structured expert elicitation, thereby quantifying uncertainties for certain important model parameters and allowing outcomes from different expert weighting models to be evaluated. Results indicate that past vent locations are the most informative factors governing the probabilities of vent opening, followed by the locations of faults and then fractures. Our vent opening probability maps highlight the presence of a sizeable region in the central eastern part of the caldera where the likelihood of new vent opening per kilometer squared is about 6 times higher than the baseline value for the whole caldera. While these probability values have substantial uncertainties associated with them, our findings provide a rational basis for hazard mapping of the next eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera.

  17. Temporal models for the episodic volcanism of Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) with uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Andrea; Flandoli, Franco; Neri, Augusto; Isaia, Roberto; Vitale, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    After the large-scale event of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff ( 15 ka B.P.), intense and mostly explosive volcanism has occurred within and along the boundaries of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). Eruptions occurred closely spaced in time, over periods from a few centuries to a few millennia, and were alternated with periods of quiescence lasting up to several millennia. Often events also occurred closely in space, thus generating a cluster of events. This study had two main objectives: (1) to describe the uncertainty in the geologic record by using a quantitative model and (2) to develop, based on the uncertainty assessment, a long-term subdomain specific temporal probability model that describes the temporal and spatial eruptive behavior of the caldera. In particular, the study adopts a space-time doubly stochastic nonhomogeneous Poisson-type model with a local self-excitation feature able to generate clustering of events which are consistent with the reconstructed record of Campi Flegrei. Results allow the evaluation of similarities and differences between the three epochs of activity as well as to derive eruptive base rate of the caldera and its capacity to generate clusters of events. The temporal probability model is also used to investigate the effect of the most recent eruption of Monte Nuovo (A.D. 1538) in a possible reactivation of the caldera and to estimate the time to the next eruption under different volcanological and modeling assumptions.

  18. Investigating the activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) through remote and in situ sensors (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, E.; Polcari, M.; Bignami, C.; Bonafede, M.; Buongiorno, F.; Stramondo, S.

    2013-12-01

    Campi Flegrei is a nested caldera in Italy, whose structure includes submerged and continental parts at the western edge of the Bay of Naples. Together with Vesuvius and Etna, it is one of the Italian GeoHazard Supersites. The last eruption took place in 1538 A.D. and since then intense degassing, seismic swarms and several episodes of ground uplift have been observed. The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard in the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m (~1 m/yr). During the following decades the area has been generally subsiding but minor uplift episodes of the order of few cm, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000-01 and 2004-06, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. Since March 1970 leveling surveys were regularly carried out to monitor the elevation changes. In the following decades many efforts have been done to monitor the different aspects of the activity of the area, and nowadays Campi Flegrei is subjected to intense geodetic, geophysical and geochemical monitoring. In the last 30 years a number of geophysical investigations has provided important constraints to the description of the subsurface structure and the historical volcanic activity. Surface deformation, microgravity changes and geochemical anomalies at Campi Flegrei have been interpreted either in terms of instabilities of the hydrothermal system or variations in the magmatic source. In particular, discerning between magmatic vs hydrothermal origin of the source responsible of the large uplift episode during 1982-84 (most probably due to deep magmatic source) and of the mini-uplifts (e.g. 2000 and 2004-06, most probably due to pressure variations in the shallow aquifer) may have important implications in terms of civil protection. In the last two decades, the precise and

  19. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  20. Signature of magmatic processes in strainmeter records at Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagagli, M.; Montagna, C. P.; Papale, P.; Longo, A.

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera, Southern Italy, is characterized by episodes of ground deformation, seismicity, and enhanced fumarolic activity; whether its origin is purely hydrothermal or magmatic is highly debated. We have identified ground deformation patterns in strainmeter records from a heightened unrest period in late 2006, closely resembling synthetic signals from numerical simulations of shallow magma chamber replenishment and mixing. Together with other recent findings, our results depict a situation whereby periodic arrivals of deep magma feed a shallow intrusion at 3-4 km depth. These results suggest that the analysis of strainmeter records, coupled with advanced numerical simulations of magma dynamics, could lead to new approaches in imaging subsurface dynamic processes in volcanic areas.

  1. Monitoring diffuse volcanic degassing during volcanic unrests: the case of Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Avino, Rosario; Bagnato, Emanuela; Caliro, Stefano; Frondini, Francesco; Lelli, Matteo; Rosiello, Angelo

    2017-04-01

    Hydrothermal activity at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy) results on a large area of hot soils, diffuse CO2 degassing and numerous fumaroles, releasing at the surface large amounts of gasses and thermal energy. Solfatara is one of the first sites of the world where the techniques for measuring and interpreting soil CO2 diffuse degassing were developed during 1990's and, more recently, it has become a sort of natural laboratory for testing new types of measurements of the CO2 fluxes from hydrothermal sites. The results of 30 diffuse CO2 flux surveys performed at Solfatara from 1998 to 2016 are presented and discussed. CO2 soil fluxes were measured over an area of about 1.2  1.2 km including the Solfatara crater and the hydrothermal site of Pisciarelli using the accumulation chamber technique. Each survey consisted in a number of CO2 flux measurements varying from 372 to 583 resulting in a total of 13158 measurements. This data set is one of the largest dataset ever made in the world on a single degassing volcanic-hydrothermal system. It is particularly relevant in the frame of volcanological sciences because it was acquired during a long period of unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera and because Solfatara release an amount of CO2 comparable to that released by medium-large volcanic plumes. Statistical and geostatistical elaborations of CO2 flux data allowed to characterise the sources of soil diffuse degassing, to define the extent of the area interested by the release of hydrothermal CO2 (Solfatara DDS) and to quantify the total amount of released CO2. During the last eighteen years relevant variations affected Solfatara degassing, and in particular the "background" CO2 emission , the extent of DDS and the total CO2 output, that may reflect variations in the subterraneous gas plume feeding the Solfatara and Pisciarelli emissions. In fact, the most relevant variations in Solfatara diffuse degassing well correlates with steam condensation and

  2. Advanced DInSAR analysis at Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Camacho, A. G.; Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic data, the spatial and temporal surface expression of complex geophysical processes in the earth, is being acquired today at unprecedented rates and accuracies. Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) is a satellite remote sensing technique used extensively today for mapping ground deformation with high spatial resolution and sub-centimeter precision over large areas that is particularly useful for volcanic monitoring [Massonnet and Feigl, 1998; Rosen et al., 2000]. Here we apply the advanced Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) InSAR algorithm [Samsonov and d'Oreye, 2012] to several thousand Envisat and RADARSAT-2 images from 1993-2013 and compute time series of ground deformation over the Naples Bay region of Italy. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei are located in this area in close proximity to the densely populated city of Naples and, as a result, it is one of the most hazardous volcanic areas in the world. We obtain time series of ground deformation at high spatial and temporal resolution that span, for the first time, twenty years. Campi Flegrei underwent continuous subsidence through 1999. Uplift began in 2005, reaching approximately 13 cm by 2013. We model the observed deformation to determine source parameters for subsidence and uplift epochs [Samsonov et al., 2014]. In addition, a typical DInSAR image can contain significant signals from with several different, nonvolcanic sources. For example, we clearly observe decade-long elevation-dependent seasonal oscillations of the vertical displacement component at Vesuvius that are substantially larger than the long-term deformation rate (<0.6 cm/yr). As a result, we employ an eigenpattern decomposition technique known as Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) analysis in order to identify the unique, finite set of correlated deformation patterns associated with volcanic sources at different depths [Tiampo et al., 2004; Tiampo et al., 2012]. Both the inflation and deflation mechanisms

  3. Automatic procedure for quasi-real time seismic data processing at Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Ciaramella, Angelo; De Lauro, Enza; De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Petrosino, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The accuracy of automatic procedures for detecting seismic events and locating their sources is influenced by several factors such as errors in picking seismic phases often buried in the high-level ambient noise, network geometry and modelling errors. fundamental objective is the improvement of these procedures by developing accurate algorithms for quasi-real time seismic data processing, easily managed in observatory practice. Recently a robust automatic procedure has been implemented for detecting, onset picking and identifying signal phases in continuous seismic signal with an application at the seismicity recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the 2006 ground uplift (Ciaramella et al. 2011). An Independent Component Analysis based approach for the Blind Source Separation of convolutive mixtures (CICA) has been adopted to obtain a clear separation of low-energy Long Period events (LPs) from the high-level ambient noise allowing to compile a complete seismic catalogue and better quantify the seismic energy release. In this work, we apply CICA at the seismic signal continuously recorded during the entire 2006 at Campi Flegrei. First, we have performed tests on synthetic data in order to improve the reliability and the accuracy of the procedure. The performance test using very noisy synthetic data shows that the method works even in case of very poor quality data characterized by very low signal to noise ratio (SNR). Second, we have improved CICA automatic procedure recovering the information on the amplitudes of the extracted independent components. This is crucial for further analysis, starting from a prompt estimate of magnitude/energy of the highlighted events. Data used for the present analysis were collected by four broadband three-component seismic stations (ASB2, AMS2, TAGG, BGNG) belonging to the Campi Flegrei seismic monitoring network, managed by the 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia-Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV-OV)' (see for

  4. Regional earthquakes followed by delayed ground uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Italy: Arguments for a causal link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Matteo; Frehner, Marcel; Weis, Philipp; Skelton, Alasdair; Saenger, Erik H.; Tisato, Nicola; Geiger, Sebastian; Chiodini, Giovanni; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Earthquake-triggered volcanic activity promoted by dynamic and static stresses are considered rare and difficult-to-capture geological processes. Calderas are ideal natural laboratories to investigate earthquake-volcano interactions due to their sensitivity to incoming seismic energy. The Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, is one of the most monitored volcanic systems worldwide. We compare ground elevation time series at Campi Flegrei with earthquake catalogues showing that uplift events at Campi Flegrei are associated with large regional earthquakes. Such association is supported by (yet non-definitive) binomial tests. Over a 70-year time window we identify 14 uplift events, 12 of them were preceded by an earthquake, and for 8 of them the earthquake-to-uplift timespan ranges from immediate responses to 1.2 yr. Such variability in the response delay may be due to the preparedness of the system with faster responses probably occurring in periods during which the Campi Flegrei system was already in a critical state. To investigate the process that may be responsible for the proposed association we simulate the propagation of elastic waves and show that passing body waves impose high dynamic strains at the roof of the magmatic reservoir of the Campi Flegrei at about 7 km depth. This may promote a short-lived embrittlement of the magma reservoir's carapace otherwise marked by a ductile behaviour. Such failure allows magma and exsolved volatiles to be released from the magmatic reservoir. The fluids, namely exsolved volatiles and/or melts, ascend through a nominally plastic zone above the magmatic reservoir. This mechanism and the associated inherent uncertainties require further investigations but the new concept already implies that geological processes triggered by passing seismic waves may become apparent several months after passage of the seismic waves.

  5. The permeability and elastic moduli of tuff from Campi Flegrei, Italy: implications for ground deformation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, M. J.; Baud, P.; Meredith, P. G.; Vinciguerra, S.; Reuschlé, T.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of ground deformation modelling at active volcanoes is a principal requirement in volcanic hazard mitigation. However, the reliability of such models relies on the accuracy of the rock physical property (permeability and elastic moduli) input parameters. Unfortunately, laboratory-derived values on representative rocks are usually rare. To this end we have performed a systematic laboratory study on the influence of pressure and temperature on the permeability and elastic moduli of samples from the two most widespread lithified pyroclastic deposits at the Campi Flegrei volcanic district, Italy. Our data show that the water permeability of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff and a tuff from the Campanian Ignimbrite differ by about 1.5 orders of magnitude. As pressure (depth) increases beyond the critical point for inelastic pore collapse (at an effective pressure of 10-15 MPa, or a depth of about 750 m), permeability and porosity decrease significantly, and ultrasonic wave velocities and dynamic elastic moduli increase significantly. Increasing the thermal stressing temperature increases the permeability and decreases the ultrasonic wave velocities and dynamic elastic moduli of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff; whereas the tuff from the Campanian Ignimbrite remains unaffected. This difference is due to the presence of thermally unstable zeolites within the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. For both rocks we also find, under the same pressure conditions, that the dynamic (calculated from ultrasonic wave velocities) and static (calculated from triaxial stress-strain data) elastic moduli differ significantly. The choice of elastic moduli in ground deformation modelling is therefore an important consideration. While we urge that these new laboratory data should be considered in routine ground deformation modelling, we highlight the challenges for ground deformation modelling based on the heterogeneous nature (vertically and laterally) of the rocks that comprise the caldera at Campi

  6. Clues on the origin of post-2000 earthquakes at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy).

    PubMed

    Chiodini, G; Selva, J; Del Pezzo, E; Marsan, D; De Siena, L; D'Auria, L; Bianco, F; Caliro, S; De Martino, P; Ricciolino, P; Petrillo, Z

    2017-06-30

    The inter-arrival times of the post 2000 seismicity at Campi Flegrei caldera are statistically distributed into different populations. The low inter-arrival times population represents swarm events, while the high inter-arrival times population marks background seismicity. Here, we show that the background seismicity is increasing at the same rate of (1) the ground uplift and (2) the concentration of the fumarolic gas specie more sensitive to temperature. The seismic temporal increase is strongly correlated with the results of recent simulations, modelling injection of magmatic fluids in the Campi Flegrei hydrothermal system. These concurrent variations point to a unique process of temperature-pressure increase of the hydrothermal system controlling geophysical and geochemical signals at the caldera. Our results thus show that the occurrence of background seismicity is an excellent parameter to monitor the current unrest of the caldera.

  7. Signature of magmatic processes in strainmeter records at Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagagli, Matteo; Montagna, Chiara P.; Papale, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera is characterized by episodes of ground deformation, seismicity and enhanced fumarolic activity; whether its origin is purely hydrothermal or magmatic is highly debated. We have analyzed ground deformation patterns in strainmeter records, focusing on a heightened unrest period in late 2006. These data have been compared to synthetic signals obtained from simulations of shallow magma chamber replenishment and mixing at Campi Flegrei. Our results show that discrete transients can be identified in the monitoring records, that strongly resemble the synthetics in both time and frequency domains, pointing to a magmatic contribution to the unrest. Together with other recent findings, our results depict a situation whereby periodic arrivals of deep magma feed a shallow intrusion at 3-4 km depth. These results suggest that the analysis of strainmeter records, coupled with advanced numerical simulations of magma dynamics, could lead to new approaches in imaging subsurface dynamic processes in volcanic areas.

  8. Long-term magmatic evolution at the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, Francesca; Bachmann, Olivier; De Astis, Gianfilippo; Mollo, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the accumulation of large silicic upper-crustal magma bodies, potentially resulting in high magnitude caldera-forming eruptions, is fundamental to better constraining volcanic hazard of populous regions on Earth. Campi Flegrei is an excellent example of active and restless volcano, located in a densely populated area, which hosted, during the last 60 ka, two cataclysmic caldera-forming eruptions (Campanian Ignimbrite, 39 ka and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, 15 ka) and a number of smaller magnitude volcanic events. Here we use detailed petrological data to reconstruct magma storage conditions and understand the past, present and future evolution of the magmatic system at Campi Flegrei. Our data reveal that during the two major eruptions most of the eruptible crystal-poor magma and part of the cumulate crystal mush were efficiently evacuated from the upper crustal reservoir, leading to a caldera collapse. Subsequently, the magmatic reservoir was replenished by more mafic magmas of deeper origin, which evolved through time towards more silicic, colder and more volatile-rich compositions. The most recent eruption at Monte Nuovo (1538 AD), characterized by highly evolved, low temperature and wet magmas akin to those that fed the pre-caldera magmatic activity, suggests that a potentially explosive magma reservoir might be currently present at Campi Flegrei.

  9. A strongly heterogeneous hydrothermal area imaged by surface waves: the case of Solfatara, Campi Flegrei, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Marcello; Festa, Gaetano; Roux, Philippe; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Zollo, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the shallow structure of the Solfatara, a volcano within the Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy, using surface waves as a diagnostic tool. We analysed data collected during the RICEN campaign, where a 3-D active seismic experiment was performed on a dense regular grid of 90 m × 115 m using a Vibroseis as the seismic source. After removal of the source time function, we analysed the surface wave contribution to the Green's function. Here, a 1-D approximation can hold for subgrids of 40 m × 40 m. Moreover, we stacked all of the signals in the subgrid according to source-receiver distance bins, despite the absolute location of the source and the receiver, to reduce the small-scale variability in the data. We then analysed the resulting seismic sections in narrow frequency bands between 7 and 25 Hz. We obtained phase and group velocities from a grid search, and a cost function based on the spatial coherence of both the waveforms and their envelopes. We finally jointly inverted the dispersion curves of the phase and group velocities to retrieve a 1-D S-wave model local to the subgrid. Together, the models provided a 3-D description of the S-wave model in the area. We found that the maximum penetration depth is 15 m. In the first 4 m, we can associate the changes in the S-wave field to the temperature gradient, while at greater depths, the seismic images correlate with the resistivity maps, which indicate the water layer close to the Fangaia area and an abrupt variation moving towards the northeast.

  10. The origin of a zoned ignimbrite: Insights into the Campanian Ignimbrite magma chamber (Campi Flegrei, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, Francesca; Bachmann, Olivier; Mollo, Silvio; De Astis, Gianfilippo; Gelman, Sarah E.; Ellis, Ben S.

    2016-09-01

    Caldera-forming eruptions, during which large volumes of magma are explosively evacuated into the atmosphere from shallow crustal reservoirs, are one of the most hazardous natural events on Earth. The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; Campi Flegrei, Italy) represents a classical example of such events, producing a voluminous pyroclastic sequence of trachytic to phonolitic magma that covered several thousands of squared kilometers in the south-central Italy around 39 ka ago. The CI deposits are known for their remarkable geochemical gradients, attributed to eruption from a vertically zoned magma chamber. We investigate the relationships between such chemical zoning and the crystallinity variations observed within the CI pyroclastic sequence by combining bulk-rock data with detailed analyses of crystals and matrix glass from well-characterized stratigraphic units. Using geothermometers and hygrometers specifically calibrated for alkaline magmas, we reconstruct the reservoir storage conditions, revealing the presence of gradients in temperature and magma water content. In particular, we observe a decrease in crystallinity and temperature and an increase in magma evolution and water content from the bottom to the top of the magma chamber. We interpret these features as the result of protracted fractional crystallization leading to the formation of a cumulate crystal mush at the base of the eruptible reservoir, from which highly evolved, crystal-poor, water-rich and relatively cold melts were separated. The extracted melts, forming a buoyant, easily eruptible cap at the top of the magma chamber, fed the initial phases of the eruption, until caldera collapse and eruption of the deeper more crystalline part of the system. This late-erupted, crystal-rich material represents remobilized portions of the cumulate crystal mush, partly melted following hotter recharge. Our interpretation is supported by: 1) the positive bulk-rock Eu anomalies and the high Ba and Sr contents observed in

  11. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    PubMed Central

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common. PMID:27558276

  12. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.

  13. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption.

    PubMed

    Di Vito, Mauro A; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-08-25

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.

  14. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-08-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.

  15. Geodetic constraints to the source mechanism of the 2011-2013 unrest at Campi Flegrei (Italy) caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Polcari, Marco; Bonafede, Maurizio; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Campi Flegrei (Italy) is a nested caldera and together with Vesuvius is one of the Italian GEO Geohazard Supersites (GSNL). The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard of the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants (1800/km²), the persistent activity of the system and the explosive character of volcanism. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m. Minor uplifts of few centimeters, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000 and 2004-06. Since 2005 Campi Flegrei is uplifting, reaching a ground velocity of 9 cm/yr in 2012, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. In this work, we present results from SAR Interferometry and geodetic data modelling at Campi Flegrei in the framework of the EU's FP7 MED-SUV Project. We exploit two COSMO-SkyMed data sets to map the deformation field during 2011-2013. The spatial distributions of the cumulative displacement from COSMO-SkyMed ascending/descending orbits show similar behaviors, confirming the bell-shaped pattern of the deformation at least within the inner rim of the caldera. The resulting data, together with GPS data from the Neapolitan Volcanoes Continuous GPS network (NeVoCGPS) is fitted through a geophysical inversion process using finite element forward models to account for the 3D heterogeneous medium. The best fit model is a north dipping mixed-mode dislocation source lying at ~5 km depth. The driving mechanism is ascribable to magma input into the source of the large 1982-1984 unrest (since similar source characteristics were inferred) that generates initial inflation followed by additional shear slip accompanying the extension of crack tips. The history and the current state of the system indicate that Campi Flegrei is able to erupt again. Constraining the defomation source may have important implications in terms of civil protection and the

  16. The origin of a zoned ignimbrite: insights into the Campanian Ignimbrite magma chamber (Campi Flegrei, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, Francesca; Bachmann, Olivier; Mollo, Silvio; De Astis, Gianfilippo

    2016-04-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; Campi Flegrei, Italy), dated at 39 ka, is a widespread pyroclastic sequence emplaced during a cataclysmic caldera-forming eruption fed by trachytic to phonolitic magmas. The CI pyroclastic sequence is famous for its remarkable geochemical gradients,attributed to the presence of a vertically zoned magma chamber. Combining bulk-rock data with detailed phenocrysts and matrix glass analyses from well characterized stratigraphic units, we investigate the relatioships between such chemical zoning and the crystallinity variations observed along the CI pyroclastic sequence. Using geothermometers and hygrometers specifically calibrated for alkaline magmas, we reconstruct the reservoir storage conditions, revealing the presence of gradients in temperature and magma water content. In particular, we observe an increase in crystallinity and temperature and a decrease in magma evolution and water content from the bottom to the top of the sequence. We interpret these features as the result of protracted fractional crystallization leading to the formation of a cumulate crystal mush at the base of the eruptible reservoir, from which highly evolved, crystal-poor, water-rich and relatively cold melts were separated. The extracted melts, forming a buoyant, easily eruptible cap at the top of the magma chamber, fed the initial phases of the eruption, until caldera collapse and eruption of the deeper, more crystalline part of the system. This late-erupted, crystal-rich material, represents remobilized portions of the cumulate crystal mush, rejuvenated after mafic recharge. Our interpretation is supported by: 1) the bulk-rock positive Eu anomalies and the high Ba and Sr contents observed in the crystal-rich units, implying feldspar accumulation; 2) the positive Eu anomalies in the matrix glass of the crystal-rich units, testifying to the presence of liquid derived from partial melting of low temperature mineral phases within the crystal mush (feldspars and

  17. Seismicity associated with the 2004 2006 renewed ground uplift at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccorotti, G.; Petrosino, S.; Bianco, F.; Castellano, M.; Galluzzo, D.; La Rocca, M.; Del Pezzo, E.; Zaccarelli, L.; Cusano, P.

    2007-11-01

    Following the significant ground uplift (˜1.8 m) of the 1982-1984 bradyseismic crisis, the recent history of Campi Flegrei volcanic complex (Italy) has been dominated by a subsidence phase. Recent geodetic data demonstrate that the subsidence has terminated, and that positive ground deformation renewed in November 2004, at a low but accelerating rate leading to about 4 cm of uplift by the end of October 2006. As in previous episodes, ground uplift has been accompanied by swarms of micro-earthquakes ( M ≤ 1.4) in three distinct episodes: October 2005, October 2006 and December 2006. Hypocenters of these earthquakes are mainly located beneath the Solfatara Volcano at depths ranging between 0.5 and 4 km. Inversion of S-wave spectra indicates source radius and stress drop on the order of 30-60 m and 10 4-9 × 10 5 Pa, respectively. Fault plane solutions indicate predominantly normal mechanisms. Accompanying the October 2006 swarm, we detected intense long-period (LP) activity for about 1 week. These signals consist of weak, monochromatic oscillations whose spectra exhibit a main peak at frequency ˜0.8 Hz. This peak is common to all the stations of the network, and not present in the noise spectra, suggesting that it is a source effect. About 75% of the detected LPs cluster into three groups of mutually similar events. Adjustment of waveforms using cross-correlation allows for precise alignment and stacking, which enhances signal onsets and permits accurate absolute arrival picks, and thus better absolute as well as relative locations. Locations associated with the three different clusters are very similar, and appear to delineate the SE rim of the Solfatara Volcano at a depth of about 500 m. The most likely source process for the LP events involves the resonance of a fluid-filled, buried cavity. Quality factors of the resonator cluster in a narrow interval around 4, which is consistent with the vibration of a buried cavity filled with a water-vapour mixture at poor

  18. High Resolution Monitoring Of Campi Flegrei (Naples, Italy) By Exploiting TerraSAR-X Data: An Application Of Solifatara Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minet, Christian; Goel, Kanika; Aquino, Ida; Avino, Rosario; Berrino, Giovanna; Caliro, Stefano; Chidini, Giovanni; De Martino, Prospero; Del Gaudio, Carlo; Ricco, Ciro; Siniscalchi, Valeria; Borgsrtom, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Geodetic monitoring of Campi Flegrei caldera, west of Naples (Italy), is carried out through integrated ground based networks and space-borne Differential InSAR (DInSAR) techniques, exploiting the SAR sensors onboard ERS1-2 (till the end of their lifetime) and ENVISAT satellites. Unfortunately, C-band sensors give no information when dealing with very low deformation rates and very small deforming areas. To overcome these problems, we decided to use TerraSAR-X from DLR, a high resolution SAR sensor operating in the X-band, starting in December 2009. TerraSAR-X Spotlight scenes covering the main part of the Campi Flegrei caldera and centred on the Solfatara crater were used for a DInSAR analysis, using DLR’s InSAR software. Starting from this period, many field surveys highlighted a strong fumarolic activity in the Solfatara - Pisciarelli area [1], so geodetic and geochemical observations were strongly increased. Furthermore, the growing stack of High-Resolution Spotlight TerraSAR-X data processed using the Small Baseline Subset Algorithm (SBAS) as described by Berardino at al. [2], allowed getting information for a bigger area and data from ground based networks could be integrated. First results of the SBAS processing and the combination of different observation techniques are presented.

  19. P-SV conversions at a shallow boundary beneath Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) - evidence for the magma chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrucci, F.; Hirn, A.; De Natale, G.; Virieux, J.; Mirabile, L. Inst. de Physique du Globe, Paris Osservatorio Vesuviano, Naples CNRS, Inst. de Geodynamique, Valbonne Ist. Universitario Navale, Naples )

    1992-10-01

    Seismograms from an active seismic experiment carried out at Campi Flegrei caldera (near Naples, Italy), show a large-amplitude SV-polarized shear wave, following by less than 1.5-s P waves reflected at wide angle from a deep crustal interface. Early arriving SV-polarized waves, with the same delay to direct P waves, are also observed in seismograms from a regional 280 km-deep, magnitude 5.1 earthquake. Such short delays of S to P waves are consistent with a P-SV conversion on transmission occurring at a shallow boundary beneath the receivers. The large amplitude of the converted-SV phase, along with that the P waves are near vertical, requires a boundary separating a very low rigidity layer from the upper caldera fill. The converted phases are interpreted as a seismic marker of a magma chamber. The top of this magma chamber is located slightly deeper than the deepest earthquakes observed during the 1982-1984 unrest of Campi Flegrei. 8 refs.

  20. Helium-3 in subaerial and submarine fumaroles of Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, D.; Allard, P.; Sano, Y.; Wakita, H.; Pece, R.

    1990-04-01

    Helium isotope measurements performed between 1983 and 1988 on subaerial and submarine fumaroles of the Campi Flegrei caldera demonstrate the presence of a mantle component in both types of volcanic gases. The 3He/ 4He ratios plot in a narrow range from 2.0 to 3.2 times the air ratio ( Ra = 1.4 × 10 -6), despite large differences in helium concentrations. Their spatial variation suggests a greater leakage of mantle He in the central part than on the margins of the caldera, consistent with the central distribution of ground deformation and seismicity during the 1982-1984 bradyseismic crisis. In a simple mixing model between upper mantle He ( R/R a ≈ 8 ) and crustal He ( R/R a <- 0.1 ), the proportion of mantle-derived helium in these fluids would amount to ca. 40% at most. Compared to one existing analysis in 1978 (POLYAK and Tolstikhin, 1980), the results on the hottest fumaroles (Solfatara crater) show no evidence of increasing 3He/ 4He during the 1982-1984 events, suggesting no additional input of mantle-magmatic He. However, it is possible that the underlying magma chamber has a low 3He/ 4He ratio, close to the highest ratio measured in the fumaroles, as a result of deep crustal contamination, radioactive aging, and/or past contamination of the local mantle by U- and Th-rich (subducted?) crustal material. All three possibilities are consistent with geochemical data on the local volcanics. If so, the constant 3He/ 4He ratio of Campi Flegrei fumaroles during the 1982-1984 crisis could not be taken as indicative of a non-magmatic origin of the events, which would have important implications with regard to potential eruptive hazards in this area. Future He isotopic investigations on the solid products of Campanian volcanoes should help in settling this question.

  1. Reconstruction of caldera collapse and resurgence processes in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Large collapse calderas are associated with exceptionally explosive volcanic eruptions, which are capable of triggering a global catastrophe second only to that from a giant meteorite impact. Therefore, active calderas have attracted significant attention in both scientific communities and governmental institutions worldwide. One prime example of a large collapse caldera can be found in southern Italy, more precisely in the northern Bay of Naples within the Campi Flegrei Volcanic Area. The Campi Flegrei caldera covers an area of approximately 200 km² defined by a quasi-circular depression, half onland, half offshore. It is still under debate whether the caldera formation was related to only one ignimbritic eruption namely the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruption at 15 ka or if it is a nested-caldera system related to the NYT and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption at 39 ka. During the last 40 years, the Campi Flegrei caldera has experienced episodes of unrest involving significant ground deformation and seismicity, which have nevertheless not yet led to an eruption. Besides these short-term episodes of unrest, long-term ground deformation with rates of several tens of meters within a few thousand years can be observed in the central part of the caldera. The source of both short-term and long-term deformation is still under debate and possibly related to a shallow hydrothermal system and caldera resurgence attributed to a deeper magma chamber, respectively. Understanding the mechanisms for unrest and eruptions is of paramount importance as a future eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera would expose more than 500,000 people to the risk of pyroclastic flows. This study is based on a dense grid (semi-3D) of high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles acquired in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The seismic lines show evidence for the escape of fluids and/or gases along weak zones such as faults, thereby supporting the existence of a hydrothermal

  2. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni; Rico, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Defining and understanding the shallow transfer of magma at volcanoes is crucial to forecast eruptions, possibly the ultimate goal of volcanology. This is particularly challenging at felsic calderas experiencing unrest, which typically includes significant changes in seismicity, deformation and degassing rates. Caldera unrest is particularly frequent, affects wide areas and often does not culminate in an eruption. Moreover its evidence is usually complicated by the presence of a hydrothermal system. As a result, forecasting any eruption and vent-opening sites within a caldera is very difficult. The Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), in the densely inhabited area of Naples (Italy), is commonly considered one of the most dangerous active volcanic systems. CFc is a 12 km wide depression hosting two nested calderas formed during the eruptions of the Campanian Ignimbrite ( 39 ka) and the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff ( 15 ka). In the last 5 ka, resurgence, with uplift >60 m close to the central part of the caldera, was accompanied by volcanism between 4.8 and 3.8 ka. After 3 ka of quiescence, increasing seismicity and uplift preceded the last eruption at Monte Nuovo in 1538 for several decades. The most recent activity culminated in four unrest episodes between 1950-1952, 1969-1972, 1982-1984 and 2005-Present, with a cumulative uplift at Pozzuoli of 4.5 m; the present unrest episode has been interpreted as being magma-driven. These unrest episodes are considered the most evident expression of a longer-term (centuries or more) restless activity. The post-1980 deformation largely results from a magmatic oblate or sill-like source at 4 km depth below Pozzuoli. Despite the restless activity of CFc, the recent unrest episodes did not culminate in eruption, so that any possibility to define the pre-eruptive shallow transfer of magma remains elusive. Indeed, this definition is a crucial step in order to identify and understand pre-eruptive processes, and thus to make any forecast. To fill

  3. Geochemical Clues on the Processes Controlling the 2005-2014 Unrest at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Caliro, S.; D'auria, L.; De Martino, P.; Mangiacapra, A.; Petrillo, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of the mechanism which triggers unrests at active calderas is one of the most problematic issues of modern volcanology. In particular, magmatic intrusion vs. hydrothermal dynamics is one of the central questions to understand the signals of several restless calderas of the Earth, including, for example, Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Campi Flegrei. Here we focus on Campi Flegrei caldera, sited in the densely inhabited metropolitan area of Napoli, where an inflation stage showing an accelerating trend started in 2005 and reached a maximum vertical displacement of about 24 cm in July 2014. Fumarolic compositions compared with ground deformation data suggests that this ten year's accelerating uplift is mainly caused by the overlapping of two processes: (i) short time pulses caused by injection of magmatic fluids into the hydrothermal system, and (ii) a long time process of heating of the rocks. The short pulses are highlighted by comparing the residuals of ground deformation, fitted with an accelerating curve, with the fumarolic CO2/CH4 and He/CH4 ratios which are good indicators of the arrival of magmatic gases into the hydrothermal system. These two independent datasets show an impressive temporal correlation, with the same sequence of five peaks with a delay of ~ 200 days of the geochemical signal with respect to the geodetic one. The heating of the hydrothermal system is inferred by an evident increase in the fumarolic activity and by temperature-pressure gas-geoindicators. The accelerating ground deformation is paralleled in fact by an increase in the fumarolic CO/CO2 ratio and by a general decrease of the CH4/CO2ratio, both being sign of increased equilibration temperatures. Comparing the observed fumarolic compositions with the thermodynamically derived equilibrium values we infer that the heating is caused by the condensation of increasing amounts of steam. According to a recent interpretation of fumarolic inert gas species, which relates

  4. Suitability of energy cone for probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment: validation tests at Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierz, Pablo; Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Zaccarelli, Lucia; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Sulpizio, Roberto; Marzocchi, Warner

    2016-11-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are gravity-driven hot mixtures of gas and volcanic particles which can propagate at high speed and cover distances up to several tens of kilometers around a given volcano. Therefore, they pose a severe hazard to the surroundings of explosive volcanoes able to produce such phenomena. Despite this threat, probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA) of PDCs is still in an early stage of development. PVHA is rooted in the quantification of the large uncertainties (aleatory and epistemic) which characterize volcanic hazard analyses. This quantification typically requires a big dataset of hazard footprints obtained from numerical simulations of the physical process. For PDCs, numerical models range from very sophisticated (not useful for PVHA because of their very long runtimes) to very simple models (criticized because of their highly simplified physics). We present here a systematic and robust validation testing of a simple PDC model, the energy cone (EC), to unravel whether it can be applied to PVHA of PDCs. Using past PDC deposits at Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei (Italy), we assess the ability of EC to capture the values and variability in some relevant variables for hazard assessment, i.e., area of PDC invasion and maximum runout. In terms of area of invasion, the highest Jaccard coefficients range from 0.33 to 0.86 which indicates an equal or better performance compared to other volcanic mass-flow models. The p values for the observed maximum runouts vary from 0.003 to 0.44. Finally, the frequencies of PDC arrival computed from the EC are similar to those determined from the spatial distribution of past PDC deposits, with high PDC-arrival frequencies over an ˜8-km radius from the crater area at Somma-Vesuvius and around the Astroni crater at Campi Flegrei. The insights derived from our validation tests seem to indicate that the EC is a suitable candidate to compute PVHA of PDCs.

  5. Trace element partitioning between clinopyroxene and trachy-phonolitic melts: A case study from the Campanian Ignimbrite (Campi Flegrei, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, S.; Forni, F.; Bachmann, O.; Blundy, J. D.; De Astis, G.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-05-01

    The partitioning of trace elements between crystals and melts provides an important petrogenetic tool for understanding magmatic processes. We present trace element partition coefficients measured between clinopyroxene phenocrysts and trachy-phonolitic magmas at the Campi Flegrei (Italy), whose late Quaternary volcanism has been characterized by two major caldera-forming events (Campanian Ignimbrite at ~ 39 ka, and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff at ~ 15 ka). Our data indicate that the increase of trivalent rare earth elements and yttrium into the crystal lattice M2 site is facilitated by the charge-balancing substitution of Si4 + with Al3 + on the tetrahedral site. Higher concentrations of tetravalent and pentavalent high field strength elements on the M1 site are also measured when the average charge on this site is increased by the substitution of divalent cations by Alvi. In contrast, due to these charge balance requirements, divalent transitional elements become less compatible within the crystal lattice. On the basis of the lattice strain theory, we document that the incorporation of rare earth elements and yttrium in clinopyroxene is influenced by both compositional and physical parameters. Data from this study allow to update existing partitioning equations for rare earth elements in order to construct a self-consistent model for trachy-phonolitic magmas based on the lattice strain theory. The application of this model to natural products from the Campanian Ignimbrite, the largest caldera-forming eruption at the Campi Flegrei, reveals that the complex rare earth element pattern recorded by the eruptive products can be successfully described by the stepwise fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene and feldspar where the clinopyroxene-melt partition coefficient changes progressively as a function of the physicochemical conditions of the system.

  6. A model for seismicity rates observed during the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elina Belardinelli, Maria; Bizzarri, Andrea; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Berrino, Giovanna

    2010-05-01

    In order to model seismicity during the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy), we compute static stress changes caused by an inflating source in a layered half-space. Stress changes are evaluated on optimally oriented planes for shear failure, assuming a regional deviatoric stress with horizontal extensional axis trending NE-SW. The inflating source is modelled as inferred by previous studies based on the inversion of geodetic data and having the same crustal model here assumed. We found that the area affected by the largest Coulomb stress changes is elliptical and that inverse slip over the source can be discouraged by the assumed regional stress. These results are in agreement with observations concerning seismicity developed during the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei. We assume that the temporal evolution of uplift observed by a tide-gauge at Pozzuoli, normalized to the maximum value, was due mainly to time dependent processes occurring at the inflating source. We attribute the same normalized time-dependence to each component of stress change (shear and normal stress changes) averaged in the region interested by the observed seismicity. We then model seismicity rate changes associated to these time-dependent stress changes, by following the approach indicated by Dieterich (1994) on the basis of the rate- and state-dependent rheology of faults. The seismicity rate as a function of time resulting from the present model is in general agreement with observations for the period 1982-1984. According to observations, several peaks of deformation rate history are closely followed by peaks in seismicity rate. In order to model this effect, a prompt response of the fault system is required, allowing to constrain the direct effect on friction (aσ) on the same faults.

  7. Improving Eruption Source Parameter characterization for tephra fallout hazard scenarios at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Daniela; Isaia, Roberto; Sulpizio, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Fabio, Dioguardi

    2017-04-01

    Tephra fallout associated with renewal of volcanism at the Campi Flegrei caldera is a serious threat to the Neapolitan area. Previous studies reconstructed probability maps of fall deposits of three different eruption scenarios, representative of past activity: a high-magnitude event similar to the ˜4.5 ka Agnano-Monte Spina eruption, a medium-magnitude event, similar to the ˜4.1 ka Astroni 6 eruption, and a low-magnitude event similar to the ˜4.2 ka Averno2 eruption. A semi-analytical model (HAZMAP) was used to estimate the Eruption Source Parameters (ESP), such as total erupted mass, eruption column height, and Total Grain-Size Distributions (TGSD) associated to these eruptions. ESP were obtained by best-fitting field data of proximal and medial outcrops. However, sensitivity studies of the dispersion of fall deposit showed that TGSD, fine-ash mass and particle aggregation processes are the main cause of the uncertainty. Here we integrate the previous works using new field data including samples of medial-distal outcrops to better reconstruct the TGSD of the reference eruptions. Moreover 3D particle shape parameters obtained by microtomographic technics is used to better characterize drag law and hence particle settling velocity. The new data set is used to feed tephra dispersal models in order to produce a series of maps of tephra loading on the ground for the most representative eruptive scenarios accounting for different meteorological data and the eruptive parameters.

  8. Monitoring diffuse volcanic degassing during volcanic unrests: the case of Campi Flegrei (Italy).

    PubMed

    Cardellini, C; Chiodini, G; Frondini, F; Avino, R; Bagnato, E; Caliro, S; Lelli, M; Rosiello, A

    2017-07-28

    In volcanoes with active hydrothermal systems, diffuse CO2 degassing may constitute the primary mode of volcanic degassing. The monitoring of CO2 emissions can provide important clues in understanding the evolution of volcanic activity especially at calderas where the interpretation of unrest signals is often complex. Here, we report eighteen years of CO2 fluxes from the soil at Solfatara of Pozzuoli, located in the restless Campi Flegrei caldera. The entire dataset, one of the largest of diffuse CO2 degassing ever produced, is made available for the scientific community. We show that, from 2003 to 2016, the area releasing deep-sourced CO2 tripled its extent. This expansion was accompanied by an increase of the background CO2 flux, over most of the surveyed area (1.4 km(2)), with increased contributions from non-biogenic source. Concurrently, the amount of diffusively released CO2 increased up to values typical of persistently degassing active volcanoes (up to 3000 t d(-1)). These variations are consistent with the increase in the flux of magmatic fluids injected into the hydrothermal system, which cause pressure increase and, in turn, condensation within the vapor plume feeding the Solfatara emission.

  9. A three-dimensional QP imaging of the shallowest subsurface of Campi Flegrei offshore caldera, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serlenga, Vincenzo; de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Russo, Guido; Amoroso, Ortensia; Virieux, Jean; Garambois, Stephane; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    We build a three-dimensional attenuation image of the shallowest subsurface of Campi Flegrei caldera, a resurgent caldera located 15 km west of Naples, southern Italy. Extracting tstar (t*) measurements from an active seismic dataset can be achieved by a spectral ratio method which has been intensively used for earthquakes. The applicability of such measurement has to be validated for active seismic datasets which have a narrower frequency band compared to frequency band of quakes. The validation, as well as the robustness, of such extraction for narrow Ricker source wavelet has been checked through many synthetic and realistic tests. These tests allow us to conclude that this measurement is valid as long as 1) short signal time window are chosen to perform the spectral analysis; 2) the effects caused by heterogeneities of the sampled medium on the seismic spectra have to be taken into account in the description of elastic Green's function. Through such a deconvolution strategy, contributions of the fine velocity structure on signal amplitudes have been significantly removed: in case of suspicious behavior of the spectrum ratio, the measurement is disregarded. This procedure, a kind of deconvolution of the phase propagation imprint, is expected to leave nearly untouched the attenuation signature of seismic traces we are interested in. Such refined measurement approach based on the spectral ratio method has been applied to the real active seismic SERAPIS database providing us a reasonable dataset of 11,873 differential t* measurements (dt*). These data are used for imaging anelastic properties of Campi Flegrei caldera through a linearized, iterative, damped attenuation tomography. Based on configuration of sources and receivers, an attenuating volume as large as 13 x 13 x 1.5 km3 has been imaged. The tomography, with a resolution of 1 km in the horizontal directions and 0.5 km in the vertical direction, allowed to image important features whose reliability has been

  10. Study of the 2011-2013 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) through InSAR and 3D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Polcari, Marco; Bignami, Christian; Bonafede, Maurizio; Buongiorno, Fabrizia; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Campi Flegrei is a nested caldera in Italy, at the western edge of the Bay of Naples. Together with Vesuvius and Mt Etna, it is one of the Italian GeoHazard Supersites. The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard in the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants (1800/km2), the persistent activity of the system and the explosive character of volcanism. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m (~1 m/yr). Minor uplifts of few cm, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000 and 2004-06. Since 2005 Campi Flegrei is uplifting, reaching a ground velocity of 9 cm/yr in 2012, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. In the present work we consider InSAR time series of the recent activity (2010-2013) detected by COSMO SkyMed satellite. In particular, the time series show a progressive velocity increase of ground deformation during 2012, while it slowed down in 2013 approaching zero. The cumulative displacement from COSMO SkyMed descending orbit (March 2011 - March 2013) show a semicircular pattern centered in Pozzuoli with a maximum LoS (Line of Sight) displacement of 11 cm and maximum velocity 9 cm/yr reached along the coastline. The spatial distribution of the cumulative displacement from COSMO SkyMed ascending orbit show a similar behavior, confirming the bell-shaped pattern of the deformation at least inside the inner rim of the caldera. The cumulative ascending LoS displacement between March 2013 - September 2013 is 1-2 cm, confirming the stall of the unrest after the first few months of 2013 as observed by GPS. Initially, several source geometries are adopted (sphere, spheroid, sill) to model the cumulative deformation between 2011 and 2013. All the sources are located offshore Pozzuoli at a depth of about 2 km. The sphere and spheroid result to dilate at an annual volume variation rate of the order of

  11. Electromagnetic imaging of the deep Campi Flegrei caldera structure (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Isaia, Roberto; Patella, Domenico; Piochi, Monica; Troiano, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) is the most hazardous volcano in Europe. Enormous investigative efforts have been done aimed to share its inner structure and to understand its unrest dynamics, making the CFc one of the main subjects of interest of modern volcanology. Due to the destructive potential and the active geothermal system, the CFc geological structures have been investigated through many different methodologies. A key role belongs to the applied geophysics that allows to gain knowledge about the volcanic setting and consequently to understand the dynamics of this active caldera system. So far, the main CFc structures have been not yet clearly defined. The strong heterogeneity of the territory associated to the composite coastal morphology and the extreme urbanization represent a major obstacle to apply the geophysical techniques. Therefore the geometry and configuration of the CFc plumbing system are still largely undefined, although seismic surveys nowadays detected findings of melt-bearing rocks, at least locally. Here a deep electromagnetic (EM) imaging the CFc is presented. A Magnetotelluric (MT) profile has been carried out across a 12 km-long transect, ideally intersecting the main recent volcano-tectonic structures. The peculiar sensitivity to subsurface fluids and melts, associated with huge electric conductivity contrasts, make the MT particularly well suited to be applied in active volcanic settings. The obtained results highlight the buried structures down to 10 km of depth providing an interpretative key into the overall caldera dynamics. In particular, the deep magmatic source is revealed, as well as the main ascent pathway of magmatic fluids and the related structures which critically contributing to the shallower-level of deformation at CFc.

  12. Three-dimensional velocity structure and hypocenter distribution in the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aster, R. C.; Meyer, R. P.

    1988-06-01

    The Campi Flegrei (Phlegraean Fields) are dominated by a Quaternary explosive calders, about 10 km in diameter. Within the caldera are numerous later eruptive vents, the last of which formed in 1538 A.D. Well documented local elevation changes of ≈ 10 m have occurred in the caldera since Roman times. Recent inflation of the central caldera began in 1968, after over 400 years of subsidence. During this time more than 2 m of localized uplift occurred, predominantly from 1980 through 1985. Microearthquakes associated with this uplift were recorded by a portable three-component digital network deployed by the University of Wisconsin and the Vesuvius Observatory from August 1983 through May 1984. Those data have been used to obtain detailed information about the velocity structure of the caldera. A best-fit homogeneous half-space model was obtained by a systematic search for optimal residual statistics. A residual-based tomographic technique was applied to isolate a low-seismicity, anomalously-high {v p}/{v s} region in the central caldera, roughly coincident with the region of greatest uplift. Finally, P and S arrival times were used to simultaneously relocate 228 earthquakes and obtain a three-dimensional vp and vs model for the caldera. The results of this velocity study, considered along with drillhole findings, composite fault-plane solutions, and the space-time distribution of earthquakes, suggest that the {v p}/{v s} anomaly may represent an incompetent, highly fractured volume, saturated with liquid water. Hypocenter locations indicate a zone of concentrated seismicity north of the point of highest measured uplift. An inward-dipping elliptical hypocenter pattern suggests a ring fault.

  13. Sensitivity tests and ensemble hazard assessment for tephra fallout at Campi Flegrei, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; De Natale, Giuseppe; Di Vito, Mauro; Isaia, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a statistical study on tephra dispersion in the case of reactivation of the Campi Flegrei volcano. We considered the full spectrum of possible eruptions, in terms of size and position of eruptive vents. To represent the spectrum of possible eruptive sizes, four classes of eruptions were considered. Of those only three are explosive (small, medium, and large) and can produce a significant quantity of volcanic ash. Hazard assessments are made through dispersion simulations of ash and lapilli, considering the full variability of winds, eruptive vents, and eruptive sizes. The results are presented in form of four families of hazard curves conditioned to the occurrence of an eruption: 1) small eruptive size from any vent; 2) medium eruptive size from any vent; 3) large eruptive size from any vent; 4) any size from any vent. The epistemic uncertainty (i.e. associated with the level of scientific knowledge of phenomena) on the estimation of hazard curves was quantified making use of alternative scientifically acceptable approaches. The choice of such alternative models is made after a comprehensive sensitivity analysis which considered different weather databases, alternative modelling of the possible opening of eruptive vents, tephra total grain-size distributions (TGSD), relative mass of fine particles, and the effect of aggregation. The results of this sensitivity analyses show that the dominant uncertainty is related to the choice of TGSD, mass of fine ash, and potential effects of ash aggregation. The latter is particularly relevant in case of magma-water interaction during an eruptive phase, when most of the fine ash can form accretionary lapilli that could contribute significantly in increasing the tephra load in the proximal region. Relatively insignificant is the variability induced by the use of different weather databases. The hazard curves, together with the quantification of epistemic uncertainty, were finally calculated through a

  14. Magmatic Processes in Monogenetic Eruptions, Procida Island, Campi Flegrei, Italy: Geochemical Evidence From Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severs, M. J.; Fedele, L.; Esposito, R.; Bodnar, R.; Petrosino, P.; Lima, A.; de Vivo, B.; Shimizu, N.

    2008-12-01

    Campi Flegrei is an active volcanic complex located in the greater Naples area, which has produced more than 50 eruptions over the past 60,000 years. These have ranged from small eruptions such as Monte Nuovo eruption of 1538 CE to extremely large eruptions such as the Campanian Ignimbrite (150-200 DRE; Barbieri et al., 1978). The volcanic field includes the mainland area located to the west of Naples and also the two islands of Ischia and Procida. The volcanic products range from basalts to shoshonitic phonolites and trachytes, with the more evolved magmas being more abundant. Three eruptive units from Procida Island have been studied to observe geochemical trends over time within a small area and to better understand magmatic processes between monogenetic eruptions. Juvenile samples from Pozzo Vecchio, Breccia Museo, and Solchiara were collected to examine the geochemistry of the mineral phases present and melt inclusions (MIs) found within the phenocrysts. Solchiara contained phenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene, whereas Breccia Museo and Pozzo Vecchio samples contained clinopyroxene and sanidine as the dominant phenocryst phases. Melt inclusions from Solchiara have narrow compositional ranges in major and trace elements (i.e., CaO, TiO2, Zr, Dy, La) over a large range in SiO2 contents (47 to 55 wt%) while MI from the Breccia Museo have a limited range of SiO2 contents (57 to 61 wt%) with a wider range for major and trace elements (i.e., FeO, Al2O3, CaO, La, Th, Rb). Pozzo Vecchio MI from clinopyroxene and sanidine define different chemical compositions, but petrographic evidence does not suggest a xenocrystic origin for either mineral phase. This suggests that Pozzo Vecchio is the result of magma mixing. Modeling of fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, and sanidine are capable of producing most of the trends in major and trace elements between the most primitive samples to the most evolved samples. Volatile concentrations between the

  15. Chemostratigraphy of Products of The Astroni Activity (4.1-3.8 Ka, Campi Flegrei, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, M.; Isaia, R.; Bolognesi, L.; Civetta, L.; di Vito, M. A.; Orsi, G.; Tonarini, S.

    The Astroni volcano is a well-preserved tuff-ring in the NE sector of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT, 12 ka BP) caldera, the youngest of the two major collapses which generated the nested Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc). The volcano has been characterised by a long-lasting activity in the age range 4.1-3.8 ka BP, generating 7 pyroclastic and 2 lava units. Thus the whole rock sequence is subdivided in Units named 1 through 9 upsection. Detailed petrographical, geochemical and isotopic investigations have been carried out on these rocks (pumice and scoria fragments, lavas) which have tex- tures variable from sub-aphyric to highly porphyritic to glomeroporphyritic. The phe- nocrysts are plagioclase, alkali-feldspar, Mg- to Fe-rich zoned clinopyroxene, biotite, opaques and apatite, in order of decreasing abundance. Their abundance is variable along the sequence: lower in Units 1 to 4, higher in Units 5 to 9. The groundmass ranges from hypocrystalline to hyalopilitic in pumice and scoria fragments, to felty in the lavas. The analysed rocks are nepheline normative trachyte to alkali-trachyte. Whole-rock major and trace element contents vary regularly with D.I. (71.5 and 81.0), suggesting fractional crystallization of mineral phases in a magma evolving from tra- chyte to alkali-trachyte. However, whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.70725 to 0.70755. It is noteworthy that the extreme detected values match those of the prod- ucts of the largest caldera-forming eruptions: the Campanian Ignimbrite (37 ka) and NYT, respectively. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio is variable with the chemical composition of the products, suggesting open-system evolution process acting in the magma reser- voir feeding the Astroni volcano. Furthermore, the chemostratigraphy of the Astroni sequence shows that activity started with extrusion of more evolved, alkali-trachytic magma (DI about 80-81; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70755), becoming progressively less differ- entiated and less radiogenic up to emplacement of the

  16. Anatomy of a caldera: seismic velocity and attenuation models of the Campi Flegrei (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, Marco; Tramelli, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Campi Flegrei is an active Caldera marked by strong vertical deformations of the soil called bradyseisms. The mechanisms proposed to explain this phenomenon are essentially three i) the presence of a shallow magmatic chamber that pushes the lid and consequently producing periodic variation of the soil level, ii) a thermic expansion of the geothermal aquifer due to the periodic increase of heat flux coming from a near magmatic chamber or deep fluids or iii) a combination of both phenomena. To solve the paradox, several models have been proposed to describe the nature and the geometry of the bodies responsible of the bradyseisms. Seismological tools allowed a rough description of the main features in terms of seismic velocities and attenuation parameters and till now were not able to resolve the smallest structures (<1.5-2km) located at shallow depth (0-4 km) and believed to be responsible of the soil deformations. Here we show Vp, Vp/Vs and Qp models carried out by applying an enhanced seismic tomography method combining the double difference approach (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and the Weighted Average Method (Calò et al., 2009, Calò et al., 2011, 2013). The data used are the earthquakes recorded during the largest bradyseism crisis of the 80's. Our method allowed to image seismic velocity and attenuation structures with linear dimension of 0.5-1.2km, resulting in an improvement of the resolving power at least two times of the other published models (e.g. Priolo et al., 2012). The joint interpretation of seismic velocities and attenuation models allowed to discern small anomalous bodies at shallow depth (0.5-2.0 km) marked by relatively low Vp, high Vp/Vs ratio and low Qp values explainable with the presence of shallow geothermal water saturated reservoir from regions with low Vp, low Vp/Vs and low Qp possibly related to the gas saturated part of the reservoir. At deeper depth (2-3.5 km) bodies with high Vp and Vp/Vs and low Qp can be associated with magmatic

  17. A probabilistic spatial-temporal model for vent opening clustering at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, A.; Isaia, R.; Flandoli, F.; Neri, A.; Quaranta, D.

    2014-12-01

    Campi Flegrei (CF) is a densely urbanized caldera with a very high volcanic risk. Its more recent volcanic activity was characterized in the last 15 kyrs by more than 70 explosive events of variable scale and vent location. The sequence of eruptive events at CF is remarkably inhomogeneous, both in space and time. Eruptions concentred over periods from a few centuries to a few millennia, and were alternated by periods of quiescence lasting up to several millennia. As a consequence, activity has been subdivided into three distinct epochs, i.e. Epoch I, 15 - 9.5 kyrs, Epoch II, 8.6 - 8.2 kyrs, and Epoch III, 4.8 - 3.7 kyrs BP [e.g. Orsi et al., 2004; Smith et al., 2011]. The eruptive record also shows the presence of clusters of events in space-time, i.e. the opening of a new vent in a particular location and at a specific time seems to increase the probability of another vent opening in the nearby area and in the next decades-centuries (self-exciting effect). Probabilistic vent opening mapping conditional the occurrence of a new event and able to account for some of the intrinsic uncertainties affecting the system, has been investigated in some recent studies [e.g. Selva et al. 2011, Bevilacqua et al. 2014, in preparation], but a spatial-temporal model of the sequence of volcanic activity remains an open issue. Hence we have developed a time-space mathematical model that takes into account both the self-exciting behaviour of the system and the significant uncertainty affecting the eruptive record. Based on the past eruptive record of the volcano, the model allows to simulate sequences of future events as well as to better understand the spatial and temporal evolution of the system. In addition, based on the assumption that the last eruptive event occurred in 1538 AD (Monte Nuovo eruption) is the first event of a new epoch of activity, the model can estimate the probability of new vent opening at CF in the next decades.

  18. Geophysical monitoring of the submerged area of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy): experiences and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; De Martino, Prospero; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Bobbio, Antonella; Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring system of the Campi Flegrei caldera is made up of a dense geophysical network of seismological and geodetic instruments with data acquired and processed at the Monitoring Center of INGV in Naples. As one third of the caldera is covered by the sea, a marine monitoring system has been operating since 2008 in the center of the gulf of Pozzuoli, where the sea depth is about 100 m at ~2.5 km from the coast. The main component of the monitoring system is CUMAS (Cabled Underwater Multidisciplinary Acquisition System), which consists of a sea floor module equipped with geophysical and oceanographic sensors (broad band seismometer, accelerometer, hydrophone, bottom pressure recorder and single point three component water-current meter) and status and control sensors. CUMAS is connected by cable to the top of an elastic beacon buoy equipped with the power supply and data transmission devices. The buoy consists of a float placed below sea level, surrounding and holding a steel pole that supports a turret structure above sea level. The pole, turret and float system are rigidly connected to the ballast on the sea bottom. Thus a GPS installed on the turret can record the vertical sea floor displacement related to the volcanic activity of the area. The GPS has operated since January 2012 with continuous acquisition lasting more than three years and has recorded a cumulative seafloor uplift of about 7-8 cm. The comparison of the pattern of the GPS buoy data with those of the land stations confirms a quasi-symmetrical vertical displacement field of the caldera area. Measurement of vertical sea floor displacement has also been obtained by the analysis of bottom pressure recorder data. These results, in conjunction with the analysis of seismic and hydrophone data, have encouraged us to extend the marine monitoring system with the deployment in the Gulf of Pozzuoli of three new similar systems. We also present preliminary results of the first few months of activity of

  19. Permeability and continuous gradient temperature monitoring of volcanic rocks: new insights from borehole and laboratory analysis at the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Piochi, Monica; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Mormone, Angela; Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Klaus, Mayer; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The pilot borehole recently drilled in the eastern caldera of Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), during the Campi Flegrei Deep Drill Project (CFDDP) (in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) allowed (i) estimating on-field permeability and coring the crustal rocks for laboratory experiments, and (ii) determining thermal gradient measurements down to ca. 500 m of depth. We report here a first comparative in situ and laboratory tests to evaluate the rock permeability in the very high volcanic risk caldera of Campi Flegrei, in which ground deformations likely occur as the persistent disturbance effect of fluid circulation in the shallower geothermal system. A large amount of petro-physical information derives from outcropping welded tuffs, cores and geophysical logs from previous AGIP's drillings, which are located in the central and western part of the caldera. We discuss the expected scale dependency of rock permeability results in relation with well-stratigraphy and core lithology, texture and mineralogy. The new acquired data improve the database related to physical property of Campi Flegrei rocks, allowing a better constrain for the various fluid-dynamical models performed in the tentative to understand (and forecast) the caldera behavior. We also present the first data on thermal gradient continuously measured through 0 - to 475 m of depth by a fiber optic sensor installed in the CFDDP pilot hole. As regards, we show that the obtained values of permeability, compared with those inferred from eastern sector of the caldera, can explain the different distribution of temperature at depth, as well as the variable amount of vapor phase in the shallow geothermal system. The measured temperatures are consistent with the distribution of volcanism in the last 15 ka.

  20. The campi flegrei (Italy) geothermal system: A fluid inclusion study of the mofete and San Vito fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de, Vivo B.; Belkin, H.E.; Barbieri, M.; Chelini, W.; Lattanzi, P.; Lima, A.; Tolomeo, L.

    1989-01-01

    A fluid inclusion study of core from the Mofete 1, Mofete 2, Mofete 5, San Vito 1, and San Vito 3 geothermal wells (Campi Flegrei, Campania, Italy) indicates that the hydrothermal minerals were precipitated from aqueous fluids (??CO2) that were moderately saline (3-4 wt.% NaCl equiv.) to hypersaline (> 26 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and at least in part, boiling. Three types of primary fluid inclusions were found in authigenic K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, and epidote: (A) two-phase [liquid (L) + vapor (V)], liquid-rich inclusions with a range of salinity; (B) two-phase (L + V), vaporrich inclusions with low salinity; and (C) three-phase [L + V + crystals (NaCL)], liquid-rich inclusions with hypersalinity. Results of microthermometric and crushing studies are reported for twenty drill core samples taken from the lower portions of the five vertical wells. Data presented for selected core samples reveal a general decrease in porosity and increase in bulk density with increasing depth and temperature. Hydrothermal minerals commonly fill fractures and pore-spaces and define a zonation pattern, similar in all five wells studied, in response to increasing depth (pressure) and temperature. A greenschist facies assemblage, defined by albite + actinolite, gives way to an amphibolite facies, defined by plagioclase (andesine) + hornblende, in the San Vito 1 well at about 380??C. The fluid inclusion salinity values mimic the saline and hypersaline fluids found by drilling. Fluid inclusion V/L homogenization temperatures increase with depth and generally correspond to the extrapolated down-hole temperatures. However, fluid inclusion data for Mofete 5 and mineral assemblage data for San Vito 3, indicate fossil, higher-temperature regimes. A limited 87Sr/86Sr study of leachate (carbonate) and the leached cores shows that for most samples (except San Vito 3) the carbonate deposition has been from slightly 87Sr-enriched fluids and that Sr isotopic exchange has been incomplete. However, San

  1. Crystallization and eruption ages of Breccia Museo (Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy) plutonic clasts and their relation to the Campanian ignimbrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Samantha K.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Pappalardo, Lucia; Stockli, Daniel F.; Lovera, Oscar M.

    2014-01-01

    The Campi Flegrei volcanic district (Naples region, Italy) is a 12-km-wide, restless caldera system that has erupted at least six voluminous ignimbrites during the late Pleistocene, including the >300 km3 Campanian ignimbrite (CI) which originated from the largest known volcanic event of the Mediterranean region. The Breccia Museo (BM), a petrologically heterogeneous and stratigraphically complex volcanic deposit extending over 200 km2 in close proximity to Campi Flegrei, has long remained contentious regarding its age and stratigraphic relation to the CI. Here, we present crystallization and eruption ages for BM plutonic ejecta clasts that were determined via uranium decay series and (U-Th)/He dating of zircon, respectively. Despite mineralogical and textural heterogeneity of these syenitic clasts, their U-Th zircon rim crystallization ages are indistinguishable with an average age of 49.7 ± 2.5 ka (2σ errors; mean square of weighted deviates MSWD = 1.2; n = 34). A subset of these crystals was used to obtain disequilibrium-corrected (U-Th)/He zircon ages which average 41.7 ± 1.8 ka (probability of fit P = 0.54; n = 15). This age closely overlaps with published CI 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages (40.6 ± 0.1 ka) after recalibration to recently revised flux monitor ages. Concordant eruption ages for BM and CI agree with previous chemostratigraphic and paleomagnetic correlations, suggesting their origin from the same eruption. However, they are at variance with recalibrated 40Ar/39Ar ages which have BM postdate CI by 3 ± 1 ka. BM syenites show similar geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopical features of pre-caldera rocks erupted between 58 and 46 ka, but are distinctive from subsequent caldera-forming magmas. Energy-constrained assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling of Nd-Sr isotopic data suggests that pre-caldera magmas formed a carapace of BM-type intrusions in a mid-crust magma chamber (≥8 km depth) shielding the younger CI magma from contamination by

  2. Hydrothermal fluid flow models of Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy constrained by InSAR surface deformation time series observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, P.; Lanari, R.; Manzo, M.; Sansosti, E.; Tizzani, P.; Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, located along the Bay of Naples, has a long history of significant vertical deformation, with the most recent large uplift (>1.5m) occurring in 1983-1984. Each episode of uplift has been followed by a period of subsidence that decreases in rate with time and may be punctuated by brief episodes of lesser uplift. The large amplitude of the major uplifts that occur without volcanic activity, and the subsequent subsidence has been argued as evidence for hydrothermal amplification of any magmatic source. The later subsidence and its temporal decay have been argued as due to diffusion of the pressurized caldera fill material into the less porous surrounding country rock. We present satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) time series analysis of ERS and Envisat data from the European Space Agency, based on exploiting the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach [Berardino et al., 2002]; this allows us to generate maps of relative surface deformation though time, beginning in 1992 through 2007, that are relevant to both ascending and descending satellite orbits. The general temporal behavior is one of subsidence punctuated by several lesser uplift episodes. The spatial pattern of deformation can be modeled through simple inflation/deflation sources in an elastic halfspace. Given the evidence to suggest that fluids may play a significant role in the temporal deformation of Campi Flegrei, rather than a purely magmatic or magma chamber-based interpretation, we model the temporal and spatial evolution of surface deformation as a hydrothermal fluid flow process. We use the TOUGH2-BIOT2 set of numerical codes [Preuss et al., 1999; Hsieh, 1996], which couple multi-phase (liquid-gas) and multi-component (H2O-CO2) fluid flow in a porous or fractured media with plane strain deformation and fluid flow in a linearly elastic porous medium. We explore parameters related to the depth and temporal history of fluid injection, fluid

  3. The physical and chemical properties of tuffs from Campi Flegrei (Italy): the influence of thermal and stress-induced microcracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, M. J.; Laumann, A.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Dingwell, D. B.; Meredith, P. G.; Orsi, G.

    2010-12-01

    Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy), 6km in diameter, poses great threat to densely-populated region in and surrounding Naples. Uplift, a result of the intrusion of magma, has been systematically recorded since the nineteenth century and indicates three major episodes of uplift, the latter of which continues to this day. Studies have postulated that this uplift is expected to continue for another 80-90 years and possibly increasing the likelihood of eruption. The majority of erupted material at Campi Flegrei is in the form of tuff. However, only recently have studies started to investigate how fundamental physical properties of tuff can alter with depth and temperature. Such properties may not only unravel key information on fluid and gas flow as well as seismic activity within the caldera, but they are essential parameters for ground deformation modelling and tomography used to monitor magma movement at depth. Here we present a comprehensive experimental dataset on how both the physical and chemical properties of three representative tuffs from the Campi Flegrei caldera change with increasing heat-treatment temperature (up to 1000oC). The tuffs are the grey Campanian Ignimbrite (CI), Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) and Piperno Tuff (PT). Thermal cracking analysis, using a fast-acquisition acoustic emission system, demonstrates that a substantial thermal microcrack population is produced in tuff upon heating to 1000oC and initiates after only a couple of hundred degrees. However, despite this, porosity change with increasing temperature is almost negligible and is most likely to be due to their already impressive initial connected porosity (ranging from 45-55%). Permeability measurements show that CI is two orders of magnitude more permeable than its counterparts (about 1 x10-10 m2 compared to about 1 x 10-12 m2). However, interestingly, CI does not show any increase in permeability with heat-treatment temperature, in contrast to NYT and PT who both show an increase of an

  4. Quantitative models for magma degassing and ground deformation (bradyseism) at Campi Flegrei, Italy: Implications for future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodnar, R.J.; Cannatelli, C.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Belkin, H.E.; Milia, A.

    2007-01-01

    Campi Flegrei (Phlegrean Fields) is an active volcanic center near Naples, Italy. Numerous eruptions have occurred here during the Quaternary, and repeated episodes of slow vertical ground movement (bradyseism) have been documented since Roman times. Here, we present a quantitative model that relates deformation episodes to magma degassing and fracturing at the brittle-ductile transition in a magmatic-hydrothermal enviromnent. The model is consistent with field and laboratory observations and predicts that uplift between 1982 and 1984 was associated with crystallization of ???0.83 km3 of H2O-saturated magma at 6 km depth. During crystallization, ???6.2 ?? 1010 kg of H2O and 7.5 ?? 108 kg of CO2, exsolved from the magma and generated ???7 ?? 1015 J of mechanical (P??V) energy to drive the observed uplift. For comparison, ???1017 J of thermal energy was released during the 18 May 1980 lateral blast at Mount St. Helens. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Inferences on the lithospheric structure of Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) from seismic noise cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.

    2017-04-01

    Lithospheric VS models are defined in the Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) through the non-linear inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves extracted from ambient noise cross-correlations between two receivers, and the regional group and phase velocities of the Italian cellular lithospheric model (1° × 1° cells). Four paths are investigated, of which one (ISCHIA-MIS) across two adjoining cells. The distribution of VS shows a pyroclastic covering with VS increasing from 0.3-0.7 km/s to 2.1 km/s. It rests on a lava or carbonate basement, about 5-6 km thick, with VS increasing from 2.1 km/s to 3.1 km/s at about 2 km of depth and rising to ∼0.6 km towards the island of Procida. A metamorphic layer is detected at an average depth of 7.7 km with VS of 3.8-3.9 km/s, about 5 km thick, overlying a low velocity layer (VS of 3.5 km/s) at about 11-12 km of depth. The VS model along the ISCHIA-MIS path, as average of the models obtained by combining local and regional dispersion data of the two adjoining cells, is well consistent with the other paths. The Moho discontinuity is retrieved at about 23 km of depth with VS of 4.2 km/s.

  6. Migration of the data from the active seismic experiment Serapis in the Campi Flegrei volcanic field (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, E.; Zollo, A.; Judenherc, S.; Satriano, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera is located 15 km west of the city of Naples (southern Italy), and has experienced in 1970-72 and 1982-84 two relevant ground uplift phenomena accompanied by an intense microseismic activity. Its structural features are still debated, as, in particular, the possible depth of the carbonatic basement beneath the caldera, the shape of the buried caldera rim at sea, the location and geometry of the magmatic feeding system. An active seismic experiment (Serapis) was carried out on September, 2001 to investigate these questions. 5000 airgun shots were performed at sea by the Nadir vessel, a boat operated by the french oceanographic institute Ifremer. 80 OBS were deployed at the sea bottom and 84 stations on land . The sensors were laid out so as to have a dense data mesh at the caldera's center (one OBS every km), and some long distance profiles with one OBS every 5 km. The shot spacing was 125 m. The preliminary analysis shows high quality data, with clear evidence and lateral consistency of reflected arrivals. The migration technique is applied to image the seismic discontinuities in the medium, such as interfaces and diffracting bodies. This poster reminds the methodological principles,and presents the results of the application.

  7. A geochemical and geophysical reappraisal to the significance of the recent unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Roberto; De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic unrest at calderas involve complex interaction between magma, hydrothermal fluids and crustal stress and strain. Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), located in the Naples (Italy) area and characterised by the highest volcanic risk on Earth for the extreme urbanisation, undergoes unrest phenomena involving several meters of uplift and intense shallow micro-seismicity since several decades. Despite unrest episodes display in the last decade only moderate ground deformation and seismicity, current interpretations of geochemical data point to a highly pressurized hydrothermal system. We show that at CFc, the usual assumption of vapour-liquid coexistence in the fumarole plumes leads to largely overestimated hydrothermal pressures and, accordingly, interpretations of elevated unrest. By relaxing unconstrained geochemical assumptions, we infer an alternative model yielding better agreement between geophysical and geochemical observations. The model reconciles discrepancies between what observed 1) for two decades since the 1982-84 large unrest, when shallow magma was supplying heat and fluids to the hydrothermal system, and 2) in the last decade. Compared to the 1980's unrest, the post-2005 phenomena are characterized by much lower aquifers overpressure and magmatic involvement, as indicated by geophysical data and despite large changes in geochemical indicators. Our interpretation points out a model in which shallow sills, intruded during 1969-1984, have completely cooled, so that fumarole emissions are affected now by deeper, CO2-richer, magmatic gases producing a relatively modest heating and overpressure of the hydrothermal system. Our results do have important implications on the short-term eruption hazard assessment and on the best strategies for monitoring and interpreting geochemical data.

  8. Degradation Pathways for Geogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Soil Gases from the Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Cabassi, J.; Capecchiacci, F.; Nisi, B., Sr.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gases from the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) was analyzed to investigate the effects of biogeochemical processes occurring within the crater soil on gases discharged from the hydrothermal reservoir and released into the atmosphere through diffuse degassing. In this system, two fumarolic vents (namely Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova) are the preferential pathways for hydrothermal fluid uprising. For our goal, the chemistry of VOCs discharged from these sites were compared to that of soil gases. Our results highlighted that C4-C9 alkanes, alkenes, S-bearing compounds and alkylated aromatics produced at depth were the most prone to degradation processes, such as oxidation-reduction and hydration-dehydration reactions, as well as to microbial activity. Secondary products, which were enriched in sites characterized by low soil gas fluxes, mostly consisted of aldheydes, ketons, esters, ethers, organic acids and, subordinately, alcohols. Benzene, phenol and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) produced at depth were able to transit through the soil almost undisturbed, independently on the emission rate of diffuse degassing. The presence of cyclics was possibly related to an independent low-temperature VOC source, likely within sedimentary formations overlying the hydrothermal reservoir. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were possibly due to air contamination. This study demonstrated the strict control of biogeochemical processes on the behaviour of hydrothermal VOCs that, at least at a local scale, may have a significant impact on air quality. Laboratory experiments conducted at specific chemical-physical conditions and in presence of different microbial populations may provide useful information for the reconstruction of the degradation pathways controlling fate and behaviour of VOCs in the soil.

  9. Thermodynamic model for uplift and deflation episodes (bradyseism) associated with magmatic-hydrothermal activity at the Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto; Spera, Frank J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Milia, Alfonsa; Nunziata, Concettina; Belkin, Harvey E.; Cannatelli, Claudia

    2009-12-01

    Campi Flegrei (CF) is a large volcanic complex located west of the city of Naples, Italy. Repeated episodes of bradyseism (slow vertical ground movement) near the town of Pozzuoli have been documented since Roman times. Bradyseismic events are interpreted as the consequence of aqueous fluid exsolution during magma solidification on a slow timescale (10 3-10 4 yr) superimposed upon a shorter (1-10 yr) timescale for the episodic expulsion of fluid from a deep (~ 3-5 km) lithostatically-pressured low-permeability reservoir to an overlying hydrostatic reservoir. Cycles of inflation and deflation occur during short duration transient events when connectivity is established between deep and shallow hydrothermal reservoirs. The total seismic energy released (4 × 10 13 J) during the 1983-1984 bradyseismic crisis is consistent with the observed volume change (uplift) and consistent with the notion that seismic failure occurs in response to the shear stress release induced by volume change. Fluid transport and concomitant propagation of hydrofractures as fluid expands from lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure during decompression leads to ground surface displacement. Fluid decompression occurs along the fluid isenthalp (Joule-Thompson expansion) during transient periods of reservoir connectivity and leads to mineral precipitation. Each kilogram of fluid precipitates about 3 × 10 - 3 kg of silica along a typical decompression path along the isenthalp. Mineral precipitation modifies the permeability and acts to reseal connection paths thereby isolating lithostatic and hydrostatic reservoirs ending one bradyseism phase and beginning another. Crystallization and exsolution of the magmatic fluid generates ≈ 7 × 10 15 J of mechanical ( PΔ V) energy, and this is sufficient to accomplish the observed uplift at CF. Although magma emplacement is the ultimate origin of bradyseism, fresh recharge of magma is not a prerequisite. Instead, short to intermediate timescale phenomena

  10. Pyroclastic density current hazard maps at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy): the effects of event scale, vent location and time forecasts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Andrea; Neri, Augusto; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Isaia, Roberto; Flandoli, Franco; Bisson, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Today hundreds of thousands people live inside the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) and in the adjacent part of the city of Naples making a future eruption of such volcano an event with huge consequences. Very high risks are associated with the occurrence of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Mapping of background or long-term PDC hazard in the area is a great challenge due to the unknown eruption time, scale and vent location of the next event as well as the complex dynamics of the flow over the caldera topography. This is additionally complicated by the remarkable epistemic uncertainty on the eruptive record, affecting the time of past events, the location of vents as well as the PDCs areal extent estimates. First probability maps of PDC invasion were produced combining a vent-opening probability map, statistical estimates concerning the eruptive scales and a Cox-type temporal model including self-excitement effects, based on the eruptive record of the last 15 kyr. Maps were produced by using a Monte Carlo approach and adopting a simplified inundation model based on the "box model" integral approximation tested with 2D transient numerical simulations of flow dynamics. In this presentation we illustrate the independent effects of eruption scale, vent location and time of forecast of the next event. Specific focus was given to the remarkable differences between the eastern and western sectors of the caldera and their effects on the hazard maps. The analysis allowed to identify areas with elevated probabilities of flow invasion as a function of the diverse assumptions made. With the quantification of some sources of uncertainty in relation to the system, we were also able to provide mean and percentile maps of PDC hazard levels.

  11. A model for seismicity rates observed during the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belardinelli, M. E.; Bizzarri, A.; Berrino, G.; Ricciardi, G. P.

    2011-02-01

    We consider the space-time distribution of seismicity during the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) where a correlation between seismicity and rate of ground uplift was suggested. In order to investigate this effect, we present a model based on stress transfer from the deformation source responsible for the unrest to potential faults. We compute static stress changes caused by an inflating source in a layered half-space. Stress changes are evaluated on optimally oriented planes for shear failure, assuming a regional stress with horizontal extensional axis trending NNE-SSW. The inflating source is modeled as inferred by previous studies from inversion of geodetic data with the same crustal model here assumed. The magnitude of the regional stress is constrained by imposing an initial condition of "close to failure" to potential faults. The resulting spatial distribution of stress changes is in agreement with observations. We assume that the temporal evolution of ground displacement, observed by a tide-gauge at Pozzuoli, was due mainly to time dependent processes occurring at the inflating source. We approximate this time dependence in piecewise-linear way and we attribute it to each component of average stress-change in the region interested by the observed seismicity. Then we evaluate the effect of a time dependent stressing rate on seismicity, by following the approach indicated by Dieterich (1994) on the basis of the rate- and state-dependent rheology of faults. The seismicity rate history resulting from our model is in general agreement with data during the period 1982-1984 for reasonable values of unconstrained model-parameters, the initial value of the direct effect of friction and the reference shear stressing rate. In particular, this application shows that a decreasing stressing-rate is effective in damping the seismicity rate.

  12. Deployment of a novel field stable isotope analyzer: trials on fumaroles at Solfatara volcano, Campi Flegrei, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, G. A.; Weidmann, D.; Brownsword, R.; Caliro, S.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic degassing is the primary mechanism by which carbon is transferred from Earth's interior to the atmosphere—making extensive monitoring of Earth's volcanoes essential to understanding the planet's total carbon budget. Determining the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in emissions can reveal if the carbon was mantle or crust derived, allowing researchers to model carbon pathways among Earth's deep reservoirs. The Laser Isotope Ratiometer (LIR) is a new instrument specialized in measuring the ratio of stable isotopes of a given molecule. The current system has been developed and demonstrated for 13C:12C (δ13) analysis in CO2, with high precision (0.3 per mil in 10 seconds), in real time, and in a compact and robust package to allow deployment in-situ. The instrument underpinning architecture includes features such as drifts cancellation techniques and on-board calibration for autonomous operation and enhanced stability and accuracy. The LIR brings simplicity to stable isotope analysis, whether in the field or in a laboratory environment. The instrument's design originated as part of a European Space Agency programme to demonstrate the LIR for application in planetary landers. Overall the design offers compactness, robustness and precision without the need for a skilled operator or consumables and owing to a novel dual laser approach, the system offers far greater stability over a wide temperature range. Supported by an instrumentation grant from the Sloane Foundation Deep Carbon Observatory, a first field deployment of the LIR was conducted at the Solfatara volcano, Campi Flegrei, Italy, to trial the in situ, real-time measurements of 13CO2/12CO2 ratios in fumaroles. The instrument operated very well in the field and proved to be extremely resilient to dirty samples. A systematic bias of -1 per mil was observed in comparison to the reference measurements made in the laboratory by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, which was traced back to fractionation in long sampling

  13. A geochemical and geophysical reappraisal to the significance of the recent unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Roberto; De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    Volcanic unrest at calderas involves complex interaction between magma, hydrothermal fluids, and crustal stress and strain. Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), located in the Naples (Italy) area and characterized by the highest volcanic risk on Earth for the extreme urbanization, undergoes unrest phenomena involving several meters of uplift and intense shallow microseismicity since several decades. Despite unrest episodes display in the last decade only moderate ground deformation and seismicity, current interpretations of geochemical data point to a highly pressurized hydrothermal system. We show that at CFc, the usual assumption of vapor-liquid coexistence in the fumarole plumes leads to largely overestimated hydrothermal pressures and, accordingly, interpretations of elevated unrest. By relaxing unconstrained geochemical assumptions, we infer an alternative model yielding better agreement between geophysical and geochemical observations. The model reconciles discrepancies between what observed (1) for two decades since the 1982-1984 large unrest, when shallow magma was supplying heat and fluids to the hydrothermal system, and (2) in the last decade. Compared to the 1980's unrest, the post-2005 phenomena are characterized by much lower aquifers overpressure and magmatic involvement, as indicated by geophysical data and despite large changes in geochemical indicators. Our interpretation points out a model in which shallow sills, intruded during 1969-1984, have completely cooled, so that fumarole emissions are affected now by deeper, CO2-richer, magmatic gases producing the modest heating and overpressure of the hydrothermal system. Our results have important implications on the short-term eruption hazard assessment and on the best strategies for monitoring and interpreting geochemical data.Plain Language Summary<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> is one of the most dangerous volcanoes on Earth. Last eruption occurred in 1538 but since decades it</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4558S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4558S"><span>Earthquakes location and stress field inversion for the 1984 seismic crisis at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satriano, C.; Capuano, P.; de Matteis, R.; Pasquale, G.; Zollo, A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>he <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (CF) alkali-trakitic caldera is an active volcanic system located 15 km west of the city of Naples, southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, covering an area of about 400 km2. It is located within a NE-SW trending large graben (Campanian Plain) formed, at eastern margin of the Tyrrhenian sea, in the Plio-Pleistocene that is bordered by mostly Mesozoic carbonaceous rocks. CF is the northernmost of a group of Pleistocene volcanoes three of which (Ischia, CF and Vesuvius) have erupted in historical times. CF caldera is characterized by the presence of sparse volcanic craters as the results of several explosive eruptions. Like other calderas, CF periodically experiences significant unrest episodes which involve ground deformations and seismic swarms. Recently, two marked ground uplift took place in the area in 1970-1972 and 1982-1984. The latter, began in the second half of 1982 and was characterized by a total vertical displacement of 1.8 m accompanied by a seismic swarm of more that 10,000 shallow microearthquakes with a maximum duration magnitude of 4.2. A database, recently reconstructed, containing thousands of seismic waveforms collected by a digital network during the last 1984 strong crisis at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera has been used to perform new earthquake locations, focal mechanisms determination and the estimation of the local stress field using a novel 3D P-wave velocity model of the caldera. The 3D P-wave velocity model has been constructed using the results of a recent active/passive seismic tomography inversion and it incorporates the main 3D features of the area, including the buried rim of the caldera, and shows velocity ranging from 1 km/s ca. at the surface to 7 km/s ca. at a greater depth. About 700 earthquakes have been relocated using a probabilistic global search method, determining the best Vp/Vs ratio. The earthquakes are mostly clustered in the caldera centre near the Solfatara crater with hypocenter depth of about 1-4 km inside the volcano</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4311209S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4311209S"><span>A three-dimensional QP imaging of the shallowest subsurface of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> offshore caldera, southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Serlenga, Vincenzo; Lorenzo, Salvatore; Russo, Guido; Amoroso, Ortensia; Garambois, Stephane; Virieux, Jean; Zollo, Aldo</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>To improve the knowledge of the shallowest subsurface of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, a 3-D P wave attenuation tomography of the area was performed. We analyzed about 18,000 active seismic traces, which provided a data set of 11,873 Δt* measurements, e.g., the differential travel times to quality factor ratios. These were inverted through an adapted tomographic inversion procedure. The 3-D tomographic images reveal an average QP about 70, interpreted as water-saturated volcanic and marine sediments. An arc-like, low-QP structure at 0.5-1 km depths was interpreted as a densely fractured, fluid-saturated rock volume, well matching the buried rim of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. The spatial distribution of high- and low-QP bodies in the inner caldera is correlated with low-Vp values and may reflect either the differences in the percentage of fluid saturation of sediments or the presence of vapor state fluids beneath fumarole manifestations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813859S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813859S"><span>The Evolution of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>): High- and low-frequency multichannel 2.5D seismic surveying for an amphibian IODP/ICDP drilling approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Caldera-forming eruptions are considered as one of the most catastrophic natural events to affect the Earth's surface and human society. The half-submerged <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, located in southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, belongs to the world's most active calderas and, thus, has received particular attention in scientific communities and governmental institutions. Therefore, it has also become subject to a joint approach in the IODP and ICDP programmes. Despite ample research, no scientific consensus regarding the formation history of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera has been reached yet. So far, it is still under debate whether the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera was formed by only one ignimbritic eruption, namely the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruption at 15 ka or, if it is a nested-caldera system related to the NYT and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption at 39 ka. In the last decades, the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera has been characterized by short-term episodes of unrest involving considerable ground deformation (uplift and subsidence of several meters), seismicity and increased temperature at fumaroles. Furthermore, long-term deformation can be observed in the central part of the caldera with uplift rates of several tens of meters within a few thousand years. Recently, it has been proposed that the long-term deformation may be related to caldera resurgence, while short-term uplift episodes are probably triggered by the injection of magmatic fluids into a shallow hydrothermal system at ~2 km depth. However, both long-term and short term uplift could be interpreted as eruption precursor, thereby posing high-concern for a future eruption, which would expose more than 1.5 million people living in the surroundings of the volcanic district to extreme volcanic risks. During a joint Italian-German research expedition in 2008, a semi-3D grid (100-150 m profile spacing) of high-frequency (up to 1000 Hz) multichannel seismic data were acquired to support both the ongoing onshore ICDP and a proposed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BVol...73..295D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BVol...73..295D"><span>The Averno 2 fissure eruption: a recent small-size explosive event at the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Arienzo, Ilenia; Braia, Giuseppe; Civetta, Lucia; D'Antonio, Massimo; di Renzo, Valeria; Orsi, Giovanni</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The Averno 2 eruption (3,700 ± 50 a B.P.) was an explosive low-magnitude event characterized by magmatic and phreatomagmatic explosions, generating mainly fall and surge beds, respectively. It occurred in the Western sector of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (Campanian Region, South <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) at the intersection of two active fault systems, oriented NE and NW. The morphologically complex crater area, largely filled by the Averno lake, resulted from vent activation and migration along the NE-trending fault system. The eruption generated a complex sequence of pyroclastic deposits, including pumice fall deposits in the lower portion, and prevailing surge beds in the intermediate-upper portion. The pyroclastic sequence has been studied through stratigraphical, morphostructural and petrological investigations, and subdivided into three members named A through C. Member A was emplaced during the first phase of the eruption mainly by magmatic explosions which generated columns reaching a maximum height of 10 km. During this phase the eruption reached its climax with a mass discharge rate of 3.2 106 kg/s. Intense fracturing and fault activation favored entry of a significant amount of water into the system, which produced explosions driven by variably efficient water-magma interaction. These explosions generated wet to dry surge deposits that emplaced Member B and C, respectively. Isopachs and isopleths maps, as well as areal distribution of ballistic fragments and facies variation of surge deposits allow definition of four vents that opened along a NE oriented, 2 km long fissure. The total volume of magma extruded during the eruption has been estimated at about 0.07 km3 (DRE). The erupted products range in composition from initial, weakly peralkaline alkali-trachyte, to last-emplaced alkali-trachyte. Isotopic data and modeling suggest that mixing occurred during the Averno 2 eruption between a more evolved, less radiogenic stored magma, and a less evolved, more radiogenic magma</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030583','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030583"><span>The Breccia Museo formation, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: Geochronology, chemostratigraphy and relationship with the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Lanphere, M.; Melluso, L.; Morra, V.; Perrotta, A.; Ricci, G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Breccia Museo is one of the most debated volcanic formations of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic district. The deposit, made up of six distinctive stratigraphic units, has been interpreted by some as the proximal facies of the major caldera-forming Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, and by others as the product of several, more recent, independent and localized events. New geochemical and chemostratigraphical data and Ar - Ar age determinations for several units of the Breccia Museo deposits (???39 ka), correlate well with the Campanian Ignimbrite-forming eruption. The chemical zoning of the Breccia Museo deposits is interpreted here to be a consequence of a three-stage event that tapped a vertically zoned trachytic magma chamber. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BVol...70.1189F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BVol...70.1189F"><span>The Breccia Museo formation, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: geochronology, chemostratigraphy and relationship with the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fedele, Lorenzo; Scarpati, Claudio; Lanphere, Marvin; Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Annamaria; Ricci, Gennaro</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>The Breccia Museo is one of the most debated volcanic formations of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic district. The deposit, made up of six distinctive stratigraphic units, has been interpreted by some as the proximal facies of the major caldera-forming Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, and by others as the product of several, more recent, independent and localized events. New geochemical and chemostratigraphical data and Ar-Ar age determinations for several units of the Breccia Museo deposits (~39 ka), correlate well with the Campanian Ignimbrite-forming eruption. The chemical zoning of the Breccia Museo deposits is interpreted here to be a consequence of a three-stage event that tapped a vertically zoned trachytic magma chamber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V43F..01D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V43F..01D"><span>4D imaging of the source of ground deformation at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) during recent unrest episodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Auria, L.; Giudicepietro, F.; Martini, M.; Lanari, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, has been affected in recent decades by three episodes of significant ground uplift. After the last crisis (1982-84), which was accompanied by strong seismicity, the ground has shown a general descending trend, occasionally interrupted by minor uplift episodes, together with low-magnitude volcano-tectonic and long-period seismicity. We assume that the source of minor ground deformations consists in a diffuse volumetric source, related to both thermoelastic and poroelastic strain. This is a reasonable assumption considering that <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> are known to host a geothermal reservoir. We have inverted a DInSAR dataset spanning the interval 1995-2008. Results show that the geometry of the source is much more complex than previously recognized and, most important, it shows significant temporal variations, within few months. The deformation source, of the analyzed uplift episodes, starts with a volumetric expansion centered at a depth of about 5 km. The position of this volume is close to the caldera rims. Later the expansion migrates upward, reaching the surface along preferred paths, leading to the Solfatara area, located almost at the center of the caldera. This area is well known for its powerful geothermal emissions. During the upward migration, seismic long-period sources are activated. Their location is consistent with the path identified by the inversion of the DInSAR dataset. We infer, that this dynamics is linked to the injection of hot fluid batches, along the caldera rims and their upward migration, following preferential high permeability paths. Furthermore we have identified an injection episode which has not been previously recognized. The deformation source remains at depth slowly waning in few years. We show how this conceptual framework fits well with the observed geodetic, seismic and geochemical data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3247D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3247D"><span>Retrieving the Stress Field Within the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) Through an Integrated Geodetical and Seismological Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Auria, Luca; Massa, Bruno; Cristiano, Elena; Del Gaudio, Carlo; Giudicepietro, Flora; Ricciardi, Giovanni; Ricco, Ciro</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We investigated the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera using a quantitative approach to retrieve the spatial and temporal variations of the stress field. For this aim we applied a joint inversion of geodetic and seismological data to a dataset of 1,100 optical levelling measurements and 222 focal mechanisms, recorded during the bradyseismic crisis of 1982-1984. The inversion of the geodetic dataset alone, shows that the observed ground deformation is compatible with a source consisting of a planar crack, located at the centre of the caldera at a depth of about 2.56 km and a size of about 4 × 4 km. Inversion of focal mechanisms using both analytical and graphical approaches, has shown that the key features of the stress field in the area are: a nearly subvertical σ 1 and a sub-horizontal, roughly NNE-SSW trending σ 3. Unfortunately, the modelling of the stress fields based only upon the retrieved ground deformation source is not able to fully account for the stress pattern delineated by focal mechanism inversion. The introduction of an additional regional background field has been necessary. This field has been determined by minimizing the difference between observed slip vectors for each focal mechanism and the theoretical maximum shear stress deriving from both the volcanic (time-varying) and the regional (constant) field. The latter is responsible for a weak NNE-SSW extension, which is consistent with the field determined for the nearby Mt. Vesuvius volcano. The proposed approach accurately models observations and provides interesting hints to better understand the dynamics of the volcanic unrest and seismogenic processes at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. This procedure could be applied to other volcanoes experiencing active ground deformation and seismicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8264T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8264T"><span>Interaction between hydrothermal and magmatic systems: modelling of magmatic gas release and ascent at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Todesco, Micol; Afanasyev, Andrey; Montagna, Chiara Paola; Longo, Antonella</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We model the perturbation of a hydrothermal system caused by the gas release from sub-surface magma chambers. First, we simulate the evolution of the magmatic system composed by two magma reservoirs: a small and shallow chamber, filled with degassed phonolite, connected to a deeper reservoir of gas-rich shoshonite through a vertical dyke. The fluid-dynamics governing the replenishment of the upper chamber is computed with a 2D code solving conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for a homogeneous multicomponent, multiphase Newtonian mixture, accounting for exsolution and dissolution of volatiles (H2O+CO2). We then assume that the volatiles that accumulate at the top of the upper chamber, escape from the reservoir and enter a steady state hydrothermal system. The response of the hydrothermal circulation is simulated with two multi-phase, multi-component porous media codes (MUFITS and TOUGH2) that describe the propagation of magmatic volatiles toward the surface. We create a simple model of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> hydrothermal system covering both shallow and deep regions where the temperature exceeds the critical temperature for water. Simulation results suggest that the rate at which volatiles are released from the magma chamber, the permeability distribution and the conditions of the hydrothermal system when degassing takes place can determine very different evolutions: accordingly, carbon dioxide may reach the surface within a time span ranging from weeks to millennia. The simulations indicate also that a single unrest event, associated with volatiles release from the chamber, can result in a periodic behaviour of observable parameters such as gas flux and fumarole composition. Duration of the period is of the order of 10 years, which is comparable with the time span between major unrest events observed at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1879D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1879D"><span>Interferometric imaging of the 2011-2013 <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> unrest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Siena, Luca; Nakahara, Hisashi; Zaccarelli, Lucia; Sammarco, Carmelo; La Rocca, Mario; Bianco, Francesca</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>After its 1983-84 seismic and deformation crisis, seismologists have recorded very low and clustered seismicity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Hence, noise interferometry imaging has become the only option to image the present volcano logical state of the volcano. Three-component noise data recorded before, during, and after <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> last deformation and geochemical unrest (2011-2013) have thus been processed with up-to-date interferometric imaging workflow based on MSNoise. Noise anisotropy, which strongly affects measurements throughout the caldera at all frequencies, has been accounted for by self-correlation measurements and smoothed by phase weighted stacking and phase-match filtering. The final group-velocity maps show strong low-velocity anomalies at the location of the last <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> eruption (1538 A.D.). The main low-velocity anomalies contour Solfatara volcano and follow geomorphological cross-faulting. The comparison with geophysical imaging results obtained during the last seismic unrest at the caldera suggest strong changes in the physical properties of the volcano, particularly in the area of major hydrogeological hazard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..197S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..197S"><span>New Borehole Strain System Detects Uplift at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scarpa, Roberto; Amoruso, Antonella; Crescentini, Luca; Romano, Pierdomenico; De Cesare, Walter; Martini, Marcello; Scarpato, Giovanni; Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn I.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Mount Vesuvius are active Italian volcanoes though presently in a quiescent stage. The last eruption of Mount Vesuvius occurred during the spring of 1944. <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> last erupted in 1538 but experienced a subsidence trend from the early 1900s to 1970, which was followed by episodes of ground uplift accompanied by seismic swarms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816366U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816366U"><span>Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment related to underwater explosions in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera: Gulfs of Napoli and Pozzuoli (Tyrrhenian Sea, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulvrova, Martina; Selva, Jacopo; Paris, Raphael; Brizuela, Beatriz; Costa, Antonio; Grezio, Anita; Lorito, Stefano; Tonini, Roberto</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tsunami caused by underwater volcanic explosions are typically characterized by short period waves and greater dispersion compared to tsunami generated by earthquakes, and the impact in the far-field is often limited. However, the effect of dispersion is reduced for underwater explosions occurring in shallow-water environments, as the length-to-depth ratio of the waves rapidly increase, and runup inland can be locally high. This effect was particularly illustrated by the 19 m runup at Karymsky Lake, Kamchatka, in 1996 (Belousov et al., 2010; Ulvrova et al., 2014). Hazards related to underwater volcanic explosions are challenging to evaluate and might be underestimated in some cases. In this study we consider different scenarios of explosions in the offshore part of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (Phlegraean Fields) caldera in the Pozzuoli - Naples region (Tyrrhenian Sea, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). The onshore eruptive history of the caldera is well documented (e.g. Orsi et al., 2004), but past and future activity offshore has been rarely discussed. The probability for eruptions in the submarine part of the caldera is perhaps low (Selva et al., 2012), but scenarios of tsunamis generated by underwater explosions and their impact in the proximal field (Bay of Pozzuoli) and far field (Bay of Naples) deserve to be considered due to high population density in the adjacent coastal areas. Initial surface displacement is estimated as a function of explosion energy at a given depth. We study 17 different potential vent locations within the Pozzuoli Bay, and 3 different vent radii (200 m, 650 m and 900 m), corresponding to the three representative eruptive scenarios identified in Orsi et al. (2009) and Selva et al. (2010). We then use these sources in a Bayesian Event Tree framework, following the procedure defined in Selva et al. (2010), in order to evaluate a first order Probabilistic Hazard Analysis for this type of tsunami sources for the Gulfs of Napoli and Pozzuoli. Belousov A., Voight B., Belousova M</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8318T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8318T"><span>Multiphysics numerical models of resurgent calderas ground deformation: The 1982-2010 <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) case studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tizzani, Pietro</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Ground deformation signals in caldera region are the expression of near-surface and/or deep-seated physical processes. As most of the geophysical analysis, the interpretation of the deformation data is usually performed setting up inverse problems, which often use Monte Carlo optimization techniques like the Simulated Annealing and the Genetic Algorithm, in order to constrain the nature of the causative sources at depth. Usually, these methods exploit the problem's solution space by iterating forward analytical models, which consider simplified geometries and homogeneous linear elastic material properties. However, several recent studies have shown that oversimplified forward models may lead to misinterpretations of the retrieved source parameters. To overcome these limitations we consider the Finite Element (FE) method as a powerful numerical tool that allows implementing models with complex geometries, material heterogeneities, as well as time dependent physical processes. For this reason, FE models are a suitable candidate to fill the gap between the accuracy achieved on the observation of ground deformation in volcanic areas and the models used for its interpretation. In this context, we investigate the driving forces responsible of the long-term ground deformation of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (CF) caldera, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, during the 1982-2010 time interval. To this purpose, we propose a new multiphysics numerical model that takes into account both the mechanical heterogeneities of the crust and the thermal conditions of geothermal system beneath the volcano. We perform a numerical Chain Rule Optimization Procedure (CROP) in a FEM environment, that considers different physical contexts linked along a common evolution line: starting from the thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust, we develop a 3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of CF caldera. More specifically, by carrying out two subsequent optimization procedures based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016644','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016644"><span>History of earthquakes and vertical ground movement in <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: comparison of precursory events to the A.D. 1538 eruption of Monte Nuovo and of activity since 1968</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dvorak, J.J.; Gasparini, P.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The record of felt earthquakes around Naples Bay in southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is probably complete since the mid-15th century. According to this record, intense earthquake swarms originating beneath <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, an explosive caldera located along the north coast of Naples Bay, have occurred only twice: (1) before the only historical eruption in <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> in 1538; and (2) from mid-1983 to December 1984. Earthquake activity during the earlier period, which began at least a few years, and possibly as many as 30 years, before the 1538 eruption, damaged many buildings in the city of Pozzuoli, located near the center of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>. Minor seismic activity, which consisted of only a few felt earthquakes, occurred from 1970 to 1971. The second period of intense earthquake swarms lasted from mid-1983 to 1984, again damaging many buildings in Pozzuoli. Two periods of uplift along the shoreline within <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> have also been noted since the mid-15th century: (1) during the few decades before the 1538 eruption; and (2) as two distinct episodes since 1968. Uplift of a few meters probably occurred a few decades before the 1538 eruption; uplift of as much as 3.0 m has occurred in Pozzuoli since 1968. These similarities strongly suggest that, for the first time in 440 years, the same process that caused intense local earthquake swarms and uplift in the early 1500's and led to an eruption in 1538, has again occurred beneath <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>. Though no major seismicity or uplift has occurred since December 1984, because of the large amount of extensional strain accumulated during the past two decades, if a third episode of seismicity and rapid uplift occurs, it may lead to an eruption within several months after the resumption of activity. ?? 1991.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917128P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917128P"><span>Statistical analysis of long term (2006-2016) TIR imagery based on Generalized Extreme Value estimator: an application at Pisciarelli volcanic area (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrillo, Zaccaria; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Sansivero, Fabio; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Caliro, Stefano; Caputo, Teresa</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Quantifying and monitoring energy budgets at calderas, released in terms of heat output during unrest periods, is crucial to understand the state of activity, the system evolution and to draw a possible future eruptive scenario. <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, a restless caldera in Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, during the last years is experiencing clear signs of potential reawakening. Indeed, is now more important then ever to consider, analyse and monitor all the potential precursors, contributing to the caldera volcanic hazard assessment. We analysed the continuous long term (2006-2016) TIR images night-time collected at Pisciarelli site. This volcanic area, is located above a critical volume which recently showed an increase and clustering of earthquakes distribution and which shows the most impressive gas discharge (mainly H2O and CO2) at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. We treated in a statistical way the TIR images, defining an anomaly zone, which we compared to a background area. The pixel distributions, as function of the temperature, showed a generalized extreme value structure. The anomaly area, with a long tail toward high temperature values, showed a positive factor form ( f > 0, Frechet distribution). This value was constantly above zero and kept stable along the whole 2006-2016 period, while the scale factor was estimated with a decreasing trend (variance reduction). Pixels of the background TIR images, in contrast, showed a factor form between zero and a weakly negative value (f = 0 or f < 0) Gumbel or Weibull distribution). We used the location parameter as representative of the temperature distribution (which is very near the average temperature) and analysed its trend as function of time, removing the annual variation using a 365.25 days mobile average.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5721Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5721Q"><span>2-D tomography of volcanic CO2 from scanning hard-target differential absorption lidar: the case of Solfatara, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Queißer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Solfatara is part of the active volcanic zone of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>), a densely populated urban area where ground uplift and increasing ground temperature are observed, connected with rising rates of CO2 emission. A major pathway of CO2 release at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> is diffuse soil degassing, and therefore quantifying diffuse CO2 emission rates is of vital interest. Conventional in situ probing of soil gas emissions with accumulation chambers is accurate over a small footprint but requires significant time and effort to cover large areas. An alternative approach is differential absorption lidar, which allows for a fast and spatially integrated measurement. Here, a portable hard-target differential absorption lidar has been used to acquire horizontal 1-D profiles of column-integrated CO2 concentration at the Solfatara crater. To capture heterogenic features in the CO2 distribution, a 2-D tomographic map of the CO2 distribution has been inverted from the 1-D profiles. The scan was performed one-sided, which is unfavorable for the inverse problem. Nonetheless, the result is in agreement with independent measurements and furthermore confirms an area of anomalous CO2 degassing along the eastern edge as well as the center of the Solfatara crater. The method may have important implications for measurements of degassing features that can only be accessed from limited angles, such as airborne sensing of volcanic plumes. CO2 fluxes retrieved from the 2-D map are comparable, but modestly higher than emission rates from previous studies, perhaps reflecting an increase in CO2 flux or a more integrated measurement or both.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BVol...73..767C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BVol...73..767C"><span>Assessment of pre-crisis and syn-crisis seismic hazard at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Mt. Vesuvius volcanoes, Campania, southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Convertito, Vincenzo; Zollo, Aldo</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>In this study, we address the issue of short-term to medium-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for two volcanic areas, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera and Mt. Vesuvius in the Campania region of southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Two different phases of the volcanic activity are considered. The first, which we term the pre-crisis phase, concerns the present quiescent state of the volcanoes that is characterized by low-to-moderate seismicity. The second phase, syn-crisis, concerns the unrest phase that can potentially lead to eruption. For the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> case study, we analyzed the pattern of seismicity during the 1982-1984 ground uplift episode (bradyseism). For Mt. Vesuvius, two different time-evolutionary models for seismicity were adopted, corresponding to different ways in which the volcano might erupt. We performed a site-specific analysis, linked with the hazard map, to investigate the effects of input parameters, in terms of source geometry, mean activity rate, periods of data collection, and return periods, for the syn-crisis phase. The analysis in the present study of the pre-crisis phase allowed a comparison of the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for the two study areas with those provided in the Italian national hazard map. For the Mt. Vesuvius area in particular, the results show that the hazard can be greater than that reported in the national hazard map when information at a local scale is used. For the syn-crisis phase, the main result is that the data recorded during the early months of the unrest phase are substantially representative of the seismic hazard during the whole duration of the crisis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.272..181A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.272..181A"><span>Simultaneous inversion of deformation and gravity changes in a horizontally layered half-space: Evidences for magma intrusion during the 1982 1984 unrest at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amoruso, A.; Crescentini, L.; Berrino, G.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>A very large uplift (about 1.8 m) occurred in the period 1982-1984 at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, without culminating in an eruption. A still-standing controversy accompanies the interpretation of deformation and gravity changes recorded during the unrest, which were interpreted to result from the sub-surface magmatic reservoir by some authors and from the hydrothermal system or hybrid sources by others. Here for the first time we take into account crustal layering while inverting leveling, EDM, and gravity data using uniformly-pressurized sources, namely small vertical spheroids and finite horizontal penny-shaped sources. The weight of EDM data in the misfit function is chosen from a trade-off curve in order to balance the compromise between fitting the leveling and the EDM data well. Models using a homogeneous medium cannot give a good simultaneous fit to leveling and EDM deformation data of the 1982-1984 unrest, whereas incorporating a layered structure (determined from seismically derived estimates of the P wave speed for the crust, and not adjusted to improve the fit in any of the inversions) allows a significantly better fit. Also, layering affects the sub-surface mass redistribution effects on gravity changes, and we show that the retrieved intrusion density is in full agreement with densities for highly evolved magmas expected at the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera for depths of 3 to 4 km, ruling out hydrothermal fluids as the primary cause of the 1982-1984 unrest. The source of the 1982-1984 CF unrest was probably a shallow (about 3-km deep) penny-shaped magma intrusion fed by a deeper magma chamber; source overpressure was few MPa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.2330N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.2330N"><span>Quantifying volcanic hazard at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) with uncertainty assessment: 2. Pyroclastic density current invasion maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neri, Augusto; Bevilacqua, Andrea; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Isaia, Roberto; Aspinall, Willy P.; Bisson, Marina; Flandoli, Franco; Baxter, Peter J.; Bertagnini, Antonella; Iannuzzi, Enrico; Orsucci, Simone; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (CF) is an example of an active caldera containing densely populated settlements at very high risk of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). We present here an innovative method for assessing background spatial PDC hazard in a caldera setting with probabilistic invasion maps conditional on the occurrence of an explosive event. The method encompasses the probabilistic assessment of potential vent opening positions, derived in the companion paper, combined with inferences about the spatial density distribution of PDC invasion areas from a simplified flow model, informed by reconstruction of deposits from eruptions in the last 15 ka. The flow model describes the PDC kinematics and accounts for main effects of topography on flow propagation. Structured expert elicitation is used to incorporate certain sources of epistemic uncertainty, and a Monte Carlo approach is adopted to produce a set of probabilistic hazard maps for the whole CF area. Our findings show that, in case of eruption, almost the entire caldera is exposed to invasion with a mean probability of at least 5%, with peaks greater than 50% in some central areas. Some areas outside the caldera are also exposed to this danger, with mean probabilities of invasion of the order of 5-10%. Our analysis suggests that these probability estimates have location-specific uncertainties which can be substantial. The results prove to be robust with respect to alternative elicitation models and allow the influence on hazard mapping of different sources of uncertainty, and of theoretical and numerical assumptions, to be quantified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034538','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034538"><span>40Ar/39Ar dating of tuff vents in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>): Toward a new chronostratigraphic reconstruction of the Holocene volcanic activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fedele, L.; Insinga, D.D.; Calvert, A.T.; Morra, V.; Perrotta, A.; Scarpati, C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> hosts numerous monogenetic vents inferred to be younger than the 15 ka Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. Sanidine crystals from the three young <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> vents of Fondi di Baia, Bacoli and Nisida were dated using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. These vents, together with several other young edifices, occur roughly along the inner border of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, suggesting that the volcanic conduits are controlled by caldera-bounding faults. Plateau ages of ∼9.6 ka (Fondi di Baia), ∼8.6 ka (Bacoli) and ∼3.9 ka (Nisida) indicate eruptive activity during intervals previously interpreted as quiescent. A critical revision, involving calendar age correction of literature 14C data and available 40Ar/39Ar age data, is presented. A new reference chronostratigraphic framework for Holocene Phlegrean activity, which significantly differs from the previously adopted ones, is proposed. This has important implications for understanding the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> eruptive history and, ultimately, for the evaluation of related volcanic risk and hazard, for which the inferred history of its recent activity is generally taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918699M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918699M"><span>The types of unrest occurring at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) since 1982 and the role of magma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moretti, Roberto; De Natale, Giuseppe; Sarno, Federica; Schiavone, Roberto; Troise, Claudia</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The thermodynamic response of a multiphase (at least biphasic) and multicomponent system that has enough degrees of freedom to respond to variations of external constraints consists in re-equilibrating phase proportions and compositions of dissolved components. For volcanic systems in unrest, such as <span class="hlt">CampiFlegrei</span>, this puts first-order thermal constraints that typically the procedures of geophysical inversion of geodetic and gravimetric data cannot identify.In this study, based on a thermodyamically internally consistent approach to the geochemical data recorded in the last 35 years, we show that: 1) The fumarole-feeding portions of the Solfatara geothermal field have fluid pressures below the lithostatic gradients. Shallow steam condensation occurs certainly in the surroundingsof fumarole emissions, and was attained in few circumstances during the 1982-84 unrest. 2) Inert gases help evaluating the geochemical signature of the deep upcoming gas, not compatible with a magma migrating to shallow depths in recent times. Any magma emplaced at shallow depth should have a volatile content and a size incompatible with geophysical measurements and models on shallow magma emplacement.After exhaustion of the shallow magma emplaced in1982-84, the system is fed by a deep magmatic gas. 3) Gas indicators and the observed increase in magmatic fraction (Y) after year 2000 require a raise in the temperature of the formed hydrothermal vapour and the likely involvement of a supercritical fluid phase. This determines the opening of awindow for magmatic gases at surface, which is however hardly compatible with a magma raising to shallow depths. 4) The unrest style can be related to the P-T-H conditions of the deep hydrothermal vapour. These determine if the pore-filling fluid is a biphasic liquid+vapour. like in 1982-84, when pore overpressures developed under nearly undrained conditions. 5) The nature of the 1982-84 unrest was magmatic, due to the emplacement of a shallow (3-4 km deep</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JVGR...59..335P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JVGR...59..335P"><span>The dynamics of the Breccia Museo eruption (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) and the significance of spatter clasts associated with lithic breccias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>The Breccia Museo Member is a pyroclastic deposit produced during an eruptive event that occurred in the southwestern sector of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> about 20,000 years ago. Two depositional units divided by a co-ignimbrite ash-fall deposit have been recognized. Facies variations in the deposits resulted from the interaction between the flow and paleomorphology, from the relative abundance of the lithic and juvenile components supplied by the source, and from the variations of the flow regime. The Lower Depositional Unit is a pyroclastic flow deposit characterized by a thick, coarse valley facies laterally grading into a thin, layered and fine-grained overbank facies. These different facies are due to the interaction between a density-stratified flow and topography. The more basal, high-concentration part of the flow was deposited along the axis of the paleovalleys (valley facies), whereas the upper, low-concentration part was deposited on the slopes (overbank facies). Vertical variations of the structures observed in the deposits of the Lower Depositional Unit resulted from flow unsteadiness during emplacement and, hence, on the variations of the suspended load fallout from the low-concentration upper part of the flow to the high-concentration boundary layer. The Upper Depositional Unit, made up of the Breccia, Spatter and Upper Pumice Flow Units, consists of horizons of lithic breccias and coarse welded spatter which thicken into the valleys. They are closely related to a gas-pipe-rich ash and pumice flow deposit. The strongly fines-poor character of the breccias and spatter beds is due to a very rapid segregation of the dense and coarse clasts and to the high rates of gas ascent through the hindered-settling zone in the basal part of the flow. After deposition of the majority of the dense and coarse material, the subsequent high-density depositional system came to rest immediately, thus yielding a pyroclastic flow deposit that is closely associated with the breccia. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8492S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8492S"><span>Comparison between temperatures pattern from thermal IR time series analisys and deformational pattern from InSAR and GPS data at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sansivero, F.; Vilardo, G.; Borgstrom, S.; De Martino, P.; Siniscalchi, V.; Minet, C.; Goel, K.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Long-term thermal infrared volcanological monitoring is carried out at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) by INGV - Osservatorio Vesuviano by acquiring daily infrared images (LWIR) of fumaroles fields since year 2004. The IR monitoring system (TIIMNet -Thermal Infrared Monitoring Network) includes two permanent automatic infrared (IR) stations installed at Solfatara crater and at Pisciarelli area equipped both with a NEC Thermo Tracer TS7302 IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) uncooled microbolometer measuring systems (320x240 pixel). At Solfatara the station is operative since July 2004 and acquires scenes of the SE inner slope of Solfatara where are located the major fumaroles at an average distance of about 300 m from the IR camera. The camera at Pisciarelli is operative since October 2006 and acquires scenes of the outer eastern flank of the Solfatara tuff-cone (average distance of fumaroles is about 130 m), corresponding to an area characterized by heavy water vapor and CO2 emissions. To obtain as much as possible accurate temperature values which can be representative of surface temperatures of fumaroles fields, time series of raw IR scenes has been processed with integrated methodologies. Briefly these methodologies are based on Standard Deviation filtering (as SD represents a quality parameter), background correction of the temperature values and periodicities removal using Matlab tools. The data representation, using an average moving window, show a pattern without evidence of the major seasonal cyclicity, although it still contains minor cyclicity probably due to endogenous factors and, particularly at Pisciarelli, it evidences significant temperature peak values on August 2009 and a gradual increase of temperatures from November 2010 till now. In order to strengthen the significance of data from IR thermal analysis, a comparison with deformational pattern has been carried out using both High-Resolution Spotlight TerraSAR-X data, processed using the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH32A..08C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH32A..08C"><span>Integrated multi-parameters Probabilistic Seismic Landslide Hazard Analysis (PSLHA): an innovative approach in the active volcano-tectonic area of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caccavale, M.; Matano, F.; Sacchi, M.; Somma, R.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The western coastal sector of Campania region (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) is characterised by the presence of the active volcano-tectonic area of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>. This area represents a very particular and interesting case-study for a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). The principal seismic source, related with the caldera, is not clearly constrained in the on-shore and off-shore areas. The well-known and monitored phenomenon of bradyseism affecting a large portion of case-study area is not modelled in the standard PSHA approach. From the environmental point of view the presence of very high exposed values in terms of population, buildings, infrastructures and palaces of high archaeological, natural and artistic value, makes this area a strategic natural laboratory to develop new methodologies. Moreover the geomorphological and geo-volcanological features lead to a heterogeneous coastline, made up by both beach and tuff cliffs, rapidly evolving for erosion and landslide (i.e. mainly rock fall and rock slide) phenomena that represent an additional hazard aspect. In the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> the possible occurrence of a moderate/large seismic event represents a serious threat for the inhabitants, for the infrastructures as well as for the environment. In the framework of Italian MON.I.C.A project (sinfrastructural coastlines monitoring) an innovative and dedicated probabilistic methodology has been applied to identify the areas with higher tendency of landslide occurrence due to the seismic effect. Resident population reported the occurrence of some small rock falls along tuff quarry slopes during the main shocks of the 1982-84 bradyseismic events. The PSHA methodology, introduced by Cornell (1968), combines the contributions to the hazard from all potential sources of earthquakes and the average activity rates associated to each seismogenic zone considered. The result of the PSHA is represented by the spatial distribution of a ground-motion (GM) parameter A, such as Peak</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH21B1514S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH21B1514S"><span>Application of laser scanning and opto-electronic devices for monitoring cliff instability in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> coastal area: the Coroglio case study ( Napoli, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somma, R.; Caputo, T.; Esposito, G.; Marino, E.; Matano, F.; Carlino, S.; Iuliano, S.; Sacchi, M.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This study introduces a Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) application for the landslides monitoring and its experiment in Gulf of Pozzuoli coastal area (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). This area is a part of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic district, one of the major volcanic risk zones of the world, with more than 300.000 people and a lot of infrastructures concentrated within it. The cliffs consist of very erodible volcanoclastic lithologies as same as tuffs and ignimbrites, affected by the erosive action of both sea and meteorological agents, very high erosion rate. Furthermore, in this area the bradyseismic phenomenon occurred too, producing differential displacement and fracturing. The Coroglio test site was chosen taking into account cliff's geological and geomorphological properties, as well as aspect, fractures, lithology, and elements at risk located upslope or downslope: The Coroglio site is characterized by lithified upper member of the NYT with stratified, wavy-to-planar alternations of coarse-grained, disorganized, matrix-supported layers, thinly-laminated discontinuous beds and massive, even fine ash layers. The accuracy of the technique used reaches a detailed level in landslide monitoring which allows this methodology to be complementary to the monitoring by setup a geodetic deformation monitoring network. With this aim we have firstly reconstructed a 3D model of the investigated cliff with the use of dedicated softwares and successively analyzed the main lithological, structural and geomorphologic elements related to cliff instability processes. What is possible to confirm after this first study, can be here resumed: (1) These tests were designed to set-up landslide monitoring in highly urbanised areas such as the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>; they are very important sites with a well-established road network, which can be affected by landslide phenomena as occurred in the past causing either traffic interruption and damage to infrastructures insisting along the landslides fronts. (2) In the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120..812V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120..812V"><span>Long-term TIR imagery processing for spatiotemporal monitoring of surface thermal features in volcanic environment: A case study in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vilardo, G.; Sansivero, F.; Chiodini, G.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Different procedures were used to analyze a comprehensive time series of nighttime thermal infrared images acquired from October 2006 to June 2013 by a permanent station at Pisciarelli (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). The methodologies were aimed at the detection and quantification of possible spatiotemporal changes in the ground-surface thermal features of an area affected by diffuse degassing. Long-term infrared time series images were processed without taking into account atmospheric conditions and emissivity estimations. The data obtained were compared with the trends of independent geophysical and geochemical parameters, which suggested that long-term temporal variations of the surface maximum temperatures were governed by the dynamics of the deeper hydrothermal system. Analogously, the dynamics of the shallow hydrothermal system are likely to control the short-period thermal oscillations that overlie the long-term thermal signals. The map of the yearly rates of temperature change shows temperature increases clustered in the thermal anomalous area of the infrared images, without evidence of modifications to the extension of the anomaly or of growth of new areas with significant thermal emission. This suggests that in the present state, the heat transfer is mainly due to hot gas emission through preexisting fractures and vents. Our data indicate that the comprehensive picture of the spatiotemporal evolution of the thermal features of the hydrothermal sites obtained by long-term infrared monitoring can provide useful information toward refining physical and conceptual models, as well as improving surveillance of active volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987BVol...49..381T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987BVol...49..381T"><span>The determination of deep temperatures by means of the CO-CO2-H2-H2O geothermometer: an example using fumaroles in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tedesco, D.; Sabroux, J. C.</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>Chromatographic analyses of fumarolic gases, collected in sampling bottles containing an alkaline solution, have been carried out using a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector, after catalytic conversion of CO and CH4. The latter method enables the concentration of carbon monoxide to be measured with sufficient accuracy for use in a CO-CO2-H2-H2O geothermometer. Application of this geothermometer to fumaroles in the crater of Solfatara in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, indicates that they are fed from a steam reservoir at 250±15 °C and at 10-36±2atm of oxygen. On the other hand, the CH4-CO2-H2-H2O geothermobarometer seems to re-equilibrate at superficial temperatures and cannot be used for infering thermodynamic conditions at depth. Regular sampling of these fumaroles together with a geothermometric interpretation of the gas analyses provides a means of monitoring, with comparative accuracy, the chemical and thermal evolution of the hydrothermal reservoir below the Solfatara crater. Such monitoring would probably detect an increase in temperature at depth and the injection of magmatic gas into the reservoir.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4479I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4479I"><span>Triple oxygen isotope composition of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> magma systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Wörner, Gerhard; Pack, Andreas; Sengupta, Sukanya; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Arienzo, Ilenia; D'Antonio, Massimo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Sr-O isotope relationships in igneous rocks are a powerful tool to distinguish magma sources and quantify assimilation processes in magmatic rocks. Isotopic (87Sr/86Sr and 18O/16O-17O/16O) data have been acquired on whole rocks and separated minerals (feldspar, Fe-cpx, Mg-cpx, olivine phenocrysts) from pyroclastic products of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic complex (Gulf of Naples, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Oxygen isotope ratios were measured by infrared laser fluorination using a Thermo MAT253 gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer in dual inlet mode, on ˜2 mg of hand-picked phenocrysts. Variations in triple oxygen isotope ratios (17O/16O, 18O/16O) are expressed as the δ notation relative to VSMOW. Sr isotopic compositions were determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry after standard cation-exchange methods on separated hand-picked phenocrysts (˜300 mg), and on whole rocks, in case of insufficient sample size to separate crystals. Sr-isotopes in <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> minerals range from 0.707305 to 0.707605 and δ18O varies from 6.5 to 8.3‰ . Recalculated δ18Omelt values accordingly show a large range between 7.2 and 8.6‰ . Our data, compared with published δ18O-isotope data from other Italian volcanic centers (Alban Hills, Mts. Ernici, Ischia, Mt. Vesuvius, Aeolian Islands, Tuscany and Sardinia) and from subduction zones worldwide (Kamchatka, Lesser Antilles, Indonesia and Central Andean ignimbrites), show compositions that are very different from typical mantle values. Distinct trends and sources are recognized in our compilation from global data: (1) serpentinized mantle (Kamchatka), (2) sediment-enrichment in the mantle source (Indonesia, Lesser Antilles, Eolian arc), (3) assimilation of old radiogenic continental crust affecting magmas derived from sediment-modified mantle sources (Tuscany, Sardinia), (4) assimilation of lower crustal lithologies (Central Andes, Alban Hills, Mts. Ernici, Ischia). Sr-O-isotope values of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Vesuvius magmas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JVGR..233....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JVGR..233....1B"><span>Influence of volcanic gases on the epidermis of Pinus halepensis Mill. in <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: A possible tool for detecting volcanism in present and past floras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartiromo, Antonello; Guignard, Gaëtan; Lumaga, Maria Rosaria Barone; Barattolo, Filippo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Avino, Rosario; Guerriero, Giulia; Barale, Georges</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Cuticle micromorphology together with epidermal and epistomatal wax, in both current- and first-year-old needles of conifer Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) trees growing under volcanic gas fumigation was analysed in Pisciarelli area, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. As a control, current- and first-year-old needles growing far from volcanic gas emission were also sampled. Using a multidisciplinary approach with SEM, TEM and X-ray, volcanic gases were shown to cause degradation on epicuticular and epistomatal waxes. Significant statistical variations of ultrastructural components of the cuticle, with 30 measurements, including total thickness of the cuticle, and details and proportions of all different layers, and use of confidence interval, revealed a high degree of sensitivity of Aleppo pine to this extreme environment. In the present study, non-significant thickness variations of the cell wall plus cuticle among current- and first-year-old needles of both fumigated and non fumigated trees have been found. However, at the ultrastructural level, significant variations in cell wall and total cuticle thickness, especially within the three zones of B1 fibrillar layer, revealed different equilibria for each of the four types of material. Using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, no sulphur was found in either cuticle or epidermal cells, but the presence of H2S in the fumarole gas is suspected to cause indirect and/or direct cuticle alterations of wax structure. Ultrastructural characters of plant cuticles related to emission of volcanic gases during the geological past are also discussed. Among these considerations, an identification key enabling distinction between non fumigated and fumigated materials with 9 characters, provides a good tool detecting the influence of volcanism for extant and fossil plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..327..361S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..327..361S"><span>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>): Formation and evolution in interplay with sea-level variations since the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption at 39 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>To date, the origin of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera is still under debate and may be related to (1) a single caldera collapse associated with the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruption, (2) two subsequent caldera collapses associated with the NYT and the preceding Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruptions forming a nested-caldera complex, or (3) not related to a caldera collapse after all. Here, we study the submerged portion of the caldera, which has favored a marine depositional setting and, thus, represents an ideal location for the reconstruction of its formation history, utilizing multichannel seismic data. Volcanic deposits and edifices were seismically distinguished from sedimentary successions, and the stratigraphy could be refined and extended back to the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption at 39 ka. High-resolution multichannel reflection seismic data revealed the existence of a nested-caldera complex formed during the CI eruption at 39 ka and the more recent NYT eruption at 15 ka. A ring-fault bounding an inner caldera collapse structure was clearly imaged. It appears that this inner ring-fault was initially activated during the CI caldera collapse and later reactivated during the NYT caldera collapse with different amounts of subsidence. The NYT caldera probably formed during an asymmetrical collapse with a maximum subsidence of 75 m in the offshore portion. The vertical displacement related to the CI caldera collapse may be significantly larger. The submerged caldera depression accommodates post-eruption sediments. Within this high-resolution archive, two major unconformities developed at 8.6 ka and 5 ka, when resurgence-related uplift exceeded the rate of sea-level rise concurrent with the emersion of the La Starza terrace. A previously unknown post-collapse submarine volcanic mound located between Nisida Island and Nisida Bank probably formed between 4.8 and 3.7 ka. Also, the Penta Palummo Bank appears to be constructed of at least two monogenetic volcanic edifices</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713051C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713051C"><span>Sustainability assessment of geothermal exploitation by numerical modelling: the example of high temperature Mofete geothermal field at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carlino, Stefano; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The active volcanic area of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera has been the site of many geothermal investigations, since the early XX century. This caldera is characterised by high heat flow, with maximum value > 150 mWm-2, geothermal gradients larger than 200°Ckm-1 and diffuse magmatic gases discharge at the surface. These features encouraged an extensive campaign for geothermal investigation, started in 1939, with many drillings performed at Campanian volcanoes (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Ischia) and later at Vesuvius. Several wells aimed to the exploitation of high enthalpy geothermal energy, were drilled in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, down to a maximum depth of ~3 km involving mainly two sites (Mofete and S.Vito geothermal fields) located in western and northern sector of caldera respectively. The most interesting site for geothermal exploitation was the Mofete zone, where a number of 4 productive wells were drilled and tested to produce electrical power. Based on data inferred from the productive tests it was established a potential electrical extractable power from Mofete field of at least 10MWe. More recently an empirical evaluation of the whole geothermal potential of the caldera provides a value of more than 1 GWe. The results of AGIP-ENEL exploration at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> highlighted the feasibility of geothermal exploitation. Here, we show for the first time the results of numerical simulations (TOUGH2 code ®) of fluids extraction and reinjection from the Mofete geothermal field, in order to produce at least 5MWe from zero emission power plant (Organic Rankine Cycle type). The simulation is aimed to understand the perturbation of the geothermal reservoir in terms of temperature, pressure change, and possible related seismicity, after different simulated time of exploitation. The modeling is mainly constrained by the data derived from geothermal exploration and productive tests performed since 1979 by AGIP-ENEL Companies. A general assessment of the maximum potential magnitude</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V41D2827C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V41D2827C"><span>Borehole data to model caldera unrest: the example of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carlino, S.; De Natale, G.; Somma, R.; Troise, C.; Kilburn, C.; Tramelli, A.; Troiano, A.; Di Guiseppe, M.; Piochi, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>To understand the genesis and the physics governing the volcanic area of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) a drilling project started on July 2012, in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) schedules two phases: a pilot well, 500 m deep (I phase), and a 3.5 km deeper well (II planned phase), both located within the active resurgent caldera of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, west to the city of Naples. In this framework new filed data from pilot borehole have been recorded by using a novel procedure of Leak Off Test (LOT). The test has been performed in order to obtain, before the onset of rock failure (which furnishes indication of the minimum principal stress value), a reliable value of in situ permeability. These new data, particularly the actual permeability, are fundamental to calibrate the caldera unrest model at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and to advance in the quantitative analysis of volcanoes behavior for the assessment of possible future eruptive scenarios. Calderas worldwide are, in fact, characterized by frequent episodes of unrest which, only in few cases, culminate with eruption. This behavior is generally explained in terms of magma intrusion and/or disturbance of geothermal fluids in the shallow crust, which are both source of ground deformations and seismicity. A major goal is, thus, to determine the relative contribution of each process, because the potential for eruptions significantly enhanced if magma movements emerges as the primary component. Here we report the new results of the LOT and its implication in the modeling of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera unrest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712823M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712823M"><span>Mineralogical and sulfur isotopic characterization of the sulfur-bearing mineralization from the active degassing area of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Balassone, Giuseppina; Strauss, Harald; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera is a site of persistent hydrothermal circulation and gaseous emissions inside the Pozzuoli town and nearby the city of Napoli (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). The solfataric phenomena are associated with episodes of low-magnitude seismicity and vertical ground displacement since Roman times, evolving to the Monte Nuovo eruption in the 1538 AD. Pronounced geochemical anomalies, uplift rates up to 1 m/y and up to ten thousands microearthquakes per year also characterized the four most recent decades of unrest. The degassing phenomena are concentrated within the Solfatara crater, although, since 2006, the hydrothermal activity strongly increased in the Pisciarelli district, i.e. on the north-east slope of the tuff. We investigated sulfur-bearing mineral precipitates sampled from the active fumaroles both within the Solfatara and along the Pisciarelli slope. Mineral assemblage, texture and chemistry were determined for the efflorescence precipitated nearby the fumaroles and along the mud pool by x-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron microscope and electron diffuse microanalysis. δ34S compositions were also determined on separated sulfur-minerals. The new data have been compared with scattered literature data, including few existing for the previous '70 and '80 unrest episodes. Native sulfur and alunite are the main mineral phases that associate with alunogene, and, locally, pickeringite and potassium alum. Sporadically mereiterite, amarillite, and pyrite have been found as neogenesis mineralization along the outcropping rocks. The mud pool is rich in gypsum, potassium alum and pyrite. δ34S values range from -5.48 to 0.0‰, being slightly lower than previous data. The obtained results suggest that the Pisciarelli area is characterized by magmatic-hydrothermal, magmatic-steam and steam-heated environments, developed on a argillitic hydrothermal facies that thickens in correspondence of the degassing area. These environments develop and continuously evolve in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816415N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816415N"><span>MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera case study (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the communication chain between scientists and decision makers (end users), scientific outputs, as maps, are a fundamental source of information on hazards zoning and the related at risk areas definition. Anyway the relationship between volcanic phenomena, their probability and potential impact can be complex and the geospatial information not easily decoded or understood by not experts even if decision makers. Focusing on volcanic hazard the goal of MED SUV WP6 Task 3 is to improve the communication efficacy of scientific outputs, to contribute in filling the gap between scientists and decision-makers. <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, in Neapolitan area has been chosen as the pilot research area where to apply an evaluation/validation procedure to provide a robust evaluation of the volcanic maps and its validation resulting from end users response. The selected sample involved are decision makers and officials from Campanian Region Civil Protection and municipalities included in <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> RED ZONE, the area exposed to risk from to pyroclastic currents hazard. Semi-structured interviews, with a sample of decision makers and civil protection officials have been conducted to acquire both quantitative and qualitative data. The tested maps have been: the official <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera RED ZONE map, three maps produced by overlapping the Red Zone limit on Orthophoto, DTM and Contour map, as well as other maps included a probabilistic one, showing volcanological data used to border the Red Zone. The outcomes' analysis have assessed level of respondents' understanding of content as displayed, and their needs in representing the complex information embedded in volcanic hazard. The final output has been the development of a leaflet as "guidelines" that can support decision makers and officials in understanding volcanic hazard and risk maps, and also in using them as a communication tool in information program for the population at risk. The same evaluation /validation process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..34.9303C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..34.9303C"><span>Effects of crustal layering on the inversion of deformation and gravity data in volcanic areas: An application to the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crescentini, L.; Amoruso, A.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>We study the effects of crustal layering on ground displacements and gravity changes due to a spheroidal expanding source. Soft superficial layers affect the deformation pattern (giving an apparent shallower source if layering is not taken into account), the ratio of horizontal to vertical displacements (biasing the source shape), and the subsurface mass redistribution effects on gravity changes. Retrieved intrusion density is biased toward very low values if the source is modelled as a penny-shaped crack (point and finite) in a homogeneous half-space and the resulting density misestimate can lead to a possibly incorrect assessment of volcanic hazard. As an application, we consider the 1982-1984 <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> unrest. We show that the large discrepancy between densities of spherical and penny-shaped sources, given in the literature and obtained inverting ground displacement and gravity data in a homogeneous half-space, is at least partially a consequence of the homogeneous half-space assumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910738D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910738D"><span>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP): New insight on caldera structure, evolution and hazard implications for the Naples area (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Mark, Darren; Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Di Vito, Mauro; Isaia, Roberto; Carlino, Stefano; Barra, Diana; Somma, Renato</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The 501 m deep hole of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project, located west of the Naples metropolitan area and inside the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, gives new insight to reconstruct the volcanotectonic evolution of this highly populated volcano. It is one of the highest risk volcanic areas in the world, but its tectonic structure, eruptive history, and size of the largest eruptions are intensely debated in the literature. New stratigraphic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating allow us to determine, for the first time, the age of intracaldera deposits belonging to the two highest magnitude caldera-forming eruptions (i.e., Campanian Ignimbrite, CI, 39 ka, and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, NYT, 14.9 ka) and to estimate the amount of collapse. Tuffs from 439 m of depth yield the first 40Ar/39Ar age of ca. 39 ka within the caldera, consistent with the CI. Volcanic rocks from the NYT were, moreover, detected between 250 and 160 m. Our findings highlight: (i) a reduction of the area affected by caldera collapse, which appears to not include the city of Naples; (ii) a small volume of the infilling caldera deposits, particularly for the CI, and (iii) the need for reassessment of the collapse amounts and mechanisms related to larger eruptions. Our results also imply a revaluation of volcanic risk for the eastern caldera area, including the city of Naples. The results of this study point out that large calderas are characterized by complex collapse mechanisms and dynamics, whose understanding needs more robust constraints, which can be obtained from scientific drilling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.4836D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.4836D"><span>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP): New insight on caldera structure, evolution and hazard implications for the Naples area (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Mark, Darren; Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Di Vito, Mauro A.; Isaia, Roberto; Carlino, Stefano; Barra, Diana; Somma, Renato</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The 501 m deep hole of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project, located west of the Naples metropolitan area and inside the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, gives new insight to reconstruct the volcano-tectonic evolution of this highly populated volcano. It is one of the highest risk volcanic areas in the world, but its tectonic structure, eruptive history, and size of the largest eruptions are intensely debated in the literature. New stratigraphic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating allow us to determine, for the first time, the age of intracaldera deposits belonging to the two highest magnitude caldera-forming eruptions (i.e., Campanian Ignimbrite, CI, 39 ka, and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, NYT, 14.9 ka) and to estimate the amount of collapse. Tuffs from 439 m of depth yield the first 40Ar/39Ar age of ca. 39 ka within the caldera, consistent with the CI. Volcanic rocks from the NYT were, moreover, detected between 250 and 160 m. Our findings highlight: (i) a reduction of the area affected by caldera collapse, which appears to not include the city of Naples; (ii) a small volume of the infilling caldera deposits, particularly for the CI, and (iii) the need for reassessment of the collapse amounts and mechanisms related to larger eruptions. Our results also imply a revaluation of volcanic risk for the eastern caldera area, including the city of Naples. The results of this study point out that large calderas are characterized by complex collapse mechanisms and dynamics, whose understanding needs more robust constraints, which can be obtained from scientific drilling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JVGR...91..167O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JVGR...91..167O"><span>Correlation of deposits and vent locations of the proximal Campanian Ignimbrite deposits, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, based on natural remanent magnetization and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ort, Michael H.; Rosi, Mauro; Anderson, Charles D.</p> <p>1999-08-01</p> <p>Correlation of the distal deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite with their proximal equivalents in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera is complicated by a lack of medial exposures, complex and limited proximal stratigraphic sections, and large lateral facies changes. Paleomagnetic data from 10 sites in and near the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> yield natural remanent magnetizations (NRM) that are statistically indistinguishable from the distal Campanian Ignimbrite. In addition, their virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) yields a possible correlation with Lac du Bouchet, France, secular variation data that indicate an age of approximately 32,850 14C years. The secular variation curve at this age was only briefly at this VGP, and did not return to it for >10,000 years, so the paleomagnetic correlation of proximal and distal deposits is unique and robust. The date is consistent with 14C dates from the Campanian Ignimbrite, but younger than 39Ar/ 40Ar dates for the same rocks. This suggests that a better correction factor for cosmic flux for this time period is needed to calibrate older 14C dates. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data show that the proximal deposits have an oblate (disk-shaped), poorly lineated magnetic fabric. The distal deposits are much better lineated. The difference may be due to chaotic depositional currents in the proximal areas, in which particles were not well aligned. With greater distance of travel, and loss of energy, particles within the flow became aligned and developed stronger AMS lineations. Early eruptions of the Piperno Tuff were from a central vent north of Pozzuoli, whereas later tuffs that underlie the Breccia Museo may have been emplaced by flows associated with ring vents located on the northern and southern caldera margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JVGR...68..325M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JVGR...68..325M"><span>The eruption of the Breccia Museo (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>): Fractional crystallization processes in a shallow, zoned magma chamber and implications for the eruptive dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; Adabbo, Mariarosaria</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>The Breccia Museo Member (BMM) was formed by an explosive eruption that occurred in the SW sector of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> about 20 ka ago. The eruptive sequence consists of the Lower Pumice Flow Unit and the overlying Upper Pumice Flow Unit with its associated lithic Breccia Unit. Interlayered with the Breccia Unit is a welded deposit that mainly consists of spatter clasts (Spatter Unit). The products of this eruption range in composition from trachytic to trachyphonolitic with K 2O decreasing from 9.5 to 7 wt.%; Na 2O correspondingly increases from 2.6 to 7.2 wt.% with increasing differentiation (Nb from 23 to 122 ppm). The phenocrysts are mostly sanidine (Or 88-63) with subordinate plagioclase (An 33-27), clinopyroxene (Ca 47Mg 44Fe 9 to Ca 46Mg 35Fe 19), biotite, titanomagnetite, and apatite. The observed major- and trace-element variations are fully consistent with about 80% fractional crystallization of a sanidine-dominated assemblage starting from the least differentiated trachytes. The compositions of the erupted products are compatible with the progressive tapping of a shallow magma chamber that was thermally and chemically zoned. The incompatible trace elements indicate a slightly different magma composition with respect to trachytes of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> mainland. The geochemical stratigraphy suggests that after an early eruptive phase during which the upper, most differentiated level of the magma chamber was tapped, the sudden collapse of the roof of the reservoir triggered drainage of the remaining magma, which ranged in composition from trachyte to trachyphonolite, and formed the Breccia Unit and the Upper Pumice Flow Unit. The strongly differentiated trachyphonolite composition of the spatter clasts also suggests that they likely originated from the uppermost part of the reservoir soon after the eruption of Lower Pumice Flow Unit and the collapse of the chamber roof. This is in agreement with the eruptive model proposed by Perrotta and Scarpati (1994).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614198M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614198M"><span>Mineralogical and petrological investigations of rocks cored from depths higher than 440m during the CFDDP drilling activities at the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Balassone, Giuseppina; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera is one of the highest-risk volcanic areas on the Earth and the drilling exploiting activities carried by the Azienda Geologica Italiana Petroli (AGIP) and the Società Anonima Forze Endogene Napoletane (SAFEN) since the '40 have produced the main constrains to the definition of the subsurface structure of the caldera. The eastern part of the caldera represents among the least known in the area in terms of both volcanic and geothermal evolution. Recently, in the 2012, the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) allowed performing a 506m hole in this sector of the caldera, i.e. in the Bagnoli Plain, where the western districts of the Neapolitan city developed. Here, we present the preliminary results from mineralogical, geochemical and petrological investigations of drilling core samples collected at -443 m and -506 m of depths. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microanalysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) together with investigations by back-scattered electron mode (SEM-BSE), and powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) allowed: 1) defining the primary sample lithology; 2) examining the features of both primary and secondary minerals; 3) describing the relationships among texture and secondary mineralization. Sr isotope analyses were furthermore performed on separated feldspars. Density measurements were also carried out on the bottom core. The investigated samples are representative of strongly altered, massive pyroclastic tuffs, which made of a chaotic ashy to sandy matrix including low crystalline juvenile scoria and pumice fragments. Textural features of secondary mineralization are consistent with circulation of hydrothermal fluids as the results of a wide geothermal resource in the caldera. Comparing the paleo-temperature inferred by authigenic minerals occurrence and the temperature measured at the bottom hole (~60°C) during geophysical logs, we suggest the cooling of the hydrothermal system in the eastern sector of the caldera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5586S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5586S"><span>Continuous thermal infrared monitoring at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Vesuvius (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) by automated data processing: an effective surveillance tool of active volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sansivero, Fabio; Vilardo, Giuseppe</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano Thermal Infrared Imagery Monitoring Network (TIIMNet) is made up of IR acquisition stations designed to continuously acquire IR scenes of diffuse degassing areas in the Neapolitan volcanic district. Every station consists of a RMS (Remote Monitoring Station) which manages the shooting functionalities of the IR camera and the connection to the surveillance Centre of INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano in Naples. The first developed station was equipped with a NEC Thermo Tracer TS7302 IR camera (with 320x240 pixel FPA uncooled microbolometer); a newer one is equipped with a FLIR SC645 IR camera (with 640x480 pixel FPA uncooled microbolometer) and is supported by an in-house developed hardware which manages a fully real-time control of data acquisition and transfer procedures. As a whole, TIIMNet is composed of four permanent stations and three transportable ones. The first permanent NEC Station was installed at Vesuvius on July 2004 and dismissed on May 2007. A new permanent FLIR Station was set up on June 2011 and it acquires IR scenes from the inner SW slope of Vesuvius crater. In the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (Pozzuoli, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) a permanent NEC Station was operative at Solfatara since September 2004 and it acquired scenes of the major fumaroles area located on the SE inner slope at the intersection of two active, SW-NE and NW-SE main faults. A permanent FLIR Station has been installed at Solfatara on June 2013 and takes IR shots of a significant thermal anomaly on the Northern inner slope of the crater. At Pisciarelli locality, on the Solfatara NE outer slope, a transportable NEC Station was set up on October 2006 and dismissed on September 2013. It was abreast of a permanent FLIR Station on March 2013. Both stations stored IR scenes of the outer eastern flank of the Solfatara tuff-cone characterized by heavy water vapor and CO2 emissions close to an active NW-SE fault. IR scenes are acquired every night by the TIIMNet stations and in real time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..304..180P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..304..180P"><span>Native sulfur, sulfates and sulfides from the active <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcano (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>): Genetic environments and degassing dynamics revealed by mineralogy and isotope geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piochi, Monica; Mormone, Angela; Balassone, Giuseppina; Strauss, Harald; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We investigated sulfur-bearing minerals from the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, in relation to the increase of hydrothermal activity phenomena since 2006, aimed at providing insights into the volcanic system dynamics. Mineral encrustations and muds were sampled between 2013 and 2015 at the long-standing degassing crater of the Solfatara tuff cone and its recently restless north-eastern Pisciarelli slope. Deep-seated sulfides were further separated from two drill cores (AGIP's Mofete boreholes: 1500 m and 2695 m depth). The mineral assemblage and texture of sampled encrustations were determined by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis by energy dispersive spectrometry. Native sulfur and alunite dominate among the newly formed mineral phases. Other minerals are mostly alunogen, and locally pickeringite, potassium alum, hematite and pyrite. Mereiterite and amarillite sporadically occur. The mud pools are rich in gypsum, potassium alum and pyrite. Quartz and argillic phases, locally with analcime, are dispersed in the outcropping rocks. δ34S values were determined for shallow subsurface native sulfur (- 5.5 to 0.0‰) and alunite (- 1.7 to - 0.2‰), as well as for the deep-seated pyrite (3.3 to 7.4‰ in the depth range:1500-2695 m). δ18O values were measured for shallow native alunite (4.2 to 7.0‰). Pisciarelli alunite was finally analyzed for its 87Sr/86Sr ratio and 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.707517 ± 6 and 0.512459 ± 6, respectively). Textural and isotopic data constrain the genesis of alunite at the expense of K-feldspars through rock alteration by hydrothermal fluids. We suggest that the caldera is a low-sulfidation system hosting acid-sulfate deposits in its active degassing area. The acid-sulfate environment developed on an argillitic facies that thins outwards and is characteristic for steam-heated and magmatic-steam environments. These environments developed in relation to the fractured settings that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210531C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210531C"><span>The <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s D.P.C. - I.N.G.V. Project UNREST: Realization of an integrated method for the definition of the unrest phases at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Civetta, Lucia; Del Pezzo, Edoardo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In this poster we present the framework of the Project "UNREST" and the preliminary results obtained in the first 18 months of activity. The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> resurgent caldera, where several hundred thousands people live, have been characterized during last decades by several bradiseismic crises which determined the partial evacuation of the population, as for the crises in 1969-72 and 1982-84. Recent studies have revealed a process of unrest which continues since the fifties, and which presents characteristics similar to the several centuries-decades long unrest period which led to the last eruption in AD 1538. In the frame of last INGV-DPC Agreement a method has been developed, which allows accounting of any information and associated uncertainty coming from historical, field, and modelling studies, and from the monitoring network, providing a probability on the state of the volcano and on the occurrence of an eruption. In the present project this method is explored and developed, particularly through the experimentation of methods for the definition of reference parameters and thresholds, and of criteria and procedures to make it an operational tool useful for volcano surveillance and crisis management. The research in the project include the following points: a) Definition of the reference database for the validation of models of pre-eruptive dynamics. The database will include geologic, geophysic, geochemical, hydrological and hystorical data. b) Quantitative analysis of measured signals, and formulation of hypotheses on source mechanisms. c) Definition of a general conceptual model for the magma-rocks-geothermal system at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>. d) Physico-mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of the magmatic and geothermal process dynamics, and of the space-time relationships between such dynamics and the geophysical and geochemical signals measured at the surface. e) Definition of the critical parameters for the definition of the different unrest phases, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.G11A1061M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.G11A1061M"><span>A new method to assess long term small sea-bottom vertical displacement in shallow water from bottom pressure sensor: the case of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malservisi, R.; Chierici, F.; Iannaccone, G.; Guardato, S.; Pignagnoli, L.; Locritani, M.; Embriaco, D.; Donnarumma, G. P.; Rodgers, M.; Beranzoli, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present a new methodology aimed at assessing long term small vertical seafloor deformation in shallow water environments by using Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) measurements jointly with ancillary sea level, water column and barometric data. These measurements are presently acquired only in areas where the amount of vertical deformation is large and in deep water environment, where the noise induced by the sea state and other near surface disturbances is low. We applied the method to the data acquired in 2011 by a BPR deployed at about 96 m depth in the marine sector of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera, during a quasi-symmetric seafloor uplift episode of a few centimeters amplitude. The method provides an estimation of the vertical uplift of the caldera of 2.5 +/- 1.3 cm achieving an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the seafloor vertical deformation in shallow water. We reached this result by taking into account the contribution of the BPR instrumental drift and the contribution of the sea water density variations, which can affect the measurement on the order of tens of centimeters. The estimation of the vertical deformation obtained in this way compares favorably with data acquired by a land based GPS station, which is located at the same distance from the area of maximum deformation as the BPR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.7775C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.7775C"><span>A new method to assess long-term sea-bottom vertical displacement in shallow water using a bottom pressure sensor: Application to <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chierici, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giovanni; Pignagnoli, Luca; Guardato, Sergio; Locritani, Marina; Embriaco, Davide; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Rodgers, Mel; Malservisi, Rocco; Beranzoli, Laura</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We present a new methodology using bottom pressure recorder (BPR) measurements in conjunction with sea level, water column, and barometric data to assess the long-term vertical seafloor deformation to a few centimeters accuracy in shallow water environments. The method helps to remove the apparent vertical displacement on the order of tens of centimeters caused by the BPR instrumental drift and by seawater density variations. We have applied the method to the data acquired in 2011 by a BPR deployed at 96 m depth in the marine sector of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera, during a seafloor uplift episode of a few centimeters amplitude, lasted for several months. The method detected a vertical uplift of the caldera of 2.5 ± 1.3 cm achieving an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the submarine vertical deformation in shallow water. The estimated vertical deformation at the BPR also compares favorably with data acquired by a land-based GPS station located at the same distance from the maximum of the modeled deformation field. While BPR measurements are commonly performed in deep waters, where the oceanic noise is relatively low, and in areas with rapid, large-amplitude vertical ground displacement, the proposed method extends the capability of estimating vertical uplifts from BPR time series to shallow waters and to slow deformation processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JVGR..133..171I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JVGR..133..171I"><span>The Astroni volcano: the only example of closely spaced eruptions in the same vent area during the recent history of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Isaia, Roberto; D'Antonio, Massimo; Dell'Erba, Francesco; Di Vito, Mauro; Orsi, Giovanni</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>The Astroni volcano formed during the third and most recent epoch of activity (4.8-3.8 ka) of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (CFc). The activity of the volcano was dominated by explosive, mostly phreatomagmatic eruptions, with only subordinate lava effusions. We have grouped the sequence of deposits into seven distinct units, separated by erosional unconformities or very thin paleosols. The units include mostly surge beds, with subordinate strombolian deposits and lavas, and one plinian fallout layer. The total volume of erupted magma is 0.45 km 3 (DRE), while the total mass is 1.12×10 12 kg. The magma feeding the first five eruptions was alkali-trachytic and slightly zoned, while the last two eruptions tapped a magma batch resulting from mixing of the previously extruded alkali-trachytic and a less evolved trachytic magma. The volcano grew at the northwestern edge of the polygonal volcano-tectonic collapse, northwest-southeast elongated, which accompanied the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.1 ka), the largest of the third epoch. Available radiometric dates and stratigraphical data constrain the age of the volcano in the final part of the 4.1-3.8 ka time span. This implies that the seven eruptions followed each other at very short time intervals. This conclusion is also supported by constancy in archaeological facies of findings within the paleosols between variable Astroni units, in the plain north of the caldera. The sequence of close eruptions in the same area, although with a slight migration of the vent from northwest to southeast, makes the Astroni volcano peculiar in the recent history of the CFc. Therefore, the definition of its history is very important in order to understand one of the past phenomenologies of the caldera, relevant elements to forecast its behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSeis..17..829D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSeis..17..829D"><span>A reappraisal of seismic Q evaluated in <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. Receipt for the application to risk analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The civil defense of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and the European community have planned to reformulate the volcanic risk in several volcanic areas of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, among which Mt. Vesuvius and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, by taking into account the possible occurrence of damaging pre- or syn-eruptive seismic events. Necessary to achieve this goal is the detailed knowledge of the local attenuation-distance relations. In the present note, we make a survey of the estimates of seismic quality factor (the inverse is proportional to the attenuation coefficient with distance) reported in literature for the area of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> where many, but sometimes contradictory results have been published on this topic. We try to review these results in order to give indications for their correct use when calculating the attenuation laws for this area.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1882D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1882D"><span>Seismic imaging of the hot source of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> unrest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Siena, Luca; Chiodini, Giovanni; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Castellano, Mario; Colombelli, Simona; Tisato, Nicola; Ventura, Guido</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera is the site of the largest volcanic eruption in Europe during the past 100,000 years. Here, we propose a novel seismic attenuation and lapse-time source model supported by interdisciplinary data, which image the structures and dynamics active at the caldera with enhanced interpretational potential. The deepest anomaly in our model is a 4-5 km deep, NNW-SSE striking, aseismic hot zone offshore the city of Pozzuoli, active during the main seismic and deformation unrest of the caldera (1983-84). The hot zone is either a magma sill/fluid reservoir or the high-absorption top of of a molten domain, it feeds a reservoir of supercritical fluids/foams topping at a depth of about 3 km, and produces strong absorption, detected by 2D absorption mapping. Seismic activity, gravimetric anomalies, geomorphology, and geochemical data all confirm that the structure produces time-dependent pulses opening cracks in the generally aseismic western portion of the caldera, thus following the pattern of magma transfer active during the last eruption of the caldera, and stopping the unrest. After 1984, seismic activity oat <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> has almost stopped due to changes in this deep feeding structure, which, as remote sensing data show, is still active today.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211010M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211010M"><span>Viscosity of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> Flregrei (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) magmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917290I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917290I"><span>Multidisciplinary study (CO2 flux, ERT, self-potential, permeability and structural surveys) in Fondi di Baia, Astroni and Agnano volcanoes: insights for the structural architecture of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Isaia, Roberto; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Conti, Eric; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Lucchetti, Carlo; Prinzi, Ernesto; Ranaldi, Massimo; Tarchini, Luca; Tramparulo, Francesco; Troiano, Antonio; Vitale, Stefano; Cascella, Enrico; Castello, Nicola; Cicatiello, Alessandro; Maiolino, Marco; Puzio, Domenico; Tazza, Lucia; Villani, Roberto</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Recent volcanism at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera produced more than 70 eruptions in the last 15 ka formed different volcanic edifices. The vent distribution was related to the main volcano-tectonic structure active in the caldera along which also concentrated part of the present hydrothermal and fumarolic activity, such as in the Solfatara area. In order to define the role of major faults in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera, we analyzed some volcanic craters (Fondi di Baia and Astroni) and the Agnano caldera, by means of different geochemical and geophysical technics including CO2 flux, electrical resistivity (ERT), self-potential and permeability surveys. We provided some ERT profiles and different maps of geochemical and geophysical features. Major fault planes were identified comparing ERT imaging with alignments of anomalies in maps. The results can improve the knowledge on the present state of these volcanoes actually not fully monitored though included in the area with high probability of future vent opening within the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BVol...76..812P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BVol...76..812P"><span>Volcanic CO2 flux measurement at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Valenza, M.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Near-infrared room temperature tunable diode lasers (TDL) have recently found increased usage in atmospheric chemistry and air monitoring research, but applications in volcanology are still limited to a few examples. Here, we explored the potential of a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) for measurement of volcanic CO2 mixing ratios, and ultimately for estimating the volcanic CO2 flux. Our field tests were conducted at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> near Pozzuoli, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, where the GasFinder was used during three campaigns in October 2012, January 2013 and May 2013 to repeatedly measure the path-integrated mixing ratios of CO2 along cross sections of the atmospheric plumes of two major fumarolic fields (Solfatara and Pisciarelli). By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we resolved, for each of the two fields, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the atmosphere, from the integration of which (and after multiplication by the plumes' transport speeds) the CO2 fluxes were finally obtained. We evaluate a total CO2 output from the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> fumaroles of ˜490 Mg/day, in line with independent estimates based on in situ (Multi-GAS) observations. We conclude that TDL technique may enable CO2 flux quantification at other volcanoes worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917637D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917637D"><span>2D and 3D high resolution seismic imaging of shallow Solfatara crater in <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>): new insights on deep hydrothermal fluid circulation processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Landro, Grazia; Gammaldi, Sergio; Serlenga, Vincenzo; Amoroso, Ortensia; Russo, Guido; Festa, Gaetano; D'Auria, Luca; Bruno, Pier Paolo; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Zollo, Aldo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Seismic tomography can be used to image the spatial variation of rock properties within complex geological media such as volcanoes. Solfatara is a volcano located within the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> still active caldera, characterized by periodic episodes of extended, low-rate ground subsidence and uplift called bradyseism accompanied by intense seismic and geochemical activities. In particular, Solfatara is characterized by an impressive magnitude diffuse degassing, which underlines the relevance of fluid and heat transport at the crater and prompted further research to improve the understanding of the hydrothermal system feeding the surface phenomenon. In this line, an active seismic experiment, Repeated Induced Earthquake and Noise (RICEN) (EU Project MEDSUV), was carried out between September 2013 and November 2014 to provide time-varying high-resolution images of the structure of Solfatara. In this study we used the datasets provided by two different acquisition geometries: a) A 2D array cover an area of 90 x 115 m ^ 2 sampled by a regular grid of 240 vertical sensors deployed at the crater surface; b) two 1D orthogonal seismic arrays deployed along NE-SW and NW-SE directions crossing the 400 m crater surface. The arrays are sampled with a regular line of 240 receiver and 116 shots. We present 2D and 3D tomographic high-resolution P-wave velocity images obtained using two different tomographic methods adopting a multiscale strategy. The 3D image of the shallow (30-35 m) central part of Solfatara crater is performed through the iterative, linearized, tomographic inversion of the P-wave first arrival times. 2D P-wave velocity sections (60-70 m) are obtained using a non-linear travel-time tomography method based on the evaluation of a posteriori probability density with a Bayesian approach. The 3D retrieved images integrated with resistivity section and temperature and CO2 flux measurements , define the following characteristics: 1. A depth dependent P-wave velocity layer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JVGR..254..118R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JVGR..254..118R"><span>Volcanic risk perception in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ricci, T.; Barberi, F.; Davis, M. S.; Isaia, R.; Nave, R.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> which includes part of the city of Naples, is an active volcanic system; its last eruption occurred in 1538 AD. More recently two significant crises occurred between 1969 and 72 and 1982-84 and were accompanied by ground movements (bradyseism) and seismic activity, forcing people of the town of Pozzuoli to be evacuated. Since 1984 development of a volcanic emergency plan has been underway. In 2000 Civil Protection published a risk map which defined the Red Zone, an area highly at risk from pyroclastic flows, which would need to be evacuated before an eruption. The first study to evaluate the volcanic risk perceptions of the people living within the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area was completed in spring 2006, resulting in the largest sample ever studied on this topic except for one on Vesuvio area residents by Barberi et al. (2008). A 46 item questionnaire was distributed to 2000 of the approximately 300,000 residents of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Red Zone, which includes three towns and four neighborhoods within the city of Naples. A total of 1161 questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 58%. Surveys were distributed to junior high and high school students, as well as to adult members of the general population. Results indicated that unlike issues such as crime, traffic, trash, and unemployment, volcanic hazards are not spontaneously mentioned as a major problem facing their community. However, when asked specific questions about volcanic risks, respondents believe that an eruption is likely and could have serious consequences for themselves and their communities and they are quite worried about the threat. Considering the events of 1969-72 and 1982-84, it was not surprising that respondents indicated earthquakes and ground deformations as more serious threats than eruptive phenomena. Of significant importance is that only 17% of the sample knows about the existence of the Emergency Plan, announced in 2001, and 65% said that they have not received</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178394','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178394"><span>Magmatic-hydrothermal fluid interaction and mineralization in alkali-syenite nodules from the Breccia Museo pyroclastic deposit, Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: Chapter 7 in Volcanism in the Campania Plain — Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Ignimbrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fedele, Luca; Tarzia, Maurizio; Belkin, Harvey E.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria; Lowenstern, Jacob</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Breccia Museo, a pyroclastic flow that crops out in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic complex (Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>), contains alkali-syenite (trachyte) nodules with enrichment in Cl and incompatible elements (e.g., U, Zr, Th, and rare-earth elements). Zircon was dated at ≈52 ka, by U-Th isotope systematics using a SHRIMP. Scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe analysis of the constituent phases have documented the mineralogical and textural evolution of the nodules of feldspar and mafic accumulations on the magma chamber margins. Detailed electron microprobe data are given for alkali and plagioclase feldspar, salite to ferrosalite clinopyroxene, pargasite, ferrogargasite, magnesio-hastingsite hornblende amphibole, biotite mica, Cl-rich scapolite, and a member (probable davyne-type) of the cancrinite group. Detailed whole rock, major and minor element data are also presented for selected nodules. A wide variety of common and uncommon accessory minerals were identified such as zircon, baddeleyite, zirconolite, pollucite, sodalite, titanite, monazite, cheralite, apatite, titanomagnetite and its alteration products, scheelite, ferberite, uraninite/thorianite, uranpyrochlore, thorite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and galena. Scanning electron microscope analysis of opened fluid inclusions identified halite, sylvite, anhydrite, tungstates, carbonates, silicates, sulfides, and phosphates; most are probably daughter minerals. Microthermometric determinations on secondary fluid inclusions hosted by alkali feldspar define a temperature regime dominated by hypersaline aqueous fluids. Fluid-inclusion temperature data and mineral-pair geothermometers for coexisting feldspars and hornblende and plagioclase were used to construct a pressure-temperature scenario for the development and evolution of the nodules. We have compared the environment of porphyry copper formation and the petrogenetic environment constructed for the studied nodules. The suite of ore minerals observed in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...72A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...72A"><span>Constraining pre-eruptive magma conditions and unrest timescales during the Monte Nuovo eruption (1538 ad; <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>): integrating textural and CSD results from experimental and natural trachy-phonolites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arzilli, Fabio; Piochi, Monica; Mormone, Angela; Agostini, Claudia; Carroll, Michael R.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present crystallization experiments representing a broad range of growth conditions of alkali feldspar and sodalite in a trachy-phonolite magma composition during later stages of evolution. Our results include (i) textural data and mineral assemblages of synthetic samples; (ii) feldspar nucleation kinetics and growth rate estimates; and (iii) textural data, mineral abundances, and crystal size distribution measurements on samples representative of the Monte Nuovo eruption (1538 ad), the last eruption of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Experiments reproduced the texture and feldspar content of natural products indicating that kinetic data can provide insights into processes within the volcanic system shortly before and during this small-magnitude eruption and, particularly, about magma ascent timescale. We suggest that the groundmass crystallization of Monte Nuovo magma started between 4 and 7 km depth (˜100-200 MPa) at a temperature between 825 and 840 °C (close to the liquidus of alkali feldspar). The crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspar and the absence of sodalite in most of the natural samples indicate that magma ascent rate increased in the shallow part of the conduit from about 3 km depth to the quenching level (possibly fragmentation point; ˜30 MPa), during the first phases of the eruption. The crystallization time of the magma requires that it ascended from pre-eruptive storage to the quenching level in several hours to a few days. We also observe that a small decrease in pressure can induce a dramatic increase in crystallinity, with associated rheological changes, leading to changes in the eruption style, and such changes could occur on timescales of hours to several days. The products from the later phases of the Monte Nuovo eruption are more crystalline and contain sodalite in response to the decrease in magma ascent rate, which in turn allowed for more degassing during ascent, resulting in more time spent at very shallow depths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210146V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210146V"><span>Physical properties of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> tuff from variable depths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vinciguerra, Sergio; Del Gaudio, Pierdomenico; Iarocci, Alessandro; Mollo, Silvio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Freda, Carmela</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>A number of measurements on physical properties of volcanic tuff from different volcanic Italian districts (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Colli Albani, Lago di Vico) has been performed in the recent years. Petrophysical investigations carried out at increasing/decreasing effective pressure (Vinciguerra et al., 2005; 2008) revealed how, within the same lithology, the different degree of lithification and presence of clasts can affect significantly physical property values. Microstructural analyses revealed that the pressurization and depressurization cycles generate inelastic crack damage/pore collapse and permanent reduction of voids space. When cores from boreholes were investigated, significant variations of physical properties have been found even within the same tuff lithologies (Vinciguerra et al., 2008), which significantly influence the modelling of the overall physics and mechanics, as well as the input parameters for ground deformation and seismicity modelling. In this study we analysed the physical properties of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> tuff (12ka) cores from depths down to 100m, which is the most abundant and widely distributed lithology in the caldera (Rosi and Sbrana, 1987). CF tuff is a strongly heterogeneous pyroclastic flow material, which include cavities, pumice and crystals of sanidine, pyroxene and biotite (Vanorio et al., 2002; Vinciguerra et al., 2005). Total porosity was measured, after drying samples at 80°C for 24 hours, throughout a helium pycnometer (AccuPyc II 1340, Micromeritics Company) with ±0.01% accuracy. Initial total porosity of 52% was found for cores coming from 30m of depth. Total porosity decreases to 46% , when cores from 100m depth are considered. Bench measurements of P-wave and S-wave velocities carried out in dry conditions are of 1.8 and 1.2 km/s respectively for the 30m depth cores and increase up to 2.1 km/s and 1.35 km/s at depth of 100m. Taken together, the measurements of porosity and seismic velocities of P and S wave velocities revealed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJEaS.103..401P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJEaS.103..401P"><span>The volcanic and geothermally active <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera: an integrated multidisciplinary image of its buried structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piochi, M.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Di Vito, M. A.; Mormone, A.; Tramelli, A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera in southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is one of the greatest geohazard areas on Earth. Evidence of an active magmatic and geothermal system is provided by ongoing ground uplift, with volcano-tectonic and long-period (LP) seismicity, the persistent degassing of ~1500 tonnes of CO2 per day, the presence of hot fumaroles at temperatures of 90-150 °C, brine-rich aquifers (with total dissolved solids up to 33 g l-1) and high thermal gradients in the crust (with temperatures reaching 420 °C at 3,050 m b.s.l.). Since the 1940s, more than 100 exploratory boreholes have been drilled in the area to depths of 80-3,100 m by the Azienda Geologica Italiana Petroli (AGIP) and the Società Anonima Forze Endogene Napoletane (SAFEN). To date, however, no systematic reanalysis of the drilling data has been carried out, and the buried volcanic structure has not been updated using the most recent scientific results and previous findings. By integrating unpublished data from the AGIP and SAFEN reports with published information from geological, volcanological, petrological, petrophysical and geophysical studies, this paper presents an improved picture of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera that will be useful for volcanic hazard assessment and mitigation in the Naples area and for future research planning. The results suggest that intra-caldera activity has been influenced by how the magmatic system at depths greater than about 4 km has determined the transfer of magma, volatiles, and heat to the overlying geothermal system and, ultimately, to the surface. In particular, intriguing is that the most volcanically active central-eastern sector of the caldera, which is subject to intense bradyseismic ground movement and gas emission, coincides with a structurally delimited subsurface rock volume characterized by an uprising of the 100 °C isotherm, a deep water supply to the shallower aquifer, the early disappearance of secondary calcite, LP seismicity and high seismic S-wave attenuation. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BVol...79...18I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BVol...79...18I"><span>Timescales of magmatic processes prior to the ˜4.7 ka Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) based on diffusion chronometry from sanidine phenocrysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Fedele, Lorenzo; Mazzeo, Fabio Carmine; Arienzo, Ilenia; Cavallo, Andrea; Wörner, Gerhard; Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; D'Antonio, Massimo</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Barium diffusion chronometry applied to sanidine phenocrysts from the trachytic Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (˜4.7 ka) constrains the time between reactivation and eruption of magma batches in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. Backscattered electron imaging and quantitative electron microprobe measurements on 50 sanidine phenocrysts from representative pumice samples document core-to-rim compositional zoning. We focus on compositional breaks near the crystal rims that record magma mixing processes just prior to eruption. Diffusion times were modeled at a magmatic temperature of 930 °C using profiles based on quantitative BaO point analyses, X-ray scans, and grayscale swath profiles, yielding times ≤60 years between mixing and eruption. Such short timescales are consistent with volcanological and geochronological data that indicate that at least six eruptions occurred in the Agnano-San Vito area during few centuries before the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption. Thus, the short diffusion timescales are similar to time intervals between eruptions. Therefore, the rejuvenation time of magma residing in a shallow reservoir after influx of a new magma batch that triggered the eruption, and thus pre-eruption warning times, may be as short as years to a few decades at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016632','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016632"><span>14C age of the "Museum Breccia" (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>) and its relevance for the origin of the Campanian Ignimbrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lirer, L.; Rolandi, G.; Rubin, M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Field stratigraphic investigations and AMS 14C dating of carbon particles in paleosols has resulted in a framework of the sequence and age of the pyroclastic products in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area of Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The Museum Breccia cannot be the early phase of the Campanian Ignimbrite, as was previously believed, but is from a smaller and later eruption with an age of approximately 17,900 y B.P. This date also precludes its correlation with the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (12,000 y B.P.). ?? 1991.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..299...35M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..299...35M"><span>Hazard of pyroclastic density currents at the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) as deduced from the combined use of facies architecture, physical modeling and statistics of the impact parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mele, D.; Dioguardi, F.; Dellino, P.; Isaia, R.; Sulpizio, R.; Braia, G.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Pyroclastic density currents of the recent eruptions at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera (CFC - Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) have been studied with the aim of assessing the potential impact of similar events in the future. Eruptions of different scales have been investigated by means of the combined use of facies architecture, laboratory analysis and physical modeling. Both in the small (Averno 2) and intermediate (Astroni) scales, facies analysis indicates that deposits result from the emplacement of pyroclastic density currents like base-surge, formed by multiple closely-timed impulses of phreatomagmatic origin. In the large-scale event (Agnano-Monte Spina), the facies architecture suggests that the currents started as concentrated flows near the vent, as originating from the collapse of a dense eruptive column, and evolved laterally into expanded flows by the propagation of the basal shear current. Laboratory analyses on samples from the main layers of deposits allowed obtaining the input data for the PYFLOW code, which was used for reconstructing the flow dynamic characteristics of the currents. The expected damage is discussed in terms of the probability density function of dynamic pressure and particle volumetric concentration. In this way, the range of potential impact that similar pyroclastic density currents could cause to buildings, infrastructures and population is defined. In the large-scale event, the dynamic pressure ranges from 9.38 to 1.00 kPa (integrating the basal 10 m of the current) at distances of 1.5 and 4.0 km from the vent, respectively. The values are highly influenced by the local topography. In the intermediate-scale event, the dynamic pressure ranges from 2.43 to 0.26 kPa at distances of 1.1 and 1.4 km from the vent, respectively. In the small scale event, the dynamic pressure ranges from 1.49 to 0.39 kPa at distances of 0.5 and 1.1 km from the vent, respectively. The particle volumetric concentration at a height of 2 m within the current is always lower than 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoJI.182.1073T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoJI.182.1073T"><span>A detailed study of the site effects in the volcanic area of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> using empirical approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tramelli, Anna; Galluzzo, Danilo; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Di Vito, Mauro A.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> is a highly populated active caldera in the south of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Several hundred thousand people live within this area, which is characterized by seismicity and ground deformation episodes, known as `bradyseism'. For this reason, this area falls into a high-risk category and thus the Italian Civil Defence requires a detailed site-effect estimation. To determine the local amplification of the seismic waves for a high number of sites, we have analysed the seismic recordings of three seismic networks that have been deployed in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area over different time periods. The first network was deployed during the bradyseismic crisis of 1982-1984. We selected 22 of the highest magnitude earthquakes that were recorded during this crisis. An additional 22 seismic events were selected from those recorded by the mobile seismic network that has been in operation in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area since 2006. The third data set comprises noise recorded by 34 seismic stations that were deployed during the active SERAPIS experiment in 2001 September. The generalized inversion technique and the H/V spectral ratio method were applied to the S waves and coda waves of the earthquakes recorded by the first two seismic networks, to determine the site-transfer functions of the recording stations. The seismic noise recorded by the third network was analysed using the Nakamura's technique. The results show that the high topographical and geological heterogeneity of the sites located inside the caldera has an important influence on the seismic-wave amplification. Consequently, the site-transfer functions can be different even at sites close to each other. The transfer functions of the sites located outside the caldera are much more regular, apparently due to the more regular topography and geology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213860D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213860D"><span>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project: understanding the structure and mechanisms of large collapse calderas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Large calderas are the most dangerous volcanoes on the Earth. They are produced by collapse during explosive super-eruptions, which are capable of triggering global catastrophes comparable to large meteorite impacts. The mechanisms of unrest and eruption at calderas are at a large extent unknown and, as demonstrated by volcanological research in the last decades, they may be very different from those characterizing more commonly studied stratovolcanoes. <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) represents an ideal natural laboratory to fully understand mechanisms of caldera dynamics and to develop techniques for eruption forecast and effective risk mitigation. It is an active volcanic area marked by a quasi-circular caldera depression, formed by huge ignimbritic eruptions. The caldera has recently experienced intense deformation, originating uplift phenomena of more than 3.5 m in 15 years, with maximum rates of 1 m/year in the period 1982-1984, which caused the temporary evacuation of 30,000 people from the centre of Pozzuoli and exposed more than 500,000 to impending eruption risk (several millions in case of an ignimbritic eruption). This area will be the target of a leading International project, the ‘<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project', sponsored by ICDP, aimed to study in detail, by a crustal deviated drilling reaching the depth of about 4 km, the deep structure of the caldera. The role of deep drilling at this area is crucial. It could give a fundamental, precise insight into the substructure, the geometry and character of the geothermal systems and their role in the unrest episodes, as well as to explain magma chemistry and the mechanisms of magma-water interaction. One of the main goal will be giving a precise determination of the magma depth, based on the extrapolation of the geothermal gradient in purely conductive conditions, occurring below the maximum aquifer depth. The choice of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> as a target for the deep study of large calderas is justified by the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..289...26B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..289...26B"><span>First combined flux chamber survey of mercury and CO2 emissions from soil diffuse degassing at Solfatara of Pozzuoli crater, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>): Mapping and quantification of gas release</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagnato, E.; Barra, M.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Parello, F.; Sprovieri, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There have been limited studies to date targeting gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) flux from soil emission in enriched volcanic substrates and its relation with CO2 release and tectonic structures. In order to evaluate and understand the processes of soil-air exchanges involved at Solfatara of Pozzuoli volcano, the most active zone of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>), an intensive field measurement survey has been achieved in September 2013 by using high-time resolution techniques. Soil-air exchange fluxes of GEM and CO2 have been measured simultaneously at 116 points, widely distributed within the crater. Quantification of gas flux has been assessed by using field accumulation chamber method in conjunction with a Lumex®-RA 915 + portable mercury vapor analyzer and a LICOR for CO2 determination, respectively. The spatial distribution of GEM and CO2 emissions correlated quite closely with the hydrothermal and geological features of the studied area. The highest GEM fluxes (from 4.04 to 5.9 × 10- 5 g m- 2 d- 1) were encountered close to the southern part of the crater interested by an intense fumarolic activity and along the SE-SW tectonic fracture (1.26 × 10- 6-6.91 × 10- 5 g GEM m- 2 d- 1). Conversely, the lowest values have been detected all along the western rim of the crater, characterized by a weak gas flux and a lush vegetation on a very sealed clay soil, which likely inhibited mercury emission (range: 1.5 × 10- 7-7.18 × 10- 6 g GEM m- 2 d- 1). Results indicate that the GEM exchange between soil and air inside the Solfatara crater is about 2-3 orders of magnitude stronger than that in the background areas (10- 8-10- 7 g m- 2 d- 1). CO2 soil diffuse degassing exhibited an analogous spatial pattern to the GEM fluxes, with emission rates ranging from about 15 to ~ 20,000 g CO2 m- 2 d- 1, from the outermost western zones to the south-eastern sector of the crater. The observed significant correlation between GEM and CO2 suggested that in volcanic system GEM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16...26P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16...26P"><span>Volcanic CO2 mapping and flux measurements at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> by Tunable Diode Laser absorption Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pedone, Maria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Giudice, Gaetano; Grassa, Fausto; Chiodini, Giovanni; Valenza, Mariano</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Near-infrared room-temperature Tunable Diode Lasers (TDL) have recently found increased usage in atmospheric chemistry and air monitoring research, but applications in Volcanology are still limited to a few examples. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) to measurement of volcanic CO2 flux emissions. Our field tests were conducted at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (near Pozzuoli, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>), where the GasFinder was used (during three campaigns in October 2012, January 2013 and May 2013) to repeatedly measure the path-integrated concentrations of CO2 along cross-sections of the atmospheric plumes of the two main fumarolic fields in the area (Solfatara and Pisciarelli). By using ad-hoc designed field-set-up and a tomographic post-processing routine, we resolved, for each of the 2 manifestations, the contour maps of CO2 concentrations in their atmospheric plumes, from the integration of which (and after multiplication by the plumes' transport speeds) the CO2 fluxes were finally obtained [1]. The so-calculated fluxes average of 490 tons/day, which agrees well with independent evaluations of Aiuppa et al. (2013) [2] (460 tons/day on average), and support a significant contribution of fumaroles to the total CO2 budget. The cumulative (fumarole [this study] +soil [2]) CO2 output from <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> is finally evaluated at 1600 tons/day. The application of lasers to volcanic gas studies is still an emerging (though intriguing) research field, and requires more testing and validation experiments. We conclude that TDL technique may valuably assist CO2 flux quantification at a number of volcanic targets worldwide. [1] Pedone M. et al. (2013) Gold2013:abs:5563, Goldschmidt Conference, session 11a. [2] Aiuppa A. et al. (2013) Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20261. [3] Chiodini G. et al. (2010) Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 115, B03205. doi:10.1029/2008JB006258.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714510P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714510P"><span>Observatory response to a volcanic crisis: the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> simulation exercise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papale, Paolo; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In Febraury 2014 a simulation exercise was conducted at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, in order to test the scientific response capabilities and the effectiveness of communication with Civil Protection authorities. The simulation was organized in the frame of the EU-VUELCO project, and involved the participation of the Osservatorio Vesuviano of INGV (INGV-OV) corroborated by other INGV scientists involved for their specific competencies; and the Italian Civil Protection, which was supported by an expert team formed by selected experts from the Italian academy and by VUELCO scientists from several EU and Latin American countries. The simulation included a previously appointed group of four volcanologists covering a range of expertise in volcano seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, and with experience both on the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> system and on other volcanic systems and crises in the world. The duty of this 'volcano team' was that of producing consistent sets of signals, that were sent to INGV-OV at the beginning of each simulation phase. In turn, the observatory response was that of i) immediately communicate the relevant observations to the Civil Protection; ii) analyze the synthetic signals and observations and extract a consistent picture and interpretation, including the analysis and quantification of uncertainties; iii) organize all the information produced in a bulletin, that was sent to the Civil Protection at the end of each simulation phase and that contained, according to national established agreements, a) the information available, and b) its interpretation including forecasts on the possible medium-short term evolution. The test included four simulation phases and it was blind, as only the volcano team knew the evolution and the final outcome; the volcano team was located at the INGV buildings in Rome, far from INGV-OV in Naples and the Civil Protection Dept. still in Rome, and with no contacts with any of them for the entire duration of the simulation. In this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Geo....34..937M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Geo....34..937M"><span>Magma chamber of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> supervolcano at the time of eruption of the Campanian Ignimbrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marianelli, Paola; Sbrana, Alessandro; Proto, Monica</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>A supereruption that occurred in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, ca. 39 ka had regional- and global-scale environmental impacts and deposited the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). We attempt to shed light on critical aspects of the eruption (depth of magma chamber, intensive pre-eruptive magma conditions) and the large-volume magma plumbing system on the basis of information derived from analyzing melt inclusion (MI) data. To achieve these aims, we provide new measurements of homogenization temperatures and values of dissolved H2O within phenocryst-hosted MIs from pumices erupted during different phases of the CI eruption. The MI data indicate that a relatively homogeneous overheated trachytic magma resided within a relatively deep magma chamber. Dissolved water contents in MIs indicate that prior to the eruption the magma chamber underwent radical changes related to differential upward movement of magma. Decompression of the rising trachytic magma caused a decrease in water solubility and crystallization, and trachytic bodies were emplaced at very shallow depths. The proposed eruptive model links portions of the main magma chamber and apophyses with specific eruptive units.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28808286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28808286"><span>Source and dynamics of a volcanic caldera unrest: <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, 1983-84.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Siena, Luca; Chiodini, Giovanni; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Castellano, Mario; Colombelli, Simona; Tisato, Nicola; Ventura, Guido</p> <p>2017-08-14</p> <p>Despite their importance for eruption forecasting the causes of seismic rupture processes during caldera unrest are still poorly reconstructed from seismic images. Seismic source locations and waveform attenuation analyses of earthquakes in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) during the 1983-1984 unrest have revealed a 4-4.5 km deep NW-SE striking aseismic zone of high attenuation offshore Pozzuoli. The lateral features and the principal axis of the attenuation anomaly correspond to the main source of ground uplift during the unrest. Seismic swarms correlate in space and time with fluid injections from a deep hot source, inferred to represent geochemical and temperature variations at Solfatara. These swarms struck a high-attenuation 3-4 km deep reservoir of supercritical fluids under Pozzuoli and migrated towards a shallower aseismic deformation source under Solfatara. The reservoir became aseismic for two months just after the main seismic swarm (April 1, 1984) due to a SE-to-NW directed input from the high-attenuation domain, possibly a dyke emplacement. The unrest ended after fluids migrated from Pozzuoli to the location of the last caldera eruption (Mt. Nuovo, 1538 AD). The results show that the high attenuation domain controls the largest monitored seismic, deformation, and geochemical unrest at the caldera.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1617010P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1617010P"><span>Permeability of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> magmas: examples from the Campanian Ignimbrite and Monte Nuovo eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polacci, Margherita; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, Caroline; Giordano, Daniele; Piochi, Monica; Mancini, Lucia; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We performed permeability measurements on trachy-phonolitic pyroclastic products from the Campanian Ignimbrite and Monte Nuovo, two explosive eruptions from the active <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Viscous (Darcian) permeability spans a wide range between 1.22x10-14 and 9.31x10-11 m2. Inertial (non-Darcian) permeability follows the same trend as viscous permeability: it increases as viscous permeability increases, highlighting the strong direct correlation between these two parameters. We observe that vesicularity does not exert a first order control on permeability: the Monte Nuovo scoria clasts are the most permeable samples but not the most vesicular; pumice clasts from the Campanian Ignimbrite proximal facies, whose vesicularity is comparable with that of Monte Nuovo scoriae, are instead the least permeable. In addition, we find that sample geometry exhibits permeability anisotropy as samples oriented parallel to vesicle elongation are more permeable than those oriented perpendicular. We compare our results with permeability values of volcanic products from effusive and explosive activity, and discuss the role of melt viscosity and crystallinity on magma permeability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917156B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917156B"><span>The Vesuvius/<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Supersite: state of the art and future perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borgstrom, Sven; Del Gaudio, Carlo; De Martino, Prospero; Prats-Iraola, Pau; Nannini, Matteo; Vecchioli, Francesco; Minati, Federico; Costantini, Mario; Stramondo, Salvatore; Bignami, Christian; Polcari, Marco; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Silvestri, Malvina; Pepe, Antonio; Pepe, Susi; Solaro, Giuseppe; Tizzani, Pietro; Siniscalchi, Valeria</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Vesuvius/<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Supersite was established in April, 2014 with the aim of improving monitoring and knowledge of one of the areas with the highest volcanic risk worldwide, due to the strong urbanization of the city of Naples and surroundings, lying between two active volcanoes: Vesuvius on the east and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> on the west, this latter with a recorded uplift of about 35 centimeters from 2011 to date. Such deformation suggested to the Italian Civil Protection Department (ICPD) to move from the base (green) alert level to attention (yellow) level in the framework of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> National Emergency Plan. In the first 2014-2016 biennial period, relevant results were carried out by the Supersite Science Team, apart from the outcomes of the ESA-SEOM INSARAP (Sentinel-1 INSAR Performance Study with TOPS data) project. Results are mainly focused on InSAR (S1-A, CSK, TSX) data processing, exploiting both SBAS and PS Interferometry over the Neapolitan volcanoes, with generation of ground deformation time series and comparison between LOS/inverted (E-W, vertical) InSAR and geodetic data, these latter from the INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano monitoring networks. After the first biennial period, a detailed report on the Supersite activities has been submitted and approved by CEOS for satellite data provision for the next 2016-2018 period. Besides the continuation of the work in progress, future steps will consist in a detailed InSAR study of Vesuvius, mainly in the upper coherent part of the volcano, in order to characterize the area of interest from the engineering geology point of view. Moreover, DLR is planning an airborne campaign with their F-SAR sensor over <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>; the contribution from INGV-OV to this campaign will consist in validating InSAR measurements with continuous GPS (cGPS) data. The campaign will take place around May and then again in 2018. With regard to the societal benefits of the current activities of the Supersite, the main</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111695M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111695M"><span>Phase relations and volatiles content of the Minopoli2 <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera shoshonitic magma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mangiacapra, A.; Rutherford, M.; Civetta, L.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>New constraints on pre-eruption conditions of the Minopoli2 shoshonitic magma are provided by experimental studies. The products of this eruption represent the least evolved magma composition erupted in the first epoch of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera activity (10.3-9.5 ka). Recent geochemical investigations (Mangiacapra et al.,2008)* on dissolved volatiles in the Minopoli2 phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions (MIs), revealed a H2O- and CO2-rich shoshonitic magma, stored at two depths (8-9 and 2-3 km) where it experienced both open-system degassing, driven by crystallization, and flushing with a CO2-rich gas phase coming from deeper levels. Phase equilibrium experiments dry and with 3.5wt% H2O have been guided by the dissolved H2O and CO2 in MIs. The phase equilibria of the shoshonite with 3.5 wt% H2O shows that the observed phenocryst assemblage (olivine, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase and biotite) becomes stable at 1020±15 °C over the pressure range of 40 to 150 MPa and to higher pressures. The experimental data indicate that the shoshonite crystallised the phenocryst assemblage (15 vol%) at a depth of circa 9 Km and 1025 °C; only small degrees of additional crystallization occurred as the magma ascended to a depth of circa 3 km with degassing of some MIs. Sulphur speciation in glassy MIs was determined as ≥ 79% sulphate which is equivalent to a log fO2≥ NNO + 1.5. The low end of the fO2 range is interpreted to represent the pre-eruption magma at depth. The solubility of CO2 and H2O as a function of pressure in the Minopoli2 shoshonite have been experimentally calibrated. These results contribute to the understanding of magma chamber processes and conduit dynamics, relevant parameters for hazard assessment. * Mangiacapra A., R. Moretti, M. Rutherford, L. Civetta, G. Orsi and P. Papale (2008) The deep magmatic system of the Camp <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035550</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815633S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815633S"><span>A temporal record of pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>: Insights from texturally-constrained apatite analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stock, Michael J.; Isaia, Roberto; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Pyle, David M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Apatite is capable of incorporating all major magmatic volatile species (H2O, CO2, S, Cl and F) into its crystal structure. Analysis of apatite volatile contents can be related to parental magma compositions through the application of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994). Once included within phenocrysts, apatite inclusions are isolated from the melt and preserve a temporal record of magmatic volatile contents in the build-up to eruption. In this work, we measured the volatile compositions of apatite inclusions, apatite microphenocrysts and pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (Stock et al. 2016). These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to decipher pre-eruptive magmatic processes. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset at shallow levels during ascent. Given the high diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), the preservation of volatile-undersaturated melt compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved 10 - 103 days before eruption. We suggest that late-stage transition into a volatile-saturated state caused an increase in magma chamber overpressure, which ultimately triggered the Astroni 1 eruption. This has major implications for monitoring of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and other similar volcanic systems. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Stock et al., 2016, Nat. Geosci. Gualda et al., 2012. J. Pet., 53, 875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4511F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4511F"><span>Real-time quadrupole mass spectrometry of hydrothermal gases from the unstable Pisciarelli fumaroles (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>): trends, challenges and processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fedele, Alessandro; Pedone, Maria; Moretti, Roberto; Somma, Renato; Wiersberg, Thomas; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Volcanic gases sampling and post-collection chemical determination in a laboratory may preclude any real-time continuous monitoring of volcanic activity. In this work we describe the development, and show the advantages, of a system used for the continuous monitoring of fumarolic gases discharges from the Pisciarelli site (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) based on a commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS-301). Although numerous technical problems were addressed due to the ephemeral emission point, coupled with the harsh environment, we also report measurements of the chemical composition of the major gas species emitted from the fumarole and a record were obtained for two different periods. The CO2/H2S, H2S/H2, He/CO2 and CH4/CO2 molar ratios were investigated in order to detect magmatic and/or hydrothermal components in the system, while the N2/O2 ratio was adopted to infer other non-volcanic processes, such as air contamination and mixing with polluted surface waters. This methodology provides continuous sampling and thus, more information on short-term gas variations, since direct sampling is often impractical and hazardous. With our method, the geochemical monitoring benefits of the real-time analysis for high sampling rates that can be made comparable to the continuous measurements of geophysical networks. This allows a better understanding of hydrothermal features, particularly of chemical fluctuations occurring on the very short-term, and is fundamental to evaluate the evolution of unrest episodes at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, one of the most hazardous volcanic areas in the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V31B2704M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V31B2704M"><span>Disclosing Multiple Magma Degassing Sources Offers Unique Insights of What's Behind the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera Unrest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moretti, R.; Civetta, L.; Orsi, G.; Arienzo, I.; D'Antonio, M.; Di Renzo, V.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The definition of the structure and evolution of the magmatic system of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (CFc), Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, has been a fundamental tool for the assessment of the short-term volcanic hazard. The ensemble of geophysical and petrologic data show that the CFc magmatic system has been -and still is- characterized by two major reservoirs at different depths. From the deep one (around 8 km), less evolved magmas crystallize and degas, supplying fluids and magmas to the shallow (3-4 km) reservoirs. A thorough reconstruction of processes occurring in magma chamber/s prior and/or during the CFc eruptions has shown that magmas entering shallow reservoirs mixed with resident and crystallized batches. Also the 1982-85 unrest episode has been related to a magma intrusion of 2.1 x 10^7 m^3 at 3-4 km depth, on the basis of geophysical data (ground deformation, gravimetry, seismic imaging) and their interpretation. Thermodynamic evaluation of magma properties, at the time of emplacement, suggests for such an intrusion a bulk density of 2.000 kg/m^3 . Such a value testifies the high amount of exsolved volatiles within the system. The available record of geochemical and isotopic data on surface fumaroles, coupled with melt inclusion data, has already shown that dual (deep and shallow) magma degassing from such two reservoirs, as well as their interaction with the hydrothermal system, allows explaining the relevant fluctuations observed at crater fumaroles after the 1982-85 magma intrusion. An important role was played by the rapid crystallization (around 30 years) of the shallow magma, such that in the recent years gas discharges should be fuelled mostly by the deep magma. Such a process is well recorded in the fumarolic gas composition of the last ~10 years, but has to be reconciled with the unrest dynamics which took place after year 2000, characterized by a slow but continuous ground uplift. All geochemical indicators (major species and noble gases) point to three possible</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPI..253...48C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPI..253...48C"><span>Detailed investigation of Long-Period activity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> by Convolutive Independent Component Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capuano, P.; De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; Falanga, M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This work is devoted to the analysis of seismic signals continuously recorded at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) during the entire year 2006. The radiation pattern associated with the Long-Period energy release is investigated. We adopt an innovative Independent Component Analysis algorithm for convolutive seismic series adapted and improved to give automatic procedures for detecting seismic events often buried in the high-level ambient noise. The extracted waveforms characterized by an improved signal-to-noise ratio allows the recognition of Long-Period precursors, evidencing that the seismic activity accompanying the mini-uplift crisis (in 2006), which climaxed in the three days from 26-28 October, had already started at the beginning of the month of October and lasted until mid of November. Hence, a more complete seismic catalog is then provided which can be used to properly quantify the seismic energy release. To better ground our results, we first check the robustness of the method by comparing it with other blind source separation methods based on higher order statistics; secondly, we reconstruct the radiation patterns of the extracted Long-Period events in order to link the individuated signals directly to the sources. We take advantage from Convolutive Independent Component Analysis that provides basic signals along the three directions of motion so that a direct polarization analysis can be performed with no other filtering procedures. We show that the extracted signals are mainly composed of P waves with radial polarization pointing to the seismic source of the main LP swarm, i.e. a small area in the Solfatara, also in the case of the small-events, that both precede and follow the main activity. From a dynamical point of view, they can be described by two degrees of freedom, indicating a low-level of complexity associated with the vibrations from a superficial hydrothermal system. Our results allow us to move towards a full description of the complexity of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5080I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5080I"><span>Residence times of alkali feldspar phenocrysts from magma feeding the Agnano-Monte Spina Eruption (4.7 ka), <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (Napoli, southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) based on Ba-zonation modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Wörner, Gerhard; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Arienzo, Ilenia; Fedele, Lorenzo; Civetta, Lucia; D'Antonio, Massimo; Orsi, Giovanni</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Timescales governing the development of crustal magma reservoirs are a key for understanding magmatic processes such as ascent, storage and mixing event. An estimate of these timescales can provide important constraints for volcanic hazard assessment of active volcanoes. We studied the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (A-MS; 4.7 ka; VEI = 4; 0.85 km3 D.R.E. of magma erupted) of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, one of the most dangerous volcanic areas on Earth. The A-MS eruption has been fed by magmas varying from more to less evolved trachyte whose variable 87Sr/86Sr and trace elements features suggest magma mixing between two end-members. Ba zonation profiles of alkali feldspar phenocrysts have been determined through combined energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses (EDS-WDS-EMPA). We focused on distinct compositional breaks near the rim of the crystals that likely represent the last mixing event prior to eruption. We always chose the steepest gradients close to the crystal rims, taking into account that any effects related to cutting angles or crystal orientation should give longer apparent diffusion times. Two different approaches were undertaken: (1) a quantitative Ba compositional profiles were measured by point analyses along a short transect crossing growth discontinuities and (2) grey-scale profiles were taken parallel to the acquired point profiles. Assuming that Ba dominates the backscattered electron intensities in sanidines, greyscale gradients can be used as a diffusive tracer. BSE images were processed using the ImageJ® software, in order to extract a numerical greyscale profile. In both cases, each profile was interpolated through a non-linear Boltzmann fit curve with the Mathematica® software. A few traverses done at angles smaller than 90° to the compositional boundary interface were corrected by multiplying the distance values by the sinus of the traverse angle relative to the vertical on the interface. Our preliminary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Sci...349..617V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Sci...349..617V"><span>Rock physics of fibrous rocks akin to Roman concrete explains uplifts at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanorio, Tiziana; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Uplifts in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera reach values unsurpassed anywhere in the world (~2 meters). Despite the marked deformation, the release of strain appears delayed. The rock physics analysis of well cores highlights the presence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix that results from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that characterizing the cementitious pastes in modern and Roman concrete. The formation of fibrous minerals by intertwining filaments confers shear and tensile strength to the caprock, contributing to its ductility and increased resistance to fracture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B43A0219C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B43A0219C"><span>Real-time measurements of Hg0 and H2S at La Solfatara Crater (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) and Mt. Amiata volcano (Siena, Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>): a new geochemical approach to estimate the distribution of air contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Capecchiacci, F.; Di Lonardo, C.; D'Alessandro, W.; Vaselli, O.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The emission of Hg and H2S from natural and anthropogenic sources may have a great environmental impact in urban areas as well as in the surroundings of active and passive degassing volcanoes. Mercury is present in the atmosphere mainly in its elemental form (Hg0~98 %), which has a relatively high volatility, low solubility and chemical inertness. Hydrogen sulfide, one of the most abundant gas species in volcanic fluids, is highly poisoning and corrosive. In this study, an innovative real-time method for the measurements of Hg0 and H2S concentrations in air was carried out at La Solfatara Crater, a hydrothermally altered tuff-cone nested in the town of Pozzuoli (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>), and at Mt. Amiata volcano (Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>), where a world-class Hg mining district abandoned in the seventies and a presently-exploited geothermal field for the production of electrical energy occur. The main aims were (i) to test this new methodological approach and (ii) to investigate Hg0 and H2S concentrations and the chemical-physical parameters regulating their spatial distribution in polluted areas. A portable Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer with high frequency modulation of light polarization (Lumex RA-915M) was used in combination with a pulsed fluorescence gas analyzer (Thermo Scientific Model 450i) to measure Hg0 and H2S, respectively. The instruments were synchronized and set at high-frequency acquisition (10 sec and 1 min, respectively). Measurements were carried out along pathways (up to 12 km long) at an average speed of <10 km/h and coupled with GPS data and meteorological parameters. In selected sites, passive samplers were positioned to determine the time-integrated Hg0 and H2S concentrations to be compared with the real-time measurements. The results indicate that this approach is highly efficient and effective in providing reliable and reproducible Hg0 and H2S concentrations and can be used to identify and characterize gas emitters in different environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9570D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9570D"><span>Timescales of magma processes occurred prior to recent <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera eruptions: first results from diffusion profiles on plagioclase phenocrysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Antonio, Massimo; Arienzo, Ilenia; Fedele, Lorenzo; Iovine, Raffaella; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Civetta, Lucia; Orsi, Giovanni; Wörner, Gerhard</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the timescales of magma rising and stagnation, as well as mingling/mixing processes occurring in the shallow plumbing system of an active volcano is crucial for volcanic hazard assessment and risk mitigation. Among few recently developed methodologies, high-precision, high spatial resolution analysis of major-, minor- and trace elements on zoned phenocrysts through electron microprobe techniques represents a powerful tool to provide good estimates of timescales of pre-eruptive magma rising, stagnation and/or mingling/mixing processes. To this purpose, volcanic rock samples of trachytic composition representative of the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.7 ka CAL BP) occurred at the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) have been selected. The investigation has been carried out in the framework of Project V2 - Precursori di Eruzioni, funded by the Italian Dipartimento per la Protezione Civile - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The investigated rock samples are pumice fragments from which double-polished, 100 µm thick thin sections have been prepared for analytical purposes. Back-scattered electrons (BSE) images have been acquired at the scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to identify the plagioclase phenocrysts suitable to be analyzed successively, selected among those that best display their zoning. After a careful observation of the BSE images, major-, minor- and selected trace element contents have been determined through combined energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive system electron microprobe analyses (EDS-WDS-EMPA) on transects crossing the growth zones of the selected phenocrysts. This methodology has allowed reconstructing the diffusion profile of some key-elements through the growth zones of the investigated phenocrysts. Successively, the diffusion profiles have been combined with textural features obtained through BSE images in order to obtain diffusion models aimed at estimating the timescales of crystals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..320..128M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..320..128M"><span>Hydrothermal alteration of surficial rocks at Solfatara (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>): Petrophysical properties and implications for phreatic eruption processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Isaia, Roberto; Aßbichler, Donjá; Dingwell, Donald B.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Solfatara crater is located within the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera to the west of Naples (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). It is one of the largest fumarolic manifestations known, and the rocks hosting the hydrothermal system are affected by intense hydrothermal alteration. Alteration can result in changes of degassing behavior, and in the formation of a cap rock thereby increasing the probability of phreatic eruptions. Here, we investigate the effects of alunitic (solfataric) alteration on the mineralogy, the physical properties (porosity, density, permeability) and the mechanical properties (strength) of the rocks involved, as well as its influence on fragmentation and ejection behavior. Our results show that the pristine mineralogy of deposits from the vicinity of the Solfatara cryptodome and from Pisciarelli is almost completely replaced by amorphous silica and alunite. The differences in the degree of alteration among the samples series are reflected in the investigated properties and behavior as well as in the analysis of the experimentally generated particles. Alunitic alteration increases porosity and permeability, whereas it reduces density, elastic wave velocity and strength leading to higher fragmentation and ejection speeds for the sample series examined in this study. Our results also show that alteration results in the generation of a high fraction of fines (particle sizes < 10 μm) during fragmentation, mainly composed of alunite crystals. Due to their potential for inducing chronic disease, dispersion of such material should represent a serious health hazard on a local scale and the evaluation of precautions should be considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410553P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410553P"><span>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera-hosted high-temperature and high-saline geothermal system in the Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: the implication of the geothermal resource as derived by the present state of the knowledge through 70 years of volcanological, structural, petrolog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piochi, M.; Di Vito, M. A.; Mormone, A.; De Natale, G.; Tramelli, A.; Troise, C.; Carlino, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) hosts a geothermal system characterized by: i) high thermal gradient (temperature up to 420°C at 3050 m b.s.l.), ii) high temperature (up to ~90-150°C at very shallow depth) fumaroles, iii) multiple meteoric to brine (TDS up to 33 g•l-1; temperature up to 95 °C) aquifers and iv) at least 1500 tonnes per day of CO2 emissions. This area is highly urbanized despite the repeated occurrence of ground deformation phenomena accompanied by seismicity with volcano-tectonic and long-period micro-earthquakes. The caldera has been widely studied by geologist and geophysicists. In particular, since '40s, the caldera has drawn scientific interest for its geothermal capability inducing the companies AGIP (Azienda Geologica Italiana Petroli) and SAFEN (Società Anonima Forze Endogene Napoletane) to drill more than one hundred 80-to-3100 m deep wells. However this experience did not reach the exploitation phase due to technological and communication problems. The geothermal potential (thermal and electric) is evaluated of about 6 GWy. The recent <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Deep Drilling Project [De Natale and Troise, 2011], sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, foresees the realization of medium-to-deep wells in the caldera with the ambition of stimulating interest in geothermal energy exploitation and technology development and, in addition of installing downhole monitoring systems. The geological knowledge of the area is the benchmark for the drilling sites selection. We reconstructed a multi-disciplinary conceptual model updated on the basis of the most recent scientific results and findings. In particular, the constrains (the most important are listed in brackets) comes from: i) boreholes (litho-stratigraphy, aquifer location, depth-related temperature), ii) fieldwork (stratigraphy, location of structural fractures and eruption vents), iii) petrology and melt inclusions (pressure and temperature of magma with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2946C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2946C"><span>3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of ground deformation at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castaldo, R.; Tizzani, P.; Manconi, A.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, S.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In active volcanic areas deformation signals are generally characterized by non-linear spatial and temporal variations [Tizzani P. et al., 2007]. This behaviour has been revealed in the last two decades by the so-called advanced DInSAR processing algorithms, developed to analyze surface deformation phenomena [Berardino P. et al., 2002; Ferretti C. et al., 2001]. Notwithstanding, most of the inverse modelling attempts to characterize the evolution of the volcanic sources are based on the assumption that the Earth's crust behaves as a homogeneous linear elastic material. However, the behaviour of the upper lithosphere in thermally anomalous regions (as active volcanoes are) might be well described as a non-Newtonian fluid, where some of the material proprieties of the rocks (i.e., apparent viscosities) can change over time [Pinkerton H. et al., 1995]. In this context, we considered the thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust in order to develop a new 3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (CF) caldera, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. More specifically, according to Tizzani P. et al. (2010), we integrated in a FEM environment geophysical information (gravimetric, seismic, and borehole data) available for the considered area and performed two FEM optimization procedures to constrain the 3D distribution of unknown physical parameters (temperature and viscosity distributions) that might help explaining the data observed at surface (geothermal wells and DInSAR measurements). First, we searched for the heat production, the volume source distribution and surface emissivity parameters providing the best-fit of the geothermal profiles data measured at six boreholes [Agip ESGE, 1986], by solving the Fourier heat equation over time (about 40 kys). The 3D thermal field resulting from this optimization was used to calculate the 3D brittle-ductile transition. This analysis revealed the presence of a ductile region, located beneath the centre of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6808Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6808Z"><span>The Project Serapis: High Resolution Seismic Imagingof The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zollo, A.; Virieux, J.; Capuano, P.; Chiarabba, C.; de Franco, R.; Makris, J.; Michelini, A.; Musacchio, G.; Serapis Group</p> <p></p> <p>During September 2001, an extended active seismic survey has been performed in the gulfs of Naples and Pozzuoli in the framework of the so called SERAPIS (SEismic Re- flection Acquisition Project for Imaging Structures). The project SERAPIS is aimed at the acquisition in the bays of Naples and Pozzuoli, on land and at the sea bottom (using sea bottom seismographs), of seismic signals emitted by a very dense network of airgun sources. The energization is performed through the syncronized implosion of bubbles produced by a battery of three to twelve, 16 liters airguns, mounted on the oceanographic vessel NADIR, owned by the french company IFREMER, which supported the project at no cost. The experiment has been designed to have 2D-3D acquisition lay-outs and its objective is the high resolution imaging of the main shal- low crustal discontinuities underneath the major neapolitan volcanic complexes. In particular some desired targets are the location and spatial definition of the magmatic feeding system of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and the morphologic reconstruction of the interface separating the shallow volcano-alluvium sediments and the Mesozoic carbonates, re- cently detected and accurately imaged underneath Mt.Vesuvius volcano. A secondary but not less important objective is the denser re-sampling of areas in the Bay of Naples prospicient to Mt.Vesuvius, which have been investigated during the last marine sur- vey using the same vessel in 1997 (MareVes 97). Sixty, three-component stations have been installed on-land in the areas of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Mt.Vesuvius and on the islands of Ischia and Procida. In particular, the Mt.Vesuvius stations have been deployed along a 40 km long, SE-NW profile crossing the Campanian Plain toward the limestone out- crops. 72 sea bottom seismographs (OBS) have been installed in the gulfs of Naples and Pozzuoli by the University of Hamburg, with the logistic support of Geopro smbh and Geolab Italia. The OBS network geometry follows the main</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3009D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3009D"><span>Frequency-dependent seismic coda-attenuation imaging of volcanic geomorphology: from debris flows at Mount St. Helens volcano to cross-faulting at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Siena, Luca; Gabrielli, Simona; Spagnolo, Matteo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The stochastic loss of energy measured using the later portion of seismic recordings (coda) can be used to image and monitor geomorphology in volcanoes, once appropriate sensitivity kernels for the application of attenuation tomography have been developed. The use of this advanced seismic method with GIS/InSAR techniques is an unexplored field, which is receiving increasing attention in volcano-seismology. By using this integrated approach we can image structure and monitor dynamics of the debris flow that followed the 1980 explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens (US) volcano at resolution similar to that of remote sensing data, and depths of <20 meters. When the volcano has not erupted, attenuation anomalies are instead spatially correlated with the regions of highest structural complexity and cross faulting. At <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, the results provide a novel perspective on the links between deep fluid migration and surface structures. The implications of the proposed approach on volcano monitoring are evident.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JVGR..189..202S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JVGR..189..202S"><span>The relevance of the 1198 eruption of Solfatara in the Phlegraean Fields (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>) as revealed by medieval manuscripts and historical sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scandone, R.; D'Amato, J.; Giacomelli, L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Phlegraean Fields (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>) caldera in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> had one well-documented eruption during the historical period (1538). Another eruption at Solfatara in 1198 is reported by sixteenth and seventeenth-century scholars, and has been commonly regarded as uncertain. In this paper we first discuss the circumstantial evidence and report of this eruption, then discuss the relevance of drawings made in the thirteenth through the fifteenth century illustrating the Solfatara and the primary literary and historical sources describing the site. We infer that the eruption was at most a minor phreatic explosion and we explore the conditions that may have led to the occurrence of this event and the establishment of a small crater pool subsequently used as a thermal bath from the later Middle Ages onward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5030V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5030V"><span>Fiber-Reinforced Rocks Akin to Roman Concrete Help Explain Ground Deformation at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanorio, Tiziana; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The caldera of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> is one of the active hydrothermal systems of the Mediterranean region experiencing notable unrest episodes in a densely populated area. During the last crisis of 1982-1984, nearly 40,000 people were evacuated for almost two years from the main town of Pozzuoli, the Roman Puteoli, due to the large uplifts (~2 m over two years) and the persistent seismic activity. The evacuation severely hampered the economy and the social make-up of the community, which included the relocation of schools and commercial shops as well as the harbor being rendered useless for docking. Despite the large uplifts, the release of strain appears delayed. Seismicity begins and reaches a magnitude of 4.0 only upon relatively large uplifts (~ 70-80 cm) contrary to what is generally observed for calderas exhibiting much lower deformation levels. Over and above the specific mechanism causing the unrest and the lack of identification of a shallow magmatic reservoir (< 4 km) by seismic data, there is a core question of how the subsurface rocks of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> withstand a large strain and have high strength. We performed a series of direct measurements on deep well cores by combining high-resolution microstructural and mineralogical analyses with the elastic and mechanical properties of well cores from the deep wells drilled in the area right before the unrest of 1982-1984 - San Vito (SV1 and SV2) and Mofete (MF1, MF2, MF5). The rock physics analysis of the well cores provides evidence for the existence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a natural, coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix made of intertwining filaments of ettringite and tobemorite, resulting from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813463W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813463W"><span>Sr-O isotope systematics in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> magma systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wörner, Gerhard; Iovine, Raffaella; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; D'Antonio, Massimo; Arienzo, Ilenia; Civetta, Lucia; Orsi, Giovanni</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Combined radiogenic Sr- and stable O-isotopes are a powerful tool to distinguish between (a) contamination of mantle magma sources by fluids and subducted sediment and (b) assimilation of magmas during ascent through the crust. Advance in laser fluorination mass spectrometry permits to measure small samples and single mineral grains. This allows to directly link Sr- and O-isotope measurements practically for the same sample material. Although isotopic heterogeneity remains a problem even at this level, this approach avoids problems of weathering and mineral-melt disequilibria. We analysed mineral separates (feldspar, Fe-cpx, Mg-cpx, magnetite, olivine) from 37 samples covering the stratigraphic sequence of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic field: Pre-Campanian Ignimbrite (Pre CI; >39.28 ka), Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 39.28 ka), Post Campanian Ignimbrite/Pre Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (Post CI/pre NYT; <39.28 and > 14.90 ka), Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT; 14.90 ka), and Post-Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (Post NYT; 12.8 ka-1538 A.D.) deposits. Sr isotopic compositions were determined using standard cation-exchange methods on separated hand-picked feldspar, clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts (~300mg) and on whole rocks, in case of not enough amount of crystals. By infrared laser fluorination was, instead, measured the oxygen isotopic composition of ~0.3 mg of hand-picked phenocrysts. Recalculating measured mineral O-isotope values to magmatic values to account for mineral-melt 18O/16O-fractionation at various SiO2-contens of the melt should provide a data set that better constrains magma isotope compositions and magma sources. Sr-isotopes span a range from 0.7069 to 0.7082 that exceed the variations in the bulk rock samples (0.7071-0.7081). However, these ranges vary significantly between eruptive periods. For example the Sr-isotope variation in the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff is only between 0.70750 and 0.70754 for minerals and whole rocks. Similarly, recalculated δ18O-melt values show</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210398D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210398D"><span>The Monte Nuovo eruption: the only historical event of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Arienzo, Ilenia; Buononato, Salvatore; Civetta, Lucia; Carandente, Antonio; D'Antonio, Massimo; di Renzo, Valeria; Orsi, Giovanni</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Monte Nuovo eruption, the last event of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, has been reconstructed through geological, volcanological and petrological investigations, and analyses of historical documents. The eruption, lasted one week and characterised by three vents, included three distinct phases. The main vent (MV) was located in the present crater, whereas two minor vents were along the southern (SV) and north-eastern (NEV) slopes of the Monte Nuovo tuff cone. The sequence of deposits has been subdivided in 5 members named A through E. The eruption began on September 29, 1538, at 7 p.m., and its first and main phase, lasted until the night of September 30. This phase generated almost continuous explosions mainly phreatomagmatic, producing pyroclastic density currents (pdćs) and minor short-lived, low eruption columns, which deposited members A and B. Member A, erupted in about 12 hours through the MV, forms the largest part of the cone. Phreatomagmatic explosions at the SV produced mainly pdćs which deposited Member B only in the southern sector of Monte Nuovo. Strombolian explosions at the SV and NEV deposited Member C over a narrow area. This activity was followed by a pause lasted two days. The eruption resumed on October 3 at 4 p.m. and lasted until the next night. This second phase of the eruption was characterized by a discontinuous sequence of low-energy phreatomagmatic and magmatic explosions at the MV, which deposited Member D. On October 6, at 4 p.m. explosive activity resumed and lasted few hours, mainly with low-energy magmatic explosions of a small dome, grown during the preceding two days, which produced Member E. During this phase 24 people died while climbing the slopes of the newly formed cone. The juvenile products of the Monte Nuovo eruption are phenocryst-poor rocks containing alkali feldspars and subordinate clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides. The are light-coloured pumice and dark scoria fragments, and represent the most evolved magma erupted</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9613W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9613W"><span>Laboratory experiments and continuous fluid monitoring at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> to understand pressure transients in hydrothermal systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woith, Heiko; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Chiodini, Giovanni; Pilz, Marco; Walter, Thomas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The hydrothermal system beneath <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> is strongly affected by sub-surface processes as manifested by the existence of a geothermal "plume" below Solfatara (Bruno et al. 2007), associated with formation of new fumaroles and the spatial pattern of exhalation vents. Within the frame of MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) under Grant agreement no 308665), pressure tansients in the hydrothermal system of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> shall be studied using a combination of laboratory experiments and continuous pressure/temperature monitoring at fumaroles, mudpools, hot springs, and geothermal wells. Four groundwater monitoring sites were installed in September 2013: one in the Fangaia mud pool inside Solfatara and three within the geothermal area of Agnano, which is located roughly 3 km to the East of the Solfatara crater. In 2014 additional sensors were installed in Pisciarelli. Autonomous devices are being used to record the water level and water temperature at 10 minute intervals. Records reveal significant changes of the hydrothermal system in September 2013 at the Agnano main spring during the night from 23 to 24 September. Both, the water level and the water temperature dropped significantly, confirmed by visual inspection of the spa operators. The pool of the main spring almost emptied and the flow rate was significantly reduced, implying a profound change in the system. Similar water level drops occurred in the following months. Gas bubbles are likely to play a major role with respect to spatio-temporal variations in shallow fluid systems below Solfatara. Thus, additional to the field measurements we investigate potential bubble-related mechanisms capable to increase fluid pressure. The BubbleLab at GFZ has been setup. We are able to simulate earthquake ground motions with a shaking table, track the size and velocity of rising bubbles via a camera system, and quantify transients with a set of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1877D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1877D"><span>4D imaging of the seism-geochemical dynamics leading to recent <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> unrest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Siena, Luca; Chiodini, Giovanni; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Castellano, Mario; Colombelli, Simona; Tisato, Nicola; Ventura, Guido</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Understanding what produced historical unrests at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> super volcanic caldera is key to forecasting eruptions at the volcano in the near future. Here, we present a novel seismic attenuation and 4D lapse-time source model spanning the years 1983-84 and working in parallel with geochemical data and physical simulations. Results reveal a 4-5 km deep, NNW-SSE striking hot zone, either a magma sill or fluid reservoir, offshore the city of Pozzuoli, feeding a reservoir of supercritical fluids/foams topping at a depth of about 3 km. Repeated injections of hot materials from depth in September-October 1983 into the reservoir produce a second fluid phase accumulating under a rock-physics derived caprock, enhancing subsidence. The release of this additional stress after the breaking of the reservoir, on April 1st 1984, leads to the opening of a western, morphologically-defined path, connecting the centre of the caldera with the site of its last eruption (1538 AD). The hot zone offshore Pozzuoli is the deepest source of seismic activity, ground deformation, and vertical/lateral fluid migration inducing subsidence detected at the volcano during its major monitored unrest (1983-84). Still active today and related to its last historical eruption, it thus controls unrest and eruptive behaviour of the area of highest volcanic hazard in continental Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812762C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812762C"><span>Geochemical clues on the origin of the current accelerating deformation of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiodini, Giovanni</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>An accelerating process of ground deformation is currently affecting the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. The deformation pattern is here explained with the overlapping of two processes: short time pulses that are caused by injection of magmatic fluids into the hydrothermal system, and a longer time process of heating of the rock. The short pulses were highlighted by comparing fumarolic compositions and ground deformations. The two independent data sets show the same sequence of anomalous peaks with a delay of ˜ 200 days of the geochemical signal with respect to the geodetic signal. This correspondence strongly support the occurrence of episodes of magmatic fluid injection into the hydrothermal system feeding the fumaroles of Solfatara. Seismic swarms, whose frequency is increasing in the time, accompanies each of this episode. The heating of the hydrothermal system, which parallels the long-period accelerating curve, is inferred by temperature-pressure gas geoindicators. Referring to a recent interpretation that relates variations in the fumarolic inert gas species to open system magma degassing, we infer that the heating is caused by an enrichment in water of the magmatic fluids, in addition to an increment in their flux and an increased frequency of the degassing events. A physical numerical model of the injection of magmatic fluids into the hydrothermal system nicely reproduces many of the observed data including the thermal evolution independently inferred from the fumarolic composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.4153D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.4153D"><span>Hydrothermal fluid venting in the offshore sector of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera: A geochemical, geophysical, and volcanological study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Napoli, R.; Aiuppa, A.; Sulli, A.; Caliro, S.; Chiodini, G.; Acocella, V.; Ciraolo, G.; Di Vito, M. A.; Interbartolo, F.; Nasello, C.; Valenza, M.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The ongoing unrest at the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (CFc) in southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is prompting exploration of its poorly studied offshore sector. We report on a multidisciplinary investigation of the Secca delle Fumose (SdF), a submarine relief known since antiquity as the largest degassing structure of the offshore sector of CFc. We combined high-resolution morphobathymetric and seismostratigraphic data with onshore geological information to propose that the present-day SdF morphology and structure developed during the initial stages of the last CFc eruption at Monte Nuovo in AD 1538. We suggest that the SdF relief stands on the eastern uplifted border of a N-S-trending graben-like structure formed during the shallow emplacement of the Monte Nuovo feeding dike. We also infer that the high-angle bordering faults that generated the SdF relief now preferentially allow the ascent of hot brines (with an equilibrium temperature of 179°C), thereby sustaining hydrothermal degassing on the seafloor. Systematic vertical seawater profiling shows that hydrothermal seafloor venting generates a sizeable CO2, pH, and temperature anomaly in the overlying seawater column. Data for the seawater vertical profile can be used to estimate the CO2 and energy (heat) outputs from the SdF area at ˜50 tons/d (˜0.53 kg/s) and ˜80 MW, respectively. In view of the cause-effect relationship with the Monte Nuovo eruption, and the substantial gas and energy outputs, we consider that the SdF hydrothermal system needs to be included in monitoring programs of the ongoing CFc unrest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917390B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917390B"><span>Interferometric investigations with the S1 constellation: an application to the Vesuvius/<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic test site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borgstrom, Sven; Del Gaudio, Carlo; De Martino, Prospero; Siniscalchi, Valeria; Prats-Iraola, Pau; Nannini, Matteo; Yague-Martinez, Nestor; Pinheiro, Muriel; Kim, Jun-Su; Vecchioli, Francesco; Minati, Federico; Costantini, Mario; Foumelis, Michael; Desnos, Yves-Louis</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The contribution focuses on the current status of the ESA study entitled "INSARAP Sentinel-1 Constellation Study" and investigates the interferometric performance of the S1A/S1B units. In particular, we refer to the Vesuvius/<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) volcanic test site, where the continuous inflation (about 35 cm from 2011 to date) and the huge availability of ground-based geodetic data (continuous GPS - cGPS - leveling, tiltmetric, gravimetric, etc.) from the INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano monitoring networks have allowed to get a clear deformation signal, besides the comparison between S1A/S1B and geodetic data. In this regard, the integration between InSAR and geodetic measurements is crucial for a continuous and extended monitoring of such an active volcanic area, as InSAR investigations allow to get an information on wide areas, whereas permanent networks (e.g., cGPS), allow to provide a continuous information complementing InSAR, which is limited by its revisiting time. Comparisons between S1 constellation data and geodetic measurements, with a particular focus on cGPS, will be presented, exploiting both LOS and inverted (E-W and vertical inversion) InSAR data starting from October, 2014. In addition, as a next step we are planning to model the deformation source of the area by exploiting the S1 time series results. Ultimately, very encouraging results suggest for a continuation of this activity also for the future, showing the great potential of S1 constellation data for monitoring active volcanic areas and, in general, to retrieve a very high quality deformation signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6031D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6031D"><span>Time-lapse integrated geophysical imaging of magmatic injections and fluid-induced fracturing causing <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> 1983-84 Unrest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Siena, Luca; Crescentini, Luca; Amoruso, Antonella; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Castellano, Mario</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Geophysical precursors measured during Unrest episodes are a primary source of geophysical information to forecast eruptions at the largest and most potentially destructive volcanic calderas. Despite their importance and uniqueness, these precursors are also considered difficult to interpret and unrepresentative of larger eruptive events. Here, we show how novel geophysical imaging and monitoring techniques are instead able to represent the dynamic evolution of magmatic- and fluid-induced fracturing during the largest period of Unrest at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (1983-1984). The time-dependent patterns drawn by microseismic locations and deformation, once integrated by 3D attenuation tomography and absorption/scattering mapping, model injections of magma- and fluid-related materials in the form of spatially punctual microseismic bursts at a depth of 3.5 km, west and offshore the city of Pozzuoli. The shallowest four kilometres of the crust work as a deformation-based dipolar system before and after each microseismic shock. Seismicity and deformation contemporaneously focus on the point of injection; patterns then progressively crack the medium directed towards the second focus, a region at depths 1-1.5 km south of Solfatara. A single high-absorption and high-scattering aseismic anomaly marks zones of fluid storage overlying the first dipolar centre. These results provide the first direct geophysical signature of the processes of aseismic fluid release at the top of the basaltic basement, producing pozzolanic activity and recently observed via rock-physics and well-rock experiments. The microseismicity caused by fluids and gasses rises to surface via high-absorption north-east rising paths connecting the two dipolar centres, finally beingq being generally expelled from the maar diatreme Solfatara structure. Geophysical precursors during Unrest depict how volcanic stress was released at the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera during its period of highest recorded seismicity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13C3126V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13C3126V"><span>The Rock Physics of Fiber-Reinforced Rocks Helps Explain Uplifts at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Volcano-Hydrothermal System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanorio, T.; Kanitpanyacharoen, W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The caldera of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> is one of the active volcano-hydrothermal systems of the Mediterranean region experiencing notable unrest episodes in a densely populated area. One peculiar trait characterizes the unrest of this system: the ability of withstanding large uplifts before setting off a swarm of microeartquakes. Therefore, one core question is how the subsurface rocks of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> withstand such a large strain and have high strength. The rock physics analysis of well cores up to 3 km provides evidence for the existence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a natural, coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The impermeable caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix made of intertwining filaments of ettringite and tobemorite, resulting from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that of the engineering of the Roman concrete. The formation of fibrous minerals by intertwining filaments confers shear and tensile strength to the caprock, contributing to its ductility and increased resistance to fracture. The importance of these findings lies not only on the fibrous and compositionally nature of the caprock but also on its possible physicochemical deterioration. Given the P-T-XCO2 conditions regulating the decarbonation reactions, possible influx of new brine into the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> system dilutes the existing CO2, thus triggering further decarbonation reaction. This leads to the formation of additional CO2, methane, and steam. As these gases rise toward the surface, they are halted by the natural concrete-like layer, which would lead to pore pressure increase and subsequent ground deformations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2894A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2894A"><span>Investigation of hydrothermal activity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera using 3D simulations: extension to high temperature processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Afanasyev, Andrey; Costa, Antonio; Chiodini, Giovanni</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal activity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera is simulated by using the multiphase code MUFITS (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). We provide a brief description of the simulator covering the mathematical formulation and its applicability at elevated supercritical temperatures. Then we apply, for the first time, the code to hydrothermal systems investigating the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera case. We consider both shallow subcritical regions and deep supercritical regions of the hydrothermal system. We impose sophisticated boundary conditions at the surface to provide a better description of the reservoir interactions with the atmosphere and the sea. Finally we carry out a parametric study and compare the simulation results with gas temperature and composition, gas and heat fluxes, and temperature measurements in the wells of that area. Results of the parametric study show that flow rate, composition, and temperature of the hot gas mixture injected at depth, and the initial geothermal gradient strongly control parameters monitored at Solfatara. Comparisons with observations show a very good match and suggest that the best guesses for the injected hot (~700 C) fluid mass flow rate is about 50-100 kg/s and the initial geothermal gradient is 120 C/km. Of particular interest resulted the comparison between the simulated thermal profiles and those measured in geothermal wells. Keeping in mind the uncertainties due to the heterogeneities of the system, the good match obtained for the wells in the eastern and north sectors of the caldera (located some km far from Solfatara) suggest that the model can reproduce the gross features of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> hydrothermal system and implicitly support the hypothesis of a single (or major) deep source of magmatic fluid located close to the centre of the caldera. Surprising results were also obtained by comparing simulated and observed (Agnano well) temperature profiles in a zone close to the gas plume: in this case the simulations clearly suggested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812509M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812509M"><span>Hydrothermal activity and subsurface soil complexity: implication for outgassing processes at Solfatara crater, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanaro, Cristian; Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Isaia, Roberto; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Moretti, Roberto; Dingwell, Donald B.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Solfatara area and its fumaroles are the main surface phenomena of the vigorous hydrothermal activity within the active <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera system. The existing fault system appears to have a major control on outgassing which in turn leads to a strong alteration of the volcanic products. Moreover the maar-nature of the crater, and its filling by more recent volcanic deposits, resulted in a complex fractured and multilayered cap to the rising gases. As a consequence the hydrothermal alteration differently affects the rocks within the crater, including pyroclastic fallout ash beds, pyroclastic density current deposits, breccias and lavas. The induced changes in both original microstructure and physical and mechanical properties of the rocks control the outgassing behavior. Here, we report results from a measurement survey conducted in July 2015, and aimed to characterize the in-situ physical (temperature, humidity) and mechanical (permeability, strength, stiffness) properties. The survey also included a mapping of the surficial hydrothermal features and their distributions. Chemical analyses and laboratory measurements (porosity, granulometry) of selected samples were additionally performed. Results show that the crater floor area comprises very different kinds of soils, from fine grained, thin laminated deposits around the two bubbling Fangaia mud pools, to crusted hummock formations along the SE and NE border of the crater. Dry and solid alunite-rich deposits are present in the western and southern part. Furthermore we observed evidences of a beginning of crust formation within the central part of the crater. A large range of surface temperatures, from boiling point to ambient temperature, were measured throughout the surveyed area. Outgassing occurs mainly along the crack system, which has also generated the crusted hummocks. Elsewhere the fluid circulation in the subsoil is favored by the presence of coarse and highly porous sulfur-hardened levels, whereas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1374327','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1374327"><span>The thermal regime of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> magmatic system reconstructed through 3D numerical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Di Renzo, Valeria; Wohletz, Kenneth; Civetta, Lucia; Moretti, Roberto; Orsi, Giovanni; Gasparini, Paolo</p> <p>2016-11-11</p> <p>In this paper, we illustrate a quantitative conductive/convective thermal model incorporating a wide range of geophysical, petrological, geological, geochemical and isotopical observations that constrain the thermal evolution and present state of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (CFc) magmatic system. The proposed model has been computed on the basis of the current knowledge of: (1) the volcanic and magmatic history of the volcano over the last 44 ka, (2) its underlying crustal structure, and (3) the physical properties of the erupted magmas. 3D numerical simulations of heat conduction and convection within heterogeneous rock/magma materials with evolving heat sources and boundary conditions that simulate magma rise from a deep (≥ 8 km depth) to shallow (2–6 km) reservoirs, magma chamber formation, magma extrusion, caldera collapse, and intra-caldera hydrothermal convection, have been carried out. The evolution of the CFc magmatic system through time has been simulated through different steps related to its changes in terms of depth, location and size of magma reservoirs and their replenishment. The thermal modeling results show that both heat conduction and convection have played an important role in the CFc thermal evolution, although with different timing. Finally, the simulated present heat distribution is in agreement with the measured geothermal profiles (Agip, 1987), reproduces the thermal gradient peaks at the CFc margins in correspondence to the anomalies in surface gradients (Corrado et al., 1998), and suggests temperatures of 700 °C at depth of 4 km in the central portion of the caldera, in agreement with the estimated temperature for the brittle-ductile transition (Hill, 1992).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1374327-thermal-regime-campi-flegrei-magmatic-system-reconstructed-through-numerical-simulations','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1374327-thermal-regime-campi-flegrei-magmatic-system-reconstructed-through-numerical-simulations"><span>The thermal regime of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> magmatic system reconstructed through 3D numerical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Di Renzo, Valeria; Wohletz, Kenneth; Civetta, Lucia; ...</p> <p>2016-11-11</p> <p>In this paper, we illustrate a quantitative conductive/convective thermal model incorporating a wide range of geophysical, petrological, geological, geochemical and isotopical observations that constrain the thermal evolution and present state of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (CFc) magmatic system. The proposed model has been computed on the basis of the current knowledge of: (1) the volcanic and magmatic history of the volcano over the last 44 ka, (2) its underlying crustal structure, and (3) the physical properties of the erupted magmas. 3D numerical simulations of heat conduction and convection within heterogeneous rock/magma materials with evolving heat sources and boundary conditions thatmore » simulate magma rise from a deep (≥ 8 km depth) to shallow (2–6 km) reservoirs, magma chamber formation, magma extrusion, caldera collapse, and intra-caldera hydrothermal convection, have been carried out. The evolution of the CFc magmatic system through time has been simulated through different steps related to its changes in terms of depth, location and size of magma reservoirs and their replenishment. The thermal modeling results show that both heat conduction and convection have played an important role in the CFc thermal evolution, although with different timing. Finally, the simulated present heat distribution is in agreement with the measured geothermal profiles (Agip, 1987), reproduces the thermal gradient peaks at the CFc margins in correspondence to the anomalies in surface gradients (Corrado et al., 1998), and suggests temperatures of 700 °C at depth of 4 km in the central portion of the caldera, in agreement with the estimated temperature for the brittle-ductile transition (Hill, 1992).« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..328..210D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..328..210D"><span>The thermal regime of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> magmatic system reconstructed through 3D numerical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Renzo, Valeria; Wohletz, Kenneth; Civetta, Lucia; Moretti, Roberto; Orsi, Giovanni; Gasparini, Paolo</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We illustrate a quantitative conductive/convective thermal model incorporating a wide range of geophysical, petrological, geological, geochemical and isotopical observations that constrain the thermal evolution and present state of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (CFc) magmatic system. The proposed model has been computed on the basis of the current knowledge of: (1) the volcanic and magmatic history of the volcano over the last 44 ka, (2) its underlying crustal structure, and (3) the physical properties of the erupted magmas. 3D numerical simulations of heat conduction and convection within heterogeneous rock/magma materials with evolving heat sources and boundary conditions that simulate magma rise from a deep (≥ 8 km depth) to shallow (2-6 km) reservoirs, magma chamber formation, magma extrusion, caldera collapse, and intra-caldera hydrothermal convection, have been carried out. The evolution of the CFc magmatic system through time has been simulated through different steps related to its changes in terms of depth, location and size of magma reservoirs and their replenishment. The thermal modeling results show that both heat conduction and convection have played an important role in the CFc thermal evolution, although with different timing. The simulated present heat distribution is in agreement with the measured geothermal profiles (Agip, 1987), reproduces the thermal gradient peaks at the CFc margins in correspondence to the anomalies in surface gradients (Corrado et al., 1998), and suggests temperatures of 700 °C at depth of 4 km in the central portion of the caldera, in agreement with the estimated temperature for the brittle-ductile transition (Hill, 1992).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13C3150J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13C3150J"><span>Authigenic Mineral Cycling in Roman Seawater Concrete with <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Pumiceous Ash Pozzolan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, M. D.; Mulcahy, S. R.; Chen, H.; Li, Q.; Cappelletti, P.; Carraro, C.; Wenk, H. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Alteration of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> pumiceous ash in Roman concrete harbor structures along the central Italian coast produced zeolite and Ca-silicate minerals that have reinforced cementitious fabrics for >2000 years. X-ray microdiffraction experiments and electron microprobe analyses show that diverse alteration paths produced authigenic phillipsite and Al-tobermorite in the pyroclasts, pores, and cementing matrix of mortars in Romacons drill cores from Portus Cosanus, Portus Neronis, and Baianus Sinus. These minerals have cation exchange capabilities for some radionuclides and heavy metal cations and are candidate sorbents for concrete waste encapsulations. Compositions of phillipsite in certain Portus Cosanus and Portus Neronis pumice clasts are similar to those in the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. Dissolution of this phillipsite and alkali feldspar produced new, authigenic phillipsite with less Si, greater Al and Ca, Al-tobermorite, and poorly-crystalline binder in pumice vesicles. Conversely, alteration of trachytic glass to clay mineral (nontronite) in a Baianus Sinus tuff clast is associated with new, authigenic phillipsite and Al-tobermorite in the tuff and cementing matrix. The Al-tobermorite has lower Al/(Si+Al) and Ca/(Si+Al) compared to Al-tobermorite in relict lime clasts. These more siliceous crystals, similar to those in hydrothermally-altered basalt, have 11.3 Å d-spacing in [001]. Raman spectra show symmetrical bending of Si-O-Si and Si-O-Al linkages, Si-O and Si-Al symmetrical stretching, and possible Q3 Si and Al tetrahedral peaks that suggest cross-linking of silicate chains-an important factor in cation exchange. The authigenic crystals refine pore space, contribute to binding in interfacial zones, and obstruct microcrack propagation. The well-constrained history of temperature variations and seawater immersion could provide further information for understanding alteration in volcanoclastic deposits and predicting regenerative processes in high performance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..299...68A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..299...68A"><span>Investigation of hydrothermal activity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera using 3D numerical simulations: Extension to high temperature processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Afanasyev, Andrey; Costa, Antonio; Chiodini, Giovanni</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal activity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera is simulated by using the multiphase code MUFITS. We first provide a brief description of the simulator covering the mathematical formulation and its applicability at elevated supercritical temperatures. Then we apply, for the first time, the code to hydrothermal systems investigating the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera case. We consider both shallow subcritical regions and deep supercritical regions of the hydrothermal system. We impose sophisticated boundary conditions at the surface to provide a better description of the reservoir interactions with the atmosphere and the sea. Finally we carry out a parametric study and compare the simulation results with gas temperature and composition, gas and heat fluxes, and temperature measurements in the wells of that area. Results of the parametric study show that flow rate, composition, and temperature of the hot gas mixture injected at depth, and the initial geothermal gradient strongly control parameters monitored at Solfatara. The results suggest that the best guesses conditions for the gas mixture injected at 5 km depth correspond to a temperature of ~ 700 °C, a fluid mass flow rate of about 50-100 kg/s, and an initial geothermal gradient of ~ 120 °C/km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5808I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5808I"><span>The interplay between deformation and volcanic activity: new data from the central sector of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Isaia, Roberto; Sabatino, Ciarcia; Enrico, Iannuzzi; Ernesto, Prinzi; D'Assisi, Tramparulo Francesco; Stefano, Vitale</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The new excavation of a tunnel in the central sector of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera allowed us to collect new stratigraphic and structural data shedding light on the volcano-tectonic evolution of the last 10 ka. The analyzed sequences are composed by an alternation of volcanic, lacustrine, fluvial and marine sediments hosting several deformation structures such as faults, sedimentary dykes and fractures. A review of available well log togheter with the new data were used to perform a 3D reconstruction of paleo-surfaces resulted after the main volcanic and deformation episodes. Results show as the paleo-morphology was strictly controlled by faults and fractures that formed meso-scale channels and depressions subsequently filled by tephra and volcanoclastic sediments. The measured structures indicate an extensional deformation accompanying the ground uplift occurred in various stages of the caldera evolution. Stratigraphic relationships between structures and volcanic deposits further constrain the timing of the deformation phases. Presently an unrest phase of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera is marked by variations of different parameters such as ground deformation activities well recorded by GPS data, topographic leveling and satellite surveys. The results of this study provide further insight into the long term deformation pattern of the caldera and provide a key to interpret the ground deformation scenarios accompanying a possible resumption of volcanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4083C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4083C"><span>Comparison between 3D model of Pisciarelli area (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera) through Terrestrial Laser Scanner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caputo, Teresa; Somma, Renato; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The volcanic/geothermal area of Pisciarelli is located within <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera .This last is a densely populated area, including the Pozzuoli town and bordering the western side of the Naples city, this causes a high vulnerability and consequently a high volcanic risk. In the recent decades this area has experienced minor ground uplift episodes accompanied by low magnitude seismicity and by strong intensification of degassing activity in particular localized at Pisciarelli area. We present the results of the Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), using a Reigl VZ1000®, analysis of Pisciarelli area performed in June 2013 and the comparison with the data acquired later in March 2014. We apply the TLS technique based on Time of Flight (TOF) method in order to define an accurate 3D digital model for detailed analysis of this area performing numerous scans from different points of view in the area. In this ways was ensured a good coverage of the whole investigated area in order to avoid shaded portion due to the high soil degassing activity. Such fact limits the capacity of laser penetration is caused by wavelength near infrared range. For each survey was obtained a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from the reconstructed data and both were compared. In particular, we have identified two "critical" areas of interest that will be monitored more frequently. These are: 1) in the lower part of the studied area a major fault line that bounding the Agnano caldera moderately NE-dipping; 2) in the upper part of the study area a zone of depletion with its zone of accumulation. The DTM were georeferenced into the UTM-WGS84 reference frame. The aim of this work is to define a procedure to compare between 3D model applied to monitoring of this area. Also to evaluate of volumetric and morphologic changes and to recognizing unstable masses by comparison of 3D data. For this purpose other TLS surveys will be performed in the upcoming in this active volcanic/geothermal area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213960P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213960P"><span>The extimated presence of differentiated higly explosive magmas beneath Vesuvius and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>: evidence from geochemical and textural studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pappalardo, Lucia; Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Highly catastrophic explosive eruptions are supplied by Si-rich magmas, generated at shallower level in crust by the evolution of mantle liquids. The timescale of these evolution processes is a crucial factor, because of its control on the length of volcano repose interval leading to high explosive events. <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Somma-Vesuvius alkaline volcanic systems, located respectively at few kilometers west and east of Neapolitan metropolitan area, produced a variety of eruptions ranging from not explosive lava flows and domes to highly destructive eruptions. Both these high risk volcanoes are in repose time since the last eruption occurred in the 1538 and 1944 BP, respectively. Since that time, the volcanoes experienced fumarolic activity, low level of seismicity with rare earthquakes swarms, as well as two bradyseismic crisis (1969-1972 and 1982-1984) localized in the center of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, that generated a net uplift of 3.5 m around the town of Pozzuoli. A wide low velocity layer interpreted as an extended magmatic body has been detected at 8-10 km depth beneath these volcanoes by seismic data. The capability of this reservoir to erupt explosively again strongly depends on magma differentiation degree, therefore the knowledge of the time lapse necessary at not explosive mafic liquids to differentiate toward explosive magmas is very crucial to predict the size of a possible short-term future eruption in Campanian area. Our petrologic data indicate that a multi-depth supply system was active under the Campanian Plain since 39 ka. Fractional crystallization during magma cooling associated with upward migration of less dense evolved liquids appears to be the prevalent differentiation process. Our results indicate that huge steam exolution occurred during the late stage of trachyte and phonolite crystallization thus accounting for the high Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of eruptions supplied by these melts. Moreover our CSD data on phenocrysts reveal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NPGeo..19..323R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NPGeo..19..323R"><span>A 2-D FEM thermal model to simulate water flow in a porous media: <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romano, V.; Tammaro, U.; Capuano, P.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Volcanic and geothermal aspects both exist in many geologically young areas. In these areas the heat transfer process is of fundamental importance, so that the thermal and fluid-dynamic processes characterizing a viscous fluid in a porous medium are very important to understand the complex dynamics of the these areas. The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, located west of the city of Naples, within the central-southern sector of the large graben of Campanian plain, is a region where both volcanic and geothermal phenomena are present. The upper part of the geothermal system can be considered roughly as a succession of volcanic porous material (tuff) saturated by a mixture formed mainly by water and carbon dioxide. We have implemented a finite elements approach in transient conditions to simulate water flow in a 2-D porous medium to model the changes of temperature in the geothermal system due to magmatic fluid inflow, accounting for a transient phase, not considered in the analytical solutions and fluid compressibility. The thermal model is described by means of conductive/convective equations, in which we propose a thermal source represented by a parabolic shape function to better simulate an increase of temperature in the central part (magma chamber) of a box, simulating the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera and using more recent evaluations, from literature, for the medium's parameters (specific heat capacity, density, thermal conductivity, permeability). A best-fit velocity for the permeant is evaluated by comparing the simulated temperatures with those measured in wells drilled by Agip (Italian Oil Agency) in the 1980s in the framework of geothermal exploration. A few tens of days are enough to reach the thermal steady state, showing the quick response of the system to heat injection. The increase in the pressure due to the heat transport is then used to compute ground deformation, in particular the vertical displacements characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera behaviour. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23050096','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23050096"><span>Rapid differentiation in a sill-like magma reservoir: a case study from the <span class="hlt">campi</span> <span class="hlt">flegrei</span> caldera.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pappalardo, Lucia; Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In recent decades, geophysical investigations have detected wide magma reservoirs beneath quiescent calderas. However, the discovery of partially melted horizons inside the crust is not sufficient to put constraints on capability of reservoirs to supply cataclysmic eruptions, which strictly depends on the chemical-physical properties of magmas (composition, viscosity, gas content etc.), and thus on their differentiation histories. In this study, by using geochemical, isotopic and textural records of rocks erupted from the high-risk <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, we show that the alkaline magmas have evolved toward a critical state of explosive behaviour over a time span shorter than the repose time of most volcanic systems and that these magmas have risen rapidly toward the surface. Moreover, similar results on the depth and timescale of magma storage were previously obtained for the neighbouring Somma-Vesuvius volcano. This consistency suggests that there might be a unique long-lived magma pool beneath the whole Neapolitan area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3464501','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3464501"><span>Rapid differentiation in a sill-like magma reservoir: a case study from the <span class="hlt">campi</span> <span class="hlt">flegrei</span> caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pappalardo, Lucia; Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In recent decades, geophysical investigations have detected wide magma reservoirs beneath quiescent calderas. However, the discovery of partially melted horizons inside the crust is not sufficient to put constraints on capability of reservoirs to supply cataclysmic eruptions, which strictly depends on the chemical-physical properties of magmas (composition, viscosity, gas content etc.), and thus on their differentiation histories. In this study, by using geochemical, isotopic and textural records of rocks erupted from the high-risk <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, we show that the alkaline magmas have evolved toward a critical state of explosive behaviour over a time span shorter than the repose time of most volcanic systems and that these magmas have risen rapidly toward the surface. Moreover, similar results on the depth and timescale of magma storage were previously obtained for the neighbouring Somma-Vesuvius volcano. This consistency suggests that there might be a unique long-lived magma pool beneath the whole Neapolitan area. PMID:23050096</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160377"><span>ROCK PHYSICS. Rock physics of fibrous rocks akin to Roman concrete explains uplifts at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vanorio, Tiziana; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn</p> <p>2015-08-07</p> <p>Uplifts in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera reach values unsurpassed anywhere in the world (~2 meters). Despite the marked deformation, the release of strain appears delayed. The rock physics analysis of well cores highlights the presence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix that results from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that characterizing the cementitious pastes in modern and Roman concrete. The formation of fibrous minerals by intertwining filaments confers shear and tensile strength to the caprock, contributing to its ductility and increased resistance to fracture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13C3132M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13C3132M"><span>Hydrothermal activity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera: rock mechanical properties and implications for outgassing and possible phreatic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayer, K.; Montanaro, C.; Scheu, B.; Isaia, R.; Mangiacapra, A.; Gresse, M.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Moretti, R.; Dingwell, D. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles are the main surface manifestations of the vigorous hydrothermal activity within the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera system. The existing fault system appears to have a major control on outgassing and leads to a strong alteration of the volcanic products in both areas. Consistent with the volcanic history of the area, Solfatara and Pisciarelli are posited as having the highest probability for the opening of new vents, and in particular for possible phreatic activity within the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> system. Hydrothermal alteration deeply affects all the rocks exposed within Solfatara sector, including lava domes, breccias, as well as pyroclastic fallout ash beds and pyroclastic density current deposits. This results in changes of the volcanic rock's original microstructure and of their physical and mechanical properties, which in turn control both the outgassing and their fragmentation behaviors. Here, samples from the wall rocks in the vicinity of the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles have been subjected to geochemical, physical and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, surficial Solfatara crater floor deposits were characterized and their properties, in particular permeability, were mapped. Results show that hydrothermal alteration increases porosity and permeability of the crater wall samples favoring outgassing, while decreasing the rock strength. At the crater floor the outgassing occurs mainly along the crack system, which has also generated crusted hummocks. Elsewhere the fluid circulation in the subsoil is favored by the presence of coarse and sulfur-hardened levels, whereas their surfacing is hindered by compacted fine-grained, low permeability layers. Decompression experiments were performed to simulate a phreatic eruption at shallow depth. We used crater-wall samples representing the rocks in the proximity of high degassing areas. Changes in the fragmentation behavior and ejection dynamics, depending on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8026C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8026C"><span>Modelling of InSAR (LOS) changes by means of 3D extended pressured bodies with free geometry. Application to <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camacho, Antonio. G.; Fernandez, Jose; Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Berrino, Giovanna</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>InSAR measures can provide information about changes in distance between the ground and the satellite in radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction. Sometimes, as in the case of volcanic activity, the corresponding ground deformations can be modeled by means of pressure and/or mass sources. Usually, point sources and regular prolate or oblate bodies are used as source geometry for deformation. In this communication, we show a new method for non-linear inversion of position and gravity changes as produced by extended bodies with a free geometry. Their structures are described as aggregation of elemental sources with anomalous density and pressure, and they are modeled to fit the whole data and to keep some regularity conditions. A growth process permits to build general geometrical configurations. The method is tested by application to data of gravity and InSAR (LOS data for ascending and descending orbits) for the volcanic area of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Results are drawn with respect a structural gravimetric model and compared with previous models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917080S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917080S"><span>Audiomagnetotellurics-Magnetotelluric (AMT-MT) survey of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> inner caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siniscalchi, Agata; Tripaldi, Simona; Romano, Gerardo; D'Auria, Luca; Improta, Luigi; Petrillo, Zaccaria</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In the framework of the EU project MED-SUV, an audiomagnetotellurics-magnetotelluric (AMT-MT) survey in the frequency band 0.1-100kHz was performed in the eastern border of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> inner caldera comprising the area where seismicity is concentred in the last decade. This survey was aimed to provide new insights on the electrical resistivity structure of the subsoil. Among all the collected MT soundings, twenty-two, on a total of forty-three, were selected along a WSW-ENE alignment that crosses the main fumarole emissions (Solfatara, Pisciarelli and Agnano) and used for 2D regularized inversion. The obtained model is characterized by a quite narrow resistivity range that well matches typical range of enhanced geothermal environment as largely documented in the international literature. In particular focusing on the Solfatara and Pisciarelli districts the resistivity distribution clearly calls to mind the behavior of a high temperature geothermal system with a very conductive cap in the shallower part. Here the presence of gaps in this conductor just in correspondence of the main superficial emissions describes the inflow and outflow pathway of the shallow fluids circulation. A high resistive reservoir appearing at a depth of about 500 m b.s.l.. WithinWithin this region we selected a vertical resistivity profile just in correspondence of a Vp/Vs profile versus depth coming from a passive seismic tomography (Vanorio et al., 2005). The comparison of the two behaviors shows a clear anti-correlation between the two physical parameters (high resistivity and low Vp/Vs) in the depth range 500-1000 m supporting the interpretation that an over-pressurized gas bearing rocks under supercritical conditions constituting the reservoir of the enhanced geothermal system. On the eastern side of this resistive plume up to 2.5 km of depth is present a local relative conductive unit underneath the Pisciarelli area. In the same volume most of the recent (from 2005 up to date</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..280..104W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..280..104W"><span>Possible coupling of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Vesuvius as revealed by InSAR time series, correlation analysis and time dependent modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walter, T. R.; Shirzaei, M.; Manconi, A.; Solaro, G.; Pepe, A.; Manzo, M.; Sansosti, E.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Volcanoes are often considered as isolated systems, however, evidences increase that adjacent volcanoes are directly coupled or may be closely related to remote triggers. At the Italian volcanoes <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Vesuvius, as well as adjacent volcano-tectonic systems, all located in the Campania Volcanic Province with ~ 2 million inhabitants, a new analysis of satellite radar data reveals allied deformation activity. Here we show that during the 16-year records from 1992 to 2008, identified episodes of deformation have occurred in correlation. Albeit differences in the quantity of deformation, the sign, frequency and rate of pressure changes at reservoirs beneath <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Vesuvius can be very similar, allowing to infer that pressure changes originating from a magmatic or tectonic source external to the shallow volcano magma plumbing systems is a likely cause. Such a fluid-mechanical coupling sheds light on the earlier episodes of correlated eruptions and deformations occurring during the historical roman times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRB..116.4313D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRB..116.4313D"><span>Repeated fluid-transfer episodes as a mechanism for the recent dynamics of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (1989-2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Auria, L.; Giudicepietro, F.; Aquino, I.; Borriello, G.; Del Gaudio, C.; Lo Bascio, D.; Martini, M.; Ricciardi, G. P.; Ricciolino, P.; Ricco, C.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>We have analyzed a multiparametric data set of seismological, geodetic and geochemical data recorded at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera since 1982. We focus here on the period 1989-2010 that followed the last bradyseismic crisis of 1982-1984. Since then, there have been at least five repeated minor episodes of ground uplift accompanied by seismicity. We have reanalyzed old paper and digital seismic data sets dating back to 1982. The paper recordings show evidence of long-period events in January 1982 and March 1989, and we have digitized some of these significant waveforms. Furthermore, the revision of digital seismograms dating back to 1994 shows a significant swarm of long-period events in August 1994. Volcano-tectonic and long-period events hypocenters have been relocated in a three-dimensional velocity model. Statistical analysis of volcano-tectonic seismicity shows many similarities and few differences between 1982-1984 and the following period 1989-2010. Long-period waveforms have been analyzed using spectral analysis, which shows a grouping into three macrofamilies. Similarities in the seismic signature of episodes of minor uplift suggest that they originate from the injection of fluids into the deep part of a geothermal reservoir (about 2.5 km depth) and in its transfer toward a shallower part (about 0.75 km depth). Most of the observed geophysical signals are related to this second phase. The evidence consists of spatial and temporal connections between the ground deformation, long-period and volcano-tectonic seismicity and changes in the geochemical parameters of fumaroles. In this study we focused our analysis on two uplift episodes observed in 2000 and 2006. The joint inversion of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) and tiltmeter data show that during these periods the ground deformation was generated by at least two distinct sources located at different depths, with the shallower activated in the later stages of the uplift episodes. Our interpretation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2998D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2998D"><span>Space-weighted seismic attenuation mapping of the aseismic source of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> 1983-84 unrest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Siena, Luca; Amoruso, Antonella; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Castellano, Mario; Wakeford, Zoë; Crescentini, Luca</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Coda wave attenuation imaging is able to detect fluid/melt accumulation and ancient magmatic bodies in volcanoes. Here, we use recently-developed space-weighting sensitivity functions to invert for the spatial distributions of multi-frequency coda-wave attenuation (Qc-1), measured during the largest monitored unrest at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (1983-84). The kernels are built based on radiative transfer theory, in a diffusive approximation, and are suited for application in highly heterogeneous materials across scales. We integrate our results with relocalised seismicity using the NonLinLoc search-grid algorithm and results of deformation and gravity inversions using 1D starting models. High-attenuation anomalies are spatially correlated with the regions of highest structural complexities and cross faulting. They characterise deep fluid circulation in and around the aseismic roots of the 1534 AD Mount Nuovo eruption and fluid accumulation in the areas of highest hydrothermal hazard. Just offshore Pozzuoli and at the highest frequency (wavelengths of 150 m), the main cause of ground deformation and seismicity during the unrest is an aseismic low-attenuation circular anomaly, similar in shape and nature to those produced by ancient magmatic reservoirs and active sills at other volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.V23B..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.V23B..04M"><span>First Volcanological-Probabilistic Pyroclastic Density Current and Fallout Hazard Map for <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Somma Vesuvius Volcanoes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.; Troise, C.; Panizza, A.; de Natale, G.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Integrated volcanological-probabilistic approaches has been used in order to simulate pyroclastic density currents and fallout and produce hazard maps for <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Somma Vesuvius areas. On the basis of the analyses of all types of pyroclastic flows, surges, secondary pyroclastic density currents and fallout events occurred in the volcanological history of the two volcanic areas and the evaluation of probability for each type of events, matrixs of input parameters for a numerical simulation have been performed. The multi-dimensional input matrixs include the main controlling parameters of the pyroclasts transport and deposition dispersion, as well as the set of possible eruptive vents used in the simulation program. Probabilistic hazard maps provide of each points of campanian area, the yearly probability to be interested by a given event with a given intensity and resulting demage. Probability of a few events in one thousand years are typical of most areas around the volcanoes whitin a range of ca 10 km, including Neaples. Results provide constrains for the emergency plans in Neapolitan area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3356C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3356C"><span>Geochemical data, geophysical signals and physical simulations of the hydrothermal system highlight the beginning of a new volcanic unrest at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiodini, Giovanni; Avino, Rosario; Caliro, Stefano; Mangiacapra, Annarita; De Martino, Prospero; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Cardellini, Carlo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The temporal variation of magmatic fluid release at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera is investigated using numerical simulations of the hydrothermal system constrained by diffuse CO2 emission data and by the chemical composition of fumarolic vents. The main aim is to understand the recent dynamics of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, where hundreds of thousands of people live in an area subjected since the middle of the 20th century to a long term crisis characterized by several episodes of ground uplift and correspondent seismic swarms (bradyseism). In 1998, the first measurements of diffuse degassing from the Solfatara crater, the most active zone of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, revealed the very intense release of hydrothermal- magmatic CO2 (~1500 t/d) and of thermal energy (~100 MW) highlighting that the expulsion of deep fluids is the main form of energy loss from the entire caldera and suggesting an important role of magma degassing during the crisis. The hydrothermal system of Solfatara recently underwent large changes, including compositional variations of fumarolic effluents, compositional homogenization of the fluid released at different vents, changes in the pattern of diffuse degassing, increases in the pressures of the system, and increases in the temperature and in the flow rate of the fumaroles. Furthermore, after 20 yr of subsidence, an uplift period started in 2005. Comparing long-term series of geochemical signals with ground deformation and seismicity, we show that these changes are at least partially caused by repeated injections of magmatic fluid into the hydrothermal system. The frequency of these degassing episodes has increased in the last years, causing pulsed uplift episodes and swarms of low magnitude earthquakes. Modeling of these injection events allowed us to derive synthetic time series of geochemical parameters which well match those independently derived for the fumaroles. Total injected fluid masses in the simulated events are of the same order of magnitude as those emitted</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178406','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178406"><span>The Late-Holocene evolution of the Miseno area (south-western <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>) as inferred by stratigraphy, petrochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology:Chapter 6 in Volcanism in the Campania Plain — Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Ignimbrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Insinga, Donatella; Calvert, Andrew T.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Morra, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Annamaria; Sacchi, Marco; Scarpati, Claudio; Saburomaru, James; Fedele, Lorenzo</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study on terrestrial and marine successions increases the understanding of the Late-Holocene volcanological and stratigraphical evolution of the south-western part of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera.Stratigraphic data derived from field studies of two major tuff vents located along the coastal zone, namely Porto Miseno and Capo Miseno, clearly indicate that the Porto Miseno tuff ring slightly predates the Capo Miseno tuff cone. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating experiments, carried out on fresh sanidine separates from pumice samples, yielded a plateau age of 5090±140 yr BP for Capo Miseno and 6490±510 yr BP for Porto Miseno vent, thus confirming field observations.The volcanoclastic input derived from this recent and intense eruptive activity played a major role in the inner-shelf stratigraphic evolution of the Porto Miseno Bay deposits that have been drilled up to 40 m depth off the crater rim. The cored succession is characterised by transgressive marine deposits (mostly volcanic sand) with two intercalated peat layers (t1 and t2), dated at 3560±40 yr BP and 7815±55 yr BP (14C), respectively, interbedded with a 1–5 m thick pumice layer (tephra C). Peat layers have been chronostratigraphically correlated with two widespread paleosols onland while petrochemical analyses allowed us to correlate tephra C with the Capo Miseno tuff cone deposits.The results presented in this study imply a Late-Holocene volcanic activity that is also well preserved in the marine record in this sector of the caldera where a new chronostratigraphic reconstruction of the eruptive events is required in order to better evaluate the hazard assessment of the area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.7996M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.7996M"><span>Experimental investigations on the explosivity of steam-driven eruptions: A case study of Solfatara volcano (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Mayer, Klaus; Orsi, Giovanni; Moretti, Roberto; Isaia, Roberto; Dingwell, Donald B.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Steam-driven eruptions, both phreatic and hydrothermal, expel exclusively fragments of non-juvenile rocks disintegrated by the expansion of water as liquid or gas phase. As their violence is related to the magnitude of the decompression work that can be performed by fluid expansion, these eruptions may occur with variable degrees of explosivity. In this study we investigate the influence of liquid fraction and rock petrophysical properties on the steam-driven explosive energy. A series of fine-grained heterogeneous tuffs from the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera were investigated for their petrophysical properties. The rapid depressurization of various amounts of liquid water within the rock pore space can yield highly variable fragmentation and ejection behaviors for the investigated tuffs. Our results suggest that the pore liquid fraction controls the stored explosive energy with an increasing liquid fraction within the pore space increasing the explosive energy. Overall, the energy released by steam flashing can be estimated to be 1 order of magnitude higher than for simple (Argon) gas expansion and may produce a higher amount of fine material even under partially saturated conditions. The energy surplus in the presence of steam flashing leads to a faster fragmentation with respect to gas expansion and to higher ejection velocities imparted to the fragmented particles. Moreover, weak and low permeability rocks yield a maximum fine fraction. Using experiments to unravel the energetics of steam-driven eruptions has yielded estimates for several parameters controlling their explosivity. These findings should be considered for both modeling and evaluation of the hazards associated with steam-driven eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.4681C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.4681C"><span>The active portion of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera structure imaged by 3-D inversion of gravity data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capuano, Paolo; Russo, Guido; Civetta, Lucia; Orsi, Giovanni; D'Antonio, Massimo; Moretti, Roberto</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We present an improved density model and a new structural map of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff caldera, the active portion of the nested <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. The model was built using a new 3-D inversion of the available high-precision gravity data, and a new digital terrain and marine model. The inversion procedure, based on a variable-depth lumped assembling of the subsurface gravity distribution via cell aggregation, gives better defined insights into the internal caldera architecture, that well agree with the available geological, geophysical, and geochemical data. The adopted 3-D gravity method is highly efficient for characterizing the shallow caldera structure (down to 3 km depth) and defining features related to regional or volcano tectonic lineaments and dynamics. In particular, the resulting density distribution highlights a pronounced density low in correspondence of the central portion of the caldera with a detail not available till now. The joint interpretation of the available data suggests a subsurface structural setting that supports a piecemeal collapse of the caldera, and allows the identification of its headwall. Positive gravity anomalies localize dense intrusions (presently covered by late volcanic deposits) along the caldera marginal faults, and the main structural lineaments both bordering the resurgent block and cutting the caldera floor. These results allow us to both refine the current geological-structural framework and propose a new structural map that highlights the caldera boundary and its internal setting. This map is useful to interpret the phenomena occurring during unrest, and to improve both short-term and long-term volcanic hazards assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538569','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538569"><span>Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012–2013 volcanic unrest at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>D’Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km3 of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area. PMID:26279090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...513100D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...513100D"><span>Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012-2013 volcanic unrest at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km3 of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26279090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26279090"><span>Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012-2013 volcanic unrest at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana</p> <p>2015-08-17</p> <p>We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km(3) of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..940C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..940C"><span>3D image of Brittle/Ductile transition in active volcanic area and its implication on seismicity: The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castaldo, Raffaele; Luca, D'auria; Susi, Pepe; Giuseppe, Solaro; Pietro, Tizzani</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The thermo-rheology of the rocks is a crucial aspect to understand the mechanical behavior of the crust in young and tectonically active area. As a consequence, several studies have been performed since last decades in order to understand the role of thermic state in the evolution of volcanic environments. In this context, we analyze the upper crust rheology of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> active caldera (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Our target is the evaluation of the 3D geometry of the Brittle-Ductile transition beneath the resurgent caldera, by integrating the available geological, geochemical, and geophysical data. We first performed a numerical thermal model by using the a priori geological and geophysical information; than we employ the retrieved isothermal distribution to image the rheological stratification of the shallow crust beneath caldera. In particular, considering both the thermal proprieties and the mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust, we performed, in a Finite Element environment, a 3D conductive time dependent thermal model through an numerical of solution of the Fourier equation. The dataset consist in temperature measurements recorded in several deep wells. More specifically, the geothermal gradients were measured in seven deep geothermal boreholes, located in three main distinct areas: Mofete, Licola, and San Vito. In addition, we take into account also the heat flow density map at the caldera surface calculated by considering the thermal measurements carried out in 30 shallow water wells. We estimate the isothermal distribution of the crust calibrating two model parameters: the heat production [W], associated to the magma injection episodes in the last 60 kyears within the magma chamber and the heat flow coefficient [W/m2*K] at the external surface. In particular, the optimization procedure has been performed using an exhaustive grid search, to minimize the differences between model and experimental measurements. The achieved results allowed us to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812888C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812888C"><span>Seafloor slow vertical displacement inferred by sea bottom pressure measurements in shallow water: an application to the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; Locritani, Marina; Embriaco, Davide; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; La Rocca, Adriano; Pinto, Salvatore; Beranzoli, Laura</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The vertical component of sea floor displacement in tectonic or volcanically active areas can be observed using sea bottom pressure recorders. These measurements are usually acquired in areas affected by strong dynamics with large vertical displacement and in deep water, where the noise induced by the sea state is low. Under these conditions the contribution of the variation of sea water density and the contribution of the instrumental drift - a typical feature of the bottom pressure recorders - can be negligible. We have developed a new methodology to monitor vertical sea floor displacement both in areas with small and slow deformation, and in shallow water. We take advantage of bottom pressure recorder data, augmented with ancillary sea level, barometric and water physical parameters measurements. We have applied this method to the data collected by a bottom pressure recorder deployed at 100 m w.d. in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera as part of CUMAS multiparameter monitoring system. During several months of 2011 we have observed a small uplift episode related to the bradiseismic activity of the area. These observations are compatible with other geodetic data recorded in the region and provide unprecedented measurements of the vertical deformation in the marine area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610357S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610357S"><span>Operational short-term Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment of tephra fallout: an example from the 1982-1984 unrest at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandri, Laura; Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) represents the most complete scientific contribution for planning rational strategies aimed at mitigating the risk posed by volcanic activity at different time scales. The definition of the space-time window for PVHA is related to the kind of risk mitigation actions that are under consideration. Short intervals (days to weeks) are important for short-term risk mitigation actions like the evacuation of a volcanic area. During volcanic unrest episodes or eruptions, it is of primary importance to produce short-term tephra fallout forecast, and frequently update it to account for the rapidly evolving situation. This information is obviously crucial for crisis management, since tephra may heavily affect building stability, public health, transportations and evacuation routes (airports, trains, road traffic) and lifelines (electric power supply). In this study, we propose a methodology for the short-term PVHA and its operational implementation, based on the model BET_EF, in which measures from the monitoring system are used to routinely update the forecast of some parameters related to the eruption dynamics, that is, the probabilities of eruption, of every possible vent position and every possible eruption size. Then, considering all possible vent positions and eruptive sizes, tephra dispersal models are coupled with frequently updated meteorological forecasts. Finally, these results are merged through a Bayesian procedure, accounting for epistemic uncertainties at all the considered steps. As case study we retrospectively study some stages of the volcanic unrest that took place in <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (CF) in 1982-1984. In particular, we aim at presenting a practical example of possible operational tephra fall PVHA on a daily basis, in the surroundings of CF at different stages of the 1982-84 unrest. Tephra dispersal is simulated using the analytical HAZMAP code. We consider three possible eruptive sizes (a low, a medium and a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713169S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713169S"><span>Automatized near-real-time short-term Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment of tephra dispersion before eruptions: BET_VHst for Vesuvius and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> during recent exercises</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Sandri, Laura; Rouwet, Dmtri; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) represents the most complete scientific contribution for planning rational strategies aimed at mitigating the risk posed by volcanic activity at different time scales. The definition of the space-time window for PVHA is related to the kind of risk mitigation actions that are under consideration. Short temporal intervals (days to weeks) are important for short-term risk mitigation actions like the evacuation of a volcanic area. During volcanic unrest episodes or eruptions, it is of primary importance to produce short-term tephra fallout forecast, and frequently update it to account for the rapidly evolving situation. This information is obviously crucial for crisis management, since tephra may heavily affect building stability, public health, transportations and evacuation routes (airports, trains, road traffic) and lifelines (electric power supply). In this study, we propose a methodology named BET_VHst (Selva et al. 2014) for short-term PVHA of volcanic tephra dispersal based on automatic interpretation of measures from the monitoring system and physical models of tephra dispersal from all possible vent positions and eruptive sizes based on frequently updated meteorological forecasts. The large uncertainty at all the steps required for the analysis, both aleatory and epistemic, is treated by means of Bayesian inference and statistical mixing of long- and short-term analyses. The BET_VHst model is here presented through its implementation during two exercises organized for volcanoes in the Neapolitan area: MESIMEX for Mt. Vesuvius, and VUELCO for <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>. References Selva J., Costa A., Sandri L., Macedonio G., Marzocchi W. (2014) Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: a case study for tephra fallout, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011252</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9819T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9819T"><span>Definition of Brittle Ductile Transition of the upper crust beneath the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>-Ischia Volcanic District and its impact on natural seismicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tizzani, Pietro; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Santilano, Alessandro; Gola, Gianluca; Pepe, Susi; D'Auria, Luca; Solaro, Giuseppe</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The thermo-rheology behaviour of the rocks is a crucial aspect to understand the mechanical behaviour of the crust of tectonically active area. As a consequence, several studies have been performed since last decades in order to clarify the role of thermic state in the evolution of volcanic areas. In this framework, the knowledge of the Brittle-Ductile transition inside the upper crust may provide insights to verify the roles that some hypothesized mechanisms, such as slab pull, crustal delamination might have played in the evolution of a tectonically active region. The goal of our study was the 3D imaging of the crust rheology beneath the active <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>-Ischia Volcanic District and its impact on natural seismicity. Despite many works have been done on the internal structure of the active volcanoes, the determination of the 3D rheological stratification of the crust below the caldera has not yet been tackled. To fill this gap of knowledge, we proposed the definition of 3D geometry of the Brittle-Ductile transition calculated via numerical optimization modelling based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical available data. We first performed a 3D numerical modelling of thermal field by using the a priori geological and geophysical information starting to thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the crust beneath the caldera. We developed a suitable 3D conductive/convective time-dependent thermal numerical model solving the Fourier equation and further we used the retrieved thermal model to image a 3D rheological stratification of the shallow crust below the volcanic district. Finally we demonstrate the role of the crustal rheology on seismicity cut off and its implication on maximum expected earthquakes magnitude.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BVol..tmp..119G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BVol..tmp..119G"><span>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 uc(ad))</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36 hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive crisis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BVol...73..655G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BVol...73..655G"><span>The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 AD)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36?| hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3540C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3540C"><span>Long time series of soil CO2 degassing measurements at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Rosiello, Angelo; Bagnato, Emanula; Avino, Rosario; Frondini, Francesco; Caliro, Stefano; Beddini, Giulio; Donnini, Marco; Lelli, Matto</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Since 1998, 28 extensive soil CO2 flux surveys, each including 400-500 measurements by accumulation chamber method, were performed over a large area (about 1.45 km2) covering the Solfatara crater and its surroundings. The statistical analysis of CO2 flux values, coupled with the measurement of the CO2 efflux isotopic composition, allowed to characterize the different CO2 sources feeding soil degassing and to investigate their temporal variability. Using a geostatistical approach the spatial structure of the degassing area, as well as the total amount of released CO2, have been defined. The area is characterized by a well defined diffuse degassing structure interested by the release of deeply derived CO2 (Solfatara DDS), which geometry is strongly controlled by volcanic and tectonic structures. The extension of the Solfatara DDS varied in the time with two major enlargements, the first consisted in its doubling in 2003-2004 and the second in further enlargement of about 30% occurred between 2011 and 2012. Both DDS enlargement mainly interested the area external to the crater in correspondence of the NE-SW fault system of Pisciarelli area. This area is also characterized by a very large increase in fumarolic emissions, in terms of both flow rate and discharge temperatures since 2005. The first event of DDS enlargements was previously correlated with the occurrence in 2000 of a relatively deep seismic swarm, which was interpreted as the indicator of the opening of an easy-ascent pathway for the transfer of magmatic fluids towards the shallower portion of the hydrothermal system; the second enlargement well correlates with the recent unrest phase of the system, characterized by an acceleration of the ground uplift. The amount of released CO2 has been estimated ranging between about 700 t/d and about 1500 t/d (with errors between 9 and 15 %) until the January 2015 when there was an increase up to 2800 t/d. After this maximum emission rate the flux slightly decrease during 2015 reaching again an CO2 output of 1500 t/d at November 2015. The CO2 variations in the last two years seems to follow the trend depicted by ground deformations, with increases of fluxes during the uplift accelerations and decreases of fluxes during the phases of relative "no-uplift". The comparison of the CO2 flux data with the chemical composition of the main fumaroles suggests that the variation of in the DDS extension is correlated to processes of condensation of the vapor plume feeding the Solfatara manifestation accompanied by an overall increase of the temperatures, caused by the arrival of increasing amounts of magmatic fluids</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BVol...79...67P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BVol...79...67P"><span>The Baia-Fondi di Baia eruption at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>: stratigraphy and dynamics of a multi-stage caldera reactivation event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pistolesi, Marco; Bertagnini, Antonella; Di Roberto, Alessio; Isaia, Roberto; Vona, Alessandro; Cioni, Raffaello; Giordano, Guido</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The Baia-Fondi di Baia eruption is one of the sporadic events that have occurred in the western sector of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. It dates back to 9525-9696 bp and opened Epoch 2 of the caldera activity after a 1000-year-long period of quiescence. Although relatively small in terms of erupted volume with respect to most of the events of the past 15 ka, the Baia-Fondi di Baia eruption was characterized by a complex series of events, which have led to different interpretations in the literature. We present a detailed stratigraphic study of 40 outcrops in a sector of about 90 km2, coupled with sedimentological (grain size, componentry), physical (density, vesicularity), textural, and compositional analyses of the erupted deposits. Based on these data, we interpret the stratigraphic succession as being related to two distinct eruptive episodes (Baia and Fondi di Baia). These were separated by a short time interval, and each was characterized by different eruptive phases. The Baia eruptive episode started in a shallow-water environment with an explosive vent-opening phase that formed a breccia deposit (Unit I), rapidly followed by alternating fallout activity and dense, pyroclastic density current deposits generation (Unit II). Sedimentological features and pumice textural analyses suggest that deposition of Unit II coincided with the intensity peak of the eruption, with the fallout deposit being characterized by a volume of 0.06 ± 0.008 km3 (corresponding to a total erupted mass of 4.06 ± 0.5 × 1010 kg), a column height of 17 km, and a corresponding mass flow rate of 1.8 × 107 kg s-1. The associated tephra also shows the highest vesicularity (up to 81 vol.%) the highest vesicle number density (1.01 × 108 cm-3) and decompression rate (0.69 MPa s-1). This peak phase waned to turbulent, surge-like activity possibly associated with Vulcanian explosions and characterized by progressively lower intensity, as shown by density/vesicularity and textural properties of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V12B..03C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V12B..03C"><span>Probing the structure of a caldera for geothermal assessment using enhanced passive seismic tomography. The example of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> Flregrei (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calo, M.; Tramelli, A.; Troise, C.; de Natale, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) is one of the most studied calderas of the world due to its geothermal potential that was exploited since Romans' age, and its eruption and seismic risk, affecting a densely populated region. The caldera is marked by strong vertical deformations of the soil called bradyseisms, which are often accompanied by seismic crises. In particular the bradyseismic crises of 1982-84 are remembered for the large number of earthquakes that exceeded 16000 events recorded. Seismicity has been used to model the distribution of the elastic parameters with the aim to study the volcano behavior. However, till now seismic velocity models, calculated with standard tomography, failed in resolving small structures (<1.5-2km) located also at shallow depth, which could be responsible of small eruption as the last one that originated the Monte Nuovo monogenic cone in 1538. Here we show Vp and Vp/Vs models carried out by applying an enhanced seismic tomography that uses the Double Difference method (DD, Zhang and Thurber, 2003) complemented with the Weighted Average Model post-processing (WAM, Calò et al., 2009, Calò et al., 2011, 2013). The 3D models obtained with this procedure benefit of the high resolving power due to DD method, which uses both absolute and differential data, and of the improved reliability offered by WAM, which allows to overcome the drawbacks of the standard inversion methods. Our approach allowed to image structures with linear dimension of 0.5-1.2km, resulting in an improvement of the resolving power at least two times of the other published models (e.g. Priolo et al., 2012). Results show small bodies of high Vp and Vp/Vs at shallow depth (2.5-3.5 km) that could be associated either with magmatic intrusions or fluid saturated rocks, probably responsible of unrest episodes. At shallower depth (0.5-2.0 km), the Vp/Vs model is able to discern between water- and gas- bearing regions giving insight on the assessment of the potential of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13C3127C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V13C3127C"><span>Diffuse Soil CO2 Degassing at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>): 1998-2015, Sixteen Years of Flux Measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Caliro, S.; Quareni, F.; Frondini, F.; Rosiello, A.; Avino, R.; Bagnato, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Solfatara of Pozzuoli is one of the largest studied volcanic-hydrothermal system of the world releasing a large amount of deeply derived fluids. Since 1998, extensive soil CO2 flux surveys where performed using the accumulation chamber method over a large area (1.45 km2). The statistical analysis of CO2 flux, coupled with the investigation of the CO2 efflux isotopic composition, allowed to characterize the different CO2 sources and to investigate their temporal variability. The geostatistical elaboration of CO2 fluxes allowed to define the spatial structure of the degassing area, as well as the total amount of released CO2, pointing out the presence of a well defined diffuse degassing structure interested by the release of deeply derived CO2 (Solfatara DDS). The extension of the DDS experienced relevant variations with two major enlargements, the first consisted in its doubling in 2003-2004 and the second in further enlargement of about 30% in 2011-2012. These variations mainly occurred external to the crater area in correspondence of a NE-SW fault system (Pisciarelli area). The first event was previously correlated with the occurrence in 2000 of a relatively deep seismic swarm, which was interpreted as the indicator of the opening of an easy-ascent pathway for the transfer of magmatic fluids towards the shallower portion of the hydrothermal system; the second enlargement well correlates with the recent unrest phase of the system, characterized by an acceleration of the ground uplift. The amount of released CO2 has been estimated ranging between about 700 t/d and about 1500 t/d (with errors between 9 and 15 %) until the January 2015 when there was an increase up to 2800 t/d. The CO2 variations in the last two years seems to follow the trend depicted by ground deformations, with increases of fluxes during the uplift accelerations and decreases of fluxes during the phases of relative "no-uplift". The comparison of the CO2 flux data with the chemical composition of the main fumaroles suggests that the variation of in the DDS extension is correlated to processes of condensation of the vapor plume feeding the Solfatara manifestation accompanied by an overall increase of the temperatures, caused by the arrival of increasing amounts of deep fluids, possibly magmatic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713496F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713496F"><span>Monitoring the geothermal fluid using time lapse electrical resistivity tomography: The Pisciarelli fumarolic field test site (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, South <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fedele, Alessandro; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Reanto; Caputo, Teresa; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Pisciarelli area is a fumarolic field subject to very short time morphological changes. A number of critical problems affect this area, i.e. increase of temperature of the fumaroles above the average background temperature, local seismicity and occurrence of fumaroles mixed with jets of boiling water. The presence of a very shallow aquifer seem to have the control on the behavior and composition of the fumaroles. This fumarolic field is still largely unknown regarding geophysical surveys mainly because of its limited space, surrounded on the eastern side by intense urbanization inside the large Agnano crater (Troiano et al. 2014). Currently is mainly affected by geochemical, thermal and seismic monitoring which may not fully explain the behaviour of fluids surface. Many monitoring or time lapse (TL) applications are discussed in literature (e.g., White, 1994; Daily et al., 1995; Barker and Moore, 1998; Ramirez and Daily, 2001; Carter, 2002; Slater et al., 2002; Singha and Gorelick, 2005; Cassiani et al., 2006; Swarzenski et al., 2006; de Franco et al., 2009). However all these experiments are devoted to the use of the ERT for tracer tests or in contaminant hydrology and are characterized by a short monitoring period due to the complexity and problems of long-time instrument maintenance. We propose and present a first approach of a geophysical monitoring by time lapse electrical resistivity in a fumarolic field. The profiles were acquired in January 2013, in January, March, May, July, September and November 2014 respectively. They cross the Pisciarelli area following approximately the NS direction and were characterized by a 2.5 m electrode spacing and maximum penetration depth of about 20 m. and will supply fundamental evidences on the possible seasonal resistivity fluctuations or if the resistivity changes are indicative of an increase in volcanic gases present in the hydrothermal system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRB..114.3213M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRB..114.3213M"><span>Principles of volcanic risk metrics: Theory and the case study of Mount Vesuvius and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marzocchi, Warner; Woo, Gordon</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Despite volcanic risk having been defined quantitatively more than 30 years ago, this risk has been managed without being effectively measured. The recent substantial progress in quantifying eruption probability paves the way for a new era of rational science-based volcano risk management, based on what may be termed "volcanic risk metrics" (VRM). In this paper, we propose the basic principles of VRM, based on coupling probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment and eruption forecasting with cost-benefit analysis. The VRM strategy has the potential to rationalize decision making across a broad spectrum of volcanological questions. When should the call for evacuation be made? What early preparations should be made for a volcano crisis? Is it worthwhile waiting longer? What areas should be covered by an emergency plan? During unrest, what areas of a large volcanic field or caldera should be evacuated, and when? The VRM strategy has the paramount advantage of providing a set of quantitative and transparent rules that can be established well in advance of a crisis, optimizing and clarifying decision-making procedures. It enables volcanologists to apply all their scientific knowledge and observational information to assist authorities in quantifying the positive and negative risk implications of any decision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610499T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610499T"><span>The effect of the sea on hazard assessment for tephra fallout at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>: a preliminary approach through the use of pyPHaz, an open tool to analyze and visualize probabilistic hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tonini, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (CF) is a large volcanic field located west of the Gulf of Naples, characterized by a wide and almost circular caldera which is partially submerged beneath the Gulf of Pozzuoli. It is known that the magma-water interaction is a key element to determine the character of submarine eruptions and their impact on the surrounding areas, but this phenomenon is still not well understood and it is rarely considered in hazard assessment. The aim of the present work is to present a preliminary study of the effect of the sea on the tephra fall hazard from CF on the municipality of Naples, by introducing a variability in the probability of tephra production according to the eruptive scale (defined on the basis of the erupted volume) and the depth of the opening submerged vents. Four different Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) models have been defined through the application of the model BET_VH at CF, by accounting for different modeling procedures and assumptions for the submerged part of the caldera. In particular, we take into account: 1) the effect of the sea as null, i.e. as if the water were not present; 2) the effect of the sea as a cap that totally blocks the explosivity of eruptions and consequently the tephra production; 3) an ensemble model between the two models described at the previous points 1) and 2); 4) a variable probability of tephra production depending on the depth of the submerged vent. The PVHA models are then input to pyPHaz, a tool developed and designed at INGV to visualize, analyze and merge into ensemble models PVHA's results and, potentially, any other kind of probabilistic hazard assessment, both natural and anthropic, in order to evaluate the importance of considering a variability among subaerial and submerged vents on tephra fallout hazard from CF in Naples. The analysis is preliminary and does not pretend to be exhaustive, but on one hand it represents a starting point for future works; on the other hand, it is a good</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..324..105F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..324..105F"><span>A chemostratigraphic study of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>): Insights on magma chamber withdrawal and deposit accumulation as revealed by compositionally zoned stratigraphic and facies framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Sparice, D.; Perrotta, A.; Laiena, F.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Petrochemical analyses of juvenile samples from twenty stratigraphic sections of the Campanian Ignimbrite medial deposits, located from 30 to 79 km from the vent, are presented here. Sampling has accurately followed a well-defined stratigraphic framework and the new component facies scheme. The Campanian Ignimbrite succession is formed by a basal plinian pumice fall deposit, overlain by a complex architecture of pyroclastic density current deposits emplaced from a single sustained pyroclastic density current through a mechanism of vertical and lateral accretion. The deposit is broadly zoned, from more evolved trachyte at its base to less evolved trachyte at its top, and is similarly less evolved with increasing distance from the area of emission. Irregular chemical trends are locally observed and interpreted to represent only a limited, "patchy" record of the entire vertical geochemical trend. The petrochemical variation observed horizontally was ascribed to changes in the flow dynamics and interaction between the advancing flow and the underlying topography. The results of this study were used to propose a unified volcanological-petrological model for the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, taking into account the emplacement of both the proximal (i.e., the "Breccia Museo" formation) and medial deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.V42B..08T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.V42B..08T"><span>Trachyte Obsidian Blocks in the Lag-Breccia of Ignimbrite Campana (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Additional Experimental Data related to the magma ascent conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trigila, R. C.; Dolfi, D.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The Obsidian blocks occurring frequently in the Lag-breccia of the Ignimbrite Campana super-eruption (IC) have been found to mime strictly the magma composition and the phenocrysts assemblage of the main eruptive ash- flow unit, possibly representing a quenched fraction of the magmatic system. To date, in spite of the several investigations on the erupted rocks, conclusive data on the fissural vents location, intracrustal reservoir(s) depth and dissolved volatiles in the melt, are controversial. The obsidian blocks show, typically, millimetric euhedral sanidine phenocrysts (up to 10-12 vol.%) regularly associated with salitic pyroxene, corroded bytownite, euhedral andesine, ulvo-spinel, apatite and biotite (totalling 4-6 vol.%). All these phases, but the bytownite, appear to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with the melt as shown by the equilibrium experiments performed at subliquidus T and confining P(H2O) of 50, 100, and 200 MPa. At 100 and 200 MPa, in particular, the entry order of mineral phases is corresponding to the obsidian one, with near liquidus co-crystallization of pyroxene, plagioclase and ulvospinel. Crystallisation is scarce until the appearance of sanidine(40-60°C below the liquidus), which brings quickly to the complete solidification of the magmatic system. Other experiments at the same P's and T's just above liquidus were performed to determine the H2O solubility in the melt both under equilibrium conditions (respectively 2.6, 4.7, and 6.9 wt.%) and under slow decompression gradients. In these last experiments performed by decreasing the confining P from 100 to 50 MPa with gradients up to 0.02 MPa/s and delay times before quenching from 0 to 12 h, no vesiculation was observed at the SEM scale, despite the amount of dissolved H2O (3.4wt.%) resulted significantly higher than the equilibrium value at the final experimental P. The effect of slow decompression rates at shallow depths keeps the volatiles into the melt enhancing the magma ascent already triggered at higher depths by the increase of the dissolved H2O due to the extensive crystal-liquid fractionation from a parent magma basaltic-trachyandesitic in composition (Fowler et al., J. Petrol., 2007).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18...44V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18...44V"><span>Seafloor doming driven by active mantle degassing offshore Naples (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ventura, Guido; Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Structures and processes associated with shallow water hydrothermal fluid discharges on continental shelves are poorly known. We report geomorphological, geophysical, and geochemical evidences of a 5.5 x 5.3 km seabed doming located 5 km offshore the Naples harbor (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). The dome lies between 100 and 170 m of water depth and it is 15-20 m higher than the surrounding seafloor. It is characterized by a hummocky morphology due to 280 sub-circular to elliptical mounds, about 660 cones, and 30 pockmarks. The mounds and pockmarks alignments follow those of the main structural discontinuity affecting the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching require relatively low pressures (about 2-3 MPa), and the sub-seafloor structures, which consists of 'pagodas' affecting the present-day seabed, record the active upraise, pressurization, and release of magmatic fluids. The gas composition of the sampled submarine emissions is consistent with that of the emissions from the hydrothermal systems of Ischia, <span class="hlt">CampiFlegrei</span> and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, and CO2 has a magmatic/thermometamorphic origin. The 3He/4He ratios (1.66-1.96 Ra) are slightly lower than in the Somma-Vesuvius and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanoes (~2.6-3.0 Ra) indicating the contamination of fluids originated from the same magmatic source by crustal-derived radiogenic 4He. All these evidences concur to hypothesize an extended magmatic reservoir beneath Naples and its offshore. Seabed doming, faulting, and hydrothermal discharges are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions. We conclude that seabed deformations and hydrothermal discharge must be included in the coastal hazard studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JVGR...48....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JVGR...48....1S"><span>The structure of the Campanian Plain and the activity of the Neapolitan volcanoes (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scandone, Roberto; Bellucci, Francesca; Lirer, Lucio; Rolandi, Giuseppe</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The central Campanian Plain is dominated by the structural depression of Acerra whose origin is tectonic, but may have been enlarged and further depressed after the eruption of the Campanian Ignimbrite (42-25 ka). The deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite are possibly the results of multiple eruptions with huge pyroclastic deposits that covered all the Campanian Plain. The more recent activity of Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Procida occurred on the borders of Acerra depression and resulted from a reactivation of regional faults after the Campanian Ignimbrite cycle. The activity of Vesuvius produced the building of a stratovolcano mostly by effusive and plinian explosive eruptions. The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area, on the contrary, was dominated by the eruption of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff at 12 ka that produced a caldera collapse of the Gulf of Pozzuoli. The caldera formation controlled the emplacement of the recent activity of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and the new volcanoes were formed only within the caldera or along its rim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..285...29P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..285...29P"><span>First hydroacoustic evidence of marine, active fluid vents in the Naples Bay continental shelf (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Passaro, Salvatore; Genovese, Simona; Sacchi, Marco; Barra, Marco; Rumolo, Paola; Tamburrino, Stella; Mazzola, Salvatore; Basilone, Gualtiero; Placenti, Francesco; Aronica, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We present the first results of a multidisciplinary research aimed at the detection and mapping of Active Fluid Vents (AFVs) at the seafloor of the Naples Bay, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. This segment of the Campania continental margin is characterised by severe Quaternary extension and intense volcanism at Ischia and Procida islands, the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complexes. High resolution hydroacoustic profilers were used to identify and localize fluid emission from the seafloor. ROV direct observation showed that each emission centre is generally composed by the coalescence of several emitting points. CTD probes showed that there are no significant gradients in temperature profiles. The results of this study include the detection and mapping of 54 fluid emission points all located in the - 71/- 158 m depth range, and spatially distributed into four main clusters. Three of the described clusters are located along the margin of a complex, toe-shaped seafloor morphology southwest of the Somma-Vesuvius, representing the shallow expression of partly buried, coalesced depositional features (namely, two flank collapses and one pyroclastic flow) associated with the Late Pleistocene activity of the volcano. The fourth AFV cluster was detected at the morphological - high, located about 8 km south of Naples (Banco della Montagna), represented by a field of volcaniclastic diapirs composed of massive pumiceous deposits originated from the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> intruding rising through the latest Quaternary-Holocene marine deposits. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AFV in this area could be genetically linked to the interaction between volcanic related seafloor morphologies and the main, NE striking faults present in the area, i.e. the Magnaghi-Sebeto line and the Vesuvian fault.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022822','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022822"><span>New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>de Vivo, B.; Rolandi, G.; Gans, P.B.; Calvert, A.; Bohrson, W.A.; Spera, F.J.; Belkin, H.E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The ∼ 150 km3 (DRE) trachytic Campanian Ignimbrite, which is situated north-west of Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, is one of the largest eruptions in the Mediterranean region in the last 200 ky. Despite centuries of investigation, the age and eruptive history of the Campanian Ignimbrite is still debated, as is the chronology of other significant volcanic events of the Campanian Plain within the last 200–300 ky. New 40Ar/39Ar geochronology defines the age of the Campanian Ignimbrite at 39.28 ± 0.11 ka, about 2 ky older than the previous best estimate. Based on the distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite and associated uppermost proximal lithic and polyclastic breccias, we suggest that the Campanian Ignimbrite magma was emitted from fissures activated along neotectonic Apennine faults rather than from ring fractures defining a <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. Significantly, new volcanological, geochronological, and geochemical data distinguish previously unrecognized ignimbrite deposits in the Campanian Plain, accurately dated between 157 and 205 ka. These ages, coupled with a xenocrystic sanidine component > 315 ka, extend the volcanic history of this region by over 200 ky. Recent work also identifies a pyroclastic deposit, dated at 18.0 ka, outside of the topographic <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> basin, expanding the spatial distribution of post-Campanian Ignimbrite deposits. These new discoveries emphasize the importance of continued investigation of the ages, distribution, volumes, and eruption dynamics of volcanic events associated with the Campanian Plain. Such information is critical for accurate assessment of the volcanic hazards associated with potentially large-volume explosive eruptions in close proximity to the densely populated Neapolitan region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12177926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12177926"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-04-01</p> <p>For "Background Notes" on <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. <span class="hlt">Italy</span> had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is a member of NATO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2095S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2095S"><span>Satellite-derived surface temperature and in situ measurement at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silvestri, M.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Buongiorno, M. F.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Ground thermal anomalies in volcanic-hydrothermal systems, where the outflow of hot fluids gives rise to fumarolic fields, soil degassing, and hot soils, have, up to now, rarely been investigated by using satellite. Here we report a comparison between surface temperature derived by satellite data and a large data set of measured soil temperatures and CO2 fluxes for a volcanic-hydrothermal system, the Solfatara of Pozzuoli (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Surface temperatures derived from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data are compared with soil temperatures and CO2 fluxes from four surveys performed in 2003, 2010, and in 2014. The good match between the spatial distributions of computed and measured temperatures suggests the adequacy of satellite data to describe the Solfatara thermal anomaly, while the correspondence between temperatures and CO2 fluxes, evidences the link between degassing and heating processes. The ASTER derived surface temperatures (14-37°C) are coherent with those measured in the soil (10-97°C at 10 cm depth), considering the effect of the thermal gradients which characterize the degassing area of Solfatara. This study shows that satellite data can be a very powerful tool with which to study surface thermal anomalies, and can provide a supplementary tool to monitor thermal evolution of restless volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MinPe..99....1D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MinPe..99....1D"><span>Research progress in volcanology in the Neapolitan area, southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: a review and some alternative views</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Vivo, Benedetto; Petrosino, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; Rolandi, Giuseppe; Belkin, Harvey E.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Comprehensive reviews are given for the major volcanic systems that occur in the greater metropolitan area of Naples, southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>; Mt. Somma-Vesuvius to the east and the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic system to the west. Also included in the review is a detailed discussion of the large, highly explosive Campania Volcanic Zone (CVZ) ignimbrite events. These volcanic areas have been studied for more than 100 years, yet significant differences of opinion exist related to fundamental issues of origin and distribution. We present some alternative views related to petrogenesis on some issues based on more than 25 years of research. The relationship between risk assessment and management that impacts the threatened society or culture and the past and ongoing fundamental volcanological research is an essential part of the science. Countries with limited resources may be forced to accept an increased risk but even highly industrialized societies may not be able to completely eliminate deaths from volcanic eruptions. Scientific studies of the hazardous regions should be comprehensive and include reasonable alternative interpretations as this information reveals the level of confidence that must be conveyed to the public officials. The authors review the state of the art of risk assessment and management of the volcanic hazards in the Neapolitan region in light of the review of research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QSRv..158..211G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QSRv..158..211G"><span>First integrated tephrochronological record for the last ∼190 kyr from the Fucino Quaternary lacustrine succession, central <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giaccio, Biagio; Niespolo, Elizabeth M.; Pereira, Alison; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Albert, Paul G.; Arienzo, Ilenia; Regattieri, Eleonora; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Gaeta, Mario; Galli, Paolo; Mannella, Giorgio; Peronace, Edoardo; Sottili, Gianluca; Florindo, Fabio; Leicher, Niklas; Marra, Fabrizio; Tomlinson, Emma L.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We present the first integrated tephrochronological study (major and trace elemental glass composition, Sr and Nd isotope analyses, and 40Ar/39Ar dating) for the last one tenth (∼82 m) of the ∼900 m-thick Quaternary lacustrine succession of the Fucino Basin, the largest and probably only Central Apennine intermountain tectonic depression that hosts a continuous lacustrine succession documenting the Plio-Quaternary sedimentary history up to historical times. Major element glass compositions, determined using a wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe (WDS-EMPA), yielded the geochemical fingerprinting needed for a reliable identification of most of the 23 stratigraphically ordered tephra layers under investigation. These include tephra from Italian volcanoes such as <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Etna, Colli Albani, Ischia, Vico, Sabatini, and undefined volcanic sources in the Neapolitan area and Latium region. The recognition of key Mediterranean marker tephra layers (e.g. X-5 and X-6) is supported by trace element data acquired by Laser Ablation Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The Sr and Nd isotope compositions of selected layers where also determined for circumscribing the volcanic source of distal tephra and for supporting correlations with individual eruptive units. We also propose a new, more expeditious covariation diagram (CaO/FeOtot vs Cl) for identifying the volcanic source of trachytic to phonolitic and tephrytic to phonolitic tephra, that are the most common compositions of pyroclastic rocks from volcanoes of Campania and Latium regions. Finally, we present five new 40Ar/39Ar age determinations, including a new, analytically well-supported, and more precise 40Ar/39Ar age for the widespread Y-7 tephra, and the first 40Ar/39Ar age determinations for one tephra from the Sabatini volcanic district (∼126 ka) and one tephra from Neapolitan volcanic area (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>?; ∼159 ka). These newly dated tephra are widely dispersed (e.g. Monticchio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SedG..168..249Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SedG..168..249Z"><span>The role of volcanic activity and climate in alluvial fan growth at volcanic areas: an example from southern Campania (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Di Vito, M. A.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Volcaniclastic-rich alluvial fans developed in the southern Campanian Plain (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in an area eastward of the Somma-Vesuvius and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanoes. Meanwhile, bedrock-rich alluvial fans developed in areas unaffected by pyroclastic deposition. Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcaniclastic-rich alluvial fans show some important differences: (i) late Pleistocene alluvial fans were dominated by hyperconcentrated flow deposits, whereas the Holocene ones were dominated by debris flows deposits; and (ii) late Pleistocene fans consist of several superimposed sedimentary bodies, characterized by homogeneous volcaniclastic material, whereas Holecene fans show either volcaniclastic bodies with homogenous lithology or mixed lithology (i.e., juvenile fractions eroded from different tephra layers). These differences are not related to the amount of volcaniclastic supply in time, but seem to be linked to changes in climatic condition between late Pleistocene and Holocene. Rapid remobilization of the pyroclastic material was favored by climatic and vegetation conditions of the study area during the late Pleistocene, when a semiarid setting dominated by steppe-like vegetation prevailed. During Holocene, the general increase in temperature and humidity favored vegetation and soil development and stabilization of the loose volcaniclastic materials. Thus, part of volcaniclastic material was stored in the catchments and was available for erosion a long time after an eruption. Shallow soil slips, active also today, generated volcaniclastic debris flows characterized by mixed lithology of pumice and scoria.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJEaS..97..635P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJEaS..97..635P"><span>Fractional crystallization models and B-Be-Li systematics at Mt Somma-Vesuvius volcano (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paone, Angelo</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>A compilation of B-Be-Li data on rocks that cover the entire eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius is presented and interpreted in the light of evolution models for the Somma-Vesuvius rocks. Using major and trace element data, fractional crystalllization models are presented for different geochemical units. These data were used to constrain the source mineralogy of the Somma-Vesuvius rocks (ol-opx-cpx-gar-amp of 0.4-0.3-0.1-0.1-0.1), the amount of sediment added (5-10%) and the melt fraction from batch partial melting computations (0.05-0.1). From the B-Li data it is inferred that the main process responsible for the B isotopic signature is sediment recycling. However, the B-Li data show a major variation in Li abundances respect to B which is explained with Li dehydration before the fluid enriched the mantle wedge that produced the arc magmas. The Somma-Vesuvius B isotope composition is intermediate between that of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and the broad field of the Eolian Island arc. A low Be isotopes in the recent volcanic rocks can be explained as: (a) the top 1-22 m of the incoming sediment is accreted, (b) large amounts of sediment erosion, (c) a slow rate of subduction which have provoked a long magmatic history for the Vesuvius magma, (d) the sediment component takes several Myr longer than the subducting plate to reach the magma source region beneath <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeoJI.155..839C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeoJI.155..839C"><span>Lateral variations of seismic intensity attenuation in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carletti, Francescantonia; Gasperini, Paolo</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>A tomographic study of the attenuation of seismic intensity in the Italian territory has been carried on the basis of a felt report database including more than 50 000 macroseismic observations. The spatial variations of the attenuation coefficients have been computed on meshes of 50 and 25 km and compared with other geophysical observables. By checkerboard and restore tests using a Gaussian error with a realistic amplitude of one intensity degree we verified that a selected set including about 20000 observations is able to reliably reproduce the imposed patterns. For the laterally varying attenuation model we also found a general reduction and a more uniform distribution of the average locality residual with respect to an isotropic attenuation law. The comparison of the inversion results with seismic velocity tomography of the crust and upper mantle shows fair correspondences between high-attenuation and low-velocity areas (Tyrrhenian slope of northern and central Apennines) as well as between low-attenuation and high-velocity ones (Po valley and Adriatic coast). The normalized attenuation functions computed for some areas of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> also agree fairly well with empirical non-parametric attenuation functions determined by others, from accelerometer data. A clear correlation was found between the inferred behaviour of the slope of the attenuation function in the vicinity of the source (distance <45 km) and the heat flow. In fact, the most attenuating zones almost coincide with the highs of heat flow located along the northern Tyrrhenian coast of Tuscany and Latium and in the other volcanic areas (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Mount Etna, Colli Euganei and Monti Lessini). This clear correlation represents a convincing confirmation of the physical grounds on which the use and interpretation of macroseismic data is based.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/889480','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/889480"><span>Multiple Reservoirs in the Mofete Field, Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carella, R.; Guglielminetti, M.</p> <p>1983-12-15</p> <p>Mofete field, located near Naples, in southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, lies within the large <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. Drilling for geothermal fluids was carried out unsuccessfully in 1939-1954. AGIP, in joint venture with the national utility ENEL, after intensive exploration efforts, resumed drilling at the end of 1978; several new deep wells indicate the presence of a water dominated field in Mofete with three reservoirs (only the shallowest of which was reached by previous wells). The deepest aquifer, tapped by well Mofete 5 at the depth of about 2700 m, contains hypersaline fluids (about 516000 ppm TDS at atmospheric conditions corresponding to about 150000 ppm in the reservoir) with a bottom hole temperature of about 360{degrees}C. The intermediate level, reached by well Mofete 2 at 1900 m depth, is characterized by low salinity fluids (about 38000 ppm TDS at the surface corresponding to 18000 ppm calculated in the reservoir) with a reservoir temperature of 340{degrees}C. The uppermost reservoir, tapped by wells Mofete 1, 3D, 7D, 8D and 9D ranges between 550 and 1500 m depth and has water with salinity ranging from 40000 to 76000 ppm TDS at the surface corresponding to 28000 to 52000 ppm in the reservoir with a bottom temperature of 230-308{degrees}C. The uppermost aqifer is in fractured volcanic rocks while the other two are in a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary complex. Long term production and injection tests will be carried out shortly to ascertain the main characteristics of the field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6983E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6983E"><span>Ground-based LiDAR application to characterize sea cliff instability processes along a densely populated coastline in Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esposito, Giuseppe; Semaan, Fouad; Salvini, Riccardo; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Sea cliff retreatment along the coastline of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic area (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) is becoming a threat for public and private structures due to the massive urbanization occurred in the last few decades. In this area, geological features of the outcropping rocks represent one of the most important factors conditioning the sea cliff retreatment. In fact, pyroclastic deposits formed by pumices, scoria, ashes and lapilli are arranged in weakly to moderately welded layers of variable thicknesses, resulting very erodible and prone to landslide processes. Available methods to evaluate topographic changes and retreat rates of sea cliffs include a variety of geomatic techniques, like terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). By means of such techniques, it is in fact possible to obtain high resolution topography of sea cliffs and perform multi-temporal change detection analysis. In this contribution, we present an application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS or ground-based LiDAR) aimed to identify and quantify instability processes acting along the Torrefumo coastal cliff, in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area. Specifically, we acquired a series of 3D point clouds on the years 2013 and 2016, and compared them through a cloud-to-cloud distance computation. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was applied to the change detection results. In this way, an inventory of the cliff failures occurred along the Torrefumo cliff in the 2013-2016 time span was created, as well as the spatial and volumetric distribution of these failures was evaluated. The volumetric analysis shows that large collapses occurred rarely, whereas the spatial analysis shows that the majority of failures occurred in the middle and upper parts of the cliff face. Results also show that both rock fall and surficial erosion processes contribute to the cliff retreatment, acting in turn according to the geological properties of the involved pyroclastic deposits. The presented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS058-73-024&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS058-73-024&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>Mt. Vesuvius and Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> as seen from STS-58</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The ancient eruption of Vesuvius (the volcanoe near the center of the frame) destroyed the town of Pompeii located on the southeast flank. But the larger town of Naples, between Vesuvius (to the south) and the large, circular, lake-filled caldera of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (to the west) is also close to volcanic hazards. In this view, Naples is the gray urban area with substantial coastal development just northwest of Vesuvius. Other landmarks marking the Italian coast include the small island of Capri, just off the west-pointing peninsula, and the city of Salerno on the coast just south of the same peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS058-73-024&hterms=Pompeii&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPompeii','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS058-73-024&hterms=Pompeii&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPompeii"><span>Mt. Vesuvius and Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> as seen from STS-58</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The ancient eruption of Vesuvius (the volcanoe near the center of the frame) destroyed the town of Pompeii located on the southeast flank. But the larger town of Naples, between Vesuvius (to the south) and the large, circular, lake-filled caldera of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (to the west) is also close to volcanic hazards. In this view, Naples is the gray urban area with substantial coastal development just northwest of Vesuvius. Other landmarks marking the Italian coast include the small island of Capri, just off the west-pointing peninsula, and the city of Salerno on the coast just south of the same peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH21C1605A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH21C1605A"><span>A comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for the city of Naples (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anita, G.; Tonini, R.; Selva, J.; Sandri, L.; Pierdominici, S.; Faenza, L.; Zaccarelli, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) should consider different tsunamigenic sources (seismic events, slide failures, volcanic eruptions) to calculate the hazard on given target sites. This implies a multi-disciplinary analysis of all natural tsunamigenic sources, in a multi-hazard/risk framework, which considers also the effects of interaction/cascade events. Our approach shows the ongoing effort to analyze the comprehensive PTHA for the city of Naples (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) including all types of sources located in the Tyrrhenian Sea, as developed within the Italian project ByMuR (Bayesian Multi-Risk Assessment). The project combines a multi-hazard/risk approach to treat the interactions among different hazards, and a Bayesian approach to handle the uncertainties. The natural potential tsunamigenic sources analyzed are: 1) submarine seismic sources located on active faults in the Tyrrhenian Sea and close to the Southern Italian shore line (also we consider the effects of the inshore seismic sources and the associated active faults which we provide their rapture properties), 2) mass failures and collapses around the target area (spatially identified on the basis of their propensity to failure), and 3) volcanic sources mainly identified by pyroclastic flows and collapses from the volcanoes in the Neapolitan area (Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Ischia). All these natural sources are here preliminary analyzed and combined, in order to provide a complete picture of a PTHA for the city of Naples. In addition, the treatment of interaction/cascade effects is formally discussed in the case of significant temporary variations in the short-term PTHA due to an earthquake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024945','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024945"><span>Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15571745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15571745"><span>Methane production and consumption in an active volcanic environment of Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castaldi, Simona; Tedesco, Dario</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Methane fluxes were measured, using closed chambers, in the Crater of Solfatara volcano, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>), along eight transects covering areas of the crater presenting different landscape physiognomies. These included open bare areas, presenting high geothermal fluxes, and areas covered by vegetation, which developed along a gradient from the central open area outwards, in the form of maquis, grassland and woodland. Methane fluxes decreased logarithmically (from 150 to -4.5 mg CH4 m(-2)day(-1)) going from the central part of the crater (fangaia) to the forested edges, similarly to the CO2 fluxes (from 1500 g CO2 m(-2)day(-1) in the centre of the crater to almost zero flux in the woodlands). In areas characterized by high emissions, soil presented elevated temperature (up to 70 degrees C at 0-10 cm depth) and extremely low pH (down to 1.8). Conversely, in woodland areas pH was higher (between 3.7 and 5.1) and soil temperature close to air values. Soil (0-10 cm) was sampled, in two different occasions, along the eight transects, and was tested for methane oxidation capacity in laboratory. Areas covered by vegetation mostly consumed CH4 in the following order woodland>macchia>grassland. Methanotrophic activity was also measured in soil from the open bare area. Oxidation rates were comparable to those measured in the plant covered areas and were significantly correlated with field CH4 emissions. The biological mechanism of uptake was demonstrated by the absence of activity in autoclaved replicates. Thus results suggest the existence of a population of micro-organisms adapted to this extreme environment, which are able to oxidize CH4 and whose activity could be stimulated and supported by elevated concentrations of CH4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811626W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811626W"><span>Permeability estimates from artificial drawdown and natural refill experiments at Solfatara volcano, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woith, Heiko; Chiodini, Giovanni; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Wang, Rongjiang</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The hydrothermal system beneath <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> is strongly affected by sub-surface processes as manifested by a geothermal "plume" below Solfatara, associated with the formation of mud-pools (Fangaia), fumaroles (Bocca Grande, Pisciarelli), and thermal springs (Agnano). Within the frame of MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant agreement no 308665), pressure transients in the hydrothermal system of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> are being continuously monitored at fumaroles, mudpools, hot springs, and geothermal wells. In total, waterlevel and temperature is recorded at 8 sites across the hydrothermal plume along a profile aligned between Agnano Termal in the East and Fangaia in the West. Autonomous devices are used to record the water level and water temperature at 10 minute intervals. At Fangaia mudpool water level and water temperature are dominantly controlled by rain water. Thus, the pool is refilled episodically. Contrary, the water level at a well producing hot water (82°C) for the Pisciarelli tennis club drops and recovers at nearly regular intervals. The induced water level changes are of the order of 1-2m and 3-4m in case of the mudpool and the hot-water-well, respectively. At first glance, both monitoring sites might seem to be fully useless to access natural changes in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> fluid system. At a second thought, both timeseries provide a unique opportunity to monitor potential permeability changes in the aquifer system. A similar approach had been proposed to deduce earthquake-related permeability changes from Earth tide variations. Contrary to the indirect Earth tide approach, we have the chance to estimate the hydraulic aquifer properties from our monitoring data directly, since each time series contains a sequence of discrete hydraulic tests - namely drawdown tests and refill experiments. Although our Cooper-Jacob approach is really crude, we obtained reasonable permeability</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613103E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613103E"><span>Flash floods along the Italian coastal areas: examples from Pozzuoli city, Campania, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esposito, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Matano, Fabio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sacchi, Marco</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Italian western coastal areas are the most exposed in the country to low-pressure systems coming from the central-western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the last years, many Italian coastal villages were struck by floods and flow processes triggered by high-intensity and short-duration rainfall, typical of flash flood events. In the Campania region (SW <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) a series of events has caused several fatalities and heavy damages in the last decades, i.e. the flash floods of Casamicciola - Ischia Island (10/11/2009 - 1 fatality) and Atrani (9/9/2010 - 1 fatality). In this work we describe the rainfall properties and the ground effects of the 2009, 2010 and 2011 flash floods which involved the city of Pozzuoli, along the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> coast, where a catastrophic flood event (13 fatalities) is reported in 1918 in the AVI Project database. Rainfall data were measured at a sampling rate of 10 minutes by a regional Civil Protection rain gauge located in the city of Pozzuoli near the areas struck by the flash flood effects. In order to analyze the extreme features of the rainstorms and compare them, we have considered the 1-hour maximum rainfall amount and the 10-min peak storm intensity value for each event. The first rainstorm occurred on 14 September 2009; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 34.4 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 57.6 mm/h. The second rainstorm occurred on 30 July 2010; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 40.6 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 126 mm/h. The third rainstorm occurred on 06 November 2011; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 44.2 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 67.2 mm/h. The three described rainstorms all triggered erosional processes and shallow landslides in the upper part of the Pozzuoli drainage basin that supplied sheet flows and hyperconcentrated flows downstream, with severe damage to the human structures built near or inside the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S11C..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S11C..06T"><span>Cluster analysis applied to velocity, attenuation and gravity tomography: the case of Campanian district volcanoes (southern <span class="hlt">italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troiano, A.; di Giuseppe, M.; Petrillo, Z.; de Siena, L.; Siniscalchi, A.; Berrino, G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The interpretation of the results of seismic velocity, attenuation and gravity inversion are usually based on the qualitative observation and comparison of the different tomographic images. A promising tool to jointly interpret tomographic models based on different parameters resides in the application of statistical classification methods, such as the k-means clustering method, which minimizes the logic distance among each group of observations having homogeneous physical properties and maximizes the same quantity between groups. The correlation between the models is subsequently examined and significant classes (volumes of high correlation) are identified. Such technique is able to spatially clusterize the zones having similar characteristics in a statistical sense. Each zone is finally identified by the barycenter (centroid) of the corresponding cluster. Although the Vp velocity, Qp and Qs attenuation structures and density anomalies of Mt.Vesuvius and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, have been already interpreted, to obtain a quantitative interpretation gathered in a unified model consistent with the entire dataset, a cluster analysis was applied to these models. This analysis permitted to define a simplified model of the volcanic complexes in terms of the independent geophysical parameters, characterized by sharp and well defined boundaries . This post-interpretation technique on one hand is largely far from being quantitative in terms of rock lithology , but in the same time is fast, easy and useful to retrieve the main patterns of the investigated structures. In other words, k-means cluster analysis may act as a bridge between qualitative interpretation (based on the visual comparison of the different structures obtained with different tomography techniques) and more quantitative approaches (based on the joint inversion of multiple attributes).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913169S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913169S"><span>Use of multiple in situ instruments and remote sensed satellite data for calibration tests at Solfatara (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic area)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Doumaz, Fawzi; Andres Diaz, Jorge</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Monitoring natural hazards such as active volcanoes requires specific instruments to measure many parameters (gas emissions, surface temperatures, surface deformation etc.) to determine the activity level of a volcano. Volcanoes in most cases present difficult and dangerous environment for scientists who need to take in situ measurements. Remote Sensing systems on board of satellite permit to measure a large number of parameters especially during the eruptive events but still show large limits to monitor volcanic precursors and phenomena at local scale (gas species emitted by fumarole or summit craters degassing plumes and surface thermal changes of few degrees) for their specific risk. For such reason unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) mounting a variety of multigas sensors instruments (such as miniature mass spectrometer) or single specie sensors (such as electrochemical and IR sensors) allow a safe monitoring of volcanic activities. With this technology, it is possible to perform monitoring measurements of volcanic activity without risking the lives of scientists and personnel performing analysis during the field campaigns in areas of high volcanic activity and supporting the calibration and validation of satellite data measurements. These systems allowed the acquisition of real-time information such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, SO2, H2S, CO2 contained in degassing plume and fumaroles, with GPS geolocation. The acquired data are both stored in the sensor and transmitted to a computer for real time viewing information. Information in the form of 3D concentration maps can be returned. The equipment used during the campaigns at Solfatara Volcano (in 2014, 2015 and 2016) was miniaturized instruments allowed measurements conducted either by flying drones over the fumarolic sites and by hand carrying into the fumaroles. We present the results of the field campaign held in different years at the Solfatara of Pozzuoli, near Naples, concerning measurements of CO2, H2S and SO2. The campaigns were carried out in collaboration with the University of Costa Rica and Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, California) and has allowed the acquisition of a number of measures through scientific miniaturized multi-gas, thermal cameras and spectro-radiometer. The acquired measurements have also permitted the calibration and validation of satellite data as ASTER and LANDSAT8 (in collaboration with USGS). We believe that the rapid increasing of technology developments will permit the use UAS to integrate geophysical measurements and contribute to the necessary calibration and validation of current and future satellite missions dedicated to the measurements of surface temperatures and gas emissions in volcanic areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..321..149S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..321..149S"><span>Comparative proximal features of the main Plinian deposits (Campanian Ignimbrite and Pomici di Base) of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Vesuvius</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scarpati, Claudio; Sparice, Domenico; Perrotta, Annamaria</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The proximal Plinian fall deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 38 ky, Fedele et al., 2008) and Pomici di Base (PdB; 18 ky, Bertagnini et al., 1998) have been investigated in order to understand the contribution of each part of the plume to the proximal sedimentation. Following Houghton et al. (2004b) we consider three main transport regimes: jet phase (producing facies Fb), buoyant region of the plume (producing facies Fa) and direct lateral ejection (producing facies Fc). As well documented in medial locations (Sparks et al., 1992, 1997; Ernst et al., 1996), transport regimes can develop different facies even in proximal locations according to the dynamics of the eruptive column. Our proximal deposits show stratification and diffuse bedding allowing us to introduce two new facies: stratified Fa (sFa) and diffuse bedded Fb (dbFb). These facies retain the transport regime previously proposed for Fa (buoyant plume) and Fb (jet phase) but their lithological features are influenced by near-vent depositional conditions. Lithology and sedimentological data (grain-size, componentry, maximum clasts) suggest that most of the sedimentation occurred mainly from the buoyant plume with simultaneous contribution from the other two different dynamic regimes. Coarse clasts falling from the lower margins of the plume strongly affected the sedimentation of the CI proximal fall deposit with a minor contribution from lithic clasts ballistically emplaced and partial collapses of the plume forming pyroclastic density currents. In contrast, the PdB proximal fall deposit was strongly affected by coarse clasts emplaced directly from the vent through parabolic trajectories, with very little contribution of material emplaced from the lower part of the plume. These differences can be attributed to different vent/conduit processes acting during the eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4544B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4544B"><span>Signature of magmatic processes in ground deformation signals from Phlegraean Fields (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagagli, Matteo; Montagna, Chiara Paola; Longo, Antonella; Papale, Paolo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Ground deformation signals such as dilatometric and tiltmetric ones, are nowadays well studied from the vulcanological community all over the world. These signals can be used to retrieve information on volcanoes state and to study the magma dynamics in their plumbing system. We compared synthetic signals in the Very Long Period (VLP, 10-2 - 10-1 Hz) and Ultra Long Period (ULP, 10-4 - 10-2 Hz) bands obtained from the simulation of magma mixing in shallow reservoirs ([3],[4]) with real data obtained from the dilatometers and tiltmeters network situated in the Phlegraean Fields near Naples (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>), in order to define and constrain the relationships between them. Analyses of data from the October 2006 seismic swarm in the area show that the frequency spectrum of the synthetics is remarkably similar to the transient present in the real signals. In depth studies with accurated techniques for spectral analysis (i.e wavelet transform) and application of this method to other time windows have identified in the bandwidth around 10-4Hz (between 1h30m and 2h45m) peaks that are fairly stable and independent from the processing carried out on the full-band signal. These peaks could be the signature of ongoing convection at depth. It is well known that re-injection of juvenile magmas can reactivate the eruption dynamics ([1],[2]), thus being able to define mixing markers and detect them in the ground deformation signals is a relevant topic in order to understand the dynamics of active and quiescent vulcanoes and to eventually improve early-warning methods for impending eruptions. [1] Arienzo, I. et al. (2010). "The feeding system of Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>): dragging the past into present activity and future scenarios". In: Chemical Geology 270.1, pp. 135-147. [2] Bachmann, Olivier and George Bergantz (2008). "The magma reservoirs that feed supereruptions". In: Elements 4.1, pp. 17-21. [3] Longo, Antonella et al. (2012). "Magma convection and mixing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V43E..07P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V43E..07P"><span>Current and future trends of Volcanology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and abroad</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papale, P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Volcanology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and in the world has rapidly developed during last decades. In the Seventies, stratigraphy and petrology provided the basic knowledge on the volcanic activities that still forms the root for modern volcano research. During the Eighties and Nineties the interest was more on the quantitative description of the volcanic processes, with enormous progresses in different but complementary fields including laboratory measurements and experiments, physico-mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, geophysical surveys and inverse analysis, and volcano monitoring and surveillance. In year 2000 a large number of magma properties and magmatic and volcanic processes was characterized at a first or higher order. Volcano research in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> during the first decade of the new millennium has further developed along those lines. To-date, the very high risk <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Vesuvius volcanoes, and the less risky but permanently active Etna and Stromboli volcanoes, are among the best monitored and more deeply investigated worldwide. The last decade has also seen coordinated efforts aimed at exploring exploitation of knowledge and skills for the benefit of the society. A series of projects focused on volcanic hazard and risk have joined >1000 researchers from Italian and foreign (Europe, US, Japan) Universities and Research Centers, on themes and objectives jointly defined by scientists from INGV and end-users from the national Civil Protection Department. These projects provide a global picture of volcano research in year 2010, that appears to be evolving through i) further rapid developments in the fields of investigation listed above, ii) their merging into effective multidisciplinary approaches, and iii) the full inclusion of the concepts of uncertainty and probabilities in volcanic scenario predictions and hazard forecast. The latter reflects the large inaccessibility of the volcanic systems, the extreme non-linear behaviour of volcanic processes put in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts058-73-024.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts058-73-024.html"><span>Mt. Vesuvius and Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> as seen from STS-58</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-10-20</p> <p>STS058-73-024 (18 Oct-1 Nov 1993) --- The ancient eruption of Vesuvius (the volcano near the center of the frame) destroyed the town of Pompeii located on its southeast flank. But the larger town of Naples, between Vesuvius (to the south) and the large, circular, lake-filled caldera of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (to the west) also lives with the constant threat of volcanic hazards. In this view, Naples is the gray urban area with substantial coastal development just northwest of Vesuvius. Other landmarks marking the Italian coast include the small island of Capri, just off the west-pointing peninsula, and the city of Salerno on the coast just south of the same peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..178..305C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..178..305C"><span>Geochemical and biochemical evidence of lake overturn and fish kill at Lake Averno, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caliro, S.; Chiodini, G.; Izzo, G.; Minopoli, C.; Signorini, A.; Avino, R.; Granieri, D.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Lake Averno is situated in the homonymous crater in the northwestern sector of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> active volcanic system in Campania region, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. In February 2005 a fish kill event was observed in the lake, prompting a geochemical survey to ascertain the possible cause. In February 2005 a geochemical survey revealed that the lake water was unstratified chemically and isotopically, presumably, as a result of lake overturn. This fish kill phenomenon was recorded at least two other times in the past. In contrast to the February 2005 results, data collected in October 2005, shows the Lake Averno to be stratified, with an oxic epilimnion (surface to 6 m) and an anoxic hypolimnion (6 m to lake bottom at about 33 m). Chemical and isotopic compositions of Lake Averno waters suggest an origin by mixing of shallow waters with a Na-Cl hydrothermal component coupled with an active evaporation process. The isotopic composition of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, as well as the composition of the non-reactive dissolved gas species again supports the occurrence of this mixing process. Decreasing levels of SO 4 and increasing levels of H 2S and CH 4 contents in lake water with depth, strongly suggests anaerobic bacterial processes are occurring through decomposition of organic matter under anoxic conditions in the sediment and in the water column. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis processes coexist and play a pivotal role in the anaerobic environment of the Lake Averno. The sulfate reducing bacterial activity has been estimated in the range of 14-22 μmol m - 2 day - 1 . Total gas pressure of dissolved gases ranges between 800 and 1400 mbar, well below the hydrostatic pressure throughout the water column, excluding the possibility, at least at the survey time, of a limnic eruption. Vertical changes in the density of lake waters indicate that overturn may be triggered by cooling of epilimnetic waters below 7 °C. This is a possible phenomenon in winter periods if atmospheric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215298I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215298I"><span>Tephrochronology offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian sea, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Insinga, Donatella; Sulpizio, Roberto; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Morabito, Simona; Morra, Vincenzo; Sprovieri, Mario; di Benedetto, Claudia; Lubritto, Carmine; Zanchetta, Giovanni</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p> the coring site. The definition of the source area of these two major events is still a matter of debate. However, the Somma-Vesuvius complex reasonably sourced the Schiava deposits while a <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> provenance for the Codola deposits cannot be ruled out (Di Vito et al., 2008). These latters, known as C10 tephra in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic sea (Paterne et al., 1988; Giaccio et al., 2008), in particular, represent reliable regional markers for the whole central Mediterranean area. References De Vivo, B., Rolandi, G., Gans, P.B., Calvert, A., Bohrson,W.A., Spera, F.J., Belkin, H.E., 2001. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Mineralogy and Petrology 73, 47-65. Di Vito,M.A., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., D'Orazio, M., 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: newinsights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.177, 19-48. Giaccio, B., Isaia, R., Fedele, F.G., Di Canzio, E., Hoffecker, J., Ronchitelli, A., Sinitsyn, A., Anikovich, M., Lisitsyn, S.N., 2008. The Campanian Ignimbrite and Codola tephra layers: two temporal/stratigraphic markers for the Early Upper Palaeloithic in southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and eastern Europe. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 177, 210-228. Paterne M., Guichard F. & Labeyrie J., 1988. Explosive activity of the south Italian volcanoes during the past 80.000 years as determined by marine tephrochronology. J. Volcanol. Geother. Res. 34, 153-172. Paterne, M., Guichard, F., 1993. Triggering of volcanic pluses in the Campanian area, south <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, by periodic deep magma in.ux. Journal of Geophysical Research 98 (B2), 1861-1873. Rio, D., Raffi, I., Villa, G., 1990. Pliocene-Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil distribution patterns in the western Mediterranean. In: Kastens, K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, vol. 107. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, pp. 513-533. Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.4608P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.4608P"><span>Geodetic Monitoring System Operating On Neapolitan Volcanic Area (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pingue, F.; Ov-Geodesy Team</p> <p></p> <p>The Neapolitan volcanic area is located in the southern sector of the Campanian Plain Graben including three volcanic active structures (Somma-Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Ischia). The Somma-Vesuvius complex, placed East of Naples, is a strato-volcano composed by a more ancient apparatus (Mt. Somma) and a younger cone (Mt. Vesu- vius) developed inside Somma caldera. Since last eruption (1944) it is in a quiescent state characterised by a low level seismicity and deformation activity. The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> Fle- grei, located West of Naples, are a volcanic field inside an older caldera rim. The last eruption, occurred in the 1538, built up the Mt. Nuovo cone. The <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> are subject to a slow vertical deformation, called bradyseism. In the 1970-1972 and 1982-1984 they have been affected by two intense episodes of ground upheaval (ac- companied by an intense seismic activity)0, followed by a subsidence phase, slower than uplift and still active. Though such phenomenon has not been followed by erup- tive events, it caused serious damages, emphasizing the high volcanic risk of the phle- grean caldera. The Ischia island, located SW of Naples, has been characterised by a volcanic activity both explosive and effusive, occurred mainly in the last 50,000 years. These events modelled the topography producing fault systems and structures delim- iting the Mt. Epomeo resurgent block. The last eruption has occurred on 1302. After, the dynamics of the island has been characterised by seismic activity (the strongest earthquake occurred on 1883) and by a meaningful subsidence, on the S and NW sec- tors of the island. The concentration of such many active volcanoes in an area with a dense urbanization (about 1,500,000 inhabitants live) needs systematic and contin- uous monitoring of the dynamics. These information are necessary in order to char- acterise eruptive precursors useful for modelling the volcanoes behaviour. Insofar, the entire volcanic Neapolitan area, characterised by a</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6449B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6449B"><span>Matching high-resolution seismic and electrical resistivity profiling to infer the shallow structure of Solfatara Volcano (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruno, Pier Paolo; Gresse, Marceau; Maraio, Stefano; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Di Fiore, Vincenzo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>-surface geological interpretation of Solfatara area and to better understand and relate temporal changes of geophysical and geochemical measurements to the shallow geological structure of the most active volcano of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> Caldera, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, which it is presently characterized by an activity renewal, resulting in an enhanced hydrothermal activity and fumarolic emission increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S41C1850J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S41C1850J"><span>Application of a new Structural Joint Inversion Approach to Teleseismic and Gravity Data from Mt.Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, M.; Ciaccio, M.; Ebbing, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>A 3-D joint inversion of seismic and gravimetric data is performed to re-investigate the subsurface structure of Mt. Vesuvius (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) utilizing an improved joint inversion method. The aim is to derive models of the 3D distribution of velocity and density perturbations that are consistent with both data sets and with local velocity models. Mt. Vesuvius is a strato volcano located within a graben (Campania Plain) formed in Plio-Pleistocene. Campania Plain is bordered by mostly Mesozoic carbonaceous rocks. Mt. Vesuvius is the southernmost and the youngest of a group of Pleistocene volcanoes, three of which (Ischia, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Mt. Vesuvius) have erupted in historical times. The most recent eruption of Mt. Vesuvius occurred in 1944 and since then the volcanic activity has been characterized by moderate low magnitude seismicity and low temperature fumaroles at the summit crater. We modified the coupling mechanism between velocity and density models in the JI-3D optimized joint inversion method (Jordan and Achauer, 1999). This method was designed to provide stable and high resolution results and involves iterative optimized parameterization, 3D ray tracing, and the incorporation of a priori information. The coupling of the velocity and density models, vital to the joint inversion, is based on a cross-gradient approach (e.g. Gallardo and Meju, 2004), which has been proven to work very well in a variety of cases involving seismic, magnetic, CSEM, MT and gravity data sets. We implemented the cross-gradient coupling for our 3-D irregular adaptive grid parameterization. In contrast to conventional joint inversion methods this approach encourages structural similarities in the models and does not rely on predefined relationships between velocity and density parameters. As a consequence, the resulting velocity-density relations are not contaminated by a priori assumptions and can be utilized to derive rock physical parameters. We apply this method to data from the Tomo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRB..11110307D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRB..11110307D"><span>Seismic and acoustic detection of a bolide airburst in the Gulf of Naples (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Auria, Luca; Marotta, Enrica; Martini, Marcello; Ricciolino, Patrizia</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>On 10 September 2005 at 1711 LT (1511 UT) a loud boom was heard on the Ischia island. A clear seismic signal was also recorded by the seismic monitoring network of the Neapolitan volcanic areas (Ischia, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, and Mount Vesuvius) and on a regional station (Mount Massico). On the basis of the seismic recordings and on acoustic phenomena reports, we relate this event to the atmospheric explosion (airburst) of a bolide about 15 km SW of Ischia at an elevation of about 11.5 km. The location has been obtained through nonlinear traveltime inversion in a realistic atmospheric model including wind effects. We show, using statistical estimators, how the traveltime pattern is due to both atmospheric winds and the bolide trajectory. Using the same reasoning we discard a human origin (supersonic jet or sea-air missile). In addition, we also propose a new algorithm for fast acoustic traveltime computation for a supersonic moving source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...117....9S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...117....9S"><span>Late-Holocene to recent evolution of Lake Patria, South <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: An example of a coastal lagoon within a Mediterranean delta system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sacchi, M.; Molisso, F.; Pacifico, A.; Vigliotti, M.; Sabbarese, C.; Ruberti, D.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Lake Patria is a mesoaline coastal lagoon that develops along the coastal zone of the Volturno River plain (Campania, South <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). The lagoon is a saline to brackish water body, ca. 2.0 long, and 1.5 km wide, with an average water depth of 1.5 m, reaching a maximum of ca. 3.0 m. The freshwater input into the lagoon is provided by a series of fresh to brackish water channels and small springs, landwards, while a permanent connection with the Tyrrhenian Sea is provided by a channel, 1.5 km long and a few meters wide. Drilling data from 12 boreholes acquired in the study area indicate that Lake Patria is a man-modified remnant of a larger lagoonal area that developed during the last millennia along the Campania coastal zone within an alluvial delta system at the mouth of the paleo-Volturno River. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses of drill cores suggest that the lower Volturno delta plain developed in the last 6000 years. Depositional conditions during this period were dominated by flood-plain and alluvial plain settings, with transition to coastal bars and associated back-barrier coastal lagoons. Lake Patria started evolving at an early stage of the Volturno delta plain formation as a consequence of foreshore deposits damming-up by littoral drift. The first marine layers display a radiocarbon age of ca. 4.8 ka BP and overlie a substrate represented by volcaniclastic deposits, originated by the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, and associated paleosols. The lagoonal succession cored at Lake Patria may be interpreted as the result of a dynamic equilibrium between marine influence and riverine input into the lagoonal system through time, and has been tentatively correlated with the major climatic changes that occurred during Mid-Late Holocene. Insights into the recentmost evolution of the coastal lagoon of Lake Patria are provided by the GIS-based analysis of the physiographic changes of the region conducted on a series of historical topographic maps dating back to the early</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5776C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5776C"><span>A combined morphostructural/fluid migration model of Pisciarelli area (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera - CFc) through structural and integrated Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caputo, Teresa; Di Giuseppe, Maria Guilia; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Renato; Isaia, Roberto; Vitale, Stefano; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Solfatara-Pisciarelli (S-P) area was characterized by an intense eruptive activity during the last 5 ka and is presently the highly distributed degassing zones inside the CFC, worldwide well-known for its bradyseismic phenomenon. The last two main crises occurred during the 1970-72 and 1982-84, associated with an overall 3.5 m of ground uplift and an elevate rate of low magnitude seismicity. A strong direct relationship has always been observed between the increase of hydrothermal activity in the S-P area and ground uplift of the CFc. More recently starting from the 2005 a new gradual increase of the hydrothermal activity and ground uplift has been observed, with a steep growth of these effects from 2012, accompanied by seismic events with highest magnitude of 1.8. The Pisciarelli area has been the site of a significant morphological changes of its hydrothermal field including new fumarolic vents and a wide enlargement of a mud pool. Monitoring either landscape deformation than fluids migration of the S-P activity can be considered a good indicator of the volcanic dynamics taking place in the whole CFc caldera. This study shows a first attempt to integrate multidisciplinary approach including volcanological and structural field surveys and studies such us TLS and ERT signals applied to this highly dynamic areas. A detailed geo-structural survey allow us to characterize the complex pattern of fractures and faults recorded in the volcanic rocks in different times of the polyphasic CFc volcanic history. In order to statistically record data about fault and fracture (i) attitudes and (ii) spacing, the scan line method was applied. The whole planar structure is the locus of the well-known fumaroles and mud pools of Pisciarelli. A first time detailed Digital Terrestrial Model DTM of the area with an accuracy of 5cm obtained through TLS has been integrated combining the ERT of the lower part of the area, characterized by a widespread fumarolic activity and soil diffuse degassing, mainly in correspondence to fractures and faults. The TLS analysis of the area was performed applying the technique based on Time of Flight method in order to define an accurate 3D digital model for detailed analysis of this area. Several scans were performed in order to avoid shaded areas due to the presence of either fumaroles than soil degassing. The dense vapour emission in the area, in fact limits the ability of penetration of the laser scanner. Electrical measurements has been acquired to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity, which is a physical parameter particularly sensitive to the presence of low-resistivity phases, such as aqueous fluids and partial melts. In such a way, the volume of subsurface fluids has been constrained and the rheology of the subsoil in the Pisciarelli area has been reconstructed. Combining all the data a structural and geomorphological model of the area has been obtained. Similar dataset could be acquired in the future in order to estimate any structural changes that may occur in this interesting volcanic area therefore providing a better hazard assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...B32A14S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...B32A14S"><span>Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) Metropolitan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614472C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614472C"><span>Integrated multi-parameters Probabilistic Seismic Landslide Hazard Analysis (PSLHA): the case study of Ischia island, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caccavale, Mauro; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco; Mazzola, Salvatore; Somma, Renato; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Ischia island is a large, complex, partly submerged, active volcanic field located about 20 km east to the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, a major active volcano-tectonic area near Naples. The island is morphologically characterized in its central part by the resurgent block of Mt. Epomeo, controlled by NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems, by mountain stream basin with high relief energy and by a heterogeneous coastline with alternation of beach and tuff/lava cliffs in a continuous reshape due to the weather and sea erosion. The volcano-tectonic process is a main factor for slope stability, as it produces seismic activity and generated steep slopes in volcanic deposits (lava, tuff, pumice and ash layers) characterized by variable strength. In the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and surrounding areas the possible occurrence of a moderate/large seismic event represents a serious threat for the inhabitants, for the infrastructures as well as for the environment. The most relevant seismic sources for Ischia are represented by the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera and a 5 km long fault located below the island north coast. However those sources are difficult to constrain. The first one due to the on-shore and off-shore extension not yet completely defined. The second characterized only by few large historical events is difficult to parameterize in the framework of probabilistic hazard approach. The high population density, the presence of many infrastructures and the more relevant archaeological sites associated with the natural and artistic values, makes this area a strategic natural laboratory to develop new methodologies. Moreover Ischia represents the only sector, in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area, with documented historical landslides originated by earthquake, allowing for the possibility of testing the adequacy and stability of the method. In the framework of the Italian project MON.I.C.A (infrastructural coastlines monitoring) an innovative and dedicated probabilistic methodology has been applied to identify</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5000B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5000B"><span>Probability hazard map for future vent opening at Etna volcano (Sicily, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> shows a tendency to concentrate along the NE and S rifts, as well as Valle del Bove, increasing the difference in probability between these areas and the rest of the volcano edifice. It is worthy notice that a higher significance is still evident along the W rift, even if not comparable with the ones of the above mentioned areas. References Marzocchi W., Sandri L., Gasparini P., Newhall C. and Boschi E.; 2004: Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: The example of volcanic hazard at Mount Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB00315U. Marzocchi W., Sandri, L. and Selva, J.; 2008: BET_EF: a probabilistic tool for long- and short-term eruption forecasting, Bull. Volcanol., 70, 623 - 632, doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0157-y. Selva J., Orsi G., Di Vito M.A., Marzocchi W. And Sandri L.; 2012: Probability hazard mapfor future vent opening atthe <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, Bull. Volcanol., 74, 497 - 510, doi: 10.1007/s00445-011-0528-2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918271P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918271P"><span>Spatial pattern analysis of Cu, Zn and Ni and their interpretation in the Campania region (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrik, Attila; Albanese, Stefano; Jordan, Gyozo; Rolandi, Roberto; De Vivo, Benedetto</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The uniquely abundant Campanian topsoil dataset enabled us to perform a spatial pattern analysis on 3 potentially toxic elements of Cu, Zn and Ni. This study is focusing on revealing the spatial texture and distribution of these elements by spatial point pattern and image processing analysis such as lineament density and spatial variability index calculation. The application of these methods on geochemical data provides a new and efficient tool to understand the spatial variation of concentrations and their background/baseline values. The determination and quantification of spatial variability is crucial to understand how fast the change in concentration is in a certain area and what processes might govern the variation. The spatial variability index calculation and image processing analysis including lineament density enables us to delineate homogenous areas and analyse them with respect to lithology and land use. Identification of spatial outliers and their patterns were also investigated by local spatial autocorrelation and image processing analysis including the determination of local minima and maxima points and singularity index analysis. The spatial variability of Cu and Zn reveals the highest zone (Cu: 0.5 MAD, Zn: 0.8-0.9 MAD, Median Deviation Index) along the coast between <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and the Sorrento Peninsula with the vast majority of statistically identified outliers and high-high spatial clustered points. The background/baseline maps of Cu and Zn reveals a moderate to high variability (Cu: 0.3 MAD, Zn: 0.4-0.5 MAD) NW-SE oriented zone including disrupted patches from Bisaccia to Mignano following the alluvial plains of Appenine's rivers. This zone has high abundance of anomaly concentrations identified using singularity analysis and it also has a high density of lineaments. The spatial variability of Ni shows the highest variability zone (0.6-0.7 MAD) around <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> where the majority of low outliers are concentrated. The variability of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.B32B0112C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.B32B0112C"><span>Heavy Metals Concentrations in top Soils of Urban Areas (Naples - Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Origin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Heavy metals pollution, which mainly originates from automobile exhausts and industry, is a serious danger for human health. The source and extension of heavy metals pollution in the top soils has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. The role of the soil processes in accumulating or mobilising metals is very important in environmental science due to the central position of the soil in the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. Concentrations of heavy metals in top soils, collected in green areas and public parks in metropolitan Naples area have been determined to provide information on specific emission sources. In addition to toxic metals, such as Pb, As, Cd, Cr and others, we have investigated the top soils as well for Pt group elements (PGEs), because since 1993 it is mandatory within EC for all new petrol driven motor vehicles to be equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converter. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span> this law has come into effect in 1998, but still is allowed to old vehicles use lead gasoline, though now the big majority of cars is equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converters. Emission of abraded fragments of catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts will certainly determine environmental contamination with Pt group elements (PGEs), since many Pt complexes are highly cytotoxic and, in small dose, are strong allergens and potent sensitiser. The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities and vehicles traffic is an interesting area to be monitored in order to check the pollution state of the soils. The geology of the area is prevalently represented by volcanics, erupted from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> fields on the west. To compile multi-element geochemical maps baseline we have sampled in situ and transported top soil for a total of 200 samples. The survey have been carried at about 200 sites covering an area of about 120 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the highly urbanised area and 1 km x 1 km</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS002-09-507&hterms=Tyrrhenian+Sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTyrrhenian%2BSea','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS002-09-507&hterms=Tyrrhenian+Sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTyrrhenian%2BSea"><span>Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates <span class="hlt">Italy</span> from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.295..235C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.295..235C"><span>An integrated approach to earthquake-induced landslide hazard zoning based on probabilistic seismic scenario for Phlegrean Islands (Ischia, Procida and Vivara), <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caccavale, Mauro; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>In this study we present an integrated approach to assess earthquake-induced landslide hazard at the source area of the slope instability process. The method has been applied to the case study of Ischia, Procida and Vivara islands that represent an integral part of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, a densely populated, active volcanic area, located at the NW margin of the Naples Bay, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The proposed method follows a stepwise procedure including: 1) Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA); 2) assessment of site and topographic effects; 3) input of the PSHA outputs into a classic sliding rigid-block analysis for slope instability (Newmark's approach); 4) construction of landslide frequency - magnitude curves for the estimate of the slope failure probability as a function of defined Newmark's threshold values under different probabilistic seismic scenarios; 5) construction of earthquake-induced landslide hazard maps at the source area, based on the integration of the probabilistic approach and the geological, morphological and geotechnical database available for the study area. The Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) is aimed at the definition of the seismic input with different annual exceedance frequency. PSHA results, expressed in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at the bedrock, are calculated for 14 return periods (T) ranging from 10 to 2000 yr. PGA values have been corrected for the site effect associated with geological and morphologic conditions for each selected return period. Secondly, the corrected PGA values have been used as an input for the classic sliding rigid-block Newmark's approach, implemented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess the relative potential for slope failure (landslide susceptibility) both in static (Factor of Safety, FS) and dynamic (Critical acceleration, ac) conditions. The combination of T-dependent, site-corrected PGA with the critical acceleration allowed for the calculation of the expected Newmark</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sl2-05-359.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sl2-05-359.html"><span>Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-06-22</p> <p>SL2-05-359 (22 June 1973) --- This rare cloud free view of southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (41.0N, 16.0E) shows almost all of the famous `boot' configuration of the peninsula up to just north of Naples and Mount Vesuvius. The land mass of this historic peninsula contrasts sharply with the sparkling blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Photo credit: NASA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93X.298S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93X.298S"><span>Italian super-eruption larger than thought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Colin</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera volcano in southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03860.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03860.html"><span>Venice, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-09-24</p> <p>Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading <span class="hlt">Italy</span> at that time. This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03860</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03860&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03860&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>Venice, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading <span class="hlt">Italy</span> at that time.<p/>This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.<p/>ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.<p/>The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.<p/>Dr. Anne</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03860&hterms=traffic+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtraffic%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03860&hterms=traffic+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtraffic%2Bpollution"><span>Venice, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading <span class="hlt">Italy</span> at that time.<p/>This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.<p/>ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.<p/>The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.<p/>Dr. Anne</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.G11A1060I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.G11A1060I"><span>Monitoring Shallow Water Vertical Seafloor Displacement: a Challenge for Seafloor Geodesy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iannaccone, G.; De Martino, P.; Chierici, F.; Pignagnoli, L.; Guardato, S.; Malservisi, R.; Beranzoli, L.; Donnarumma, G. P.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Vertical displacement measurement in shallow seafloor poses a unique challenge for geodesy, as neither traditional land geodesy nor classical deep water marine geodesy provide valid techniques for accurate evaluations. Vertical displacement monitoring is of paramount importance in submarine volcanic areas, in marine oil extraction fields, in the study of coseismic ground movements in seismogenic areas. Sea bottom measurement of hydrostatic pressure variations could be the base to measure the vertical ground displacements. Although bottom Pressure Recorders (BPR) are affected by intrinsic limitations such as the signal drift, and shallow water are particularly affected by tides and other oceanographic effects, or rapid and sharp variations of physical properties of the sea water (e.g. temperature and salinity), BPR can be effective tools to evaluate sea bottom vertical deformation. We present unprecedented vertical displacement assessment of the marine sector of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic area (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). These new results come from the integration of new GPS buoy, BPR and tide gauges measurements provided by the integrated monitoring system of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>. The multiparametric marine systems are operational since spring 2016 and consist of three geodetic buoys equipped with seafloor multisensor modules. The new data show on-going seafloor uplift of the submerged part of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera and provide new contributions to the regional deformation assessment. The methodology adopted for the data processing can significantly improve our ability to understand the volcanic process extending our monitoring capabilities offshore.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28801635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28801635"><span>Thermally-assisted Magma Emplacement Explains Restless Calderas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amoruso, Antonella; Crescentini, Luca; D'Antonio, Massimo; Acocella, Valerio</p> <p>2017-08-11</p> <p>Many calderas show repeated unrest over centuries. Though probably induced by magma, this unique behaviour is not understood and its dynamics remains elusive. To better understand these restless calderas, we interpret deformation data and build thermal models of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> experienced at least 4 major unrest episodes in the last decades. Our results indicate that the inflation and deflation of magmatic sources at the same location explain most deformation, at least since the build-up of the last 1538 AD eruption. However, such a repeated magma emplacement requires a persistently hot crust. Our thermal models show that this repeated emplacement was assisted by the thermal anomaly created by magma that was intruded at shallow depth ~3 ka before the last eruption. This may explain the persistence of the magmatic sources promoting the restless behaviour of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera; moreover, it explains the crystallization, re-melting and mixing among compositionally distinct magmas recorded in young volcanic rocks. Our model of thermally-assisted unrest may have a wider applicability, possibly explaining also the dynamics of other restless calderas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3020833','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3020833"><span>Comparison of Premier <span class="hlt">CAMPY</span> Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! <span class="hlt">CAMPY</span> Tests with Culture for Laboratory Diagnosis of Campylobacter Enteric Infections ▿ †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Granato, Paul A.; Chen, Li; Holiday, Iris; Rawling, Russell A.; Novak-Weekley, Susan M.; Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Campylobacter enteritis is a food-borne or waterborne illness caused almost exclusively by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by Campylobacter coli. These organisms produce indistinguishable clinical diseases and together represent the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and the leading cause of enteric infection throughout the world. The conventional approach to the laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis is based on the recovery of the organism from a stool specimen, which requires the use of a specialized medium incubated at 42°C for several days in an artificially created microaerophilic environment. Recently, several commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) have been developed for the direct detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in stool specimens. This study compared conventional culture with three EIA methods, the Premier <span class="hlt">CAMPY</span> EIA (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), the ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and the ImmunoCard STAT! <span class="hlt">CAMPY</span> test (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in 485 patient stool samples. Discordant results were arbitrated by using an in-house, real-time PCR assay that was developed and validated by a public health reference laboratory. Following analyses of the discrepant specimens by PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of both the Premier <span class="hlt">CAMPY</span> and ProSpecT Campylobacter EIAs were 99.3% and 98%, respectively, while the ImmunoCard STAT! <span class="hlt">CAMPY</span> test had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.2%. By use of the PCR test as the reference standard, culture detected 127 of 135 Campylobacter-positive stool specimens, yielding a sensitivity of 94.1%. These results showed that the three EIAs evaluated in this study provide a rapid and reliable alternative for the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections with C. jejuni and C. coli and that conventional culture may no longer be recognized as the “gold standard” for</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED316694.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED316694.pdf"><span>Vocational Training in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).</p> <p></p> <p>This document on vocational training in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the population of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Chapter 2 describes the Italian economy through the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. Chapter 3 describes education and vocational training in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, including regional agricultural and nonagricultural vocational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41A4440P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41A4440P"><span>4-D monitoring of the Solfatara crater (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) by ambient noise tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pilz, M.; Woith, H.; Parolai, S.; Festa, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Imaging shallow subsurface structures and monitoring related temporal variations are two of the main tasks for modern seismology. Although many observations have reported temporal velocity changes, e.g., in volcanic areas and on landslides, new methods based on passive sources like ambient seismic noise can provide accurate spatially and temporally resolved information on the velocity structure and on velocity changes. The success of these passive applications is explained by the fact that these methods are based on surface waves which are always present in the ambient seismic noise wave field because they are excited preferentially by superficial sources. Such surface waves can easily be extracted because they dominate the Green´s function between receivers located at the surface. For real-time monitoring of the shallow velocity structure of the Solfatara crater, one the forty volcanoes in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area characterized by an intense hydrothermal activity due to the interaction of deep convection and meteoric water, we have installed a dense network of 50 seismological sensing units covering the whole surface area in the framework of the European project MED-SUV. Continuous recordings of the ambient seismic noise over several days as well as signals of an active vibroseis source have been used. Based on a weighted inversion procedure for 3D-passive imaging using ambient noise cross-correlations of both Rayleigh and Love waves, we will present a high-resolution velocity model of the structure beneath the Solfatara crater. We discuss why and how it is possible to perform high precision and real-time monitoring of temporal changes in the properties of the propagation medium at small scales. In particular, we will focus on the depth resolution of the presented approach and further discuss the perspectives of noise-based real-time 4-D tomography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.4501B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.4501B"><span>Effects of Intense Rainfall On The Coastal City of Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Braca, G.; Esposito, E.; Mazzarella, A.; Porfido, S.; Tranfaglia, G.</p> <p></p> <p>In the early hours of September 15, 2001 the city of Naples and some of the sur- rounding towns were hit by a violent storm (max value 167 mm) which lasted about 3 hours. It was clustered in two very intense showers (with a mean intensity higher than 50 mm/h) that occurred between 01:40 and 02:30 and 03:20 and 04:00 UTC. More than 350 million Euro in damage was done, three men drowned and otherr were injured, three buildings were completely destroyed, 23 buildings and dozens of roads were heavily damaged. Power lines, drain and trunk lines were impacted and dis- rupted. Also the major soccer stadium was heavily damaged. An initial analysis of this exceptional precipitation event was carried out on the basis of data collected from real time network and diagram recordings. The meteorological event was undoubtedly one of the most intense events ever recorded, since 1866, on the territory of the Hydro- graphic and Mareographic National Service, Division of Naples. A comparison with historical events since 1900 has been carried out. In the last century, in fact, numerous sliding phenomena were induced by heavy rain fall, and caused severe damage to the economical, social and infrastructural condition of the metropolitan area. The city of Naples is located in the southern part of the Campanian Plain, which is prevalently composed of a large variety of pyroclastic deposits (tuff, pozzolane, pumices) related to both, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Somma-Vesuvius volcanic activity, whereas alluvial soils and sea shore sand are recognized along the coastline. In particular, the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff Formation is characterized by an intricate network of artificial cavities which have been excavated since Greek and Roman times. According to historical descriptions five main slide types can be identified: rock fall, earthflow (landslide), collapse, flood and lahar. A correlation between monthly precipitation and type of sliding phenomena has been performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811719P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811719P"><span>4-D imaging and monitoring of the Solfatara crater (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) by ambient noise tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Woith, Heiko; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Imaging shallow subsurface structures and monitoring related temporal variations are two of the main tasks for modern geosciences and seismology. Although many observations have reported temporal velocity changes, e.g., in volcanic areas and on landslides, new methods based on passive sources like ambient seismic noise can provide accurate spatially and temporally resolved information on the velocity structure and on velocity changes. The success of these passive applications is explained by the fact that these methods are based on surface waves which are always present in the ambient seismic noise wave field because they are excited preferentially by superficial sources. Such surface waves can easily be extracted because they dominate the Greeńs function between receivers located at the surface. For real-time monitoring of the shallow velocity structure of the Solfatara crater, one of the forty volcanoes in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area characterized by an intense hydrothermal activity due to the interaction of deep convection and meteoric water, we have installed a dense network of 50 seismological sensing units covering the whole surface area in the framework of the European project MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant agreement no 308665). Continuous recordings of the ambient seismic noise over several days as well as signals of an active vibroseis source have been used. Based on a weighted inversion procedure for 3D-passive imaging using ambient noise cross-correlations of both Rayleigh and Love waves, we will present a high-resolution shear-wave velocity model of the structure beneath the Solfatara crater and its temporal changes. Results of seismic tomography are compared with a 3-D electrical resistivity model and CO2 flux map.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412346M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412346M"><span>The geofingerprint of Pyroclastic Rocks/Typic Herorthents/Piedirosso chain surveyed in the Roccamonfina terroir, northwest Campania region, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mercurio, M.; Grilli, E.; Morra, V.; Prohaska, T.; Buondonno, A.; Langella, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p> brown. Water pH is neutral-subacid in the whole soil profile. For all horizons the Cation Exchange Capacity and the content of allophanic materials are very low. The profile is classified as Typic Xerorthents (USDA-NRCS, 2010). By Land Suitability analysis, soil belongs to S1 class highly suitable for vineyards. Although the site is located on the southern slope of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex, mineralogical data along with the survey investigation account for a substrate constituted by deposits of the Campania Ignimbrite eruption (39.000 ka). However, we cannot disregard the hypothesis that autochthonous pyroclastic products could have affected the pedogenetic process, as the sampled site is placed on the borders of a fluvial axis, thus allowing the deposition during flood periods of oldest deposits pertaining to the Roccamonfica volcanic activity (0.58-0.1 Ma). As far as the ICP analysis are considered it should be remarked that trace elements do not provide useful information as possible geotracers. In fact, as already discussed in previous researches, the artificially induced processes, such as fractionation and/or enrichment of specific elements, occurring during the growth of the grapes and the wine production (pruning, fertilization, manuring, wine production and bottling) preclude that trace and ultratrace element concentrations transfer to the final product (wine) information univocally linked to the substrate. The whole 87Sr/86Sr compositional range, here defined as the geofingerprint of the investigated chain, is within 0.7076 and 0.7088 with the highest values showed by the wine. By contrast, the lowest ratios were measured in the leaves (0.7076-0.7077). These data compared with those of the pyroclastic products of Roccamonfina (typical range 0.7066-0.7099) and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (0.7065-0.7086) enable to confirm that, also for the investigated terroir, the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio can be positively considered as geotracer of wines produced on volcanic areas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italy&id=EJ874065','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italy&id=EJ874065"><span>Counseling in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The counseling profession in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> from professional associations in programs that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815002A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815002A"><span>Adapting coastal structures to a moving relative sea level: Roman Time geoarchaeological evidence from Posillipo promontory (Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aucelli, Pietro; Cinque, Aldo; Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Pappone, Gerardo; Rizzo, Angela</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Posillipo promontory belongs to the southern periphery the active volcanic complex called <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>. Especially the central caldera of CF is well known for offering a rich geoarchaeological record of the vertical ground movements it has been suffering since Roman times; which includes the ruins of Portus Julius (built in 37 BC) presently found between 10 and 5 m bsl and the Middle Ages Lithophaga perforations at about 7m asl on the marble columns of the Serapeo building (Morhange, 2006 and references therein). In order to better constraint the vertical movements suffered by the Posillipo promontory during the last two millennia, we selected three geoarcaeolgical coastal sites (Nisida Roman port, Marechiaro Roman port and Villa Robery) and we studied them by means of both geomorphological observations and geophysical surveys (Side Scan Sonar and Single Beam echo-sounder). Within the submerged Roman port of Nisida, built in the 1st AD, we found two pilae of the ancient pier. The submersion measuring of the well-preserved one provided a palaeo-sea level at 3.1±0.30 m bsl. In the submerged Roman port of Marechiaro, we recognized a still preserved breakwater connected to the tuffaceous sea cliff, and submerged foundations of a 1st century small sea-side villa. Nearby there is also a two-storeyed Roman building (Palazzo degli Spiriti), built in the 1st cent. BC and later restructured to adapt to a phase of subsidence (Gunther 1908). From our submersion measurements, two different paleo-sea levels can be deduced: one for the 1st cent. BC at -4.4 + -0.50 m and another for the 1st cent. AD at -3 + - 0.30 m. Finally, in front of the modern Villa Rosebery the sea bottom shows a sub-horizontal element at -3m to -3.5m bsl, emerged during the 1st BC century. In fact, at least three houses were erected there during said century (Gunther, 1908). As the area was very little elevated, an alignment of pilae was also constructed to protect those houses from the breakers. By</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27237112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27237112"><span>Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and <span class="hlt">Campy</span>-Cefex agar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and <span class="hlt">Campy</span>-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on <span class="hlt">Campy</span>-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21153704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21153704"><span>Biogerontology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Odetti, Patrizio; Bergamini, Ettore</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>In this paper experimental gerontology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is reviewed on the basis of research developed in Academic and non Academic Centres. There are several groups across <span class="hlt">Italy</span> working actively on basic science of aging producing high impact papers with a significant contribution to biogerontology. Some distinguished Italian scientist working abroad is also mentioned. Interesting issues on longevity and interventions on aging (including caloric restriction) and on aging brain are quoted. Relevant studies encompass the (glyco-)oxidative stress as direct damage mechanism and main process of theory of aging, other research lines include IGF-1, mitochondria DNA, obesity/sarcopenia and exercise and also an animal model for aging studies is reported. Notwithstanding financial restrictions and structure deficit the biogerontology research in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> could be judged as good, but additional resources are necessary to keep this good rank.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20461462','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20461462"><span>Religious slaughter in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cenci-Goga, B T; Mattiacci, C; De Angelis, G; Marini, P; Cuccurese, A; Rossi, R; Catanese, B</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>This research aims to understand the prevalence of religious slaughter practices in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Two different ways of slaughtering animals are identified. Conventional slaughter is performed with prior stunning; kosher slaughter is practiced without stunning. Halal slaughter is performed for most animals without stunning. Halal slaughter with prior stunning is acceptable for 5.90% of small ruminants. For Halal slaughter in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, the terms "religious slaughter with stunning" and "religious slaughter without stunning" should be used to differentiate religious slaughter practices, keeping animal welfare in perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PEPI..234...46C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PEPI..234...46C"><span>Lithospheric VS models in the Campanian Plain (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) by integrating Rayleigh wave dispersion data from noise cross-correlation functions and earthquake recordings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Cross-correlation functions of long noise recordings with two broadband stations and earthquake recordings in the Campanian Plain have been processed with frequency time analysis to extract the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves. Group velocities have been combined with regional group and phase velocity data in the non-linear inversion, with Hedgehog method, in order to get average shear wave velocity models for lithospheric structures extending to 73 km of depth. The structural model below the central part of the Campanian Plain is characterized by a covering of pyroclastics and alluvial sediments, about 2 km thick, on the carbonate platform with VS ranging from 2.30-2.40 to 2.85-3.15 km/s. However, the presence of lava bodies within the carbonates cannot be excluded in the light of the same density and seismic velocities. At greater depths, a main feature is represented by a sharp increment of velocity around 8-9 km of depth (VS of 3.85 km/s), which can be attributed to the presence of metamorphic rocks, overlying a low VS layer (5% velocity reduction), at about 14-15 km of depth. Such structural model resembles those found below the quiescent Roccamonfina and Colli Albani volcanoes, and can be interpreted as the signature of a cooling magma chamber. Moreover, a low VS layer is detected at 8-9 km of depth towards the Apennines and at 6 km of depth in the southernmost part of the Campanian Plain, nearby Mt. Vesuvius. Such low velocity layer seems to be a regional feature since it has been found below Roccamonfina in the North, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, bay of Napoli and Mt. Vesuvius in the South, and can be explained by the widespread presence of partially melted material below the whole Campanian area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3367368','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3367368"><span>African Trypanosomiasis Gambiense, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beltrame, Anna; Monteiro, Geraldo; Arzese, Alessandra; Marocco, Stefania; Rorato, Giada; Anselmi, Mariella; Viale, Pierluigi</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense has not been reported in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. We report 2 cases diagnosed in the summer of 2004. Theses cases suggest an increased risk for expatriates working in trypanosomiasis-endemic countries. Travel medicine clinics should be increasingly aware of this potentially fatal disease. PMID:16318728</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sica&id=EJ987361','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sica&id=EJ987361"><span>Personal Identity in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transition+AND+ecological&pg=2&id=EJ987361','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transition+AND+ecological&pg=2&id=EJ987361"><span>Personal Identity in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1566274','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1566274"><span>Occupational cancer in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=printing+AND+press&pg=6&id=ED209636','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=printing+AND+press&pg=6&id=ED209636"><span>Beginning Reading in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tutolo, Daniel</p> <p></p> <p>Teaching practices in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, where teachers combine three different methods for teaching reading, may provide insight into ways to improve methodologies in the United States. The first method is the natural method, which, unlike American methods, teaches reading and writing simultaneously with the emphasis on writing. The teacher writes as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS001-13-442&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS001-13-442&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>Bay of Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The modern city of Naples (41.0N, 14.5E) and the ancient volcano of Mount Vesuvius on the shores of the Bay of Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> are the most striking features in this scene. The Roman city of Pompei, buried in the AD 79 volcano eruption can be seen on the coast just to the south of Vesuvius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3559058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3559058"><span>Usutu Virus, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bakonyi, Tamás; Rossi, Giacomo; Mani, Paolo; Nowotny, Norbert</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed. PMID:23347844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=printing+AND+press&pg=6&id=ED209636','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=printing+AND+press&pg=6&id=ED209636"><span>Beginning Reading in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tutolo, Daniel</p> <p></p> <p>Teaching practices in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, where teachers combine three different methods for teaching reading, may provide insight into ways to improve methodologies in the United States. The first method is the natural method, which, unlike American methods, teaches reading and writing simultaneously with the emphasis on writing. The teacher writes as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21831112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21831112"><span>Imported leprosy in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Massone, C; Brunasso, A M G; Noto, S; Campbell, T M; Clapasson, A; Nunzi, E</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Leprosy is far from being eliminated with more than 200,000 new cases detected (NCD)/year. Retrospective analysis between 2003 and 2009 to compare the New Case Detected Rate (NCDR) observed in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> in the immigrant population with the NCDR of the same population in their country of origin to verify if the cases observed are those expected or not. Leprosy statistics were retrieved from the Italian leprosy register and from official WHO data. The NCD in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> were lower than expected, from 2003 when the expected number of NCD was 40.5 between the legally resident immigrants, but only one case was diagnosed (98% of lower from the expected), to 2009 when four NCD were diagnosed and 41 were expected (90% lower from expected). This study points out a discrepancy between the observed and the expected cases of leprosy in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Specifically, the number of NCD was less than expected for each studied year. Of course our data do not represent a validation, but only an indication of the leprosy diagnosis in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Difficulty in accessing the health systems, fear of segregation, ignorance and illegal immigrant status with consequent fear of police arrest are possible explaining factors. The critical issue anyhow is the medical expertise. The role of the dermatologist is fundamental. For these reasons, there is still a need for wide spread leprosy teaching programmes. Although with few limitations, this study represents a first approach to validate the accuracy in leprosy diagnosis in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920002232&hterms=sirs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsirs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920002232&hterms=sirs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsirs"><span>Airborne precursor missions in support of SIR-C/X-SAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Evans, D.; Oettl, H.; Pampaloni, P.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The NASA DC-8 and DLR E-SAR airborne imaging radars have been deployed over several sites in Europe and the U.S. in support of SIR-C/X-SAR (Shuttle Imaging Radar-C/X-Synthetic Aperture Radar) science team investigations. To date, data have been acquired in support of studies of alpine glaciers, forests, geology, oceanography, and calibration. An experimental campaign with airborne sensors will take place in Europe in June to July 1991 which will allow multitemporal surveys of several Europeans sites. Current plans are for calibration and ecology experiments to be undertaken in Germany, the Netherlands, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, France, and the United Kingdom. Coordinated multitemporal aircraft and ground campaigns are planned in support of hydrology experiments in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, the United Kingdom, and Austria. Data will also be acquired in support of oceanogrqhy in the Gulf of Genova, North Atlantic, Straits of Messina and the North Sea. Geology sites will include <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Vesuvio, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24861043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24861043"><span>Conscientious objection in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Minerva, Francesca</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The law regulating abortion in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against <span class="hlt">Italy</span> to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001290&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001290&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>Mount Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11091&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11091&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>Mt. Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p><p/> This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius <span class="hlt">Italy</span> was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. <p/> The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11091&hterms=Pompeii&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPompeii','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11091&hterms=Pompeii&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPompeii"><span>Mt. Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p><p/> This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius <span class="hlt">Italy</span> was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. <p/> The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA11091.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA11091.html"><span>Mt. Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-10-22</p> <p>This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius <span class="hlt">Italy</span> was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001290&hterms=mount+vesuvius&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmount%2Bvesuvius','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001290&hterms=mount+vesuvius&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmount%2Bvesuvius"><span>Mount Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3034325','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3034325"><span>Visceral Leishmaniasis Treatment, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gramiccia, Marina; Scalone, Aldo</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>First-line drug treatment was recorded in 573 immunocompetent patients with visceral leishmaniasis in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. In the past 12 years, the proportion of antimonial treatments decreased from 100% to 2.8%, while the proportion of amphotericin B treatments increased from 0% to 97.2%. The countrywide change in therapy is a response to both disease reemergence and increasing antimonial failure. PMID:14720406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26401793','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26401793"><span>Group Psychotherapy in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24948479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24948479"><span>[Social cooperatives in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001240.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001240.jpg.html"><span>Turin, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-27</p> <p>City lights at night along the France-<span class="hlt">Italy</span> border, Europe are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 23 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS). The brightly lit metropolitan areas of Torino (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>), Lyon, and Marseille (both in France) stand out amidst numerous smaller urban areas in this dramatic photograph. The image captures the night time appearance of the France-<span class="hlt">Italy</span> border area between the mountainous Alps to the north (not shown) and the island of Corsica in the Ligurian Sea to the south (top). The full moon reflects brightly on the water surface and also illuminates the tops of low patchy clouds over the border (center). This image was taken by an ISS crew member at approximately 11:55 p.m. local time when the station was located over the France-Belgium border near Luxembourg. Crew members orbiting Earth frequently collect images that include sunglint, or sunlight that reflects off a water surface at such an angle that it travels directly back towards the observer. Sunglint typically lends a mirror-like appearance to the water surface. During clear sky conditions reflected light from the moon can produce the same effect (moon glint) as illustrated in this view. The observer was looking towards the southeast at an oblique viewing angle at the time the image was taken; in other words, looking outwards from the ISS, not straight down towards Earth. Credit: NASA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-s01-13-442.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-s01-13-442.html"><span>Bay of Naples, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-04-14</p> <p>STS001-13-442 (14 April 1981) --- This photograph showing much of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> was taken with a handheld 70mm camera from 276 kilometers above Earth as the NASA space shuttle Columbia and its crew were marking their last few hours in space on the historic first space mission utilizing a reusable vehicle. Included in the area of the frame are Golfo de Napoli, Napoli (Naples), Castellammare, Amalfi, Capri, Sorrento, Mt. Vesuvius and the ruins of Pompei. Astronauts John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen exposed eight magazines of color 70mm film during their two and one-third days in Earth orbit. Photo credit: NASA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italy&pg=2&id=EJ976202','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italy&pg=2&id=EJ976202"><span>The Bologna Process in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span> was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. This article describes how the Bologna…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Romance+AND+languages&pg=3&id=EJ824113','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Romance+AND+languages&pg=3&id=EJ824113"><span>The Language Situation in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tosi, Arturo</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, within the framework of language policy and language planning. It presents an account of multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social variation, educational issues and phenomena of language contact both within and outside <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The four main threads are (1) the current…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02671.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02671.html"><span>Lake Garda, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-07-21</p> <p>This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake. The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02671</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRB..111.8204B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRB..111.8204B"><span>Stress-induced brittle fragmentation of magmatic melts: Theory and experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Büttner, Ralf; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Raue, Hannes; Sonder, Ingo; Zimanowski, Bernd</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The release of kinetic energy during explosive volcanic eruptions is a key parameter for hazard assessment and civil defense. The explosive production of volcanic ash by intensive fragmentation of magma and host rocks represents a substantial part of this energy. For cases of explosive eruption where predominantly host rock was fragmented (phreatomagmatic eruptions) to form the major part of volcanic ash, rock mechanical parameters could be measured and fragmentation energies assigned. In cases where most of the produced ash is of juvenile origin (magmatic eruptions) a general method for the determination of fragmentation energy is still lacking. In this article we introduce a thermodynamic approach that relates grain size data of the produced ash deposits to shear rates acting during the deformation of magma. With the use of a standardized fragmentation experiment the physical parameters needed to determine the specific fragmentation energy and deformation history were measured. The experiment was calibrated and tested with two case histories of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcanic field (southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Both eruptions are classified as "most probable worst-case scenarios" during the next period of activity, to be expected within the next 10-100 years. Using the experimentally determined specific fragmentation energies, the total mass of produced ash of each eruption, and assuming an energy dissipation as observed in the experiments, the total kinetic energy release of the worst-case <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> eruptive events to come were calculated with 25 and 40 kt TNT equivalent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633834Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633834Q"><span>A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..249S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..249S"><span>Late-stage volatile saturation as a potential trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stock, Michael J.; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Isaia, Roberto; Pyle, David M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Magma reservoirs are thought to grow relatively slowly, assembling incrementally under volatile-saturated conditions. Eruptions may be triggered by injections of volatile-rich melt, or generation of over-pressure due to protracted crystallization. Here, we analyse fluorine, chlorine and water in apatite crystals trapped at different stages of magma evolution, and in melt inclusions from clinopyroxene and biotite crystals expelled during an explosive eruption of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, about 4,000 years ago. We combine our geochemical analyses with thermodynamic modelling to reconstruct the evolution of magmatic volatile contents leading up to the explosive eruption. We find that the magma reservoir remained persistently water-undersaturated throughout most of its lifetime. Even crystals in contact with the melt shortly before eruption show that the magma was volatile-undersaturated. Our models suggest that the melt reached volatile saturation at low temperatures, just before eruption. We suggest that late-stage volatile saturation probably triggered the eruption, and conclude that `priming’ of the magma system for eruption may occur on timescales much shorter than the decadal to centennial timescales thought typical for magma reservoir assembly. Thus, surface deformation pulses that record magma assembly at depth beneath <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and other similar magmatic systems may not be immediately followed by an eruption; and explosive eruptions may begin with little warning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27652775','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27652775"><span>A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike</p> <p>2016-09-22</p> <p>Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JVGR..160..125P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JVGR..160..125P"><span>Experimental determination of permeability of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peluso, F.; Arienzo, I.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents and discusses the measurement of permeability of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) samples obtained in the framework of a study concerning the phenomenon of bradyseism, i.e. the slow vertical movement of soil, in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (Campania—<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Measurements have been performed under isothermal, non-isothermal and transient non-isothermal conditions using a specifically designed apparatus. Results of measurements of porosity of different samples are also reported. Experimental results in isothermal conditions show that the volume flux through the samples changes linearly with applied pressure. The values of permeability obtained turn out to be independent of the temperature and pressure gradients applied to the samples. This result is consistent with the fact that the permeability is a characteristic of the porous medium, and as such is not affected by temperature and pressure variation, at least in the range examined. The permeability values measured in our laboratories agree quite well with the ones measured in situ by the Agenzia Generale Italiana Petroli (AGIP) during a geothermal exploration of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area in 1980. An interesting, still unexplained phenomenon has been detected during transient phases when both pressure and temperature gradients were applied to the samples. The phenomenon consists in an enhancement of volume flux due to heat flux in the transient phase. The extra volume-flux disappears once the steady temperature gradient is reached.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5031984','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5031984"><span>A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. PMID:27652775</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6749892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6749892"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">Campy</span>Pak II with standard 5% oxygen and candle jars for growth of Campylobacter jejuni from human feces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, W L; Luechtefeld, N W; Blaser, M J; Reller, L B</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>To determine optimal temperature and atmospheric conditions for isolating Campylobacter jejuni from fecal specimens of humans, we studied six laboratory isolates and 19 fecal specimens that were known to contain C. jejuni. We compared incubations in 5% oxygen, the <span class="hlt">Campy</span>Pak II (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) with 6 plates per jar (CP-6) and 12 plates per jar (CP-12), and candle jars at 37 and 42 degrees C. At both temperatures, the colony sizes for the laboratory strains were larger in the 5% O2 and the CP-6 than under the other two conditions. For the primary isolations, CP-12 failed to detect one and two campylobacters at 42 and 37 degrees C, respectively, whereas the candle jar failed to detect one at 42 degrees C and four at 37 degrees C. Colony size was again larger in the 5% O2 and the CP-6. For all four atmospheric conditions tested, colonies were significantly larger at 42 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. These studies showed that incubation at 42 degrees C in either 5% O2 or the <span class="hlt">Campy</span>Pak II with six plates per jar was optimal for primary isolation of C. jejuni from fecal specimens of humans. The candle jars incubated at 42 degrees C appeared to be satisfactory for primary isolation of C. jejuni from human feces, but incubation at 37 degrees C was not acceptable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10653614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10653614"><span>Gestalt psychology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verstegen, I</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into <span class="hlt">Italy</span> after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1742542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1742542"><span>Gastric cancer in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471543"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span>: health system review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferre, Francesca; de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Valerio, Luca; Longhi, Silvia; Lazzari, Agnese; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter; Maresso, Anna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span> is the sixth largest country in Europe and has the second highest average life expectancy, reaching 79.4 years for men and 84.5 years for women in 2011. There are marked regional differences for both men and women in most health indicators, reflecting the economic and social imbalance between the north and south of the country. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, malignant tumours and respiratory diseases. <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s health care system is a regionally based national health service that provides universal coverage largely free of charge at the point of delivery. The main source of financing is national and regional taxes, supplemented by copayments for pharmaceuticals and outpatient care. In 2012, total health expenditure accounted for 9.2 percent of GDP (slightly below the EU average of 9.6 percent). Public sources made up 78.2 percent of total health care spending. While the central government provides a stewardship role, setting the fundamental principles and goals of the health system and determining the core benefit package of health services available to all citizens, the regions are responsible for organizing and delivering primary, secondary and tertiary health care services as well as preventive and health promotion services. Faced with the current economic constraints of having to contain or even reduce health expenditure, the largest challenge facing the health system is to achieve budgetary goals without reducing the provision of health services to patients. This is related to the other key challenge of ensuring equity across regions, where gaps in service provision and health system performance persist. Other issues include ensuring the quality of professionals managing facilities, promoting group practice and other integrated care organizational models in primary care, and ensuring that the concentration of organizational control by regions of health-care providers does not stifle innovation. World Health</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28552684','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28552684"><span>[Primary care in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sánchez-Sagrado, T</p> <p>2017-05-25</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span> is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003894','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003894"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span> INAF Data Center Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA04380.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA04380.html"><span>Rice Cultivation in Northwest <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-06-08</p> <p>The lowlands of Lombardy and Piedmont in northwest <span class="hlt">Italy</span> are some of the most highly developed irrigation areas in the world. These views of the region were acquired on May 8, 2005, by NASA Terra spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02671&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02671&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed"><span>Lake Garda, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/>This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.<p/>The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude. <p/>Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.<p/>The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001771.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001771.jpg.html"><span>Snow in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-28</p> <p>NASA image acquired February 24, 2012 By late February, 2012, the great European cold wave had begun to loosen its frigid grip, but significant snow still remained in the region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of snow in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> on February 24 at 12:35 UTC (1:30 p.m. local time). In the north of the image, bright white clouds blanket the region in a broad arc. Snow, which tends to be generally less bright that clouds, covers the Alps in the north of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The Apennine Mountains, which form the backbone of the Italian peninsula, also carry a blanket of snow. Although clouds and snow can, at times, be distinguished visually in a true-color image, sometimes they can appear very similar. When it is important to clearly define snow from cloud, false color images are often helpful. Rome, which can be seen as a gray smudge on the southwestern coast of the peninsula, recorded highs of a spring-like 50°F the day this image was captured, but earlier in the month the temperatures dove as low as 26°F on February 5. During that cold snap a rare intense snowfall blanketed Rome, causing the closure of the Colosseum, the Roman Forum and the Palatine Hill due to concerns of the risk of icy footing for tourists, and roads became impassible. Further north, temperatures plummeted to −21 °C (−6 °F) on 7 February. On February 11, news media reported over 2 meters (6.5 feet) of snow had fallen in Urbino, a walled town situated on a high sloping hillside on the eastern side of the Apennine Mountains. That same snowfall cut access to many remote towns in the Apennines, blocking roads and trapping some people in the homes. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12265849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12265849"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span> of censuses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rey, G M</p> <p>1983-06-01</p> <p>To supplement census data on <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s industrial base</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02671&hterms=Scientists+lies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DScientists%2Blies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02671&hterms=Scientists+lies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DScientists%2Blies"><span>Lake Garda, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/>This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.<p/>The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude. <p/>Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.<p/>The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10629&hterms=Race+car&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DRace%2Bcar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10629&hterms=Race+car&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DRace%2Bcar"><span>Nardo Ring, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><p/> The Nardo Ring is a striking visual feature from space, and astronauts have photographed it several times. The Ring is a race car test track; it is 12.5 kilometers long and steeply banked to reduce the amount of active steering needed by drivers. The Nardo Ring lies in a remote area on the heel of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s 'boot,' 50 kilometers east of the naval port of Taranto. The Ring encompasses a number of active (green) and fallow (brown to dark brown) agricultural fields. In this zone of intensive agriculture, farmers gain access to their fields through the Ring via a series of underpasses. Winding features within the southern section of the Ring appear to be smaller, unused race tracks. <p/> The image covers an area of 18.8 x 16.4 km, was acquired on August 17. 2007, and is located at 49.3 degrees north latitude, 17.8 degrees east longitude. <p/> The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9818558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9818558"><span>Biodemography in Siena, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vienna, A; De Stefano, G F; Bastianini, A; Biondi, G</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>Data were obtained on surnames of the parents and places of birth of the parents and grandparents of children in Siena, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Isonymy and total inbreeding coefficient, and their random and non-random components, are 0.005, 0.00125, 0.00019 and 0.00106, respectively. Isonymy and inbreeding figures are similar to those of other medium-sized Italian towns, while higher values have been reported for Italian villages and Italian ethnic minorities. City endogamy, and endogamy of Contrada for grandparents have the same values (44.1 and 44.8%, respectively), but for parents, endogamy of Contrada is lower than city endogamy (15.2 and 33.4%, respectively). The difference between the extent of Contrada endogamy expected at random and observed in the parents' generation does not seem to affect the genetic structure of the present population. However, the bulk of marriage migration (more than 70%) is short range, with people coming from Tuscany. There is no statistical difference in marital migration between males and females.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.656..202P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tectp.656..202P"><span>Graviquakes in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petricca, P.; Barba, S.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.; Riguzzi, F.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We discuss the mechanics of crustal normal fault-related earthquakes, and show that they represent dissipation of gravitational potential energy (graviquakes) and their magnitude increases with the involved volume (delimited by the seismogenic fault and an antithetic dilated wedge in its hangingwall), and the fault dip. The magnitude increases with the deepening of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT), which in turn enlarges the involved volume. The fault dip seems rather controlled by the static friction of the involved crustal layers. We apply the model to the extensional area of the Italian peninsula, whose geodynamics is controlled by the Alpine and Apennines subduction zones. The latter has a well-developed backarc basin and a large part of the accretionary prism is affected by on-going extensional tectonics, which is responsible for most of peninsular <span class="hlt">Italy</span> seismicity. Analyzing the seismic record of the Apennines, the length of seismogenic normal faults tends to be at most about 3 times the hypocenter depth. We compile a map of the brittle-ductile transition depth and, assuming a fixed 45° or 60° fault dip and a dilated wedge developed during the interseismic period almost perpendicular to the fault plane, we compute the maximum volume of the hangingwall collapsing at the coseismic stage, and estimate the maximum expected magnitude. Lower magnitude values are obtained in areas with thinner brittle layer and higher heat flow. Moreover, lower magnitude relative to those theoretically expected may occur in areas of higher strain rate where faults may creep faster due to lower frictional values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8858908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8858908"><span>Cytoskeletal F-actin polymerization from cytosolic G-actin occurs in the phagocytosing immunocytes of arthropods (Limulus polyphemus and Gromphadorhina portentosa): does [<span class="hlt">cAMP]i</span> play any role?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gupta, A P; Campenot, E S</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>Phagocytosis is a major defense reaction in arthropods and is accomplished by two blood cells (hemocytes), the granulocyte (GRs) and plasmatocytes (PLs), collectively called immunocytes. Immunocytes (principally the GRs) from two arthropods, Limulus polyphemus (horseshoe crab) and Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar hissing cockroach) effectively phagocytose fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated fluoresbrite microspheres (FITC-FM) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) erythrocytes within 1 hr of incubation. Although actin polymerization and changes in intracellular cAMP ([<span class="hlt">cAMP]i</span>) levels occur during the early stages of phagocytosis in vertebrates, these two phenomena have not been studied in arthropod immunocytes. Using the DNase I inhibition assay, we found a decrease in cytosolic G-actin and an increase in the cytoskeletal F-actin in the phagocytosing immunocytes; the total actin in both resting and phagocytosing immunocytes remained constant. These results showed an 86% increase in F-actin in G. portentosa immunocytes and a 29% increase in those of L. polyphemus after 1 hr of initial incubation with FITC-FM. As in some vertebrates, the role of [<span class="hlt">cAMP]i</span> in the early stages of phagocytosis in these two animals- and perhaps in arthropods in general-is variable; although we detected some negligible amounts of [<span class="hlt">cAMP]i</span> (0.10-0.80 pmol/cell at different time intervals) in L. polyphemus immunocytes, it was inconclusive whether those in G. portentosa also contained [<span class="hlt">cAMP]i</span>. Even in L. polyphemus, the difference in the amounts of [<span class="hlt">cAMP]i</span> in resting and phagocytosing cells was insignificant (P > 0.05). It was also inconclusive whether [Ca2+]i and/or [Mg2+]i play any roles in the early stages of phagocytosis in the two arthropods in this study. These results suggest that the two phenomena (F-actin polymerization and levels of [<span class="hlt">cAMP]i</span> in arthropods) are basically similar to those in vertebrate neutrophils and macrophages, which suggests that certain immunological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6744V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6744V"><span>The SISTEMA Project contribution in the implementation of the GEO Geohazards Supersite initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vilardo, Giuseppe; Sangianantoni, Agata; Borgstrom, Sven; D'Auria, Luca; De Martino, Prospero; Dolce, Mario; Isaia, Roberto; Marotta, Enrica; Martini, Marcello; Obrizzo, Francesco; Peluso, Rosario; Sansivero, Fabio; Scarpato, Giovanni; Siniscalchi, Valeria; Tammaro, Umberto; Tulino, Sabrina; Castellano, Mario; Bianco, Francesca</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>SISTEMA Project has been funded by the PO FESR 2007-2013 action, supported by the Campania Region (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). The project fosters the integrated use of multidisciplinary data in order to improve the understanding of the volcanic processes at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Ischia and to progress in science and surveillance of the territory according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, currently identified as Permanent Supersite. The mission of SISTEMA is to upgrade the existing monitoring and surveillance systems through the design, purchase and installation of new instrumentation, equipment, technology and methods addressing the need of delivering, with improved rapidity, scientific information for decision makers and end-users. The redundancy of monitoring systems is an important issue to guarantee the full operability during emergencies. The Monitoring Centre of INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano is currently located within the red zone (potentially at risk of invasion by pyroclastic flows in case of eruption) of <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> volcano. Its position offers various logistic benefits but at the onset of a volcanic crisis, of course it will be required to shift this Center in a safer area. For this reason, within the SISTEMA project, we envisioned a backup system which, when needed, could guarantee a shift of the Center in a virtually zero time. This can be achieved by fully duplicating the processing system and the data storage. In case of emergency, it would be required only to switch on the visualization systems in the new Center and transferring the personnel involved in the surveillance activities. SISTEMA project has also enabled the development of a permanent GPS and CRs (Corner Reflectors) networks, the latter supporting SAR Interferometry, by helping to improve knowledge of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> deformation field, both on local and wide scale. In addition, in order to enhance the heat flux measurements from ground based thermal camera observations, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA10629.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA10629.html"><span>Nardò Ring, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-04-08</p> <p>The Nardò Ring is a striking visual feature from space, and astronauts have photographed it several times. The Ring is a race car test track in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on August 17. 2007.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3323261','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3323261"><span>Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scaglia, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results. PMID:15504272</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-51F-32-024.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-51F-32-024.html"><span>Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, Instrument Pointing Subsystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-08-06</p> <p>51F-32-024 (29 July - 6 August 1985) --- <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s “boot heel" surrounded by waters of the Ionian Sea/Golfo di Taranto and the Adriatic Sea is very clearly visible in this scene made with a handheld 70mm camera. Spacelab 2's versatile instrument pointing system (IPS) protrudes from the cargo bay.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=radio+AND+broadcasting&pg=6&id=ED181878','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=radio+AND+broadcasting&pg=6&id=ED181878"><span>The Radio Phenomenon in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Faenza, Roberto</p> <p></p> <p>One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...622448P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...622448P"><span>Seafloor doming driven by degassing processes unveils sprouting volcanism in coastal areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Ventura, Guido</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We report evidences of active seabed doming and gas discharge few kilometers offshore from the Naples harbor (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Pockmarks, mounds, and craters characterize the seabed. These morphologies represent the top of shallow crustal structures including pagodas, faults and folds affecting the present-day seabed. They record upraise, pressurization, and release of He and CO2 from mantle melts and decarbonation reactions of crustal rocks. These gases are likely similar to those that feed the hydrothermal systems of the Ischia, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, suggesting the occurrence of a mantle source variously mixed to crustal fluids beneath the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching by gas upraising and pressurization processes require overpressures in the order of 2-3 MPa. Seabed doming, faulting, and gas discharge are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925957"><span>Seafloor doming driven by degassing processes unveils sprouting volcanism in coastal areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Ventura, Guido</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We report evidences of active seabed doming and gas discharge few kilometers offshore from the Naples harbor (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Pockmarks, mounds, and craters characterize the seabed. These morphologies represent the top of shallow crustal structures including pagodas, faults and folds affecting the present-day seabed. They record upraise, pressurization, and release of He and CO2 from mantle melts and decarbonation reactions of crustal rocks. These gases are likely similar to those that feed the hydrothermal systems of the Ischia, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, suggesting the occurrence of a mantle source variously mixed to crustal fluids beneath the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching by gas upraising and pressurization processes require overpressures in the order of 2-3 MPa. Seabed doming, faulting, and gas discharge are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4772541','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4772541"><span>Seafloor doming driven by degassing processes unveils sprouting volcanism in coastal areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Ventura, Guido</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We report evidences of active seabed doming and gas discharge few kilometers offshore from the Naples harbor (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Pockmarks, mounds, and craters characterize the seabed. These morphologies represent the top of shallow crustal structures including pagodas, faults and folds affecting the present-day seabed. They record upraise, pressurization, and release of He and CO2 from mantle melts and decarbonation reactions of crustal rocks. These gases are likely similar to those that feed the hydrothermal systems of the Ischia, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, suggesting the occurrence of a mantle source variously mixed to crustal fluids beneath the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching by gas upraising and pressurization processes require overpressures in the order of 2–3 MPa. Seabed doming, faulting, and gas discharge are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions. PMID:26925957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12267660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12267660"><span>Republic of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (country profile).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hakkert, R</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p>This discussion of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> focuses on the following: cities and regions; population growth; households and families; housing and construction; ethnicity and religion; education; economy and labor force; consumption; and transport and communications. <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, with its total area of 116,374 square miles, is about the size of Florida and Georgia combined. Its 56.6 million people form the 2nd largest population in Western Europe, after West Germany, but slightly larger than Great Britain and France. The main administrative divisions are 20 regions, subdivided into 95 provinces. The provinces in turn are divided into 8090 "comuni" or municipalities. The 6 cities with more than 500,000 people are Roma, Milano, Napoli, Torino, Genova, and Palermo. They account for 14% of the population. The 43 cities with between 100,000-500,000 account for another 13%. There are 373 middle-sized communities with between 20,000 and 100,000 people, accounting for 26% of population. <span class="hlt">Italy</span> has a regional problem. The line separating the regions of Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, and Lazio from the regions to the south and east is important. The regions north of it hold 62% of the population but are responsible for 73% of the gross national product (GNP) and 78% of the industrial product. The regions to the south are economically much weaker. At the time of the last Italian census on October 25, 1981, the country counted 56.6 million inhabitants. Compared to 33.5 million at the turn of the century, this implies an average annual growth rate of .61%. Between 1900-70, nearly 20 million Italians left their country. Most settled in the US, Argentina, and Brazil. Beginning in the 1960s, a new sort of migration was added as young Italians temporarily left to work in the more prosperous countries of northern Europe. The birthrate, which had declined slowly to 18/1000 during the 1960s, fell more rapidly during the 1970s, to 10.9/1000 in 1981 and 10.3 in 1984. The death rate in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> has changed little</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26585723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26585723"><span>Renaissance Neurosurgery: <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s Iconic Contributions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS51F-32-024&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS51F-32-024&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, Instrument Pointing Subsystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003908','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003908"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span> INAF Analysis Center Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2077C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2077C"><span>Seismic risk perception in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715035M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715035M"><span>Mixing-to-eruption timescales: an integrated model combining numerical simulations and high-temperature experiments with natural melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montagna, Chiara; Perugini, Diego; De Campos, Christina; Longo, Antonella; Dingwell, Donald Bruce; Papale, Paolo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Arrival of magma from depth into shallow reservoirs and associated mixing processes have been documented as possible triggers of explosive eruptions. Quantifying the timing from beginning of mixing to eruption is of fundamental importance in volcanology in order to put constraints about the possible onset of a new eruption. Here we integrate numerical simulations and high-temperature experiment performed with natural melts with the aim to attempt identifying the mixing-to-eruption timescales. We performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of the arrival of gas-rich magmas into shallow reservoirs. We solve the fluid dynamics for the two interacting magmas evaluating the space-time evolution of the physical properties of the mixture. Convection and mingling develop quickly into the chamber and feeding conduit/dyke. Over time scales of hours, the magmas in the reservoir appear to have mingled throughout, and convective patterns become harder to identify. High-temperature magma mixing experiments have been performed using a centrifuge and using basaltic and phonolitic melts from <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) as initial end-members. Concentration Variance Decay (CVD), an inevitable consequence of magma mixing, is exponential with time. The rate of CVD is a powerful new geochronometer for the time from mixing to eruption/quenching. The mingling-to-eruption time of three explosive volcanic eruptions from <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) yield durations on the order of tens of minutes. These results are in perfect agreement with the numerical simulations that suggest a maximum mixing time of a few hours to obtain a hybrid mixture. We show that integration of numerical simulation and high-temperature experiments can provide unprecedented results about mixing processes in volcanic systems. The combined application of numerical simulations and CVD geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes could be decisive for the preparation of hazard mitigation during volcanic unrest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..177..118W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..177..118W"><span>Towards a detailed distal tephrostratigraphy in the Central Mediterranean: The last 20,000 yrs record of Lago Grande di Monticchio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wulf, Sabine; Kraml, Michael; Keller, Jörg</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>A detailed compilation of distal tephrostratigraphy comprising the last 20,000 yrs is given for the Central Mediterranean region. A total of 47 distinct ash layers identified in the maar lake sediments of Lago Grande di Monticchio (Basilicata, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) are compared with proximal and distal terrestrial-marine tephra deposits in the circum-central Mediterranean region. The results of these studies provide valuable information for reconstructing the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene dispersal of pyroclastic deposits from south Italian explosive volcanoes, in particular Somma-Vesuvius, the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, Ischia Island and Mount Etna. Prominent tephras are discussed with respect to their reliability as dating and correlation tools in sedimentary records. Ashes from Plinian eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius (i.e. Avellino, Mercato, Greenish, Pomici di Base), for instance, are well-defined by their distribution patterns and their unique composition. The widespread Y-1 tephra from Mount Etna, on the other hand, derived most likely from two distinct Plinian events with changing wind conditions, and therefore becomes a less reliable stratigraphic marker. Statistical-numerical calculations are presented in order to discriminate between Holocene tephras from the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera (i.e. Astroni 1-3, Agnano Monte Spina, Averno 1, Lagno Amendolare), since these ashes are characterized by an almost indistinguishable chemical fingerprint. As a highlight, numerous Campanian eruptions of proposed low-intensity have been identified in the distal site of Monticchio suggesting a revision of existing tephra dispersal maps and re-calculation of eruptive conditions. In summary, the tephra record of Monticchio is one of the key successions for linking both, terrestrial records from Central-southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and marine sequences from the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic and Ionian Seas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1262P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1262P"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span>: An Open Air Museum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pizzorusso, Ann</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and you can visit them because <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italy+AND+history&pg=6&id=ED294341','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italy+AND+history&pg=6&id=ED294341"><span>Integration in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: A Dynamic Movement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berrigan, Carol</p> <p></p> <p>The result of trips by American special educators to <span class="hlt">Italy</span> in 1984 and 1986, this paper reviews laws, public policy, and events in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s recent history leading to widespread desegregation of the disabled special schools and other institutions. The review of legislation focuses on National Law 517 (1977) with such specified strategies for pupil…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9..267D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9..267D"><span>Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b (ca. 91 kyr), has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CliPD...8.4443D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CliPD...8.4443D"><span>Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: cryptotephra PT0915-1 with the 512 AD eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-2 with the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), cryptotephras PT0915-3 and PT0915-4 with Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-5 with the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-7 with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 of the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), cryptotephra PT0915-8 with the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and tephra PT0915-9 with the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). Tephra PT0915-11 could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents a hitherto unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410409C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410409C"><span>The geothermal potential of the Campania volcanic district and new heat exchanger technologies for exploitation of highly urbanised areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The geothermal research in Campania region (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>), started since the 1930, and continued until the '80 by the SAFEN, ENEL and AGIP companies. Such exploration activity highlighted that most of the volcanic districts of the Campania Region have a very high geothermal gradient and heat flow. In particular, inside the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera and at Ischia island the geothermal gradient measured inside the deep wells reaches temperatures above 100° C between few tens and few hundreds of metres of depth, while the heat flow varies between 120-160 mWm-2 at Agnano and Mofete (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> main drill sites) to more than 500 mWm-2 at Ischia island (south-western sector). A general review of the available literature data (temperature at depth, stratigraphic sections, logs etc.) of the deep wells (down to 3 km b.s.l.) allowed us to quantify the geothermal potential (thermal and electric) of such district. The geothermal potential is about 6 GWy for the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (Mofete and S. Vito sectors) and 11 GWy for the Ischia island (south-western sector) showing a geothermal reservoir with water and vapour dominant respectively. This results in strong potential interest for economic exploitation of the geothermal resource, both in the range of low-medium enthalpy at few hundreds of meters depth and of high enthalpy at depths of 1-2 km. In this study we try to model the effectiveness of new technologies of boreholes heat exchangers, which would allow to avoid fluid withdrawal, then strongly decreasing the environmental impact. The proposed technology consists of a double-pipe placed in a borehole heat exchange that can work coupled with an ORC. The two pipes, one inside the other, are located in the well in order to transfer the thermal energy to the working fluid during the descent in the external pipe and then go back through the internal pipe properly isolated. We propose a complete design of the borehole heat exchangers. The design activity is performed on a theoretical basis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/italy','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/italy"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-17</p> <p>... surface texture, which is influenced by terrain, vegetation structure, soil type and surface wetness. Wet surfaces or areas with standing ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21495289','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21495289"><span>Rites of passage in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Field, Carol</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11650229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11650229"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span>: old problems, new books.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agazzi, Evandro</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Agazzi's bibliographic essay of recent titles in Italian on biomedical issues also discusses the Catholic versus the secular approaches to bioethics in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Among the publications mentioned are several of a philosophical or theological nature: M. Mori's volume on artificial insemination, and second editions of well-established textbooks on biomedical ethics by S. Leone, E. Sgreccia, S. Spinsanti, and D. Tettamanzi. Legal issues in reproductive technologies are addressed in the Santosuosso Commission's report on regulating artificial procreation, and in a book discussing the report. Secular writings on ethical issues have appeared in issues cited here of the journals Prospettive Settanta and Biblioteca della Libertà. Also mentioned in Agazzi's essay are a critique of the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's Instruction on Respect for Human Life, and a booklet of articles related to the 20th anniversary of the encyclical Humanae Vitae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2179D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2179D"><span>Attenuation tomography of the main volcanic regions of the Campanian Plain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Siena, Luca; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Passive, high resolution attenuation tomography is used to image the geological structure in the first upper 4 km of shallow crust beneath the Campanian Plain. Images were produced by two separate attenuation tomography studies of the main volcanic regions of the Campanian Plain, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, Mt. Vesuvius volcano and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera. The three-dimensional S wave attenuation tomography of Mt. Vesuvius has been obtained with multiple measurements of coda-normalized S-wave spectra of local small magnitude earthquakes. P-wave attenuation tomography was performed using classical spectral methods. The images were obtained inverting the spectral data with a multiple resolution approach expressively designed for attenuation tomography. This allowed to obtain a robust attenuation image of the volumes under the central cone at a maximum resolution of 300 m. The same approach was applied to a data set recorded in the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area during the 1982-1984 seismic crisis. Inversion ensures a minimum cell size resolution of 500 meters in the zones with sufficient ray coverage, and 1000 meters outside these zones. The study of the resolution matrix as well as the synthetic tests guarantee an optimal reproduction of the input anomalies in the center of the caldera, between 0 and 3.5 km in depth. Results allowed an unprecedented view of several features of the medium, like the residual part of solidified magma from the last eruption, under the central cone of Mt. Vesuvius, and the feeding systems and top of the carbonate basement, 3 km depth below both volcanic areas. Vertical Q contrast image important fault zones, such as the La Starza fault, as well as high attenuation structures that correspond to gas or fluid reservoirs, and reveal the upper part of gas bearing conduits connecting these high attenuation volumes with the magma sill revealed at about 7 km in depth by passive travel-time tomography under the whole Campanian Plain.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033002','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033002"><span>4D volcano gravimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> demonstrate the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713899B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713899B"><span>Investigations with the Sentinel-1 Interferometric Wide Swath mode: first results and comparison with in-situ geodetic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borgstrom, Sven; Del Gaudio, Carlo; De Martino, Prospero; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Siniscalchi, Valeria; Prats-Iraola, Pau; Nannini, Matteo; Costantini, Mario; Minati, Federico; Walter, Thomas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The contribution focuses on the current status of the ESA study entitled "INSARAP: Sentinel-1 InSAR Performance study with TOPS Data". The study investigates the performance of the interferometric wide swath (IW) mode of Sentinel-1, which is implemented using the terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS) mode. In this regard, first analyses with Sentinel-1 time series will be shown, with a comparison with in-situ geodetic measurements on different test sites identified in the framework of the study, namely, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>/Vesuvius area in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, Istanbul city in Turkey, and Mexico City. The evaluation of the results will be performed by exploiting mainly continuous GPS stations located on the different sites, besides leveling measurements when also available. Also in a recent past, the comparison between InSAR and continuous GPS data, the latter projected into the radar LOS, has proven to be very effective for a cross comparison, besides InSAR Cal/Val activities, as it was for instance in the case of the recent inflation events occurred in <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> area, marked by the well know bradyseismic phenomenon. Although continuous GPS networks are characterized by a poor space coverage in comparison with InSAR results, continuous GPS data recording allows to complement the geodetic information from InSAR sensors, limited by their revisiting time. The issue to be faced in this study is the possibility to deal with very low deformation rates in comparison with the Sentinel-1 C-band data, although the Sentinel-1 time series we expect to get from October 2014 to date should allow the identification of ground deformation in the areas of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=charles+AND+dickens&pg=4&id=EJ384535','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=charles+AND+dickens&pg=4&id=EJ384535"><span>Demoiselles and Drafts from <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and France.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Picard, M. Dane</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19397090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19397090"><span>Psychosurgery in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, 1936-39.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kotowicz, Zbigniew</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>In 1936 Egas Moniz introduced a new method for treating mental illness--psychosurgery. This new procedure was taken up immediately in a number of countries, including <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. In most countries its introduction was slow and the numbers of operations were in single figures, but in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> the introduction was rapid and around a dozen neuropsychiatrists reported much higher numbers of operations performed. Also in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> the first innovations to the technique, notably the transorbital variation, were introduced. Moreover, all these activities took place without any sign of the protest seen elsewhere. Conditions that allowed the acceptance of this risky procedure seemed to be a consequence of the way in which the professions of neurology and psychiatry had been merged in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15859193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15859193"><span>The health of foreign workers in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Capacci, Fabio; Carnevale, Francesco; Gazzano, Noel</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>At the beginning of 2002, there were 1,600,000 foreign-born persons living in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>; the majority from countries outside Europe. Those residing in the country for working purposes were 800,680. <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s shift to a tertiary and service-oriented economy has considerably modified the working market, concentrating demand at two extremes: on one hand, a highly specialized workforce, and on the other, a totally unqualified, mobile, and flexible one, which includes most immigrants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595987"><span>[Rosenfeld in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (1978 to 1985)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Masi, Franco</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper I try to throw some light on Rosenfeld's thought and his way of working when he came to <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. I would like to show, in a sketchy way, the evolution of his thought and in particular the new way he looked at clinical practice at that time. My point is that the Rosenfeld we met in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> was able to open new horizons in clinical practice, implicitly questioning some of his own or his circle's previous viewpoints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23224637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23224637"><span>Robotic surgery in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> national survey (2011).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Robotic surgery in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span> Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814729P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814729P"><span>COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation and GPS data to study the source responsible of ground deformation beneath the urban area of Naples (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) in 2012-2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pepe, Susi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>To understand uplift phenomenon occurred during the April 2012 - January 2013 time interval at <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera, we exploited the displacement time series obtained by processing 90 SAR images acquired from the COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation along ascending orbits via the well-known DInSAR algorithm referred to as SBAS algorithm, and the measurements provided by 14 continuous GPS stations deployed within the caldera and belonging to the permanent INGV-OV monitoring network. In particular, the caldera has shown a rapid uplift of about 6 cm with a peak rate of about 3 cm/month in December 2012. This event led the Italian Civil Protection to raise the alert level of the volcano from green to yellow. Using a novel geodetic inversion technique we imaged the kinematics of the intrusion of a magmatic sill beneath the town of Pozzuoli at a depth of about 3100 m. The retrieved kinematics was then used as input to infer the dynamics of the sill intrusion using a recently developed numerical model. The best fit obtained by non-linear inverse approach that consider a time-varying deformation field is a penny-shaped source located at a depth of 3100 m. To study the detail of the intrusion process we have applied a geodetic imaging technique to determine the spatial and temporal kinematics of the ground deformation source in the selected period. The retrieved temporal pattern of the source geometry reflects that of a growing sill that, at the end of the considered period, has a roughly elliptical geometry with an extension of about 6 km in the EW direction and about 4 km in the NS one. The maximum aperture of the sill is of about 30 cm at its center. To understand the dynamics of this phenomenon we used a numerical model of the emplacement of a magmatic sill, to fit the retrieved geometry. The parameters to be determined are: the average magma viscosity, the amount of magma already present in the sill before the 2012-2013 episode and the magma injection rate. Results show</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03371.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03371.html"><span>Perspective View, Mt. Etna, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s Mount Etna is the focus of this perspective view made from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Emission Radiometer (ASTER) image from NASA's Terra spacecraft overlaid on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography. The image is looking south with dark lava flows from the 1600's (center) to 1981 (long flow at lower right) visible in the foreground and the summit of Etna above. The city of Catania is barely visible behind Etna on the bay at the upper left. In late October 2002, Etna erupted again, sending lava flows down the north and south sides of the volcano. The north flows are near the center of this view, but the ASTER image is from before the eruption. In addition to the terrestrial applications of these data for understanding active volcanoes and hazards associated with them such as lava flows and explosive eruptions, geologists studying Mars find these data useful as an analog to martian landforms and geologic processes. In late September 2002, a field conference with the theme of Terrestrial Analogs to Mars focused on Mount Etna, allowing Mars geologists to see in person the types of features they can only sample remotely. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.1655Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.1655Z"><span>Crustal Deformation In Northeastern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zerbini, S.; Romagnoli, C.; Richter, B.; Lago, L.; Domenichini, F.; Simon, D.</p> <p></p> <p>Four permanent GPS stations have been installed in northeastern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> starting mid 1996. Three stations: Bologna, Medicina and Porto Corsini are located in the south- eastern Po Plain, while the fourth one was set up in the Trieste harbor. The network was installed to monitor vertical crustal movements at tide gauge sites and in sub- siding areas of the Po Plain. At Medicina, since October 1996, it is also operative a superconducting gravimeter periodically controlled by means of absolute gravity mea- surements. The stations, which are distributed around the northern edge of the Adria plate, provide information on vertical and horizontal displacements related to crustal deformation. The temporal behavior of the Adria plate, in response to the convergence of the surrounding regions, has been presumably more complex than a simple horizon- tal displacement and, most likely, involved flexural bending processes. The GPS and the continuous gravity data have been analyzed and interpreted to estimate vertical and horizontal rates at the four sites. The presence of relevant seasonal signals has been identified in the series of station coordinates as well as in the gravity data. These fluc- tuations, if not accounted for, may corrupt the high precision estimate of the long-term trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22300481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22300481"><span>Fukushima fallout at Milano, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129278"><span>Tuberculosis and leprosy in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: new skeletal evidence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Roberts, Charlotte</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy are infections caused by Mycobacteria. This paper documents new skeletal evidence in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> from the Iron Age site of Corvaro (Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>; 5th century BCE) and the Roman site of Palombara (Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>; 4th-5th century CE), and briefly reviews the extant evidence for these infections in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The skeletal evidence for TB in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is more ancient than for leprosy, and is more common. The oldest evidence for both mycobacterial diseases is in the North of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, but this could be by chance, even if biomolecular models suggest a land route from the East to central Europe, especially for leprosy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215018D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215018D"><span>Vesuvian and Phlegraean tephra layers as a tool to reconstruct the evolution of marine and continental sedimentary environments in the area of Naples (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Vito, Mauro; Sacchi, Marco; de Vita, Sandro; Molisso, Flavia; Insinga, Donatella</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>It is widely accepted that tephra layers represent a fundamental tool in the chronostratrigraphic analysis of sedimentary successions. Particularly, tephrostratigraphy plays a key role in the integrated study of subaerial environments coupled with subaqueous settings were there is a higher potential for the preservation of the stratigraphic record. Recent studies conducted on the mixed siliciclastic-volcaniclastic environments of the Campania coastal zone suggest that the study of tephra layers is also relevant to the analysis of facies associations and depositional settings. The comparison between stratigraphic successions exposed on land and cored at sea in the Gulf of Naples, allowed the recognition of isochrone surfaces, marked by the products of explosive volcanic eruptions, which have been useful in making correlations between marine and continental sedimentary basins. These surfaces and the recognized tephra layers also helped to better constrain the palaeoenvironmental conditions that influenced their evolution. In particular it has been highlighted the role played by volcanic activity in determining a strong variability in the sedimentation rate in both marine and sedimentary environments. Volcanic activity affected both the short and long term evolution of these basins as it produced highly dispersed pyroclastic deposits, which instantaneously covered wide areas at sea-land interface, and were reworked for very long times, causing the overloading of the drainage systems and the increasing of sedimentation rates, with repeated flood and mass-deposition episodes. The time-span investigated with this study includes the past 5 ka, during which volcanism at both Mt. Vesuvius and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera has been characterized by Plinian, sub-Plinian, Ultrastrombolian and Strombolian, intense explosive activity, with pyroclastic fallout deposits widely dispersed in the eastern quadrants of the volcanoes. The investigations carried out on land interested quarried</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847331','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847331"><span>Malignant pleural mesothelioma in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years. PMID:20386624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386624"><span>Malignant pleural mesothelioma in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3265120','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3265120"><span>Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care. PMID:22389841</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389841"><span>Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006159','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006159"><span>John Ray in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: lost manuscripts rediscovered</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hunter, Michael</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921104"><span>John Ray in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: lost manuscripts rediscovered.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hunter, Michael</p> <p>2014-06-20</p> <p>This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations... made in a journey through... the Low-countries, Germany, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20391050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20391050"><span>Community psychology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: introduction and prospects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santinello, Massimo; Martini, Elvio Raffaello; Perkins, Douglas D</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The history of community psychology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is briefly reviewed. The field has developed extensively in universities and applied settings over the past 30 years. This issue presents 5 recent examples from different regions of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> of preventive and other community psychological intervention studies. They include an evaluation of a program to increase the independent mobility of children walking to and from school, the ecological evaluation of child and adolescent residential care communities, participatory action-research with adolescents in schools and neighborhoods, evaluation of a participatory local health intervention planning process, and the description and evaluation of a collaborative, Internet-based community planning training program.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11139206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11139206"><span>Genomic characterization of porcine rotaviruses in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martella, V; Pratelli, A; Greco, G; Tempesta, M; Ferrari, M; Losio, M N; Buonavoglia, C</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A total of 23 rotavirus strains isolated from pigs were analyzed. Twenty strains had been isolated from diarrheic piglets from an outbreak that occurred in northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> in 1983. Three strains had been isolated in 1984 from swine herds located in distinct areas of northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. All 23 strains were characterized as type G6P[5] by PCR. The isolation from piglets of rotaviruses displaying typical bovine G- and P-type specificities points out the high frequency of rotavirus transmission between cattle and pigs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3189490','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3189490"><span>Foreign children with cancer in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to <span class="hlt">Italy</span> for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, 4.1% (608) were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538) were born abroad and living in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%), whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p < 0.001) for immigrants and patients born in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, respectively. Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span> the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network. PMID:21923939</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03371&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03371&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>Perspective View, Mt. Etna, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s Mount Etna is the focus of this perspective view made from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Emission Radiometer (ASTER) image from NASA's Terra spacecraft overlaid on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography. The image is looking south with dark lava flows from the 1600's (center) to 1981 (long flow at lower right) visible in the foreground and the summit of Etna above. The city of Catania is barely visible behind Etna on the bay at the upper left. In late October 2002, Etna erupted again, sending lava flows down the north and south sides of the volcano. The north flows are near the center of this view, but the ASTER image is from before the eruption.<p/>In addition to the terrestrial applications of these data for understanding active volcanoes and hazards associated with them such as lava flows and explosive eruptions, geologists studying Mars find these data useful as an analog to martian landforms and geologic processes. In late September 2002, a field conference with the theme of Terrestrial Analogs to Mars focused on Mount Etna, allowing Mars geologists to see in person the types of features they can only sample remotely.<p/>Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol3-sec252-229-7003.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol3-sec252-229-7003.pdf"><span>48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol3-sec252-229-7003.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol3-sec252-229-7003.pdf"><span>48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol3-sec252-229-7003.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol3-sec252-229-7003.pdf"><span>48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-01/pdf/2010-27438.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-01/pdf/2010-27438.pdf"><span>75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-09/pdf/2013-21841.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-09/pdf/2013-21841.pdf"><span>78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-09</p> <p>... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and Turkey would be likely to lead to... Pasta from <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and Turkey: Investigation Nos. 701- TA-365-366 and 731-TA-734-735 (Third...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol3-sec252-229-7003.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol3-sec252-229-7003.pdf"><span>48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italy+AND+history&pg=4&id=EJ602740','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italy+AND+history&pg=4&id=EJ602740"><span>The University in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: Historical Background and Changing Trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Todeschini, Marco</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Traces the history of higher education in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Discusses the nature and function of the Italian university; changes in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s system of higher education over the years; the issue of academic autonomy in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>; and reform in Italian universities over the next few years (going corporate and walking the tightrope between autonomy and national…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15537046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15537046"><span>[Inequalities in health in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSeis..19..105D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSeis..19..105D"><span>A reappraisal of seismic Q evaluated at Mt. Etna volcano. Receipt for the application to risk analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new approach in dealing with seismic risk in the volcanic areas of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, by taking into account the possible occurrence of damaging pre- or syn-eruptive seismic events, is exciting the scientific interest and is actually the topic developed in several research projects funded by the European Community (e.g., UPStrat-MAFA, www.upstrat-mafa.ov.ingv.it/UPstrat/) and the Civil Defense Department of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the local attenuation-distance relations. In the present paper, we make a survey of the estimates of the seismic quality factor of the medium reported in literature for the Etna area. In the framework of a similar paper published for the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> zone in Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, we first review the results on seismic attenuation already obtained for Etna and then apply a standard technique to separately measure intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients from passive seismic data recorded by the Etna seismological network. Indications are then given for the correct utilization of the attenuation parameters to obtain the best candidate quality factor Q to be used in this area for seismic risk purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italiano&id=ED197621','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italiano&id=ED197621"><span>Linguistic Classification in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: Problems and Predictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Joseph, John Earl</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The schema generally used to describe the linguistic situation in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> includes two categories: dialetto regionale (regional dialect) and italiano regionale (regional Italian). These stand apart from the widely accepted sociolinguistic model "variety--dialect--language." It is demonstrated that both these categories should be treated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=behavioural+AND+trends&pg=5&id=EJ312494','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=behavioural+AND+trends&pg=5&id=EJ312494"><span>The Study of Behavioural Development in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Battacchi, Marco W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Examines professional education and current research trends in developmental psychology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Current trends have been investigated by a multi-dimensional content analysis of the studies published or accepted for publication in qualified journals between 1978-May 1983. (Author/AS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=donatella+della+porta&id=EJ536711','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=donatella+della+porta&id=EJ536711"><span>Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>della Porta, Donatella</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21470460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21470460"><span>Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3377414','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3377414"><span>Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus. PMID:21470460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28670578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28670578"><span>Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Criscuolo, Domenico</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span> has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs): important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as <span class="hlt">Italy</span> has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places <span class="hlt">Italy</span> on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17258934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17258934"><span>Bedbug infestations recorded in Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masetti, Massimo; Bruschi, Fabrizio</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>In summer 2003 two separate infestations due to the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius) occurred in Pisa, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Cutaneous reaction was evident and one patient developed a severe bullous eruption. In both cases there was circumstantial evidence for association with international travel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED066406.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED066406.pdf"><span>A Critical Bibliography of Materials on <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Witzel, Anne; Chapman, Rosemary</p> <p></p> <p>This ungraded, annotated bibliography includes books of history and society, literature and culture and a special section devoted to the southern part of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Filmstrips, slides and films are listed in the audiovisual materials bibliography. Also included is a list of sources of books and audio-visual materials that are included in a multi-media…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italy+AND+history&pg=5&id=EJ764586','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italy+AND+history&pg=5&id=EJ764586"><span>Is There an America in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s Future?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kilpatrick, William K.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>When the author first heard that <span class="hlt">Italy</span> wants to adopt the American model of education, his immediate reaction was, "Why would you want to do that?" American schools can scarcely teach students to read and write. American students are abysmally ignorant about history, geography, and world affairs. In international assessments of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italiano&id=ED197621','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italiano&id=ED197621"><span>Linguistic Classification in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: Problems and Predictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Joseph, John Earl</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The schema generally used to describe the linguistic situation in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> includes two categories: dialetto regionale (regional dialect) and italiano regionale (regional Italian). These stand apart from the widely accepted sociolinguistic model "variety--dialect--language." It is demonstrated that both these categories should be treated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5572860','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5572860"><span>Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beltrame, Anna; Buonfrate, Dora; Staffolani, Silvia; Degani, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Angheben, Andrea; Marocco, Stefania; Bisoffi, Zeno</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We report 74 patients in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes, a poorly described filarial parasite. M. perstans nematodes should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with eosinophilia from disease-endemic countries. Serologic analysis is useful for screening, and testing for microfilaremia in peripheral blood should be performed for parasite-positive patients. PMID:28820369</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=labor+AND+motivation&pg=4&id=EJ827216','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=labor+AND+motivation&pg=4&id=EJ827216"><span>Education for Older People in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Urban+AND+renewal&id=EJ853067','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Urban+AND+renewal&id=EJ853067"><span>An Urban Renewal School Project in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ponti, Giorgio</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corruption+AND+International&pg=6&id=EJ536711','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corruption+AND+International&pg=6&id=EJ536711"><span>Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>della Porta, Donatella</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MOISTURE&pg=3&id=EJ778659','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MOISTURE&pg=3&id=EJ778659"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s Treasures Are in Their Hands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rocca, Francis X.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Each year more than 300 applicants vie for 18 slots at the Central Institute of Restoration, the program responsible for the restoration of many of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s greatest works of art, and the training of experts in the repair of objects of artistic and/or cultural significance. Successful candidates must demonstrate knowledge of art history, chemistry,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+Chemistry&pg=5&id=EJ778659','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+Chemistry&pg=5&id=EJ778659"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s Treasures Are in Their Hands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rocca, Francis X.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Each year more than 300 applicants vie for 18 slots at the Central Institute of Restoration, the program responsible for the restoration of many of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s greatest works of art, and the training of experts in the repair of objects of artistic and/or cultural significance. Successful candidates must demonstrate knowledge of art history, chemistry,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1131960.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1131960.pdf"><span>CLIL in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: A General Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cinganotto, Letizia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) was introduced in the Italian school system in 2003 through a Reform Law, which made it mandatory for upper secondary schools. This paper is aimed at describing the most important steps of this innovation, with the relevant implications for policymakers, teachers and students. <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s CLIL mandate is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Urban+AND+renewal&id=EJ853067','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Urban+AND+renewal&id=EJ853067"><span>An Urban Renewal School Project in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ponti, Giorgio</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture+AND+italians&pg=4&id=EJ905266','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture+AND+italians&pg=4&id=EJ905266"><span>Early Education in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: Research and Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Musatti, Tullia; Picchio, Mariacristina</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article provides an overview of Italian ECEC services, their development and educational culture. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, out of home day care for children under 3 became a quantitatively significant phenomenon in the last 30 years. Its development was characterized by the close collaboration between research agencies and ECEC services. A rich variety of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12284546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12284546"><span>Induced abortion and contraception in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. <span class="hlt">Italy</span> has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045042&hterms=study+volcanos&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstudy%2Bvolcanos','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045042&hterms=study+volcanos&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstudy%2Bvolcanos"><span>Remote sensing of Italian volcanos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H14C..03V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H14C..03V"><span>Leaking And Non-leaking Systems: Study Of Natural CO2 Accumulations For Geological Sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voltattorni, N.; Cantucci, B.; Cinti, D.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The potential risks of geological CO2 storage must be understood and geologists are required to predict how CO2 may behave once stored underground. As natural geological accumulations of carbon dioxide occur in many basins in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and volcanic and seismically active areas allow CO2 rich fluids to migrate to the near surface, many of these areas have been investigated in order to study long-term geochemical processes that may occur following geological storage of anthropogenic CO2. A study representing an example of "leaking" system is the Solfatara crater (<span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) characterised by the presence of both CO2 rich-waters and fumarole. Soil gas flux measurements show that the entire area discharges between 1200 and 1500 tons of CO2 a day. Most part of analysed waters is the effect of a mixing between a shallow meteoric water and a deep thermal Na-Cl end-member and/or seawater, resulting in sodium-chloride waters. A high dissolved CO2 content (max value 566.28 cc/l) is also present. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> frequently undergo bradyseism related to the elastic response of the shallow crust to increasing pressure within a shallow magma chamber. The study of this phenomenon could be useful to detect ground deformation linked to geomechanical changes in a geological CO2 reservoir. In contrast, an example of "non-leaking" system is the Pisticci oil and gas Field (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) where a great variety of hydrocarbons traps are formed by horst and tilted blocks in the Mesozoic carbonate substratum covered by an almost continuous sequence of Lower Pliocene marls and Middle Pliocene-Pleistocene marly blue clays. Soil gas surveys were performed after a MD 4.5 earthquake and two years later to test the permanence of the gas distribution pattern. CO2 distribution in soil gas seems not to be affected by changes in stress, as suggested by the average values of both surveys. The principal aim of our research has been to evaluate and mitigate risks for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915791G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915791G"><span>Windrum: a program for monitoring seismic signals in real time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giudicepietro, Flora</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Windrum is a program devote to monitor seismic signals arriving from remote stations in real time. Since 2000, the Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV) uses the first version of Windrum to monitor the seismic activity of Mt. Vesuvius, <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span>, Ischia and Stromboli volcano. The program has been also used at the Observatory of Bukittinggi (Indonesia), at the offices of the Italian National Civil Protection, at the COA in Stromboli and at the Civil Protection Center of the municipality of Pozzuoli (Napoli, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). In addition, the Osservatorio Vesuviano regularly uses Windrum in educational events such as the Festival of Science in Genova (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>), FuturoRemoto and other events organized by Città della Scienza in Naples (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>). The program displays the seismic trace of one station on a monitor, using short packet of data (typically 1 or 2 seconds) received through UTC Internet protocol. The data packets are in Trace_buffer format, a native protocol of Earthworm seismic system that is widely used for the data transmission on Internet. Windrum allows the user to visualize 24 hours of signals, to zoom selected windows of data, in order to estimate the duration Magnitude (Md) of an earthquake, in an intercative way, and to generate graphic images for the web. Moreover, Windrum can exchange Internet messages with other copies of the same program to synchronize actions, such as to zoom the same window of data or mark the beginning of an earthquake on all active monitors simultaneously. Originally, in 2000, Windrum was developed in VB6. I have now developed a new version in VB.net, which goes beyond the obsolescence problems that were appearing. The new version supports the decoding of binary packets received by soket in a more flexible way, allowing the generation of graphic images in different formats. In addition, the new version allows a more flexible layout configuration, suitable for use on large screens with high resolution. Over the past 17 years the use of Windrum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5542213','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5542213"><span>Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.</p> <p>1989-06-01</p> <p>Geodynamic evolution of southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987irse.book..144S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987irse.book..144S"><span>Third World Higher Education and <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salam, Abdus</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span> is an incredible country. It is among Western Europe's BIG FOUR — together with the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the UK. It is a country of great science and great technology. It is the world's seventh ranking country in industrial production. It is also the seventh country in terms of its education system in so far as foreign students are concerned. What, however, is so incredible about <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is that notwithstanding these superiorities, Italians have no colour complex, nor any of the attitudes to helping others often manifested by other developed nations. Personally, during the twenty-one years that I have worked in Trieste, I have received the warmest understanding for my ventures towards building up science and technology in the developing world. It is in this spirit of appreciation that I speak. If I appear to complain, it will be as a friend to a friend…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000QuRes..54..246N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000QuRes..54..246N"><span>Late Quaternary Eolian Deposition in Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narcisi, Biancamaria</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>Records of eolian quartz from two continuous sediment sequences drilled in Lagaccione and Lago di Vico volcanic lakes in central <span class="hlt">Italy</span> contribute to the knowledge of eolian deposition in the central Mediterranean during the last 100,000 years. The chronology is based on 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dating and tephra analysis. Pollen data provide the paleoenvironmental framework and enable correlation between the cores. Eolian inputs were high during the steppe phases corresponding to oxygen isotope stages 4 and 2. Low inputs correspond to the forest phases of the last interglacial and the middle Holocene. Eolian inputs have increased in the late Holocene. Patterns of eolian deposition in central <span class="hlt">Italy</span> resemble the Antarctic dust record from the Vostok ice core. The Italian patterns may also correspond with hydrological changes registered in North Africa. The main source of dust loading over the Mediterranean now, North Africa, may have played an important role in dust supply throughout the last climatic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-243-076.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-243-076.html"><span>Lake Geneva, France/<span class="hlt">Italy</span>/Switzerland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-09-30</p> <p>STS068-243-076 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- Parts of the Swiss Cantons of Vaud and Valois, the French province of Chablis and parts of northwestern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> are seen in this widely stretching image photographed from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Pennine Alps, said to have been created 50 million years ago, have been reshaped by glaciers during Pleistocene. The glaciers created the wide valley of the Rhone River by scourting a pre-existing seam. The fertile Swiss Plateau runs northwest from the shore of Lake Geneva and is visible in lower left. The Franco-Swiss border is located in the center of the lake and follows a mountain divide east of Rhone Valley. <span class="hlt">Italy</span> lies south of the Rhone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22886185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22886185"><span>Molecular detection of bovine kobuviruses in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Pistilli, Maria Gabriella; Marsilio, Fulvio</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Faecal samples obtained from either asymptomatic or diarrhoeic calves in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> were screened for bovine kobuviruses (BKVs) using specific primers. BKV RNA was detected in 4.9 % of the samples, with higher positivity rates in diarrhoeic calves (5.3 %) than in asymptomatic animals (4.8 %), although the difference was not statistically significant. Upon sequence analysis, all of the Italian viruses formed a tight group along with BKV-like sequences previously detected in Thailand and Japan.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2570826','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2570826"><span>Gastroenteritis Outbreak at Holiday Resort, Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prencipe, Vincenza; Ripani, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Cristina; Casaccia, Claudia; Crudeli, Silvia; Ferri, Nicola; Giovannini, Armando; Marconi, Maria Maddalena; Marfoglia, Cristina; Melai, Valeria; Savini, Giovanni; Scortichini, Giampiero; Semprini, Primula; Ruggeri, Franco Maria</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>During the summer of 2003, a gastroenteritis outbreak spread throughout a holiday resort in central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Fecally contaminated groundwater and seawater were leaking into the non–drinking-water system, which was found to be connected to the drinking-water system of a large resort. This contamination had a primary role in the onset of the outbreak and spread of the infection. PMID:18325266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24706467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24706467"><span>Tetanus immunity in construction workers in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rapisarda, V; Bracci, M; Nunnari, G; Ferrante, M; Ledda, C</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Tetanus is a serious vaccine-preventable disease that remains a significant health risk in certain occupations. Since 2006, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> has reported the highest number of cases in Europe. Some professions, such as construction workers, are more exposed to tetanus. To evaluate tetanus immunity status and associated factors in construction workers in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. A cross-sectional study of construction workers attending for periodic occupational health surveillance at one site in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> between September 2011 and January 2013. Serum tetanus antitoxin levels were measured and analysed according to demographic and clinical variables. All 5275 workers attending for health surveillance between September 2011 and January 2013 agreed to participate. Protective tetanus antitoxin levels (>0.1 IU/ml) were found in 4116 workers (78%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the following risk factors were significantly associated with inadequate immunization status: older age (age >58 years, odds ratio [OR] 1.78, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 1.76-1.84), poor education (no formal education: OR 3.74, 95% CI: 3.69-3.78), unskilled work tasks (OR 2.71, 95% CI: 2.67-2.77) and country of origin (Egypt: OR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.67-1.77; Morocco: OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.62-1.76). In this study, a significant proportion of construction workers in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> were not adequately immunized against tetanus, as required by Italian law. Occupational health professionals should promote and implement vaccination campaigns, especially among migrant workers, for public health and legal reasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA950800','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA950800"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Section 23. Weather and Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1953-09-01</p> <p>Tramontana . . . . . .. ...... . 23- 6 (4) Foehn . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. 6 3, Regional discussion of climate ....... . . 23- 6 a. Italian Alps...all of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, the Po Valley a cold front, has the most extreme climate. Winters are cild, (4) Poehn - The foehn is a. downslope wind cloudy, and...in Liguria and northern noon. In the western part of the valley, the foggy Tuscany, The foehn is usually associated with the weather may persist for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511769T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511769T"><span>Population exposed to landslide risk in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Munafò, Michele; Baiocco, Fabio; Marinosci, Ines; Chiocchini, Raffaella; Mugnoli, Stefano</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span> is one of the European countries most affected by landslides counting over 486,000 mass movements with a total area of 20,700 square kilometres equal to 6.9% of the national territory. Moreover <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is a densely urbanized country: 8101 municipalities, about 200 inhabitants per sq. km, 16,000 km of rail network and 180,000 km of road network. Landslides caused more than 5000 fatalities in the last century and considerable damage to urban areas, transport infrastructure and facilities, environmental and cultural heritage. The aim of this work is to estimate the population exposed to landslide risk in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The input data are: the Italian Landslide Inventory, the Italian Population Census data and the high-resolution Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer (Geoland2). The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) realised by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-governing Provinces, identifies landslides occurred in the national territory in accordance with standardized methods and using a detailed landslide mapping (1:10,000 scale). The 14th Population Census, made by ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) in 2001, contains data of resident population for the 382,534 census tracts in which <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is divided. The pan-European high-resolution (HR) Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer, realized using remote sensing data within the GMES initiative (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) by European Commission and European Space Agency, contains the degree of imperviousness (between 0 and 100%). GIS overlay of this information layer (20 x 20 m grid) with census tracts has allowed the spatialization of population within urban settlements of each census tract. This methodology has been particularly useful in the case of rural census tracts characterized by large surface area and low population density. The methodology could be also applied to estimate the population exposed to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/553272','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/553272"><span>[Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844 in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stella, E; Sobrero, L</p> <p>1978-12-01</p> <p>The authors provide here the data concerning the first italian finding of tick Hemaphysalis concinna (Ixodidae). Two males of this species--which has a large geographic diffusion--were actually caught for the first time in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, in July 1977. They were found on the ground of the Castel Porziano estate (Rome) at sealevel, in two different grassy places. The authors describe their morphological characters and provide some essential data on the environment of Castel Porziano.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11747743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11747743"><span>Malaria in illegal Chinese immigrants, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matteelli, A; Volonterio, A; Gulletta, M; Galimberti, L; Maroccolo, S; Gaiera, G; Giani, G; Rossi, M; Dorigoni, N; Bellina, L; Orlando, G; Bisoffi, Z; Castelli, F</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A cluster of 22 imported malaria cases, 21 caused by Plasmodium falciparum, was observed among illegal Chinese immigrants in northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> in the summer of 2000. The rate of severe disease was high because the patients were not immune and they sought health-care services late in their illness because of their clandestine status. Recognition of the outbreak was delayed because no regional alert system among infectious diseases hospitals was in place.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19892147','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19892147"><span>Chapter 44: history of neurology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). <span class="hlt">Italy</span> became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12264439','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12264439"><span>[A note on induced abortion in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cagiano De Azevedo, R</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The adoption of a recent law on abortion (1978) makes available in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> new statistics at both the national and regional levels. Following the official source of ISTAT, the abortion rate/100 livebirths in 1979 was about 28%, about 40% in the northern part of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, and only 16% in Mezzogiorno. This abortion rate, as an average data at the national level, corresponds to a normal position among similar rates in western countries; closer to EEC member states. But the regional variability seems a very interesting new aspect of the Italian tryptic (north, center, south) largely presented in many demographic indicators. 3 factors are presented as a possible explication of this variability: a real different attitude of women and couples towards abortion from cultural, religious, and political points of view; the coexistence of legal and illegal abortion despite the adoption of a new liberal law; and the very important disequilibrium in the distribution of structures and medical services available to assure abortions in different parts of the country. Some other demographic points related to abortion are also presented here, particularly in connection with age structure of women and their marital status. Future trends in abortion with subsequent effects on fertility are also discussed at the end of this article. The arguments follow 2 alternatives presented in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> by the National Committee on Population and the Committee of Demographic Studies. (author's modified)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ESRv...88...89G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ESRv...88...89G"><span>Twenty years of paleoseismology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galli, Paolo; Galadini, Fabrizio; Pantosti, Daniela</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span> has one of the most complete and historically extensive seismic catalogues in the World due to a unique and uninterrupted flow of written sources that have narrated its seismic history since about the end of the Iron Age. Seismic hazard studies have therefore always been mainly based upon this huge mass of data. Nevertheless, the Italian catalogue probably "lacks" many M ≥ 6.5 events, the seismogenetic structures responsible for which are characterized by recurrence times that are longer than the time span covered by our historical sources. For these reasons, and as in other countries, earthquake data that in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> have been derived from paleoseismological studies should finally become a necessary ingredient in seismic risk assessment. Indeed, over the past 20 years, some hundred trenches have been excavated, supplying reliable and conclusive data on the recent activities of many faults. Through to many robust datings of surface fault events, these studies have provided the ages of several unknown or poorly known M ≥ 6.5 earthquakes. Here, we summarize the state of the art of paleoseismology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, and present a first catalogue of 56 paleoearthquakes (PCI) that occurred mainly in the past 6 kyr. The PCI integrates the historical/instrumental seismic catalogue, and extends it beyond the recurrence time of the seismogenetic faults (2000 ± 1000 yr). We feel confident that the use of the PCI will enhance future probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, and thus contribute to more reliable seismic risk mitigation programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25017588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25017588"><span>Urolithiasis in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: an epidemiological study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prezioso, Domenico; Illiano, Ester; Piccinocchi, Gaetano; Cricelli, Claudio; Piccinocchi, Roberto; Saita, Alberto; Micheli, Carla; Trinchieri, Alberto</p> <p>2014-06-30</p> <p>Worldwide the urolithiasis is the third most frequent urological disease affecting both males and females. In literature there are not recent Italian epidemiological data about stone disease. The objective of this study is the evaluation of current epidemiology of urolithiasis in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> using the Health Search/CSD Longitudinal Patient Database (HS) database. An observational, descriptive, retrospective trial was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: family physician- assisted Italian living population member of HS database within 31 December 2012, both genders, age over 17 years, at least two years of clinical history recorded from the beginning the trial. Data were collected by HS database and elaborated by its software Millewin®. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span> prevalence of urolithiasis in 2012 was 4.14%, it was higher in males than in females (4.53% versus 3.78%) with a positive relation with increasing age. The highest prevalence rate of urolithiasis was reported in the region Campania (6.08%). The general incidence was 2.23 * 1000, with the highest incidence in the region Sicilia (3.15 * 1000). Incidence was higher in group age 65-74 years (3.18 * 1000). In <span class="hlt">Italy</span> the incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis is increasing with particular distribution in relation to gender, age and regional position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22187914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22187914"><span>[Consistency and dynamics of immigration in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>According to recent data, foreign population currently in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward <span class="hlt">Italy</span> could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. <span class="hlt">Italy</span> could play as one of the safety valves of emigration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3018T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3018T"><span>3D Imaging of Brittle/Ductile transition of the crust beneath the resurgent calderas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tizzani, P.; Castaldo, R.; Pepe, S.; Solaro, G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Rheology is a crucial factor to understand the mechanical behaviour and evolution of the crust in young and tectonically active belts. The aim of this paper is to investigate the rheological properties of the crust beneath resurgent calderas as Long Valley caldera (California USA) and <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> (Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Through the rheological proprieties of the calderas area, we highlight the driving process that determine the cut off of the local seismicity [K. Ito, 1993]. In this context, we consider the thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneity of the crust in order to develop a 3D conductive time dependent thermal model of the upper crust beneath the two calderas. More specifically we integrate geophysical information (gravimetric, seismic and boreholes data) available for the considered area in FEM environment [Manconi A. et al., 2010]. We performed a numerical solution of Fourier equation to carry out an advance optimization of the real measured data. We produce a set of forward models and propose, in order to analyse and solve the statistical problem, the Monte Carlo optimization procedures as Genetic Algorithm [Manconi A. et al., 2009]. In particular we search for the heat production, the volume source distribution and the surface emissivity parameters that providing the best-fit of the geothermal profiles data measured at boreholes, by solving the non stationary heat flow equation (Campanian Ignimbrite eruption about 40 kyr for <span class="hlt">Campi</span> <span class="hlt">Flegrei</span> caldera and Bishop tuff eruption about 700 kyr for Long Valley caldera). The performed thermal fields allow us to obtain the rheological stratification of the crust beneath two resurgent calderas; the models suggest that the uprising of a ductile layer which connects the upper mantle to the volcanic feeding system could determine the stress conditions that controlled the distribution of seismicity. In fact, the computed 3D imaging of Brittle/Ductile transition well agrees with the seismic hypocentral distribution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0623025','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0623025"><span>SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT AND PERFORMANCE IN PROGRAMED LEARNING IN <span class="hlt">ITALY</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>LEARNING, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)), (*SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , LEARNING), ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, REASONING, INTELLIGENCE TESTS, PERSONALITY ...ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTIVATION, FEEDBACK, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, STUDENTS, <span class="hlt">ITALY</span>, UNITED STATES</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED067332.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED067332.pdf"><span>Italian Immigrants and <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: An Introduction to the Multi-Media Package on <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Witzel, Anne</p> <p></p> <p>The largest group of non-English speaking immigrants who come to Canada are Italians, the vast majority of whom are from Southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. This paper furnishes information on their cultural background and lists multi-media resources to introduce teachers to Italian society so that educators may better understand their students. Immigrant children…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813019D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813019D"><span>Gypsum karst in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: a review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Although outcropping only rarely in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26920304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26920304"><span>Radioactivity in honey of the central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span> were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The honeys produced in Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span> were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319524"><span>Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central <span class="hlt">Italy</span> resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22575766','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22575766"><span>Veneto Region, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Health system review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA189672','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA189672"><span>Area Handbook Series: <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, A Country Study,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-09-01</p> <p>Italian alliance system. After the collapse of the Medici seigniory. the allies in the Italian League renewed their incessant fighting, leaving <span class="hlt">Italy</span>...extinction (i’ the Medici f’aily [it 1737T. I i had becomne a tributary of the con~sort of’ thle A uitrini elip r--. 111, D~uchy of’ IlaI now under anl...that have been formed to fight pollution, drugs , or destruction of monu- ments and of cooperatives in villages that had no ,uch problems 14 years</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=SL3-86-272&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=SL3-86-272&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>View of northeastern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> including Venice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A near vertical view of northeastern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> including the Venice (Venezia) area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The mountainous area is the Dolomite Alps. The most conspicuous stream northeast of Venice is the Piave River. The city near the center of the picture on the Brenta River is Bassano del Grappa. The large city of Padua (Padova) is on the western bank of the Grenta near the clock.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909855','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909855"><span>Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mariacher, A.; Millanta, F.; Guidi, G.; Perrucci, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals. PMID:27354971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23932355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23932355"><span>Biophysical science in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: SIBPA turns 40.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giacomazza, Daniela; Musio, Carlo</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This Special Issue of Biophysical Chemistry includes a selection of the papers presented at the XXI Congress of the Italian Society of Pure and Applied Biophysics (i.e., SIBPA, Società Italiana di Biofisica Pura ed Applicata) held on September 2012 at the University of Ferrara, Ferrara, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Topics cover all biophysical disciplines, from molecular to cellular, to integrative biophysics giving an almost comprehensive view of the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches, proper of the modern biophysics. SIBPA, which celebrates its 40th anniversary in 2013, has steadily grown and appeals to both specialists and a wider general audience. © 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14558450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14558450"><span>Conservation genetics of carnivores in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Randi, Ettore</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Pleistocene climatic changes shaped the patterns of biodiversity in Europe and around the Mediterranean. Describing the phylogeographic structure of animal populations and inferring past population dynamics is essential to develop a framework for conservation biology in Europe. Direct persecution, habitat loss, population fragmentation and hybridization with domesticated conspecifics, are the main threats to the survival of large mammalian species. In this paper I will summarize the available information on phylogeography and population genetics of brown bear, wolf, wildcat and otters in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=SL3-86-272&hterms=earth+Resources+Experiments+Package+S190-B&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dearth%2BResources%2BExperiments%2BPackage%2BS190-B','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=SL3-86-272&hterms=earth+Resources+Experiments+Package+S190-B&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dearth%2BResources%2BExperiments%2BPackage%2BS190-B"><span>View of northeastern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> including Venice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A near vertical view of northeastern <span class="hlt">Italy</span> including the Venice (Venezia) area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The mountainous area is the Dolomite Alps. The most conspicuous stream northeast of Venice is the Piave River. The city near the center of the picture on the Brenta River is Bassano del Grappa. The large city of Padua (Padova) is on the western bank of the Grenta near the clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6511373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6511373"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span>: abortion and nationalized health care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mori, M</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>Most of the recent public and scholarly interest in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> concerning bioethical issues has centered on abortion, general reform of the health care system, and deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill. Medical decisions are thought to concern technical rather than moral issues, and are generally left to physicians. Although ethics is a formal part of the medical curriculum only in Catholic universities, physicians have recently shown more of an interest in bioethical issues, as have philosophers. At present, however, the author is aware of only one non-Catholic institution that is devoted to the study of ethical questions in medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2557587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2557587"><span>Influenza vaccination among the elderly in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pregliasco, F.; Sodano, L.; Mensi, C.; Selvaggi, M. T.; Adamo, B.; D'Argenio, P.; Giussani, F.; Simonetti, A.; Carosella, M. R.; Simeone, R.; Dentizi, C.; Montanaro, C.; Ponzio, G.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners. PMID:10083710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734540','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734540"><span>Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>During June 9–September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3558000','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3558000"><span>Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 Outbreak, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garbuglia, Anna R.; Scognamiglio, Paola; Petrosillo, Nicola; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Sordillo, Pasquale; Gentile, Daniele; La Scala, Patrizia; Girardi, Enrico</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>During 2011, 5 persons in the area of Lazio, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> were infected with a monophyletic strain of hepatitis E virus that showed high sequence homology with isolates from swine in China. Detection of this genotype in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> parallels findings in other countries in Europe, signaling the possible spread of strains new to Western countries. PMID:23260079</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2901939','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2901939"><span>Invasive Type e Haemophilus influenzae Disease in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>degli Atti, Marta Luisa Ciofi; Cardines, Rita; Salmaso, Stefania; Renna, Giovanna; Mastrantonio, Paola</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We describe the first reported cases of invasive type e Haemophilus influenzae disease in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. All five cases occurred in adults. The isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and eight other antimicrobial agents. Molecular analysis showed two distinct type e strains circulating in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, both containing a single copy of the capsulation locus. PMID:12604001</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=italian&pg=2&id=EJ1118240','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=italian&pg=2&id=EJ1118240"><span>Large-Scale Assessments and Educational Policies in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Damiani, Valeria</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Despite <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s extensive participation in most large-scale assessments, their actual influence on Italian educational policies is less easy to identify. The present contribution aims at highlighting and explaining reasons for the weak and often inconsistent relationship between international surveys and policy-making processes in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italy&id=EJ1118240','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italy&id=EJ1118240"><span>Large-Scale Assessments and Educational Policies in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Damiani, Valeria</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Despite <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s extensive participation in most large-scale assessments, their actual influence on Italian educational policies is less easy to identify. The present contribution aims at highlighting and explaining reasons for the weak and often inconsistent relationship between international surveys and policy-making processes in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italy&pg=4&id=EJ826122','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Italy&pg=4&id=EJ826122"><span>The US Mission in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s "Partnership for Growth"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and <span class="hlt">Italy</span> in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization+AND+society&pg=5&id=EJ876350','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization+AND+society&pg=5&id=EJ876350"><span>Young People and Alcohol in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: An Evolving Relationship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26812354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26812354"><span>Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, 2015.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-26/pdf/2010-6666.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-26/pdf/2010-6666.pdf"><span>75 FR 14628 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From <span class="hlt">Italy</span>; Determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-26</p> <p>... COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From <span class="hlt">Italy</span>; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty finding on pressure sensitive plastic tape from <span class="hlt">Italy</span> would be likely to lead to continuation... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4128 (March 2010), entitled Pressure Sensitive Plastic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12116733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12116733"><span>Implementation of the medical device directives in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donawa, Maria E</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>Medical device manufacturers marketing their products in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, or planning to do so, need to be aware of any national requirements such as those concerning the registration of manufacturers and devices and language requirements that may apply to their products. This article provides an update on the implementation of the European Directives for medical devices in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1047366.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1047366.pdf"><span>Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kroth, Michael</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=giuseppe+AND+Mazzini&id=EJ375609','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=giuseppe+AND+Mazzini&id=EJ375609"><span>Mazzini and the Radical Movement in Nineteenth-Century <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Noether, Emiliana P.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the origins of radicalism in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, specifically the emergence in 1831 of Giuseppe Mazzini as the advocate of Italian nationalism and radicalism. Examines Mazzini's role in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and among European revolutionaries, concluding that his legacy led to the establishment of the Italian republic in the twentieth century. (GEA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Noether&pg=2&id=EJ375609','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Noether&pg=2&id=EJ375609"><span>Mazzini and the Radical Movement in Nineteenth-Century <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Noether, Emiliana P.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the origins of radicalism in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, specifically the emergence in 1831 of Giuseppe Mazzini as the advocate of Italian nationalism and radicalism. Examines Mazzini's role in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and among European revolutionaries, concluding that his legacy led to the establishment of the Italian republic in the twentieth century. (GEA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture+AND+italians&pg=6&id=EJ876350','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture+AND+italians&pg=6&id=EJ876350"><span>Young People and Alcohol in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: An Evolving Relationship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032274"><span>Time trends in bullying behavior in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vieno, Alessio; Lenzi, Michela; Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Cavallo, Franco; Santinello, Massimo</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Given the severity of outcomes associated with involvement in bullying and the resources spent in an effort to reduce its prevalence, it is important to investigate trends in the bullying's occurrence. The main aim of this study was to identify trends from 2002 to 2010 in prevalence of bullying and victimization among Italian adolescents. The survey reported here is part of the larger population-based cross-sectional (2002, 2006, and 2010) "Health Behaviour in School Aged Children" (HBSC) transnational study. The sample was comprised of 13,174 Italian middle and secondary school students (11- to 15-year-olds; 50.3% girls). Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. Measures included involvement in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim. Trends were determined using Gamma statistics. Consistent and robust decreases in the prevalence of bullying between 2002 and 2010 were detected in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. During this time frame both frequent and occasional bullying and victimization decreased by half. We measured a strong decrease in involvement in bullying behavior in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, in particular after 2006, when the Italian government invested more systematically in the prevention effort on bullying. This is encouraging news for policymakers and practitioners working in the field of bullying prevention. © 2015, American School Health Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH51B1874A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH51B1874A"><span>Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23999330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23999330"><span>Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28661393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28661393"><span>Botulism in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, 1986 to 2015.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Fiore, Alfonsina; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Lista, Florigio; Fillo, Silvia; Mandarino, Giuseppina; De Medici, Dario</p> <p>2017-06-15</p> <p>Botulism is a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease caused by botulinum toxins. Because of its high potential impact on public health, botulism is a closely monitored communicable disease in Europe. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, which has one of the highest incidence rates in Europe (0.03 cases per 100,000 population), botulism is monitored through a case-based passive surveillance system: the front-line physician who diagnoses a suspected case must notify the Local Health Units immediately, and the Ministry of Health's office within 12 hours. From 1986 to 2015, 466 confirmed cases of botulism were recorded in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (of 1,257 suspected cases). Of these, 421 were food-borne (the most frequently seen form of botulism due to the consumption of improperly home-canned foods), 36 were infant botulism, which accounts for ca 50% of all these types of cases registered in Europe, six were wound-related and three were due to adult intestinal colonisation. This scenario suggests that stronger efforts should be made towards raising public awareness of the risk of food-borne botulism, especially with respect to home-preserved foods, as well as improving the training of front-line medical personnel, to ensure that a quick and accurate diagnosis of botulism can be made. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2628502','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2628502"><span>Medical Malpractice: The Experience in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>At the present time, legal actions against physicians in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over €10 billion (~US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, <span class="hlt">Italy</span> has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians’ approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18985423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5479972','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5479972"><span>Botulism in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, 1986 to 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Fiore, Alfonsina; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Lista, Florigio; Fillo, Silvia; Mandarino, Giuseppina; De Medici, Dario</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Botulism is a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease caused by botulinum toxins. Because of its high potential impact on public health, botulism is a closely monitored communicable disease in Europe. In <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, which has one of the highest incidence rates in Europe (0.03 cases per 100,000 population), botulism is monitored through a case-based passive surveillance system: the front-line physician who diagnoses a suspected case must notify the Local Health Units immediately, and the Ministry of Health's office within 12 hours. From 1986 to 2015, 466 confirmed cases of botulism were recorded in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (of 1,257 suspected cases). Of these, 421 were food-borne (the most frequently seen form of botulism due to the consumption of improperly home-canned foods), 36 were infant botulism, which accounts for ca 50% of all these types of cases registered in Europe, six were wound-related and three were due to adult intestinal colonisation. This scenario suggests that stronger efforts should be made towards raising public awareness of the risk of food-borne botulism, especially with respect to home-preserved foods, as well as improving the training of front-line medical personnel, to ensure that a quick and accurate diagnosis of botulism can be made. PMID:28661393</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1052534','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1052534"><span>Mortality from alcohol related disease in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Mezzanotte, G; Cislaghi, C</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Trends in death certification rates from the five major alcohol related causes of death in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> (cancers of the mouth or pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, liver and cirrhosis of the liver) were analysed over a period (1955-79) in which per capita alcohol consumption almost trebled. Age standardised mortality from liver cirrhosis almost doubled in males and increased over 70% in females. In males, mortality from cancers of the upper digestive or respiratory tract showed increases of between 27% and 44%, and liver cancer increased by over 100%. In the late 1970s, the four alcohol related cancer sites accounted for about 12% of all cancer deaths in males and 4.5% in females. Mortality from liver cirrhosis alone accounted for 4.8% of all deaths in males (9.2% of manpower years lost) and 2.3% in females (6.3% manpower years lost) in females. These figures were even higher in selected areas of north eastern <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, where alcohol consumption is greater. In absolute terms, the upward trends observed correspond to about 10,000 excess deaths per year in the late 1970s compared with rates observed two decades earlier and are thus second only to the increase in tobacco related causes of death over the same calendar period. PMID:3772284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss006e33736.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss006e33736.html"><span>Boot of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> taken during Expedition Six</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-02-25</p> <p>ISS006-E-33736 (25 February 2003) --- The boot of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> crosses the image in this southwest-looking view taken by an Expedition Six crewmember onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The spine of <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is highlighted with snow and the largely cloud-covered Mediterranean Sea is at the top. The Adriatic Sea transverses most of the bottom of the image and Sicily appears top left beyond the toe of the boot. The heel lies out of the left side of the image. Corsica and Sardinia appear right of center partly under cloud. The floor of the Po River valley, lower right, is obscured by haze. Experience gained from similar haze events, in which atmospheric pressure, humidity and visibility and atmospheric chemistry were known, suggests that the haze as industrial smog. Industrial haze from the urban region of the central and upper Po valley accumulates to visible concentrations under conditions of high atmospheric pressure and the surrounding mountains prevent easy dispersal. This view illustrates the markedly different color and texture of cloud versus industrial aerosol haze.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2272245','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2272245"><span>Egg-related Salmonella enteritidis, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, 1991</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Binkin, N.; Scuderi, G.; Novaco, F.; Giovanardi, G. L.; Paganelli, G.; Ferrari, G.; Cappelli, O.; Ravaglia, L.; Zilioli, F.; Amadei, V.; Magliani, W.; Viani, I.; Riccò, D.; Borrini, B.; Magri, M.; Alessandrini, A.; Bursi, G.; Barigazzi, G.; Fantasia, M.; Filetici, E.; Salmaso, S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, Salmonella enteritidis has become an increasingly important public health problem in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. In some parts of the country, the fraction of total human salmonella isolates accounted for by S. enteritidis has risen from 3-4% in the mid-1980s to more than 30% in 1990. Between 1990 and 1991, the number of reported S. enteritidis outbreaks increased more than sixfold. The 33 outbreaks reported in 1991 occurred in seven contiguous regions in northern and central <span class="hlt">Italy</span> and were clustered in time between June and October; in the majority, products containing raw or undercooked shell eggs were implicated. Five of the egg-related outbreaks that occurred within a 30 kilometre radius over a 7-week period were investigated in detail. A phage type 1 strain containing a 38·9 MDa plasmid appeared responsible for three of the outbreaks, while in the remaining two a phage type 4 strain, also with a 38·9 MDa plasmid was isolated. Efforts are being made to enhance epidemiological surveillance and laboratory evaluation, and the use of pasteurized eggs has been recommended for high-risk populations. PMID:8472765</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28079352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28079352"><span>The way forward in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> for iodine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olivieri, Antonella; DI Cosmo, Caterina; DE Angelis, Simona; DA Cas, Roberto; Stacchini, Paolo; Pastorelli, Augusto; Vitti, Paolo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span> is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. In 1848 an ad hoc committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, identified extensive areas afflicted by endemic goiter and endemic cretinism in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. Since then many epidemiological studies have been conducted in our country. These showed that iodine deficiency was present not only in mountain areas but also in coastal areas. In 1972 the iodization of salt at 15 mg/kg was allowed by law and iodized salt was distributed on request to selected endemic areas. Five years later the distribution was extended to the whole country. However the sale of iodized salt was not mandatory at that time and only a small fraction of the Italian population started using iodized salt. In 1991 the content of iodine in the salt was raised to 30 mg/kg and in 2005 a nationwide salt iodization program was finally implemented. Some years later a nationwide monitoring program of iodine prophylaxis was also implemented. Since 2005 the sale of iodized salt in Italian supermarkets has increased (34% in 2006, 55% in 2012), although it has been observed that the use of iodized salt is still low in the communal eating areas and in the food industry. These data are coherent with recent epidemiological studies showing that some regions in our country are still characterized by mild iodine deficiency and a high frequency of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. This implies that further efforts should be made to successfully correct iodine deficiency in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12311449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12311449"><span><span class="hlt">Italy</span>: illegal construction hampers basic services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-12-01</p> <p>Rome illustrates the contradictions in the economic development in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The city is located midway between <span class="hlt">Italy</span>'s most developed region and its southern regions, which lag behind the rest of the country in economic development. The population of Rome is now 3 million. It is the largest city and has the largest land area. Rome accounts for only 5.6% of the total urban population of the country due to the distribution of large and medium-sized cities throughout <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. In 1964, a public housing construction plan was drafted to meet the needs of lower income groups. It provided for the development, over 10 years, of about 740,000 units distributed throughout 64 new working districts. At the end of the 10-year period allotted for the program, only 25% of the projects were completed or underway. This was due to the lack of government funds for public housing and the lack of political commitment to allocate what little monies were available. This meant that large numbers of immigrants had no chance to obtain housing unless they moved into the illegal buildings located outside the construction zones circumscribed by the Urban Plan, or moved into zones intended for agricultural use. The sale prices of these zones were much lower than the price of the construction zones stipulated by law. The most dangerous consequence of illegal construction is the lack of services. Roads are unpaved and constitute a major source of dust pollution. Other areas of concern are the lack of a public sewer system, solid waste disposal, and the location of worksites near residential areas. After 1978, Rome experienced a marked decline in its growth rate, from 3.2% per year between 1951-1961 to 2.7% per year between 1971-1979. This trend is no longer due to immigration. It is a result of the displacement of people from the inner city. At this time an effort is being made to accommodate the rapid growth of the past while working to improve the quality of life for all residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16021769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16021769"><span>Women and botany in Risorgimento <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Logan, Gabriella Berti</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6367529','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6367529"><span>Floating production systems planned for <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>EMH has signed a contract to design, fabricate and install a permanent deepwater, gravity-based single-point mooring (SPM) system and floating oil storage facility in Societa Energio Montedison's (SEM) Vega field off <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. The design of the system is described. The system is designed to accomodate production rates of 75,000 bpd. The oil will be loaded from the storage tanker into shuttle tankers which will take it to area refineries. The shuttle tankers can moor either in tandem or side-by-side for loading. Also described in this paper are three Nigerian offshore fields -- Akam, Adanga and Ebughu -- being developed by Ashland Oil. They will be brought onstream through the use of an integrated floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) system. Production from all three fields will be piped to a central manifold platform to which a tanker will be permanently moored via a soft-yoke mooring system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1859699','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1859699"><span>The antidoping control in horseraces in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cartoni, G. P.; Montanaro, M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The results and the improvement of the analytical procedures adopted for the control of doping in horses will be reported. This control has been systematically carried out in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> for about 10 years in the laboratories of Italian Federation of Sport and Medicine in which the biological samples for the control of doping in various sport activities (football, cycling, athletics etc.) are also examined. In this way it is possible to use the same instruments for all these similar problems and compare the results. The analytical procedure is based on the following steps: 1) Extraction of the samples (mainly urine but sometimes blood or saliva). 2) Screening tests by thin-layer chromatography. 3) Confirmatory tests by gas chromatography on different columns and also by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. These single steps will be separately discussed, and practical problems encountered will be presented. PMID:1000164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023117','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023117"><span>[Murder. <span class="hlt">Italy</span>-USA comparative profiles].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710875T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710875T"><span>GPR Activities in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>: a Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7572241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7572241"><span>Patients dropping out of treatment in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morlino, M; Martucci, G; Musella, V; Bolzan, M; de Girolamo, G</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to explore the extent and the specific features of drop-out for patients having a first contact with an university psychiatric outpatient clinic in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> over the course of 1 year and to determine which variables were associated with early termination of treatment. Of the 158 patients selected for this study, there was an overall 3-month drop-out rate following the first visit of 63%. Of the 59 patients who had returned once after the initial contact, 28 interrupted subsequently the treatment, although the therapist's plan included further visits. The overall drop-out rate at 3 months was thus 82%. The only 2 variables associated with drop-out rates were the patients' perception of the severity of their disorder and the psychiatric history: continuing patients were more frequently in agreement with the clinician's judgment as compared with those who dropped out and were more likely to have already been in psychiatric treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..5402001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..5402001A"><span>Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in <span class="hlt">Italy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Italy</span> is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14506819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14506819"><span>The historiography of psychology in <span class="hlt">Italy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cimino, Guido; Dazzi, Nino</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>The article outlines the studies conducted in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> on the history of psychology since the 1970s, with particular attention to those elaborated in the 1990s. Reference is made to the institutions, authors, congresses, and other initiatives that in the course of 3 decades have promoted the growth of the history of psychology, and a review is presented of the principal research themes undertaken by scholars. An attempt has been made to identify the principal historiographic tendencies and to illustrate the passage from a sort of "positivistic" historiography to an orientation that could be considered multifactorial or one of complexity, attentive to both the internal and the external components of the scientific enterprise, although with a propensity for the history of ideas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23355251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23355251"><span>Workplace drug testing in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> - critical considerations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Collo, Giancarlo; Groppi, Angelo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Workplace drug testing (WDT) was established in <span class="hlt">Italy</span> on 30 October 2007. Two tiers of survey are required: the first tier concerns drug testing on urine samples, the second involves both urine and hair analysis. Between July 2008 and December 2011, 10 598 workers' urine samples and 72 hair samples for opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methylenedioxyamphetamines, methadone, and buprenorphine were tested in our laboratory. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); hair analysis and confirmation tests in urine were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Employees tested positive in urine for drugs of abuse numbered 2.8% in 2008, 2.03% in 2009, 1.62% in 2010, and 1.43% in 2011. As regards the second level of analysis, we observed that only one-third of the workers who had been tested positive for drugs of abuse were referred to an Addiction Treatment Unit in order to verify drug addiction. Our experience shows that, four years after approval of the law on WDT, the percentage of workers positive for drugs of abuse in urine has reduced in comparison to the first year. Moreover, our data show that most of the times employees who tested positive are tardily referred or not referred at all to a Public Addiction Treatment Unit to verify drug addiction. This makes us believe that the legal provisions are widely disregarded not paying the right tribute to the fact that <span class="hlt">Italy</span> is one of few European countries with legislation on WDT. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S51A4402R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S51A4402R"><span>Monitoring the Pollino Earthquake Swarm (<span class="hlt">Italy</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roessler, D.; Passarelli, L.; Govoni, A.; Rivalta, E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>) representone of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the lastcenturies. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms.The most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity.The range host a number of additional sub-parallel faults.Their rheology is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host largeearthquakes and the level and the style of deformation.Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faultsis therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, <span class="hlt">Italy</span>, have been jointly monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, int