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Sample records for campi flegrei italy

  1. Historical activity at Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dvorak, J.; Gasparini, P.

    1990-01-01

    We cannot forecast whether the activity since 968 will culminate in another eruption or whether Campi Flegrei will remain quiet for several hundred more years. This article summarizes the historical recorded of activity in Campi Flegrei, which, with varying degrees of reliability, spans 2,000 years, and emphasizes that further scientific studies of this caldera will improve our understanding of the behavior of longquiescent volcanic system. 

  2. Controls on Recent Unrest at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J.; Bellucci, F.; Kilburn, C. R.; Rolandi, G.

    2005-05-01

    Campi Flegrei, in Southern Italy, is an active caldera that has shown signs of unrest since 1969. Because the caldera has a population of 400,000 people, it is especially important to understand the mechanisms driving the unrest and their implication for the probability of a future eruption. Since its last ignimbrite eruption 12,000 years ago (which produced the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff), volcanic activity in Campi Flegrei has consisted of numerous eruptions (volumes ~0.1 km3 or less) surrounding the inferred caldera rim. For at least the last 3,700 years, the caldera has been subsiding at mean rates of 14-17 mm per year, punctuated by two known periods of mean uplift (1430-1538 and 1969-Present). The first period produced a net uplift of about 30 m at the port of Pozzuoli and was followed in 1538 by the eruption of Monte Nuovo (20 million m3) some 4 km to the west. The second period has to date consisted of two episodes of uplift (in 1969-72 and 1982-84), each raising Pozzuoli by about 2 m. Studies of the second period have attributed uplift either to magmatic intrusion or to the expansion of water in heated aquifers. These interpretations assumed a stationary reference condition. It is here proposed that the reference condition in fact corresponds to subsidence at about 17 mm per year. Slower subsidence then reflects the difference between background subsidence and actual intrusion of magma. The revised interpretation suggests a two-component source for the recent episodes of uplift: (1) intrusion of two batches of magma of ~0.1 km3 that have produced a permanent uplift of about 2.8 m, and (2) the expansion and later dissipation of heated water, which produced a temporary uplift of about 0.7 m that has since disappeared. The similar volumes of recent intrusions and post-NYT eruptions further suggest that Campi Flegrei is fed by discrete batches of magma. The caldera today may thus be underlain by a collection of modest magma bodies rather than a single, large

  3. Permeability of alkaline magmas: a study from Campi Flegrei, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polacci, M.; Bouvet de Maissoneuve, C.; Giordano, D.; Piochi, M.; Degruyter, W.; Bachmann, O.; Mancini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of permeability is of paramount importance for understanding the evolution of magma degassing during pre-, syn- and post-eruptive volcanic processes. Most permeability estimates existing to date refer to magmas of calc-alkaline compositions. We report here the preliminary results of permeability measurements performed on alkali-trachyte products erupted from the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) and Monte Nuovo (MTN), two explosive eruptions from Campi Flegrei (CF), an active, hazardous caldera west of Naples, Southern Italy. Darcian (viscous) permeability spans a wide range between 10^-11 and 10^-14 m^2. We observe that the most permeable samples are the scoria clasts from the upper units of MTN; pumice samples from the Breccia Museo facies of CI are instead the least permeable. Non-Darcian (inertial) permeability follows the same trend as Darcian permeability. The first implication of this study is that porosity in alkaline as well as calc-alkaline magmas does not exert a first order control on permeability (e.g. the MTN samples are the most permeable but not the most porous). Second, sample geometry exhibits permeability anisotropy (higher permeability in the direction of vesicle elongation), suggesting stronger degassing in the vertical direction in the conduit. In addition, inertial effects are higher across the sample. As inertial effects are potentially generated by tortuosity (or tortuous vesicle paths), tortuosity is likely higher horizontally than vertically in the conduit. Finally, the measured CF permeability values overlap with those of rhyolitic pumice clasts from the Kos Plateau Tuff (Bouvet de Maisonneuve et al., 2009), together with CI one of the major Quaternary explosive eruptions of the Mediterranean region. This indicates that gas flow is strongly controlled by the geometry of the porous media, which is generated by the bubble dynamics during magma ascent. Therefore, permeability will depend on composition through the rheological properties

  4. Tectonic stress and renewed uplift at Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy: New insights from caldera drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Deep drilling is a key tool for the investigation of active volcanoes in the modern Earth Sciences, as this provides the only means to obtain direct information on processes that occur at depth. Data acquired from drilling projects are fundamental to our understanding of volcano dynamics, and for mitigation of the hazards they pose for millions of people who live close to active volcanoes. We present here the first borehole measurement of the stress field in the crust of Campi Flegrei (southern Italy), a large active caldera, and one of the highest risk volcanoes worldwide. Measurements were performed to depths of ∼500 m during a pilot study for the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project. These data indicate an extensional stress field, with a minimum horizontal stress of ca. 75% to 80% of the maximum horizontal stress, which is approximately equal to the vertical stress. The deviation from lithostatic conditions is consistent with a progressive increase in applied horizontal stress during episodes of unrest, since at least 1969. As the stress field is evolving with time, the outcome of renewed unrest cannot be assessed by analogy with previous episodes. Interpretations of future unrest must therefore accommodate the possibility that Campi Flegrei is approaching conditions that are more favourable to a volcanic eruption than has previously been the case. Such long-term accumulation of stress is not expected to be unique to Campi Flegrei, and so might provide a basis for improved forecasts of eruptions at large calderas elsewhere.

  5. Quantifying volcanic hazard at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) with uncertainty assessment: 1. Vent opening maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Andrea; Isaia, Roberto; Neri, Augusto; Vitale, Stefano; Aspinall, Willy P.; Bisson, Marina; Flandoli, Franco; Baxter, Peter J.; Bertagnini, Antonella; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Iannuzzi, Enrico; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    Campi Flegrei is an active volcanic area situated in the Campanian Plain (Italy) and dominated by a resurgent caldera. The great majority of past eruptions have been explosive, variable in magnitude, intensity, and in their vent locations. In this hazard assessment study we present a probabilistic analysis using a variety of volcanological data sets to map the background spatial probability of vent opening conditional on the occurrence of an event in the foreseeable future. The analysis focuses on the reconstruction of the location of past eruptive vents in the last 15 ka, including the distribution of faults and surface fractures as being representative of areas of crustal weakness. One of our key objectives was to incorporate some of the main sources of epistemic uncertainty about the volcanic system through a structured expert elicitation, thereby quantifying uncertainties for certain important model parameters and allowing outcomes from different expert weighting models to be evaluated. Results indicate that past vent locations are the most informative factors governing the probabilities of vent opening, followed by the locations of faults and then fractures. Our vent opening probability maps highlight the presence of a sizeable region in the central eastern part of the caldera where the likelihood of new vent opening per kilometer squared is about 6 times higher than the baseline value for the whole caldera. While these probability values have substantial uncertainties associated with them, our findings provide a rational basis for hazard mapping of the next eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera.

  6. Temporal models for the episodic volcanism of Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) with uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Andrea; Flandoli, Franco; Neri, Augusto; Isaia, Roberto; Vitale, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    After the large-scale event of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff ( 15 ka B.P.), intense and mostly explosive volcanism has occurred within and along the boundaries of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). Eruptions occurred closely spaced in time, over periods from a few centuries to a few millennia, and were alternated with periods of quiescence lasting up to several millennia. Often events also occurred closely in space, thus generating a cluster of events. This study had two main objectives: (1) to describe the uncertainty in the geologic record by using a quantitative model and (2) to develop, based on the uncertainty assessment, a long-term subdomain specific temporal probability model that describes the temporal and spatial eruptive behavior of the caldera. In particular, the study adopts a space-time doubly stochastic nonhomogeneous Poisson-type model with a local self-excitation feature able to generate clustering of events which are consistent with the reconstructed record of Campi Flegrei. Results allow the evaluation of similarities and differences between the three epochs of activity as well as to derive eruptive base rate of the caldera and its capacity to generate clusters of events. The temporal probability model is also used to investigate the effect of the most recent eruption of Monte Nuovo (A.D. 1538) in a possible reactivation of the caldera and to estimate the time to the next eruption under different volcanological and modeling assumptions.

  7. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  8. Signature of magmatic processes in strainmeter records at Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagagli, M.; Montagna, C. P.; Papale, P.; Longo, A.

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera, Southern Italy, is characterized by episodes of ground deformation, seismicity, and enhanced fumarolic activity; whether its origin is purely hydrothermal or magmatic is highly debated. We have identified ground deformation patterns in strainmeter records from a heightened unrest period in late 2006, closely resembling synthetic signals from numerical simulations of shallow magma chamber replenishment and mixing. Together with other recent findings, our results depict a situation whereby periodic arrivals of deep magma feed a shallow intrusion at 3-4 km depth. These results suggest that the analysis of strainmeter records, coupled with advanced numerical simulations of magma dynamics, could lead to new approaches in imaging subsurface dynamic processes in volcanic areas.

  9. Automatic procedure for quasi-real time seismic data processing at Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Ciaramella, Angelo; De Lauro, Enza; De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Petrosino, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The accuracy of automatic procedures for detecting seismic events and locating their sources is influenced by several factors such as errors in picking seismic phases often buried in the high-level ambient noise, network geometry and modelling errors. fundamental objective is the improvement of these procedures by developing accurate algorithms for quasi-real time seismic data processing, easily managed in observatory practice. Recently a robust automatic procedure has been implemented for detecting, onset picking and identifying signal phases in continuous seismic signal with an application at the seismicity recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the 2006 ground uplift (Ciaramella et al. 2011). An Independent Component Analysis based approach for the Blind Source Separation of convolutive mixtures (CICA) has been adopted to obtain a clear separation of low-energy Long Period events (LPs) from the high-level ambient noise allowing to compile a complete seismic catalogue and better quantify the seismic energy release. In this work, we apply CICA at the seismic signal continuously recorded during the entire 2006 at Campi Flegrei. First, we have performed tests on synthetic data in order to improve the reliability and the accuracy of the procedure. The performance test using very noisy synthetic data shows that the method works even in case of very poor quality data characterized by very low signal to noise ratio (SNR). Second, we have improved CICA automatic procedure recovering the information on the amplitudes of the extracted independent components. This is crucial for further analysis, starting from a prompt estimate of magnitude/energy of the highlighted events. Data used for the present analysis were collected by four broadband three-component seismic stations (ASB2, AMS2, TAGG, BGNG) belonging to the Campi Flegrei seismic monitoring network, managed by the 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia-Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV-OV)' (see for

  10. Advanced DInSAR analysis at Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Camacho, A. G.; Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic data, the spatial and temporal surface expression of complex geophysical processes in the earth, is being acquired today at unprecedented rates and accuracies. Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) is a satellite remote sensing technique used extensively today for mapping ground deformation with high spatial resolution and sub-centimeter precision over large areas that is particularly useful for volcanic monitoring [Massonnet and Feigl, 1998; Rosen et al., 2000]. Here we apply the advanced Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) InSAR algorithm [Samsonov and d'Oreye, 2012] to several thousand Envisat and RADARSAT-2 images from 1993-2013 and compute time series of ground deformation over the Naples Bay region of Italy. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei are located in this area in close proximity to the densely populated city of Naples and, as a result, it is one of the most hazardous volcanic areas in the world. We obtain time series of ground deformation at high spatial and temporal resolution that span, for the first time, twenty years. Campi Flegrei underwent continuous subsidence through 1999. Uplift began in 2005, reaching approximately 13 cm by 2013. We model the observed deformation to determine source parameters for subsidence and uplift epochs [Samsonov et al., 2014]. In addition, a typical DInSAR image can contain significant signals from with several different, nonvolcanic sources. For example, we clearly observe decade-long elevation-dependent seasonal oscillations of the vertical displacement component at Vesuvius that are substantially larger than the long-term deformation rate (<0.6 cm/yr). As a result, we employ an eigenpattern decomposition technique known as Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) analysis in order to identify the unique, finite set of correlated deformation patterns associated with volcanic sources at different depths [Tiampo et al., 2004; Tiampo et al., 2012]. Both the inflation and deflation mechanisms

  11. A strongly heterogeneous hydrothermal area imaged by surface waves: the case of Solfatara, Campi Flegrei, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Marcello; Festa, Gaetano; Roux, Philippe; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Zollo, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the shallow structure of the Solfatara, a volcano within the Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy, using surface waves as a diagnostic tool. We analysed data collected during the RICEN campaign, where a 3-D active seismic experiment was performed on a dense regular grid of 90 m × 115 m using a Vibroseis as the seismic source. After removal of the source time function, we analysed the surface wave contribution to the Green's function. Here, a 1-D approximation can hold for subgrids of 40 m × 40 m. Moreover, we stacked all of the signals in the subgrid according to source-receiver distance bins, despite the absolute location of the source and the receiver, to reduce the small-scale variability in the data. We then analysed the resulting seismic sections in narrow frequency bands between 7 and 25 Hz. We obtained phase and group velocities from a grid search, and a cost function based on the spatial coherence of both the waveforms and their envelopes. We finally jointly inverted the dispersion curves of the phase and group velocities to retrieve a 1-D S-wave model local to the subgrid. Together, the models provided a 3-D description of the S-wave model in the area. We found that the maximum penetration depth is 15 m. In the first 4 m, we can associate the changes in the S-wave field to the temperature gradient, while at greater depths, the seismic images correlate with the resistivity maps, which indicate the water layer close to the Fangaia area and an abrupt variation moving towards the northeast.

  12. The origin of a zoned ignimbrite: Insights into the Campanian Ignimbrite magma chamber (Campi Flegrei, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, Francesca; Bachmann, Olivier; Mollo, Silvio; De Astis, Gianfilippo; Gelman, Sarah E.; Ellis, Ben S.

    2016-09-01

    Caldera-forming eruptions, during which large volumes of magma are explosively evacuated into the atmosphere from shallow crustal reservoirs, are one of the most hazardous natural events on Earth. The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; Campi Flegrei, Italy) represents a classical example of such events, producing a voluminous pyroclastic sequence of trachytic to phonolitic magma that covered several thousands of squared kilometers in the south-central Italy around 39 ka ago. The CI deposits are known for their remarkable geochemical gradients, attributed to eruption from a vertically zoned magma chamber. We investigate the relationships between such chemical zoning and the crystallinity variations observed within the CI pyroclastic sequence by combining bulk-rock data with detailed analyses of crystals and matrix glass from well-characterized stratigraphic units. Using geothermometers and hygrometers specifically calibrated for alkaline magmas, we reconstruct the reservoir storage conditions, revealing the presence of gradients in temperature and magma water content. In particular, we observe a decrease in crystallinity and temperature and an increase in magma evolution and water content from the bottom to the top of the magma chamber. We interpret these features as the result of protracted fractional crystallization leading to the formation of a cumulate crystal mush at the base of the eruptible reservoir, from which highly evolved, crystal-poor, water-rich and relatively cold melts were separated. The extracted melts, forming a buoyant, easily eruptible cap at the top of the magma chamber, fed the initial phases of the eruption, until caldera collapse and eruption of the deeper more crystalline part of the system. This late-erupted, crystal-rich material represents remobilized portions of the cumulate crystal mush, partly melted following hotter recharge. Our interpretation is supported by: 1) the positive bulk-rock Eu anomalies and the high Ba and Sr contents observed in

  13. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    PubMed Central

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common. PMID:27558276

  14. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.

  15. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption.

    PubMed

    Di Vito, Mauro A; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-08-25

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.

  16. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-08-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.

  17. Geodetic constraints to the source mechanism of the 2011-2013 unrest at Campi Flegrei (Italy) caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Polcari, Marco; Bonafede, Maurizio; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Campi Flegrei (Italy) is a nested caldera and together with Vesuvius is one of the Italian GEO Geohazard Supersites (GSNL). The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard of the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants (1800/km²), the persistent activity of the system and the explosive character of volcanism. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m. Minor uplifts of few centimeters, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000 and 2004-06. Since 2005 Campi Flegrei is uplifting, reaching a ground velocity of 9 cm/yr in 2012, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. In this work, we present results from SAR Interferometry and geodetic data modelling at Campi Flegrei in the framework of the EU's FP7 MED-SUV Project. We exploit two COSMO-SkyMed data sets to map the deformation field during 2011-2013. The spatial distributions of the cumulative displacement from COSMO-SkyMed ascending/descending orbits show similar behaviors, confirming the bell-shaped pattern of the deformation at least within the inner rim of the caldera. The resulting data, together with GPS data from the Neapolitan Volcanoes Continuous GPS network (NeVoCGPS) is fitted through a geophysical inversion process using finite element forward models to account for the 3D heterogeneous medium. The best fit model is a north dipping mixed-mode dislocation source lying at ~5 km depth. The driving mechanism is ascribable to magma input into the source of the large 1982-1984 unrest (since similar source characteristics were inferred) that generates initial inflation followed by additional shear slip accompanying the extension of crack tips. The history and the current state of the system indicate that Campi Flegrei is able to erupt again. Constraining the defomation source may have important implications in terms of civil protection and the

  18. The origin of a zoned ignimbrite: insights into the Campanian Ignimbrite magma chamber (Campi Flegrei, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, Francesca; Bachmann, Olivier; Mollo, Silvio; De Astis, Gianfilippo

    2016-04-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; Campi Flegrei, Italy), dated at 39 ka, is a widespread pyroclastic sequence emplaced during a cataclysmic caldera-forming eruption fed by trachytic to phonolitic magmas. The CI pyroclastic sequence is famous for its remarkable geochemical gradients,attributed to the presence of a vertically zoned magma chamber. Combining bulk-rock data with detailed phenocrysts and matrix glass analyses from well characterized stratigraphic units, we investigate the relatioships between such chemical zoning and the crystallinity variations observed along the CI pyroclastic sequence. Using geothermometers and hygrometers specifically calibrated for alkaline magmas, we reconstruct the reservoir storage conditions, revealing the presence of gradients in temperature and magma water content. In particular, we observe an increase in crystallinity and temperature and a decrease in magma evolution and water content from the bottom to the top of the sequence. We interpret these features as the result of protracted fractional crystallization leading to the formation of a cumulate crystal mush at the base of the eruptible reservoir, from which highly evolved, crystal-poor, water-rich and relatively cold melts were separated. The extracted melts, forming a buoyant, easily eruptible cap at the top of the magma chamber, fed the initial phases of the eruption, until caldera collapse and eruption of the deeper, more crystalline part of the system. This late-erupted, crystal-rich material, represents remobilized portions of the cumulate crystal mush, rejuvenated after mafic recharge. Our interpretation is supported by: 1) the bulk-rock positive Eu anomalies and the high Ba and Sr contents observed in the crystal-rich units, implying feldspar accumulation; 2) the positive Eu anomalies in the matrix glass of the crystal-rich units, testifying to the presence of liquid derived from partial melting of low temperature mineral phases within the crystal mush (feldspars and

  19. P-SV conversions at a shallow boundary beneath Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) - evidence for the magma chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrucci, F.; Hirn, A.; De Natale, G.; Virieux, J.; Mirabile, L. Inst. de Physique du Globe, Paris Osservatorio Vesuviano, Naples CNRS, Inst. de Geodynamique, Valbonne Ist. Universitario Navale, Naples )

    1992-10-01

    Seismograms from an active seismic experiment carried out at Campi Flegrei caldera (near Naples, Italy), show a large-amplitude SV-polarized shear wave, following by less than 1.5-s P waves reflected at wide angle from a deep crustal interface. Early arriving SV-polarized waves, with the same delay to direct P waves, are also observed in seismograms from a regional 280 km-deep, magnitude 5.1 earthquake. Such short delays of S to P waves are consistent with a P-SV conversion on transmission occurring at a shallow boundary beneath the receivers. The large amplitude of the converted-SV phase, along with that the P waves are near vertical, requires a boundary separating a very low rigidity layer from the upper caldera fill. The converted phases are interpreted as a seismic marker of a magma chamber. The top of this magma chamber is located slightly deeper than the deepest earthquakes observed during the 1982-1984 unrest of Campi Flegrei. 8 refs.

  20. Reconstruction of caldera collapse and resurgence processes in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Large collapse calderas are associated with exceptionally explosive volcanic eruptions, which are capable of triggering a global catastrophe second only to that from a giant meteorite impact. Therefore, active calderas have attracted significant attention in both scientific communities and governmental institutions worldwide. One prime example of a large collapse caldera can be found in southern Italy, more precisely in the northern Bay of Naples within the Campi Flegrei Volcanic Area. The Campi Flegrei caldera covers an area of approximately 200 km² defined by a quasi-circular depression, half onland, half offshore. It is still under debate whether the caldera formation was related to only one ignimbritic eruption namely the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruption at 15 ka or if it is a nested-caldera system related to the NYT and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption at 39 ka. During the last 40 years, the Campi Flegrei caldera has experienced episodes of unrest involving significant ground deformation and seismicity, which have nevertheless not yet led to an eruption. Besides these short-term episodes of unrest, long-term ground deformation with rates of several tens of meters within a few thousand years can be observed in the central part of the caldera. The source of both short-term and long-term deformation is still under debate and possibly related to a shallow hydrothermal system and caldera resurgence attributed to a deeper magma chamber, respectively. Understanding the mechanisms for unrest and eruptions is of paramount importance as a future eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera would expose more than 500,000 people to the risk of pyroclastic flows. This study is based on a dense grid (semi-3D) of high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles acquired in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The seismic lines show evidence for the escape of fluids and/or gases along weak zones such as faults, thereby supporting the existence of a hydrothermal

  1. Trace element partitioning between clinopyroxene and trachy-phonolitic melts: A case study from the Campanian Ignimbrite (Campi Flegrei, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, S.; Forni, F.; Bachmann, O.; Blundy, J. D.; De Astis, G.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-05-01

    The partitioning of trace elements between crystals and melts provides an important petrogenetic tool for understanding magmatic processes. We present trace element partition coefficients measured between clinopyroxene phenocrysts and trachy-phonolitic magmas at the Campi Flegrei (Italy), whose late Quaternary volcanism has been characterized by two major caldera-forming events (Campanian Ignimbrite at ~ 39 ka, and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff at ~ 15 ka). Our data indicate that the increase of trivalent rare earth elements and yttrium into the crystal lattice M2 site is facilitated by the charge-balancing substitution of Si4 + with Al3 + on the tetrahedral site. Higher concentrations of tetravalent and pentavalent high field strength elements on the M1 site are also measured when the average charge on this site is increased by the substitution of divalent cations by Alvi. In contrast, due to these charge balance requirements, divalent transitional elements become less compatible within the crystal lattice. On the basis of the lattice strain theory, we document that the incorporation of rare earth elements and yttrium in clinopyroxene is influenced by both compositional and physical parameters. Data from this study allow to update existing partitioning equations for rare earth elements in order to construct a self-consistent model for trachy-phonolitic magmas based on the lattice strain theory. The application of this model to natural products from the Campanian Ignimbrite, the largest caldera-forming eruption at the Campi Flegrei, reveals that the complex rare earth element pattern recorded by the eruptive products can be successfully described by the stepwise fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene and feldspar where the clinopyroxene-melt partition coefficient changes progressively as a function of the physicochemical conditions of the system.

  2. Suitability of energy cone for probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment: validation tests at Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierz, Pablo; Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Zaccarelli, Lucia; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Sulpizio, Roberto; Marzocchi, Warner

    2016-11-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are gravity-driven hot mixtures of gas and volcanic particles which can propagate at high speed and cover distances up to several tens of kilometers around a given volcano. Therefore, they pose a severe hazard to the surroundings of explosive volcanoes able to produce such phenomena. Despite this threat, probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA) of PDCs is still in an early stage of development. PVHA is rooted in the quantification of the large uncertainties (aleatory and epistemic) which characterize volcanic hazard analyses. This quantification typically requires a big dataset of hazard footprints obtained from numerical simulations of the physical process. For PDCs, numerical models range from very sophisticated (not useful for PVHA because of their very long runtimes) to very simple models (criticized because of their highly simplified physics). We present here a systematic and robust validation testing of a simple PDC model, the energy cone (EC), to unravel whether it can be applied to PVHA of PDCs. Using past PDC deposits at Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei (Italy), we assess the ability of EC to capture the values and variability in some relevant variables for hazard assessment, i.e., area of PDC invasion and maximum runout. In terms of area of invasion, the highest Jaccard coefficients range from 0.33 to 0.86 which indicates an equal or better performance compared to other volcanic mass-flow models. The p values for the observed maximum runouts vary from 0.003 to 0.44. Finally, the frequencies of PDC arrival computed from the EC are similar to those determined from the spatial distribution of past PDC deposits, with high PDC-arrival frequencies over an ˜8-km radius from the crater area at Somma-Vesuvius and around the Astroni crater at Campi Flegrei. The insights derived from our validation tests seem to indicate that the EC is a suitable candidate to compute PVHA of PDCs.

  3. Study of the 2011-2013 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) through InSAR and 3D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Polcari, Marco; Bignami, Christian; Bonafede, Maurizio; Buongiorno, Fabrizia; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Campi Flegrei is a nested caldera in Italy, at the western edge of the Bay of Naples. Together with Vesuvius and Mt Etna, it is one of the Italian GeoHazard Supersites. The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard in the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants (1800/km2), the persistent activity of the system and the explosive character of volcanism. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m (~1 m/yr). Minor uplifts of few cm, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000 and 2004-06. Since 2005 Campi Flegrei is uplifting, reaching a ground velocity of 9 cm/yr in 2012, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. In the present work we consider InSAR time series of the recent activity (2010-2013) detected by COSMO SkyMed satellite. In particular, the time series show a progressive velocity increase of ground deformation during 2012, while it slowed down in 2013 approaching zero. The cumulative displacement from COSMO SkyMed descending orbit (March 2011 - March 2013) show a semicircular pattern centered in Pozzuoli with a maximum LoS (Line of Sight) displacement of 11 cm and maximum velocity 9 cm/yr reached along the coastline. The spatial distribution of the cumulative displacement from COSMO SkyMed ascending orbit show a similar behavior, confirming the bell-shaped pattern of the deformation at least inside the inner rim of the caldera. The cumulative ascending LoS displacement between March 2013 - September 2013 is 1-2 cm, confirming the stall of the unrest after the first few months of 2013 as observed by GPS. Initially, several source geometries are adopted (sphere, spheroid, sill) to model the cumulative deformation between 2011 and 2013. All the sources are located offshore Pozzuoli at a depth of about 2 km. The sphere and spheroid result to dilate at an annual volume variation rate of the order of

  4. Geophysical monitoring of the submerged area of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy): experiences and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; De Martino, Prospero; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Bobbio, Antonella; Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring system of the Campi Flegrei caldera is made up of a dense geophysical network of seismological and geodetic instruments with data acquired and processed at the Monitoring Center of INGV in Naples. As one third of the caldera is covered by the sea, a marine monitoring system has been operating since 2008 in the center of the gulf of Pozzuoli, where the sea depth is about 100 m at ~2.5 km from the coast. The main component of the monitoring system is CUMAS (Cabled Underwater Multidisciplinary Acquisition System), which consists of a sea floor module equipped with geophysical and oceanographic sensors (broad band seismometer, accelerometer, hydrophone, bottom pressure recorder and single point three component water-current meter) and status and control sensors. CUMAS is connected by cable to the top of an elastic beacon buoy equipped with the power supply and data transmission devices. The buoy consists of a float placed below sea level, surrounding and holding a steel pole that supports a turret structure above sea level. The pole, turret and float system are rigidly connected to the ballast on the sea bottom. Thus a GPS installed on the turret can record the vertical sea floor displacement related to the volcanic activity of the area. The GPS has operated since January 2012 with continuous acquisition lasting more than three years and has recorded a cumulative seafloor uplift of about 7-8 cm. The comparison of the pattern of the GPS buoy data with those of the land stations confirms a quasi-symmetrical vertical displacement field of the caldera area. Measurement of vertical sea floor displacement has also been obtained by the analysis of bottom pressure recorder data. These results, in conjunction with the analysis of seismic and hydrophone data, have encouraged us to extend the marine monitoring system with the deployment in the Gulf of Pozzuoli of three new similar systems. We also present preliminary results of the first few months of activity of

  5. A probabilistic spatial-temporal model for vent opening clustering at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, A.; Isaia, R.; Flandoli, F.; Neri, A.; Quaranta, D.

    2014-12-01

    Campi Flegrei (CF) is a densely urbanized caldera with a very high volcanic risk. Its more recent volcanic activity was characterized in the last 15 kyrs by more than 70 explosive events of variable scale and vent location. The sequence of eruptive events at CF is remarkably inhomogeneous, both in space and time. Eruptions concentred over periods from a few centuries to a few millennia, and were alternated by periods of quiescence lasting up to several millennia. As a consequence, activity has been subdivided into three distinct epochs, i.e. Epoch I, 15 - 9.5 kyrs, Epoch II, 8.6 - 8.2 kyrs, and Epoch III, 4.8 - 3.7 kyrs BP [e.g. Orsi et al., 2004; Smith et al., 2011]. The eruptive record also shows the presence of clusters of events in space-time, i.e. the opening of a new vent in a particular location and at a specific time seems to increase the probability of another vent opening in the nearby area and in the next decades-centuries (self-exciting effect). Probabilistic vent opening mapping conditional the occurrence of a new event and able to account for some of the intrinsic uncertainties affecting the system, has been investigated in some recent studies [e.g. Selva et al. 2011, Bevilacqua et al. 2014, in preparation], but a spatial-temporal model of the sequence of volcanic activity remains an open issue. Hence we have developed a time-space mathematical model that takes into account both the self-exciting behaviour of the system and the significant uncertainty affecting the eruptive record. Based on the past eruptive record of the volcano, the model allows to simulate sequences of future events as well as to better understand the spatial and temporal evolution of the system. In addition, based on the assumption that the last eruptive event occurred in 1538 AD (Monte Nuovo eruption) is the first event of a new epoch of activity, the model can estimate the probability of new vent opening at CF in the next decades.

  6. Magmatic Processes in Monogenetic Eruptions, Procida Island, Campi Flegrei, Italy: Geochemical Evidence From Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severs, M. J.; Fedele, L.; Esposito, R.; Bodnar, R.; Petrosino, P.; Lima, A.; de Vivo, B.; Shimizu, N.

    2008-12-01

    Campi Flegrei is an active volcanic complex located in the greater Naples area, which has produced more than 50 eruptions over the past 60,000 years. These have ranged from small eruptions such as Monte Nuovo eruption of 1538 CE to extremely large eruptions such as the Campanian Ignimbrite (150-200 DRE; Barbieri et al., 1978). The volcanic field includes the mainland area located to the west of Naples and also the two islands of Ischia and Procida. The volcanic products range from basalts to shoshonitic phonolites and trachytes, with the more evolved magmas being more abundant. Three eruptive units from Procida Island have been studied to observe geochemical trends over time within a small area and to better understand magmatic processes between monogenetic eruptions. Juvenile samples from Pozzo Vecchio, Breccia Museo, and Solchiara were collected to examine the geochemistry of the mineral phases present and melt inclusions (MIs) found within the phenocrysts. Solchiara contained phenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene, whereas Breccia Museo and Pozzo Vecchio samples contained clinopyroxene and sanidine as the dominant phenocryst phases. Melt inclusions from Solchiara have narrow compositional ranges in major and trace elements (i.e., CaO, TiO2, Zr, Dy, La) over a large range in SiO2 contents (47 to 55 wt%) while MI from the Breccia Museo have a limited range of SiO2 contents (57 to 61 wt%) with a wider range for major and trace elements (i.e., FeO, Al2O3, CaO, La, Th, Rb). Pozzo Vecchio MI from clinopyroxene and sanidine define different chemical compositions, but petrographic evidence does not suggest a xenocrystic origin for either mineral phase. This suggests that Pozzo Vecchio is the result of magma mixing. Modeling of fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, and sanidine are capable of producing most of the trends in major and trace elements between the most primitive samples to the most evolved samples. Volatile concentrations between the

  7. The campi flegrei (Italy) geothermal system: A fluid inclusion study of the mofete and San Vito fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de, Vivo B.; Belkin, H.E.; Barbieri, M.; Chelini, W.; Lattanzi, P.; Lima, A.; Tolomeo, L.

    1989-01-01

    A fluid inclusion study of core from the Mofete 1, Mofete 2, Mofete 5, San Vito 1, and San Vito 3 geothermal wells (Campi Flegrei, Campania, Italy) indicates that the hydrothermal minerals were precipitated from aqueous fluids (??CO2) that were moderately saline (3-4 wt.% NaCl equiv.) to hypersaline (> 26 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and at least in part, boiling. Three types of primary fluid inclusions were found in authigenic K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, and epidote: (A) two-phase [liquid (L) + vapor (V)], liquid-rich inclusions with a range of salinity; (B) two-phase (L + V), vaporrich inclusions with low salinity; and (C) three-phase [L + V + crystals (NaCL)], liquid-rich inclusions with hypersalinity. Results of microthermometric and crushing studies are reported for twenty drill core samples taken from the lower portions of the five vertical wells. Data presented for selected core samples reveal a general decrease in porosity and increase in bulk density with increasing depth and temperature. Hydrothermal minerals commonly fill fractures and pore-spaces and define a zonation pattern, similar in all five wells studied, in response to increasing depth (pressure) and temperature. A greenschist facies assemblage, defined by albite + actinolite, gives way to an amphibolite facies, defined by plagioclase (andesine) + hornblende, in the San Vito 1 well at about 380??C. The fluid inclusion salinity values mimic the saline and hypersaline fluids found by drilling. Fluid inclusion V/L homogenization temperatures increase with depth and generally correspond to the extrapolated down-hole temperatures. However, fluid inclusion data for Mofete 5 and mineral assemblage data for San Vito 3, indicate fossil, higher-temperature regimes. A limited 87Sr/86Sr study of leachate (carbonate) and the leached cores shows that for most samples (except San Vito 3) the carbonate deposition has been from slightly 87Sr-enriched fluids and that Sr isotopic exchange has been incomplete. However, San

  8. Hydrothermal fluid flow models of Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy constrained by InSAR surface deformation time series observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, P.; Lanari, R.; Manzo, M.; Sansosti, E.; Tizzani, P.; Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, located along the Bay of Naples, has a long history of significant vertical deformation, with the most recent large uplift (>1.5m) occurring in 1983-1984. Each episode of uplift has been followed by a period of subsidence that decreases in rate with time and may be punctuated by brief episodes of lesser uplift. The large amplitude of the major uplifts that occur without volcanic activity, and the subsequent subsidence has been argued as evidence for hydrothermal amplification of any magmatic source. The later subsidence and its temporal decay have been argued as due to diffusion of the pressurized caldera fill material into the less porous surrounding country rock. We present satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) time series analysis of ERS and Envisat data from the European Space Agency, based on exploiting the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach [Berardino et al., 2002]; this allows us to generate maps of relative surface deformation though time, beginning in 1992 through 2007, that are relevant to both ascending and descending satellite orbits. The general temporal behavior is one of subsidence punctuated by several lesser uplift episodes. The spatial pattern of deformation can be modeled through simple inflation/deflation sources in an elastic halfspace. Given the evidence to suggest that fluids may play a significant role in the temporal deformation of Campi Flegrei, rather than a purely magmatic or magma chamber-based interpretation, we model the temporal and spatial evolution of surface deformation as a hydrothermal fluid flow process. We use the TOUGH2-BIOT2 set of numerical codes [Preuss et al., 1999; Hsieh, 1996], which couple multi-phase (liquid-gas) and multi-component (H2O-CO2) fluid flow in a porous or fractured media with plane strain deformation and fluid flow in a linearly elastic porous medium. We explore parameters related to the depth and temporal history of fluid injection, fluid

  9. Crystallization and eruption ages of Breccia Museo (Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy) plutonic clasts and their relation to the Campanian ignimbrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Samantha K.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Pappalardo, Lucia; Stockli, Daniel F.; Lovera, Oscar M.

    2014-01-01

    The Campi Flegrei volcanic district (Naples region, Italy) is a 12-km-wide, restless caldera system that has erupted at least six voluminous ignimbrites during the late Pleistocene, including the >300 km3 Campanian ignimbrite (CI) which originated from the largest known volcanic event of the Mediterranean region. The Breccia Museo (BM), a petrologically heterogeneous and stratigraphically complex volcanic deposit extending over 200 km2 in close proximity to Campi Flegrei, has long remained contentious regarding its age and stratigraphic relation to the CI. Here, we present crystallization and eruption ages for BM plutonic ejecta clasts that were determined via uranium decay series and (U-Th)/He dating of zircon, respectively. Despite mineralogical and textural heterogeneity of these syenitic clasts, their U-Th zircon rim crystallization ages are indistinguishable with an average age of 49.7 ± 2.5 ka (2σ errors; mean square of weighted deviates MSWD = 1.2; n = 34). A subset of these crystals was used to obtain disequilibrium-corrected (U-Th)/He zircon ages which average 41.7 ± 1.8 ka (probability of fit P = 0.54; n = 15). This age closely overlaps with published CI 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages (40.6 ± 0.1 ka) after recalibration to recently revised flux monitor ages. Concordant eruption ages for BM and CI agree with previous chemostratigraphic and paleomagnetic correlations, suggesting their origin from the same eruption. However, they are at variance with recalibrated 40Ar/39Ar ages which have BM postdate CI by 3 ± 1 ka. BM syenites show similar geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopical features of pre-caldera rocks erupted between 58 and 46 ka, but are distinctive from subsequent caldera-forming magmas. Energy-constrained assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling of Nd-Sr isotopic data suggests that pre-caldera magmas formed a carapace of BM-type intrusions in a mid-crust magma chamber (≥8 km depth) shielding the younger CI magma from contamination by

  10. Permeability and continuous gradient temperature monitoring of volcanic rocks: new insights from borehole and laboratory analysis at the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Piochi, Monica; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Mormone, Angela; Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Klaus, Mayer; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The pilot borehole recently drilled in the eastern caldera of Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), during the Campi Flegrei Deep Drill Project (CFDDP) (in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) allowed (i) estimating on-field permeability and coring the crustal rocks for laboratory experiments, and (ii) determining thermal gradient measurements down to ca. 500 m of depth. We report here a first comparative in situ and laboratory tests to evaluate the rock permeability in the very high volcanic risk caldera of Campi Flegrei, in which ground deformations likely occur as the persistent disturbance effect of fluid circulation in the shallower geothermal system. A large amount of petro-physical information derives from outcropping welded tuffs, cores and geophysical logs from previous AGIP's drillings, which are located in the central and western part of the caldera. We discuss the expected scale dependency of rock permeability results in relation with well-stratigraphy and core lithology, texture and mineralogy. The new acquired data improve the database related to physical property of Campi Flegrei rocks, allowing a better constrain for the various fluid-dynamical models performed in the tentative to understand (and forecast) the caldera behavior. We also present the first data on thermal gradient continuously measured through 0 - to 475 m of depth by a fiber optic sensor installed in the CFDDP pilot hole. As regards, we show that the obtained values of permeability, compared with those inferred from eastern sector of the caldera, can explain the different distribution of temperature at depth, as well as the variable amount of vapor phase in the shallow geothermal system. The measured temperatures are consistent with the distribution of volcanism in the last 15 ka.

  11. Quantitative models for magma degassing and ground deformation (bradyseism) at Campi Flegrei, Italy: Implications for future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodnar, R.J.; Cannatelli, C.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Belkin, H.E.; Milia, A.

    2007-01-01

    Campi Flegrei (Phlegrean Fields) is an active volcanic center near Naples, Italy. Numerous eruptions have occurred here during the Quaternary, and repeated episodes of slow vertical ground movement (bradyseism) have been documented since Roman times. Here, we present a quantitative model that relates deformation episodes to magma degassing and fracturing at the brittle-ductile transition in a magmatic-hydrothermal enviromnent. The model is consistent with field and laboratory observations and predicts that uplift between 1982 and 1984 was associated with crystallization of ???0.83 km3 of H2O-saturated magma at 6 km depth. During crystallization, ???6.2 ?? 1010 kg of H2O and 7.5 ?? 108 kg of CO2, exsolved from the magma and generated ???7 ?? 1015 J of mechanical (P??V) energy to drive the observed uplift. For comparison, ???1017 J of thermal energy was released during the 18 May 1980 lateral blast at Mount St. Helens. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  12. Inferences on the lithospheric structure of Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) from seismic noise cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.

    2017-04-01

    Lithospheric VS models are defined in the Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) through the non-linear inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves extracted from ambient noise cross-correlations between two receivers, and the regional group and phase velocities of the Italian cellular lithospheric model (1° × 1° cells). Four paths are investigated, of which one (ISCHIA-MIS) across two adjoining cells. The distribution of VS shows a pyroclastic covering with VS increasing from 0.3-0.7 km/s to 2.1 km/s. It rests on a lava or carbonate basement, about 5-6 km thick, with VS increasing from 2.1 km/s to 3.1 km/s at about 2 km of depth and rising to ∼0.6 km towards the island of Procida. A metamorphic layer is detected at an average depth of 7.7 km with VS of 3.8-3.9 km/s, about 5 km thick, overlying a low velocity layer (VS of 3.5 km/s) at about 11-12 km of depth. The VS model along the ISCHIA-MIS path, as average of the models obtained by combining local and regional dispersion data of the two adjoining cells, is well consistent with the other paths. The Moho discontinuity is retrieved at about 23 km of depth with VS of 4.2 km/s.

  13. Pyroclastic density current hazard maps at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy): the effects of event scale, vent location and time forecasts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Andrea; Neri, Augusto; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Isaia, Roberto; Flandoli, Franco; Bisson, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Today hundreds of thousands people live inside the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) and in the adjacent part of the city of Naples making a future eruption of such volcano an event with huge consequences. Very high risks are associated with the occurrence of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Mapping of background or long-term PDC hazard in the area is a great challenge due to the unknown eruption time, scale and vent location of the next event as well as the complex dynamics of the flow over the caldera topography. This is additionally complicated by the remarkable epistemic uncertainty on the eruptive record, affecting the time of past events, the location of vents as well as the PDCs areal extent estimates. First probability maps of PDC invasion were produced combining a vent-opening probability map, statistical estimates concerning the eruptive scales and a Cox-type temporal model including self-excitement effects, based on the eruptive record of the last 15 kyr. Maps were produced by using a Monte Carlo approach and adopting a simplified inundation model based on the "box model" integral approximation tested with 2D transient numerical simulations of flow dynamics. In this presentation we illustrate the independent effects of eruption scale, vent location and time of forecast of the next event. Specific focus was given to the remarkable differences between the eastern and western sectors of the caldera and their effects on the hazard maps. The analysis allowed to identify areas with elevated probabilities of flow invasion as a function of the diverse assumptions made. With the quantification of some sources of uncertainty in relation to the system, we were also able to provide mean and percentile maps of PDC hazard levels.

  14. Degradation Pathways for Geogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Soil Gases from the Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Cabassi, J.; Capecchiacci, F.; Nisi, B., Sr.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gases from the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) was analyzed to investigate the effects of biogeochemical processes occurring within the crater soil on gases discharged from the hydrothermal reservoir and released into the atmosphere through diffuse degassing. In this system, two fumarolic vents (namely Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova) are the preferential pathways for hydrothermal fluid uprising. For our goal, the chemistry of VOCs discharged from these sites were compared to that of soil gases. Our results highlighted that C4-C9 alkanes, alkenes, S-bearing compounds and alkylated aromatics produced at depth were the most prone to degradation processes, such as oxidation-reduction and hydration-dehydration reactions, as well as to microbial activity. Secondary products, which were enriched in sites characterized by low soil gas fluxes, mostly consisted of aldheydes, ketons, esters, ethers, organic acids and, subordinately, alcohols. Benzene, phenol and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) produced at depth were able to transit through the soil almost undisturbed, independently on the emission rate of diffuse degassing. The presence of cyclics was possibly related to an independent low-temperature VOC source, likely within sedimentary formations overlying the hydrothermal reservoir. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were possibly due to air contamination. This study demonstrated the strict control of biogeochemical processes on the behaviour of hydrothermal VOCs that, at least at a local scale, may have a significant impact on air quality. Laboratory experiments conducted at specific chemical-physical conditions and in presence of different microbial populations may provide useful information for the reconstruction of the degradation pathways controlling fate and behaviour of VOCs in the soil.

  15. A three-dimensional QP imaging of the shallowest subsurface of Campi Flegrei offshore caldera, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serlenga, Vincenzo; Lorenzo, Salvatore; Russo, Guido; Amoroso, Ortensia; Garambois, Stephane; Virieux, Jean; Zollo, Aldo

    2016-11-01

    To improve the knowledge of the shallowest subsurface of Campi Flegrei caldera, a 3-D P wave attenuation tomography of the area was performed. We analyzed about 18,000 active seismic traces, which provided a data set of 11,873 Δt* measurements, e.g., the differential travel times to quality factor ratios. These were inverted through an adapted tomographic inversion procedure. The 3-D tomographic images reveal an average QP about 70, interpreted as water-saturated volcanic and marine sediments. An arc-like, low-QP structure at 0.5-1 km depths was interpreted as a densely fractured, fluid-saturated rock volume, well matching the buried rim of Campi Flegrei caldera. The spatial distribution of high- and low-QP bodies in the inner caldera is correlated with low-Vp values and may reflect either the differences in the percentage of fluid saturation of sediments or the presence of vapor state fluids beneath fumarole manifestations.

  16. The Evolution of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy): High- and low-frequency multichannel 2.5D seismic surveying for an amphibian IODP/ICDP drilling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Caldera-forming eruptions are considered as one of the most catastrophic natural events to affect the Earth's surface and human society. The half-submerged Campi Flegrei caldera, located in southern Italy, belongs to the world's most active calderas and, thus, has received particular attention in scientific communities and governmental institutions. Therefore, it has also become subject to a joint approach in the IODP and ICDP programmes. Despite ample research, no scientific consensus regarding the formation history of the Campi Flegrei caldera has been reached yet. So far, it is still under debate whether the Campi Flegrei caldera was formed by only one ignimbritic eruption, namely the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruption at 15 ka or, if it is a nested-caldera system related to the NYT and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption at 39 ka. In the last decades, the Campi Flegrei caldera has been characterized by short-term episodes of unrest involving considerable ground deformation (uplift and subsidence of several meters), seismicity and increased temperature at fumaroles. Furthermore, long-term deformation can be observed in the central part of the caldera with uplift rates of several tens of meters within a few thousand years. Recently, it has been proposed that the long-term deformation may be related to caldera resurgence, while short-term uplift episodes are probably triggered by the injection of magmatic fluids into a shallow hydrothermal system at ~2 km depth. However, both long-term and short term uplift could be interpreted as eruption precursor, thereby posing high-concern for a future eruption, which would expose more than 1.5 million people living in the surroundings of the volcanic district to extreme volcanic risks. During a joint Italian-German research expedition in 2008, a semi-3D grid (100-150 m profile spacing) of high-frequency (up to 1000 Hz) multichannel seismic data were acquired to support both the ongoing onshore ICDP and a proposed

  17. The Averno 2 fissure eruption: a recent small-size explosive event at the Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Arienzo, Ilenia; Braia, Giuseppe; Civetta, Lucia; D'Antonio, Massimo; di Renzo, Valeria; Orsi, Giovanni

    2011-04-01

    The Averno 2 eruption (3,700 ± 50 a B.P.) was an explosive low-magnitude event characterized by magmatic and phreatomagmatic explosions, generating mainly fall and surge beds, respectively. It occurred in the Western sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Campanian Region, South Italy) at the intersection of two active fault systems, oriented NE and NW. The morphologically complex crater area, largely filled by the Averno lake, resulted from vent activation and migration along the NE-trending fault system. The eruption generated a complex sequence of pyroclastic deposits, including pumice fall deposits in the lower portion, and prevailing surge beds in the intermediate-upper portion. The pyroclastic sequence has been studied through stratigraphical, morphostructural and petrological investigations, and subdivided into three members named A through C. Member A was emplaced during the first phase of the eruption mainly by magmatic explosions which generated columns reaching a maximum height of 10 km. During this phase the eruption reached its climax with a mass discharge rate of 3.2 106 kg/s. Intense fracturing and fault activation favored entry of a significant amount of water into the system, which produced explosions driven by variably efficient water-magma interaction. These explosions generated wet to dry surge deposits that emplaced Member B and C, respectively. Isopachs and isopleths maps, as well as areal distribution of ballistic fragments and facies variation of surge deposits allow definition of four vents that opened along a NE oriented, 2 km long fissure. The total volume of magma extruded during the eruption has been estimated at about 0.07 km3 (DRE). The erupted products range in composition from initial, weakly peralkaline alkali-trachyte, to last-emplaced alkali-trachyte. Isotopic data and modeling suggest that mixing occurred during the Averno 2 eruption between a more evolved, less radiogenic stored magma, and a less evolved, more radiogenic magma

  18. The Breccia Museo formation, Campi Flegrei, southern Italy: Geochronology, chemostratigraphy and relationship with the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Lanphere, M.; Melluso, L.; Morra, V.; Perrotta, A.; Ricci, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Breccia Museo is one of the most debated volcanic formations of the Campi Flegrei volcanic district. The deposit, made up of six distinctive stratigraphic units, has been interpreted by some as the proximal facies of the major caldera-forming Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, and by others as the product of several, more recent, independent and localized events. New geochemical and chemostratigraphical data and Ar - Ar age determinations for several units of the Breccia Museo deposits (???39 ka), correlate well with the Campanian Ignimbrite-forming eruption. The chemical zoning of the Breccia Museo deposits is interpreted here to be a consequence of a three-stage event that tapped a vertically zoned trachytic magma chamber. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  19. The Breccia Museo formation, Campi Flegrei, southern Italy: geochronology, chemostratigraphy and relationship with the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Lorenzo; Scarpati, Claudio; Lanphere, Marvin; Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Annamaria; Ricci, Gennaro

    2008-10-01

    The Breccia Museo is one of the most debated volcanic formations of the Campi Flegrei volcanic district. The deposit, made up of six distinctive stratigraphic units, has been interpreted by some as the proximal facies of the major caldera-forming Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, and by others as the product of several, more recent, independent and localized events. New geochemical and chemostratigraphical data and Ar-Ar age determinations for several units of the Breccia Museo deposits (~39 ka), correlate well with the Campanian Ignimbrite-forming eruption. The chemical zoning of the Breccia Museo deposits is interpreted here to be a consequence of a three-stage event that tapped a vertically zoned trachytic magma chamber.

  20. Interaction between hydrothermal and magmatic systems: modelling of magmatic gas release and ascent at Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todesco, Micol; Afanasyev, Andrey; Montagna, Chiara Paola; Longo, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    We model the perturbation of a hydrothermal system caused by the gas release from sub-surface magma chambers. First, we simulate the evolution of the magmatic system composed by two magma reservoirs: a small and shallow chamber, filled with degassed phonolite, connected to a deeper reservoir of gas-rich shoshonite through a vertical dyke. The fluid-dynamics governing the replenishment of the upper chamber is computed with a 2D code solving conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for a homogeneous multicomponent, multiphase Newtonian mixture, accounting for exsolution and dissolution of volatiles (H2O+CO2). We then assume that the volatiles that accumulate at the top of the upper chamber, escape from the reservoir and enter a steady state hydrothermal system. The response of the hydrothermal circulation is simulated with two multi-phase, multi-component porous media codes (MUFITS and TOUGH2) that describe the propagation of magmatic volatiles toward the surface. We create a simple model of Campi Flegrei hydrothermal system covering both shallow and deep regions where the temperature exceeds the critical temperature for water. Simulation results suggest that the rate at which volatiles are released from the magma chamber, the permeability distribution and the conditions of the hydrothermal system when degassing takes place can determine very different evolutions: accordingly, carbon dioxide may reach the surface within a time span ranging from weeks to millennia. The simulations indicate also that a single unrest event, associated with volatiles release from the chamber, can result in a periodic behaviour of observable parameters such as gas flux and fumarole composition. Duration of the period is of the order of 10 years, which is comparable with the time span between major unrest events observed at Campi Flegrei.

  1. Retrieving the Stress Field Within the Campi Flegrei Caldera (Southern Italy) Through an Integrated Geodetical and Seismological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, Luca; Massa, Bruno; Cristiano, Elena; Del Gaudio, Carlo; Giudicepietro, Flora; Ricciardi, Giovanni; Ricco, Ciro

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the Campi Flegrei caldera using a quantitative approach to retrieve the spatial and temporal variations of the stress field. For this aim we applied a joint inversion of geodetic and seismological data to a dataset of 1,100 optical levelling measurements and 222 focal mechanisms, recorded during the bradyseismic crisis of 1982-1984. The inversion of the geodetic dataset alone, shows that the observed ground deformation is compatible with a source consisting of a planar crack, located at the centre of the caldera at a depth of about 2.56 km and a size of about 4 × 4 km. Inversion of focal mechanisms using both analytical and graphical approaches, has shown that the key features of the stress field in the area are: a nearly subvertical σ 1 and a sub-horizontal, roughly NNE-SSW trending σ 3. Unfortunately, the modelling of the stress fields based only upon the retrieved ground deformation source is not able to fully account for the stress pattern delineated by focal mechanism inversion. The introduction of an additional regional background field has been necessary. This field has been determined by minimizing the difference between observed slip vectors for each focal mechanism and the theoretical maximum shear stress deriving from both the volcanic (time-varying) and the regional (constant) field. The latter is responsible for a weak NNE-SSW extension, which is consistent with the field determined for the nearby Mt. Vesuvius volcano. The proposed approach accurately models observations and provides interesting hints to better understand the dynamics of the volcanic unrest and seismogenic processes at Campi Flegrei caldera. This procedure could be applied to other volcanoes experiencing active ground deformation and seismicity.

  2. 4D imaging of the source of ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) during recent unrest episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, L.; Giudicepietro, F.; Martini, M.; Lanari, R.

    2011-12-01

    Campi Flegrei caldera, has been affected in recent decades by three episodes of significant ground uplift. After the last crisis (1982-84), which was accompanied by strong seismicity, the ground has shown a general descending trend, occasionally interrupted by minor uplift episodes, together with low-magnitude volcano-tectonic and long-period seismicity. We assume that the source of minor ground deformations consists in a diffuse volumetric source, related to both thermoelastic and poroelastic strain. This is a reasonable assumption considering that Campi Flegrei are known to host a geothermal reservoir. We have inverted a DInSAR dataset spanning the interval 1995-2008. Results show that the geometry of the source is much more complex than previously recognized and, most important, it shows significant temporal variations, within few months. The deformation source, of the analyzed uplift episodes, starts with a volumetric expansion centered at a depth of about 5 km. The position of this volume is close to the caldera rims. Later the expansion migrates upward, reaching the surface along preferred paths, leading to the Solfatara area, located almost at the center of the caldera. This area is well known for its powerful geothermal emissions. During the upward migration, seismic long-period sources are activated. Their location is consistent with the path identified by the inversion of the DInSAR dataset. We infer, that this dynamics is linked to the injection of hot fluid batches, along the caldera rims and their upward migration, following preferential high permeability paths. Furthermore we have identified an injection episode which has not been previously recognized. The deformation source remains at depth slowly waning in few years. We show how this conceptual framework fits well with the observed geodetic, seismic and geochemical data.

  3. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment related to underwater explosions in the Campi Flegrei caldera: Gulfs of Napoli and Pozzuoli (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvrova, Martina; Selva, Jacopo; Paris, Raphael; Brizuela, Beatriz; Costa, Antonio; Grezio, Anita; Lorito, Stefano; Tonini, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami caused by underwater volcanic explosions are typically characterized by short period waves and greater dispersion compared to tsunami generated by earthquakes, and the impact in the far-field is often limited. However, the effect of dispersion is reduced for underwater explosions occurring in shallow-water environments, as the length-to-depth ratio of the waves rapidly increase, and runup inland can be locally high. This effect was particularly illustrated by the 19 m runup at Karymsky Lake, Kamchatka, in 1996 (Belousov et al., 2010; Ulvrova et al., 2014). Hazards related to underwater volcanic explosions are challenging to evaluate and might be underestimated in some cases. In this study we consider different scenarios of explosions in the offshore part of the Campi Flegrei (Phlegraean Fields) caldera in the Pozzuoli - Naples region (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The onshore eruptive history of the caldera is well documented (e.g. Orsi et al., 2004), but past and future activity offshore has been rarely discussed. The probability for eruptions in the submarine part of the caldera is perhaps low (Selva et al., 2012), but scenarios of tsunamis generated by underwater explosions and their impact in the proximal field (Bay of Pozzuoli) and far field (Bay of Naples) deserve to be considered due to high population density in the adjacent coastal areas. Initial surface displacement is estimated as a function of explosion energy at a given depth. We study 17 different potential vent locations within the Pozzuoli Bay, and 3 different vent radii (200 m, 650 m and 900 m), corresponding to the three representative eruptive scenarios identified in Orsi et al. (2009) and Selva et al. (2010). We then use these sources in a Bayesian Event Tree framework, following the procedure defined in Selva et al. (2010), in order to evaluate a first order Probabilistic Hazard Analysis for this type of tsunami sources for the Gulfs of Napoli and Pozzuoli. Belousov A., Voight B., Belousova M

  4. New Borehole Strain System Detects Uplift at Campi Flegrei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Roberto; Amoruso, Antonella; Crescentini, Luca; Romano, Pierdomenico; De Cesare, Walter; Martini, Marcello; Scarpato, Giovanni; Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn I.

    2007-05-01

    Campi Flegrei and Mount Vesuvius are active Italian volcanoes though presently in a quiescent stage. The last eruption of Mount Vesuvius occurred during the spring of 1944. Campi Flegrei last erupted in 1538 but experienced a subsidence trend from the early 1900s to 1970, which was followed by episodes of ground uplift accompanied by seismic swarms.

  5. Assessment of pre-crisis and syn-crisis seismic hazard at Campi Flegrei and Mt. Vesuvius volcanoes, Campania, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertito, Vincenzo; Zollo, Aldo

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we address the issue of short-term to medium-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for two volcanic areas, Campi Flegrei caldera and Mt. Vesuvius in the Campania region of southern Italy. Two different phases of the volcanic activity are considered. The first, which we term the pre-crisis phase, concerns the present quiescent state of the volcanoes that is characterized by low-to-moderate seismicity. The second phase, syn-crisis, concerns the unrest phase that can potentially lead to eruption. For the Campi Flegrei case study, we analyzed the pattern of seismicity during the 1982-1984 ground uplift episode (bradyseism). For Mt. Vesuvius, two different time-evolutionary models for seismicity were adopted, corresponding to different ways in which the volcano might erupt. We performed a site-specific analysis, linked with the hazard map, to investigate the effects of input parameters, in terms of source geometry, mean activity rate, periods of data collection, and return periods, for the syn-crisis phase. The analysis in the present study of the pre-crisis phase allowed a comparison of the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for the two study areas with those provided in the Italian national hazard map. For the Mt. Vesuvius area in particular, the results show that the hazard can be greater than that reported in the national hazard map when information at a local scale is used. For the syn-crisis phase, the main result is that the data recorded during the early months of the unrest phase are substantially representative of the seismic hazard during the whole duration of the crisis.

  6. 2-D tomography of volcanic CO2 from scanning hard-target differential absorption lidar: the case of Solfatara, Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queißer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-11-01

    Solfatara is part of the active volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy), a densely populated urban area where ground uplift and increasing ground temperature are observed, connected with rising rates of CO2 emission. A major pathway of CO2 release at Campi Flegrei is diffuse soil degassing, and therefore quantifying diffuse CO2 emission rates is of vital interest. Conventional in situ probing of soil gas emissions with accumulation chambers is accurate over a small footprint but requires significant time and effort to cover large areas. An alternative approach is differential absorption lidar, which allows for a fast and spatially integrated measurement. Here, a portable hard-target differential absorption lidar has been used to acquire horizontal 1-D profiles of column-integrated CO2 concentration at the Solfatara crater. To capture heterogenic features in the CO2 distribution, a 2-D tomographic map of the CO2 distribution has been inverted from the 1-D profiles. The scan was performed one-sided, which is unfavorable for the inverse problem. Nonetheless, the result is in agreement with independent measurements and furthermore confirms an area of anomalous CO2 degassing along the eastern edge as well as the center of the Solfatara crater. The method may have important implications for measurements of degassing features that can only be accessed from limited angles, such as airborne sensing of volcanic plumes. CO2 fluxes retrieved from the 2-D map are comparable, but modestly higher than emission rates from previous studies, perhaps reflecting an increase in CO2 flux or a more integrated measurement or both.

  7. History of earthquakes and vertical ground movement in Campi Flegrei caldera, Southern Italy: comparison of precursory events to the A.D. 1538 eruption of Monte Nuovo and of activity since 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dvorak, J.J.; Gasparini, P.

    1991-01-01

    The record of felt earthquakes around Naples Bay in southern Italy is probably complete since the mid-15th century. According to this record, intense earthquake swarms originating beneath Campi Flegrei, an explosive caldera located along the north coast of Naples Bay, have occurred only twice: (1) before the only historical eruption in Campi Flegrei in 1538; and (2) from mid-1983 to December 1984. Earthquake activity during the earlier period, which began at least a few years, and possibly as many as 30 years, before the 1538 eruption, damaged many buildings in the city of Pozzuoli, located near the center of Campi Flegrei. Minor seismic activity, which consisted of only a few felt earthquakes, occurred from 1970 to 1971. The second period of intense earthquake swarms lasted from mid-1983 to 1984, again damaging many buildings in Pozzuoli. Two periods of uplift along the shoreline within Campi Flegrei have also been noted since the mid-15th century: (1) during the few decades before the 1538 eruption; and (2) as two distinct episodes since 1968. Uplift of a few meters probably occurred a few decades before the 1538 eruption; uplift of as much as 3.0 m has occurred in Pozzuoli since 1968. These similarities strongly suggest that, for the first time in 440 years, the same process that caused intense local earthquake swarms and uplift in the early 1500's and led to an eruption in 1538, has again occurred beneath Campi Flegrei. Though no major seismicity or uplift has occurred since December 1984, because of the large amount of extensional strain accumulated during the past two decades, if a third episode of seismicity and rapid uplift occurs, it may lead to an eruption within several months after the resumption of activity. ?? 1991.

  8. Quantifying volcanic hazard at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) with uncertainty assessment: 2. Pyroclastic density current invasion maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Augusto; Bevilacqua, Andrea; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Isaia, Roberto; Aspinall, Willy P.; Bisson, Marina; Flandoli, Franco; Baxter, Peter J.; Bertagnini, Antonella; Iannuzzi, Enrico; Orsucci, Simone; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Campi Flegrei (CF) is an example of an active caldera containing densely populated settlements at very high risk of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). We present here an innovative method for assessing background spatial PDC hazard in a caldera setting with probabilistic invasion maps conditional on the occurrence of an explosive event. The method encompasses the probabilistic assessment of potential vent opening positions, derived in the companion paper, combined with inferences about the spatial density distribution of PDC invasion areas from a simplified flow model, informed by reconstruction of deposits from eruptions in the last 15 ka. The flow model describes the PDC kinematics and accounts for main effects of topography on flow propagation. Structured expert elicitation is used to incorporate certain sources of epistemic uncertainty, and a Monte Carlo approach is adopted to produce a set of probabilistic hazard maps for the whole CF area. Our findings show that, in case of eruption, almost the entire caldera is exposed to invasion with a mean probability of at least 5%, with peaks greater than 50% in some central areas. Some areas outside the caldera are also exposed to this danger, with mean probabilities of invasion of the order of 5-10%. Our analysis suggests that these probability estimates have location-specific uncertainties which can be substantial. The results prove to be robust with respect to alternative elicitation models and allow the influence on hazard mapping of different sources of uncertainty, and of theoretical and numerical assumptions, to be quantified.

  9. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tuff vents in the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy): Toward a new chronostratigraphic reconstruction of the Holocene volcanic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedele, L.; Insinga, D.D.; Calvert, A.T.; Morra, V.; Perrotta, A.; Scarpati, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Campi Flegrei hosts numerous monogenetic vents inferred to be younger than the 15 ka Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. Sanidine crystals from the three young Campi Flegrei vents of Fondi di Baia, Bacoli and Nisida were dated using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. These vents, together with several other young edifices, occur roughly along the inner border of the Campi Flegrei caldera, suggesting that the volcanic conduits are controlled by caldera-bounding faults. Plateau ages of ∼9.6 ka (Fondi di Baia), ∼8.6 ka (Bacoli) and ∼3.9 ka (Nisida) indicate eruptive activity during intervals previously interpreted as quiescent. A critical revision, involving calendar age correction of literature 14C data and available 40Ar/39Ar age data, is presented. A new reference chronostratigraphic framework for Holocene Phlegrean activity, which significantly differs from the previously adopted ones, is proposed. This has important implications for understanding the Campi Flegrei eruptive history and, ultimately, for the evaluation of related volcanic risk and hazard, for which the inferred history of its recent activity is generally taken into account.

  10. The dynamics of the Breccia Museo eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy) and the significance of spatter clasts associated with lithic breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio

    1994-02-01

    The Breccia Museo Member is a pyroclastic deposit produced during an eruptive event that occurred in the southwestern sector of Campi Flegrei about 20,000 years ago. Two depositional units divided by a co-ignimbrite ash-fall deposit have been recognized. Facies variations in the deposits resulted from the interaction between the flow and paleomorphology, from the relative abundance of the lithic and juvenile components supplied by the source, and from the variations of the flow regime. The Lower Depositional Unit is a pyroclastic flow deposit characterized by a thick, coarse valley facies laterally grading into a thin, layered and fine-grained overbank facies. These different facies are due to the interaction between a density-stratified flow and topography. The more basal, high-concentration part of the flow was deposited along the axis of the paleovalleys (valley facies), whereas the upper, low-concentration part was deposited on the slopes (overbank facies). Vertical variations of the structures observed in the deposits of the Lower Depositional Unit resulted from flow unsteadiness during emplacement and, hence, on the variations of the suspended load fallout from the low-concentration upper part of the flow to the high-concentration boundary layer. The Upper Depositional Unit, made up of the Breccia, Spatter and Upper Pumice Flow Units, consists of horizons of lithic breccias and coarse welded spatter which thicken into the valleys. They are closely related to a gas-pipe-rich ash and pumice flow deposit. The strongly fines-poor character of the breccias and spatter beds is due to a very rapid segregation of the dense and coarse clasts and to the high rates of gas ascent through the hindered-settling zone in the basal part of the flow. After deposition of the majority of the dense and coarse material, the subsequent high-density depositional system came to rest immediately, thus yielding a pyroclastic flow deposit that is closely associated with the breccia. The

  11. Comparison between temperatures pattern from thermal IR time series analisys and deformational pattern from InSAR and GPS data at Campi Flegrei caldera (Naples, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansivero, F.; Vilardo, G.; Borgstrom, S.; De Martino, P.; Siniscalchi, V.; Minet, C.; Goel, K.

    2012-04-01

    Long-term thermal infrared volcanological monitoring is carried out at Campi Flegrei caldera (Naples, Italy) by INGV - Osservatorio Vesuviano by acquiring daily infrared images (LWIR) of fumaroles fields since year 2004. The IR monitoring system (TIIMNet -Thermal Infrared Monitoring Network) includes two permanent automatic infrared (IR) stations installed at Solfatara crater and at Pisciarelli area equipped both with a NEC Thermo Tracer TS7302 IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) uncooled microbolometer measuring systems (320x240 pixel). At Solfatara the station is operative since July 2004 and acquires scenes of the SE inner slope of Solfatara where are located the major fumaroles at an average distance of about 300 m from the IR camera. The camera at Pisciarelli is operative since October 2006 and acquires scenes of the outer eastern flank of the Solfatara tuff-cone (average distance of fumaroles is about 130 m), corresponding to an area characterized by heavy water vapor and CO2 emissions. To obtain as much as possible accurate temperature values which can be representative of surface temperatures of fumaroles fields, time series of raw IR scenes has been processed with integrated methodologies. Briefly these methodologies are based on Standard Deviation filtering (as SD represents a quality parameter), background correction of the temperature values and periodicities removal using Matlab tools. The data representation, using an average moving window, show a pattern without evidence of the major seasonal cyclicity, although it still contains minor cyclicity probably due to endogenous factors and, particularly at Pisciarelli, it evidences significant temperature peak values on August 2009 and a gradual increase of temperatures from November 2010 till now. In order to strengthen the significance of data from IR thermal analysis, a comparison with deformational pattern has been carried out using both High-Resolution Spotlight TerraSAR-X data, processed using the

  12. Application of laser scanning and opto-electronic devices for monitoring cliff instability in the Campi Flegrei coastal area: the Coroglio case study ( Napoli, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, R.; Caputo, T.; Esposito, G.; Marino, E.; Matano, F.; Carlino, S.; Iuliano, S.; Sacchi, M.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2013-12-01

    This study introduces a Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) application for the landslides monitoring and its experiment in Gulf of Pozzuoli coastal area (Italy). This area is a part of the Campi Flegrei volcanic district, one of the major volcanic risk zones of the world, with more than 300.000 people and a lot of infrastructures concentrated within it. The cliffs consist of very erodible volcanoclastic lithologies as same as tuffs and ignimbrites, affected by the erosive action of both sea and meteorological agents, very high erosion rate. Furthermore, in this area the bradyseismic phenomenon occurred too, producing differential displacement and fracturing. The Coroglio test site was chosen taking into account cliff's geological and geomorphological properties, as well as aspect, fractures, lithology, and elements at risk located upslope or downslope: The Coroglio site is characterized by lithified upper member of the NYT with stratified, wavy-to-planar alternations of coarse-grained, disorganized, matrix-supported layers, thinly-laminated discontinuous beds and massive, even fine ash layers. The accuracy of the technique used reaches a detailed level in landslide monitoring which allows this methodology to be complementary to the monitoring by setup a geodetic deformation monitoring network. With this aim we have firstly reconstructed a 3D model of the investigated cliff with the use of dedicated softwares and successively analyzed the main lithological, structural and geomorphologic elements related to cliff instability processes. What is possible to confirm after this first study, can be here resumed: (1) These tests were designed to set-up landslide monitoring in highly urbanised areas such as the Campi Flegrei; they are very important sites with a well-established road network, which can be affected by landslide phenomena as occurred in the past causing either traffic interruption and damage to infrastructures insisting along the landslides fronts. (2) In the

  13. The determination of deep temperatures by means of the CO-CO2-H2-H2O geothermometer: an example using fumaroles in the Campi Flegrei, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, D.; Sabroux, J. C.

    1987-02-01

    Chromatographic analyses of fumarolic gases, collected in sampling bottles containing an alkaline solution, have been carried out using a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector, after catalytic conversion of CO and CH4. The latter method enables the concentration of carbon monoxide to be measured with sufficient accuracy for use in a CO-CO2-H2-H2O geothermometer. Application of this geothermometer to fumaroles in the crater of Solfatara in the Campi Flegrei, Italy, indicates that they are fed from a steam reservoir at 250±15 °C and at 10-36±2atm of oxygen. On the other hand, the CH4-CO2-H2-H2O geothermobarometer seems to re-equilibrate at superficial temperatures and cannot be used for infering thermodynamic conditions at depth. Regular sampling of these fumaroles together with a geothermometric interpretation of the gas analyses provides a means of monitoring, with comparative accuracy, the chemical and thermal evolution of the hydrothermal reservoir below the Solfatara crater. Such monitoring would probably detect an increase in temperature at depth and the injection of magmatic gas into the reservoir.

  14. Long-term TIR imagery processing for spatiotemporal monitoring of surface thermal features in volcanic environment: A case study in the Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardo, G.; Sansivero, F.; Chiodini, G.

    2015-02-01

    Different procedures were used to analyze a comprehensive time series of nighttime thermal infrared images acquired from October 2006 to June 2013 by a permanent station at Pisciarelli (Campi Flegrei, Italy). The methodologies were aimed at the detection and quantification of possible spatiotemporal changes in the ground-surface thermal features of an area affected by diffuse degassing. Long-term infrared time series images were processed without taking into account atmospheric conditions and emissivity estimations. The data obtained were compared with the trends of independent geophysical and geochemical parameters, which suggested that long-term temporal variations of the surface maximum temperatures were governed by the dynamics of the deeper hydrothermal system. Analogously, the dynamics of the shallow hydrothermal system are likely to control the short-period thermal oscillations that overlie the long-term thermal signals. The map of the yearly rates of temperature change shows temperature increases clustered in the thermal anomalous area of the infrared images, without evidence of modifications to the extension of the anomaly or of growth of new areas with significant thermal emission. This suggests that in the present state, the heat transfer is mainly due to hot gas emission through preexisting fractures and vents. Our data indicate that the comprehensive picture of the spatiotemporal evolution of the thermal features of the hydrothermal sites obtained by long-term infrared monitoring can provide useful information toward refining physical and conceptual models, as well as improving surveillance of active volcanoes.

  15. Influence of volcanic gases on the epidermis of Pinus halepensis Mill. in Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy: A possible tool for detecting volcanism in present and past floras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartiromo, Antonello; Guignard, Gaëtan; Lumaga, Maria Rosaria Barone; Barattolo, Filippo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Avino, Rosario; Guerriero, Giulia; Barale, Georges

    2012-07-01

    Cuticle micromorphology together with epidermal and epistomatal wax, in both current- and first-year-old needles of conifer Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) trees growing under volcanic gas fumigation was analysed in Pisciarelli area, Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy. As a control, current- and first-year-old needles growing far from volcanic gas emission were also sampled. Using a multidisciplinary approach with SEM, TEM and X-ray, volcanic gases were shown to cause degradation on epicuticular and epistomatal waxes. Significant statistical variations of ultrastructural components of the cuticle, with 30 measurements, including total thickness of the cuticle, and details and proportions of all different layers, and use of confidence interval, revealed a high degree of sensitivity of Aleppo pine to this extreme environment. In the present study, non-significant thickness variations of the cell wall plus cuticle among current- and first-year-old needles of both fumigated and non fumigated trees have been found. However, at the ultrastructural level, significant variations in cell wall and total cuticle thickness, especially within the three zones of B1 fibrillar layer, revealed different equilibria for each of the four types of material. Using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, no sulphur was found in either cuticle or epidermal cells, but the presence of H2S in the fumarole gas is suspected to cause indirect and/or direct cuticle alterations of wax structure. Ultrastructural characters of plant cuticles related to emission of volcanic gases during the geological past are also discussed. Among these considerations, an identification key enabling distinction between non fumigated and fumigated materials with 9 characters, provides a good tool detecting the influence of volcanism for extant and fossil plants.

  16. The Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy): Formation and evolution in interplay with sea-level variations since the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption at 39 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco

    2016-11-01

    To date, the origin of the Campi Flegrei caldera is still under debate and may be related to (1) a single caldera collapse associated with the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruption, (2) two subsequent caldera collapses associated with the NYT and the preceding Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruptions forming a nested-caldera complex, or (3) not related to a caldera collapse after all. Here, we study the submerged portion of the caldera, which has favored a marine depositional setting and, thus, represents an ideal location for the reconstruction of its formation history, utilizing multichannel seismic data. Volcanic deposits and edifices were seismically distinguished from sedimentary successions, and the stratigraphy could be refined and extended back to the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption at 39 ka. High-resolution multichannel reflection seismic data revealed the existence of a nested-caldera complex formed during the CI eruption at 39 ka and the more recent NYT eruption at 15 ka. A ring-fault bounding an inner caldera collapse structure was clearly imaged. It appears that this inner ring-fault was initially activated during the CI caldera collapse and later reactivated during the NYT caldera collapse with different amounts of subsidence. The NYT caldera probably formed during an asymmetrical collapse with a maximum subsidence of 75 m in the offshore portion. The vertical displacement related to the CI caldera collapse may be significantly larger. The submerged caldera depression accommodates post-eruption sediments. Within this high-resolution archive, two major unconformities developed at 8.6 ka and 5 ka, when resurgence-related uplift exceeded the rate of sea-level rise concurrent with the emersion of the La Starza terrace. A previously unknown post-collapse submarine volcanic mound located between Nisida Island and Nisida Bank probably formed between 4.8 and 3.7 ka. Also, the Penta Palummo Bank appears to be constructed of at least two monogenetic volcanic edifices

  17. Sustainability assessment of geothermal exploitation by numerical modelling: the example of high temperature Mofete geothermal field at Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The active volcanic area of Campi Flegrei caldera has been the site of many geothermal investigations, since the early XX century. This caldera is characterised by high heat flow, with maximum value > 150 mWm-2, geothermal gradients larger than 200°Ckm-1 and diffuse magmatic gases discharge at the surface. These features encouraged an extensive campaign for geothermal investigation, started in 1939, with many drillings performed at Campanian volcanoes (Campi Flegrei and Ischia) and later at Vesuvius. Several wells aimed to the exploitation of high enthalpy geothermal energy, were drilled in the Campi Flegrei caldera, down to a maximum depth of ~3 km involving mainly two sites (Mofete and S.Vito geothermal fields) located in western and northern sector of caldera respectively. The most interesting site for geothermal exploitation was the Mofete zone, where a number of 4 productive wells were drilled and tested to produce electrical power. Based on data inferred from the productive tests it was established a potential electrical extractable power from Mofete field of at least 10MWe. More recently an empirical evaluation of the whole geothermal potential of the caldera provides a value of more than 1 GWe. The results of AGIP-ENEL exploration at Campi Flegrei highlighted the feasibility of geothermal exploitation. Here, we show for the first time the results of numerical simulations (TOUGH2 code ®) of fluids extraction and reinjection from the Mofete geothermal field, in order to produce at least 5MWe from zero emission power plant (Organic Rankine Cycle type). The simulation is aimed to understand the perturbation of the geothermal reservoir in terms of temperature, pressure change, and possible related seismicity, after different simulated time of exploitation. The modeling is mainly constrained by the data derived from geothermal exploration and productive tests performed since 1979 by AGIP-ENEL Companies. A general assessment of the maximum potential magnitude

  18. Borehole data to model caldera unrest: the example of Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; De Natale, G.; Somma, R.; Troise, C.; Kilburn, C.; Tramelli, A.; Troiano, A.; Di Guiseppe, M.; Piochi, M.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the genesis and the physics governing the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy) a drilling project started on July 2012, in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) schedules two phases: a pilot well, 500 m deep (I phase), and a 3.5 km deeper well (II planned phase), both located within the active resurgent caldera of Campi Flegrei, west to the city of Naples. In this framework new filed data from pilot borehole have been recorded by using a novel procedure of Leak Off Test (LOT). The test has been performed in order to obtain, before the onset of rock failure (which furnishes indication of the minimum principal stress value), a reliable value of in situ permeability. These new data, particularly the actual permeability, are fundamental to calibrate the caldera unrest model at Campi Flegrei and to advance in the quantitative analysis of volcanoes behavior for the assessment of possible future eruptive scenarios. Calderas worldwide are, in fact, characterized by frequent episodes of unrest which, only in few cases, culminate with eruption. This behavior is generally explained in terms of magma intrusion and/or disturbance of geothermal fluids in the shallow crust, which are both source of ground deformations and seismicity. A major goal is, thus, to determine the relative contribution of each process, because the potential for eruptions significantly enhanced if magma movements emerges as the primary component. Here we report the new results of the LOT and its implication in the modeling of Campi Flegrei caldera unrest.

  19. Mineralogical and sulfur isotopic characterization of the sulfur-bearing mineralization from the active degassing area of Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Balassone, Giuseppina; Strauss, Harald; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera is a site of persistent hydrothermal circulation and gaseous emissions inside the Pozzuoli town and nearby the city of Napoli (Italy). The solfataric phenomena are associated with episodes of low-magnitude seismicity and vertical ground displacement since Roman times, evolving to the Monte Nuovo eruption in the 1538 AD. Pronounced geochemical anomalies, uplift rates up to 1 m/y and up to ten thousands microearthquakes per year also characterized the four most recent decades of unrest. The degassing phenomena are concentrated within the Solfatara crater, although, since 2006, the hydrothermal activity strongly increased in the Pisciarelli district, i.e. on the north-east slope of the tuff. We investigated sulfur-bearing mineral precipitates sampled from the active fumaroles both within the Solfatara and along the Pisciarelli slope. Mineral assemblage, texture and chemistry were determined for the efflorescence precipitated nearby the fumaroles and along the mud pool by x-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron microscope and electron diffuse microanalysis. δ34S compositions were also determined on separated sulfur-minerals. The new data have been compared with scattered literature data, including few existing for the previous '70 and '80 unrest episodes. Native sulfur and alunite are the main mineral phases that associate with alunogene, and, locally, pickeringite and potassium alum. Sporadically mereiterite, amarillite, and pyrite have been found as neogenesis mineralization along the outcropping rocks. The mud pool is rich in gypsum, potassium alum and pyrite. δ34S values range from -5.48 to 0.0‰, being slightly lower than previous data. The obtained results suggest that the Pisciarelli area is characterized by magmatic-hydrothermal, magmatic-steam and steam-heated environments, developed on a argillitic hydrothermal facies that thickens in correspondence of the degassing area. These environments develop and continuously evolve in

  20. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    In the communication chain between scientists and decision makers (end users), scientific outputs, as maps, are a fundamental source of information on hazards zoning and the related at risk areas definition. Anyway the relationship between volcanic phenomena, their probability and potential impact can be complex and the geospatial information not easily decoded or understood by not experts even if decision makers. Focusing on volcanic hazard the goal of MED SUV WP6 Task 3 is to improve the communication efficacy of scientific outputs, to contribute in filling the gap between scientists and decision-makers. Campi Flegrei caldera, in Neapolitan area has been chosen as the pilot research area where to apply an evaluation/validation procedure to provide a robust evaluation of the volcanic maps and its validation resulting from end users response. The selected sample involved are decision makers and officials from Campanian Region Civil Protection and municipalities included in Campi Flegrei RED ZONE, the area exposed to risk from to pyroclastic currents hazard. Semi-structured interviews, with a sample of decision makers and civil protection officials have been conducted to acquire both quantitative and qualitative data. The tested maps have been: the official Campi Flegrei Caldera RED ZONE map, three maps produced by overlapping the Red Zone limit on Orthophoto, DTM and Contour map, as well as other maps included a probabilistic one, showing volcanological data used to border the Red Zone. The outcomes' analysis have assessed level of respondents' understanding of content as displayed, and their needs in representing the complex information embedded in volcanic hazard. The final output has been the development of a leaflet as "guidelines" that can support decision makers and officials in understanding volcanic hazard and risk maps, and also in using them as a communication tool in information program for the population at risk. The same evaluation /validation process

  1. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP): New insight on caldera structure, evolution and hazard implications for the Naples area (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Mark, Darren; Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Di Vito, Mauro A.; Isaia, Roberto; Carlino, Stefano; Barra, Diana; Somma, Renato

    2016-12-01

    The 501 m deep hole of the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project, located west of the Naples metropolitan area and inside the Campi Flegrei caldera, gives new insight to reconstruct the volcano-tectonic evolution of this highly populated volcano. It is one of the highest risk volcanic areas in the world, but its tectonic structure, eruptive history, and size of the largest eruptions are intensely debated in the literature. New stratigraphic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating allow us to determine, for the first time, the age of intracaldera deposits belonging to the two highest magnitude caldera-forming eruptions (i.e., Campanian Ignimbrite, CI, 39 ka, and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, NYT, 14.9 ka) and to estimate the amount of collapse. Tuffs from 439 m of depth yield the first 40Ar/39Ar age of ca. 39 ka within the caldera, consistent with the CI. Volcanic rocks from the NYT were, moreover, detected between 250 and 160 m. Our findings highlight: (i) a reduction of the area affected by caldera collapse, which appears to not include the city of Naples; (ii) a small volume of the infilling caldera deposits, particularly for the CI, and (iii) the need for reassessment of the collapse amounts and mechanisms related to larger eruptions. Our results also imply a revaluation of volcanic risk for the eastern caldera area, including the city of Naples. The results of this study point out that large calderas are characterized by complex collapse mechanisms and dynamics, whose understanding needs more robust constraints, which can be obtained from scientific drilling.

  2. Correlation of deposits and vent locations of the proximal Campanian Ignimbrite deposits, Campi Flegrei, Italy, based on natural remanent magnetization and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ort, Michael H.; Rosi, Mauro; Anderson, Charles D.

    1999-08-01

    Correlation of the distal deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite with their proximal equivalents in the Campi Flegrei caldera is complicated by a lack of medial exposures, complex and limited proximal stratigraphic sections, and large lateral facies changes. Paleomagnetic data from 10 sites in and near the Campi Flegrei yield natural remanent magnetizations (NRM) that are statistically indistinguishable from the distal Campanian Ignimbrite. In addition, their virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) yields a possible correlation with Lac du Bouchet, France, secular variation data that indicate an age of approximately 32,850 14C years. The secular variation curve at this age was only briefly at this VGP, and did not return to it for >10,000 years, so the paleomagnetic correlation of proximal and distal deposits is unique and robust. The date is consistent with 14C dates from the Campanian Ignimbrite, but younger than 39Ar/ 40Ar dates for the same rocks. This suggests that a better correction factor for cosmic flux for this time period is needed to calibrate older 14C dates. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data show that the proximal deposits have an oblate (disk-shaped), poorly lineated magnetic fabric. The distal deposits are much better lineated. The difference may be due to chaotic depositional currents in the proximal areas, in which particles were not well aligned. With greater distance of travel, and loss of energy, particles within the flow became aligned and developed stronger AMS lineations. Early eruptions of the Piperno Tuff were from a central vent north of Pozzuoli, whereas later tuffs that underlie the Breccia Museo may have been emplaced by flows associated with ring vents located on the northern and southern caldera margins.

  3. The eruption of the Breccia Museo (Campi Flegrei, Italy): Fractional crystallization processes in a shallow, zoned magma chamber and implications for the eruptive dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; Adabbo, Mariarosaria

    1995-11-01

    The Breccia Museo Member (BMM) was formed by an explosive eruption that occurred in the SW sector of Campi Flegrei about 20 ka ago. The eruptive sequence consists of the Lower Pumice Flow Unit and the overlying Upper Pumice Flow Unit with its associated lithic Breccia Unit. Interlayered with the Breccia Unit is a welded deposit that mainly consists of spatter clasts (Spatter Unit). The products of this eruption range in composition from trachytic to trachyphonolitic with K 2O decreasing from 9.5 to 7 wt.%; Na 2O correspondingly increases from 2.6 to 7.2 wt.% with increasing differentiation (Nb from 23 to 122 ppm). The phenocrysts are mostly sanidine (Or 88-63) with subordinate plagioclase (An 33-27), clinopyroxene (Ca 47Mg 44Fe 9 to Ca 46Mg 35Fe 19), biotite, titanomagnetite, and apatite. The observed major- and trace-element variations are fully consistent with about 80% fractional crystallization of a sanidine-dominated assemblage starting from the least differentiated trachytes. The compositions of the erupted products are compatible with the progressive tapping of a shallow magma chamber that was thermally and chemically zoned. The incompatible trace elements indicate a slightly different magma composition with respect to trachytes of the Campi Flegrei mainland. The geochemical stratigraphy suggests that after an early eruptive phase during which the upper, most differentiated level of the magma chamber was tapped, the sudden collapse of the roof of the reservoir triggered drainage of the remaining magma, which ranged in composition from trachyte to trachyphonolite, and formed the Breccia Unit and the Upper Pumice Flow Unit. The strongly differentiated trachyphonolite composition of the spatter clasts also suggests that they likely originated from the uppermost part of the reservoir soon after the eruption of Lower Pumice Flow Unit and the collapse of the chamber roof. This is in agreement with the eruptive model proposed by Perrotta and Scarpati (1994).

  4. Native sulfur, sulfates and sulfides from the active Campi Flegrei volcano (southern Italy): Genetic environments and degassing dynamics revealed by mineralogy and isotope geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piochi, Monica; Mormone, Angela; Balassone, Giuseppina; Strauss, Harald; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    We investigated sulfur-bearing minerals from the Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy, in relation to the increase of hydrothermal activity phenomena since 2006, aimed at providing insights into the volcanic system dynamics. Mineral encrustations and muds were sampled between 2013 and 2015 at the long-standing degassing crater of the Solfatara tuff cone and its recently restless north-eastern Pisciarelli slope. Deep-seated sulfides were further separated from two drill cores (AGIP's Mofete boreholes: 1500 m and 2695 m depth). The mineral assemblage and texture of sampled encrustations were determined by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis by energy dispersive spectrometry. Native sulfur and alunite dominate among the newly formed mineral phases. Other minerals are mostly alunogen, and locally pickeringite, potassium alum, hematite and pyrite. Mereiterite and amarillite sporadically occur. The mud pools are rich in gypsum, potassium alum and pyrite. Quartz and argillic phases, locally with analcime, are dispersed in the outcropping rocks. δ34S values were determined for shallow subsurface native sulfur (- 5.5 to 0.0‰) and alunite (- 1.7 to - 0.2‰), as well as for the deep-seated pyrite (3.3 to 7.4‰ in the depth range:1500-2695 m). δ18O values were measured for shallow native alunite (4.2 to 7.0‰). Pisciarelli alunite was finally analyzed for its 87Sr/86Sr ratio and 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.707517 ± 6 and 0.512459 ± 6, respectively). Textural and isotopic data constrain the genesis of alunite at the expense of K-feldspars through rock alteration by hydrothermal fluids. We suggest that the caldera is a low-sulfidation system hosting acid-sulfate deposits in its active degassing area. The acid-sulfate environment developed on an argillitic facies that thins outwards and is characteristic for steam-heated and magmatic-steam environments. These environments developed in relation to the fractured settings that

  5. A new method to assess long-term sea-bottom vertical displacement in shallow water using a bottom pressure sensor: Application to Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chierici, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giovanni; Pignagnoli, Luca; Guardato, Sergio; Locritani, Marina; Embriaco, Davide; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Rodgers, Mel; Malservisi, Rocco; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-11-01

    We present a new methodology using bottom pressure recorder (BPR) measurements in conjunction with sea level, water column, and barometric data to assess the long-term vertical seafloor deformation to a few centimeters accuracy in shallow water environments. The method helps to remove the apparent vertical displacement on the order of tens of centimeters caused by the BPR instrumental drift and by seawater density variations. We have applied the method to the data acquired in 2011 by a BPR deployed at 96 m depth in the marine sector of the Campi Flegrei Caldera, during a seafloor uplift episode of a few centimeters amplitude, lasted for several months. The method detected a vertical uplift of the caldera of 2.5 ± 1.3 cm achieving an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the submarine vertical deformation in shallow water. The estimated vertical deformation at the BPR also compares favorably with data acquired by a land-based GPS station located at the same distance from the maximum of the modeled deformation field. While BPR measurements are commonly performed in deep waters, where the oceanic noise is relatively low, and in areas with rapid, large-amplitude vertical ground displacement, the proposed method extends the capability of estimating vertical uplifts from BPR time series to shallow waters and to slow deformation processes.

  6. The Astroni volcano: the only example of closely spaced eruptions in the same vent area during the recent history of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaia, Roberto; D'Antonio, Massimo; Dell'Erba, Francesco; Di Vito, Mauro; Orsi, Giovanni

    2004-05-01

    The Astroni volcano formed during the third and most recent epoch of activity (4.8-3.8 ka) of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc). The activity of the volcano was dominated by explosive, mostly phreatomagmatic eruptions, with only subordinate lava effusions. We have grouped the sequence of deposits into seven distinct units, separated by erosional unconformities or very thin paleosols. The units include mostly surge beds, with subordinate strombolian deposits and lavas, and one plinian fallout layer. The total volume of erupted magma is 0.45 km 3 (DRE), while the total mass is 1.12×10 12 kg. The magma feeding the first five eruptions was alkali-trachytic and slightly zoned, while the last two eruptions tapped a magma batch resulting from mixing of the previously extruded alkali-trachytic and a less evolved trachytic magma. The volcano grew at the northwestern edge of the polygonal volcano-tectonic collapse, northwest-southeast elongated, which accompanied the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.1 ka), the largest of the third epoch. Available radiometric dates and stratigraphical data constrain the age of the volcano in the final part of the 4.1-3.8 ka time span. This implies that the seven eruptions followed each other at very short time intervals. This conclusion is also supported by constancy in archaeological facies of findings within the paleosols between variable Astroni units, in the plain north of the caldera. The sequence of close eruptions in the same area, although with a slight migration of the vent from northwest to southeast, makes the Astroni volcano peculiar in the recent history of the CFc. Therefore, the definition of its history is very important in order to understand one of the past phenomenologies of the caldera, relevant elements to forecast its behavior.

  7. A reappraisal of seismic Q evaluated in Campi Flegrei caldera. Receipt for the application to risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The civil defense of Italy and the European community have planned to reformulate the volcanic risk in several volcanic areas of Italy, among which Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, by taking into account the possible occurrence of damaging pre- or syn-eruptive seismic events. Necessary to achieve this goal is the detailed knowledge of the local attenuation-distance relations. In the present note, we make a survey of the estimates of seismic quality factor (the inverse is proportional to the attenuation coefficient with distance) reported in literature for the area of Campi Flegrei where many, but sometimes contradictory results have been published on this topic. We try to review these results in order to give indications for their correct use when calculating the attenuation laws for this area.

  8. Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where

  9. Volcanic risk perception in the Campi Flegrei area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, T.; Barberi, F.; Davis, M. S.; Isaia, R.; Nave, R.

    2013-03-01

    The Campi Flegrei which includes part of the city of Naples, is an active volcanic system; its last eruption occurred in 1538 AD. More recently two significant crises occurred between 1969 and 72 and 1982-84 and were accompanied by ground movements (bradyseism) and seismic activity, forcing people of the town of Pozzuoli to be evacuated. Since 1984 development of a volcanic emergency plan has been underway. In 2000 Civil Protection published a risk map which defined the Red Zone, an area highly at risk from pyroclastic flows, which would need to be evacuated before an eruption. The first study to evaluate the volcanic risk perceptions of the people living within the Campi Flegrei area was completed in spring 2006, resulting in the largest sample ever studied on this topic except for one on Vesuvio area residents by Barberi et al. (2008). A 46 item questionnaire was distributed to 2000 of the approximately 300,000 residents of the Campi Flegrei Red Zone, which includes three towns and four neighborhoods within the city of Naples. A total of 1161 questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 58%. Surveys were distributed to junior high and high school students, as well as to adult members of the general population. Results indicated that unlike issues such as crime, traffic, trash, and unemployment, volcanic hazards are not spontaneously mentioned as a major problem facing their community. However, when asked specific questions about volcanic risks, respondents believe that an eruption is likely and could have serious consequences for themselves and their communities and they are quite worried about the threat. Considering the events of 1969-72 and 1982-84, it was not surprising that respondents indicated earthquakes and ground deformations as more serious threats than eruptive phenomena. Of significant importance is that only 17% of the sample knows about the existence of the Emergency Plan, announced in 2001, and 65% said that they have not received

  10. Volcanic CO2 flux measurement at Campi Flegrei by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Valenza, M.

    2014-04-01

    Near-infrared room temperature tunable diode lasers (TDL) have recently found increased usage in atmospheric chemistry and air monitoring research, but applications in volcanology are still limited to a few examples. Here, we explored the potential of a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) for measurement of volcanic CO2 mixing ratios, and ultimately for estimating the volcanic CO2 flux. Our field tests were conducted at Campi Flegrei near Pozzuoli, Southern Italy, where the GasFinder was used during three campaigns in October 2012, January 2013 and May 2013 to repeatedly measure the path-integrated mixing ratios of CO2 along cross sections of the atmospheric plumes of two major fumarolic fields (Solfatara and Pisciarelli). By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we resolved, for each of the two fields, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the atmosphere, from the integration of which (and after multiplication by the plumes' transport speeds) the CO2 fluxes were finally obtained. We evaluate a total CO2 output from the Campi Flegrei fumaroles of ˜490 Mg/day, in line with independent estimates based on in situ (Multi-GAS) observations. We conclude that TDL technique may enable CO2 flux quantification at other volcanoes worldwide.

  11. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluid interaction and mineralization in alkali-syenite nodules from the Breccia Museo pyroclastic deposit, Naples, Italy: Chapter 7 in Volcanism in the Campania Plain — Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ignimbrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedele, Luca; Tarzia, Maurizio; Belkin, Harvey E.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The Breccia Museo, a pyroclastic flow that crops out in the Campi Flegrei volcanic complex (Naples, Italy), contains alkali-syenite (trachyte) nodules with enrichment in Cl and incompatible elements (e.g., U, Zr, Th, and rare-earth elements). Zircon was dated at ≈52 ka, by U-Th isotope systematics using a SHRIMP. Scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe analysis of the constituent phases have documented the mineralogical and textural evolution of the nodules of feldspar and mafic accumulations on the magma chamber margins. Detailed electron microprobe data are given for alkali and plagioclase feldspar, salite to ferrosalite clinopyroxene, pargasite, ferrogargasite, magnesio-hastingsite hornblende amphibole, biotite mica, Cl-rich scapolite, and a member (probable davyne-type) of the cancrinite group. Detailed whole rock, major and minor element data are also presented for selected nodules. A wide variety of common and uncommon accessory minerals were identified such as zircon, baddeleyite, zirconolite, pollucite, sodalite, titanite, monazite, cheralite, apatite, titanomagnetite and its alteration products, scheelite, ferberite, uraninite/thorianite, uranpyrochlore, thorite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and galena. Scanning electron microscope analysis of opened fluid inclusions identified halite, sylvite, anhydrite, tungstates, carbonates, silicates, sulfides, and phosphates; most are probably daughter minerals. Microthermometric determinations on secondary fluid inclusions hosted by alkali feldspar define a temperature regime dominated by hypersaline aqueous fluids. Fluid-inclusion temperature data and mineral-pair geothermometers for coexisting feldspars and hornblende and plagioclase were used to construct a pressure-temperature scenario for the development and evolution of the nodules. We have compared the environment of porphyry copper formation and the petrogenetic environment constructed for the studied nodules. The suite of ore minerals observed in

  12. Constraining pre-eruptive magma conditions and unrest timescales during the Monte Nuovo eruption (1538 ad; Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy): integrating textural and CSD results from experimental and natural trachy-phonolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzilli, Fabio; Piochi, Monica; Mormone, Angela; Agostini, Claudia; Carroll, Michael R.

    2016-10-01

    We present crystallization experiments representing a broad range of growth conditions of alkali feldspar and sodalite in a trachy-phonolite magma composition during later stages of evolution. Our results include (i) textural data and mineral assemblages of synthetic samples; (ii) feldspar nucleation kinetics and growth rate estimates; and (iii) textural data, mineral abundances, and crystal size distribution measurements on samples representative of the Monte Nuovo eruption (1538 ad), the last eruption of Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy. Experiments reproduced the texture and feldspar content of natural products indicating that kinetic data can provide insights into processes within the volcanic system shortly before and during this small-magnitude eruption and, particularly, about magma ascent timescale. We suggest that the groundmass crystallization of Monte Nuovo magma started between 4 and 7 km depth (˜100-200 MPa) at a temperature between 825 and 840 °C (close to the liquidus of alkali feldspar). The crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspar and the absence of sodalite in most of the natural samples indicate that magma ascent rate increased in the shallow part of the conduit from about 3 km depth to the quenching level (possibly fragmentation point; ˜30 MPa), during the first phases of the eruption. The crystallization time of the magma requires that it ascended from pre-eruptive storage to the quenching level in several hours to a few days. We also observe that a small decrease in pressure can induce a dramatic increase in crystallinity, with associated rheological changes, leading to changes in the eruption style, and such changes could occur on timescales of hours to several days. The products from the later phases of the Monte Nuovo eruption are more crystalline and contain sodalite in response to the decrease in magma ascent rate, which in turn allowed for more degassing during ascent, resulting in more time spent at very shallow depths.

  13. Timescales of magmatic processes prior to the ˜4.7 ka Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (Campi Flegrei caldera, Southern Italy) based on diffusion chronometry from sanidine phenocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Fedele, Lorenzo; Mazzeo, Fabio Carmine; Arienzo, Ilenia; Cavallo, Andrea; Wörner, Gerhard; Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; D'Antonio, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Barium diffusion chronometry applied to sanidine phenocrysts from the trachytic Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (˜4.7 ka) constrains the time between reactivation and eruption of magma batches in the Campi Flegrei caldera. Backscattered electron imaging and quantitative electron microprobe measurements on 50 sanidine phenocrysts from representative pumice samples document core-to-rim compositional zoning. We focus on compositional breaks near the crystal rims that record magma mixing processes just prior to eruption. Diffusion times were modeled at a magmatic temperature of 930 °C using profiles based on quantitative BaO point analyses, X-ray scans, and grayscale swath profiles, yielding times ≤60 years between mixing and eruption. Such short timescales are consistent with volcanological and geochronological data that indicate that at least six eruptions occurred in the Agnano-San Vito area during few centuries before the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption. Thus, the short diffusion timescales are similar to time intervals between eruptions. Therefore, the rejuvenation time of magma residing in a shallow reservoir after influx of a new magma batch that triggered the eruption, and thus pre-eruption warning times, may be as short as years to a few decades at Campi Flegrei caldera.

  14. 14C age of the "Museum Breccia" (Campi Flegrei) and its relevance for the origin of the Campanian Ignimbrite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lirer, L.; Rolandi, G.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Field stratigraphic investigations and AMS 14C dating of carbon particles in paleosols has resulted in a framework of the sequence and age of the pyroclastic products in the Campi Flegrei area of Southern Italy. The Museum Breccia cannot be the early phase of the Campanian Ignimbrite, as was previously believed, but is from a smaller and later eruption with an age of approximately 17,900 y B.P. This date also precludes its correlation with the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (12,000 y B.P.). ?? 1991.

  15. A detailed study of the site effects in the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei using empirical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramelli, Anna; Galluzzo, Danilo; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Di Vito, Mauro A.

    2010-08-01

    Campi Flegrei is a highly populated active caldera in the south of Italy. Several hundred thousand people live within this area, which is characterized by seismicity and ground deformation episodes, known as `bradyseism'. For this reason, this area falls into a high-risk category and thus the Italian Civil Defence requires a detailed site-effect estimation. To determine the local amplification of the seismic waves for a high number of sites, we have analysed the seismic recordings of three seismic networks that have been deployed in the Campi Flegrei area over different time periods. The first network was deployed during the bradyseismic crisis of 1982-1984. We selected 22 of the highest magnitude earthquakes that were recorded during this crisis. An additional 22 seismic events were selected from those recorded by the mobile seismic network that has been in operation in the Campi Flegrei area since 2006. The third data set comprises noise recorded by 34 seismic stations that were deployed during the active SERAPIS experiment in 2001 September. The generalized inversion technique and the H/V spectral ratio method were applied to the S waves and coda waves of the earthquakes recorded by the first two seismic networks, to determine the site-transfer functions of the recording stations. The seismic noise recorded by the third network was analysed using the Nakamura's technique. The results show that the high topographical and geological heterogeneity of the sites located inside the caldera has an important influence on the seismic-wave amplification. Consequently, the site-transfer functions can be different even at sites close to each other. The transfer functions of the sites located outside the caldera are much more regular, apparently due to the more regular topography and geology.

  16. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project: understanding the structure and mechanisms of large collapse calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    Large calderas are the most dangerous volcanoes on the Earth. They are produced by collapse during explosive super-eruptions, which are capable of triggering global catastrophes comparable to large meteorite impacts. The mechanisms of unrest and eruption at calderas are at a large extent unknown and, as demonstrated by volcanological research in the last decades, they may be very different from those characterizing more commonly studied stratovolcanoes. Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) represents an ideal natural laboratory to fully understand mechanisms of caldera dynamics and to develop techniques for eruption forecast and effective risk mitigation. It is an active volcanic area marked by a quasi-circular caldera depression, formed by huge ignimbritic eruptions. The caldera has recently experienced intense deformation, originating uplift phenomena of more than 3.5 m in 15 years, with maximum rates of 1 m/year in the period 1982-1984, which caused the temporary evacuation of 30,000 people from the centre of Pozzuoli and exposed more than 500,000 to impending eruption risk (several millions in case of an ignimbritic eruption). This area will be the target of a leading International project, the ‘Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project', sponsored by ICDP, aimed to study in detail, by a crustal deviated drilling reaching the depth of about 4 km, the deep structure of the caldera. The role of deep drilling at this area is crucial. It could give a fundamental, precise insight into the substructure, the geometry and character of the geothermal systems and their role in the unrest episodes, as well as to explain magma chemistry and the mechanisms of magma-water interaction. One of the main goal will be giving a precise determination of the magma depth, based on the extrapolation of the geothermal gradient in purely conductive conditions, occurring below the maximum aquifer depth. The choice of Campi Flegrei as a target for the deep study of large calderas is justified by the

  17. First combined flux chamber survey of mercury and CO2 emissions from soil diffuse degassing at Solfatara of Pozzuoli crater, Campi Flegrei (Italy): Mapping and quantification of gas release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Barra, M.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Parello, F.; Sprovieri, M.

    2014-12-01

    There have been limited studies to date targeting gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) flux from soil emission in enriched volcanic substrates and its relation with CO2 release and tectonic structures. In order to evaluate and understand the processes of soil-air exchanges involved at Solfatara of Pozzuoli volcano, the most active zone of Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy), an intensive field measurement survey has been achieved in September 2013 by using high-time resolution techniques. Soil-air exchange fluxes of GEM and CO2 have been measured simultaneously at 116 points, widely distributed within the crater. Quantification of gas flux has been assessed by using field accumulation chamber method in conjunction with a Lumex®-RA 915 + portable mercury vapor analyzer and a LICOR for CO2 determination, respectively. The spatial distribution of GEM and CO2 emissions correlated quite closely with the hydrothermal and geological features of the studied area. The highest GEM fluxes (from 4.04 to 5.9 × 10- 5 g m- 2 d- 1) were encountered close to the southern part of the crater interested by an intense fumarolic activity and along the SE-SW tectonic fracture (1.26 × 10- 6-6.91 × 10- 5 g GEM m- 2 d- 1). Conversely, the lowest values have been detected all along the western rim of the crater, characterized by a weak gas flux and a lush vegetation on a very sealed clay soil, which likely inhibited mercury emission (range: 1.5 × 10- 7-7.18 × 10- 6 g GEM m- 2 d- 1). Results indicate that the GEM exchange between soil and air inside the Solfatara crater is about 2-3 orders of magnitude stronger than that in the background areas (10- 8-10- 7 g m- 2 d- 1). CO2 soil diffuse degassing exhibited an analogous spatial pattern to the GEM fluxes, with emission rates ranging from about 15 to ~ 20,000 g CO2 m- 2 d- 1, from the outermost western zones to the south-eastern sector of the crater. The observed significant correlation between GEM and CO2 suggested that in volcanic system GEM

  18. Volcanic CO2 mapping and flux measurements at Campi Flegrei by Tunable Diode Laser absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedone, Maria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Giudice, Gaetano; Grassa, Fausto; Chiodini, Giovanni; Valenza, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared room-temperature Tunable Diode Lasers (TDL) have recently found increased usage in atmospheric chemistry and air monitoring research, but applications in Volcanology are still limited to a few examples. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) to measurement of volcanic CO2 flux emissions. Our field tests were conducted at Campi Flegrei (near Pozzuoli, Southern Italy), where the GasFinder was used (during three campaigns in October 2012, January 2013 and May 2013) to repeatedly measure the path-integrated concentrations of CO2 along cross-sections of the atmospheric plumes of the two main fumarolic fields in the area (Solfatara and Pisciarelli). By using ad-hoc designed field-set-up and a tomographic post-processing routine, we resolved, for each of the 2 manifestations, the contour maps of CO2 concentrations in their atmospheric plumes, from the integration of which (and after multiplication by the plumes' transport speeds) the CO2 fluxes were finally obtained [1]. The so-calculated fluxes average of 490 tons/day, which agrees well with independent evaluations of Aiuppa et al. (2013) [2] (460 tons/day on average), and support a significant contribution of fumaroles to the total CO2 budget. The cumulative (fumarole [this study] +soil [2]) CO2 output from Campi Flegrei is finally evaluated at 1600 tons/day. The application of lasers to volcanic gas studies is still an emerging (though intriguing) research field, and requires more testing and validation experiments. We conclude that TDL technique may valuably assist CO2 flux quantification at a number of volcanic targets worldwide. [1] Pedone M. et al. (2013) Gold2013:abs:5563, Goldschmidt Conference, session 11a. [2] Aiuppa A. et al. (2013) Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20261. [3] Chiodini G. et al. (2010) Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 115, B03205. doi:10.1029/2008JB006258.

  19. Observatory response to a volcanic crisis: the Campi Flegrei simulation exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, Paolo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In Febraury 2014 a simulation exercise was conducted at Campi Flegrei, Italy, in order to test the scientific response capabilities and the effectiveness of communication with Civil Protection authorities. The simulation was organized in the frame of the EU-VUELCO project, and involved the participation of the Osservatorio Vesuviano of INGV (INGV-OV) corroborated by other INGV scientists involved for their specific competencies; and the Italian Civil Protection, which was supported by an expert team formed by selected experts from the Italian academy and by VUELCO scientists from several EU and Latin American countries. The simulation included a previously appointed group of four volcanologists covering a range of expertise in volcano seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, and with experience both on the Campi Flegrei system and on other volcanic systems and crises in the world. The duty of this 'volcano team' was that of producing consistent sets of signals, that were sent to INGV-OV at the beginning of each simulation phase. In turn, the observatory response was that of i) immediately communicate the relevant observations to the Civil Protection; ii) analyze the synthetic signals and observations and extract a consistent picture and interpretation, including the analysis and quantification of uncertainties; iii) organize all the information produced in a bulletin, that was sent to the Civil Protection at the end of each simulation phase and that contained, according to national established agreements, a) the information available, and b) its interpretation including forecasts on the possible medium-short term evolution. The test included four simulation phases and it was blind, as only the volcano team knew the evolution and the final outcome; the volcano team was located at the INGV buildings in Rome, far from INGV-OV in Naples and the Civil Protection Dept. still in Rome, and with no contacts with any of them for the entire duration of the simulation. In this

  20. Permeability of Campi Flegrei magmas: examples from the Campanian Ignimbrite and Monte Nuovo eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polacci, Margherita; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, Caroline; Giordano, Daniele; Piochi, Monica; Mancini, Lucia; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    We performed permeability measurements on trachy-phonolitic pyroclastic products from the Campanian Ignimbrite and Monte Nuovo, two explosive eruptions from the active Campi Flegrei caldera, Southern Italy. Viscous (Darcian) permeability spans a wide range between 1.22x10-14 and 9.31x10-11 m2. Inertial (non-Darcian) permeability follows the same trend as viscous permeability: it increases as viscous permeability increases, highlighting the strong direct correlation between these two parameters. We observe that vesicularity does not exert a first order control on permeability: the Monte Nuovo scoria clasts are the most permeable samples but not the most vesicular; pumice clasts from the Campanian Ignimbrite proximal facies, whose vesicularity is comparable with that of Monte Nuovo scoriae, are instead the least permeable. In addition, we find that sample geometry exhibits permeability anisotropy as samples oriented parallel to vesicle elongation are more permeable than those oriented perpendicular. We compare our results with permeability values of volcanic products from effusive and explosive activity, and discuss the role of melt viscosity and crystallinity on magma permeability.

  1. Phase relations and volatiles content of the Minopoli2 Campi Flegrei caldera shoshonitic magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiacapra, A.; Rutherford, M.; Civetta, L.

    2009-04-01

    New constraints on pre-eruption conditions of the Minopoli2 shoshonitic magma are provided by experimental studies. The products of this eruption represent the least evolved magma composition erupted in the first epoch of Campi Flegrei caldera activity (10.3-9.5 ka). Recent geochemical investigations (Mangiacapra et al.,2008)* on dissolved volatiles in the Minopoli2 phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions (MIs), revealed a H2O- and CO2-rich shoshonitic magma, stored at two depths (8-9 and 2-3 km) where it experienced both open-system degassing, driven by crystallization, and flushing with a CO2-rich gas phase coming from deeper levels. Phase equilibrium experiments dry and with 3.5wt% H2O have been guided by the dissolved H2O and CO2 in MIs. The phase equilibria of the shoshonite with 3.5 wt% H2O shows that the observed phenocryst assemblage (olivine, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase and biotite) becomes stable at 1020±15 °C over the pressure range of 40 to 150 MPa and to higher pressures. The experimental data indicate that the shoshonite crystallised the phenocryst assemblage (15 vol%) at a depth of circa 9 Km and 1025 °C; only small degrees of additional crystallization occurred as the magma ascended to a depth of circa 3 km with degassing of some MIs. Sulphur speciation in glassy MIs was determined as ≥ 79% sulphate which is equivalent to a log fO2≥ NNO + 1.5. The low end of the fO2 range is interpreted to represent the pre-eruption magma at depth. The solubility of CO2 and H2O as a function of pressure in the Minopoli2 shoshonite have been experimentally calibrated. These results contribute to the understanding of magma chamber processes and conduit dynamics, relevant parameters for hazard assessment. * Mangiacapra A., R. Moretti, M. Rutherford, L. Civetta, G. Orsi and P. Papale (2008) The deep magmatic system of the Camp Flegrei caldera (Italy). Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035550

  2. A temporal record of pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents at Campi Flegrei: Insights from texturally-constrained apatite analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Michael J.; Isaia, Roberto; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Pyle, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Apatite is capable of incorporating all major magmatic volatile species (H2O, CO2, S, Cl and F) into its crystal structure. Analysis of apatite volatile contents can be related to parental magma compositions through the application of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994). Once included within phenocrysts, apatite inclusions are isolated from the melt and preserve a temporal record of magmatic volatile contents in the build-up to eruption. In this work, we measured the volatile compositions of apatite inclusions, apatite microphenocrysts and pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy (Stock et al. 2016). These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to decipher pre-eruptive magmatic processes. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset at shallow levels during ascent. Given the high diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), the preservation of volatile-undersaturated melt compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved 10 - 103 days before eruption. We suggest that late-stage transition into a volatile-saturated state caused an increase in magma chamber overpressure, which ultimately triggered the Astroni 1 eruption. This has major implications for monitoring of Campi Flegrei and other similar volcanic systems. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Stock et al., 2016, Nat. Geosci. Gualda et al., 2012. J. Pet., 53, 875

  3. Residence times of alkali feldspar phenocrysts from magma feeding the Agnano-Monte Spina Eruption (4.7 ka), Campi Flegrei caldera (Napoli, southern Italy) based on Ba-zonation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Wörner, Gerhard; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Arienzo, Ilenia; Fedele, Lorenzo; Civetta, Lucia; D'Antonio, Massimo; Orsi, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Timescales governing the development of crustal magma reservoirs are a key for understanding magmatic processes such as ascent, storage and mixing event. An estimate of these timescales can provide important constraints for volcanic hazard assessment of active volcanoes. We studied the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (A-MS; 4.7 ka; VEI = 4; 0.85 km3 D.R.E. of magma erupted) of the Campi Flegrei caldera, one of the most dangerous volcanic areas on Earth. The A-MS eruption has been fed by magmas varying from more to less evolved trachyte whose variable 87Sr/86Sr and trace elements features suggest magma mixing between two end-members. Ba zonation profiles of alkali feldspar phenocrysts have been determined through combined energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses (EDS-WDS-EMPA). We focused on distinct compositional breaks near the rim of the crystals that likely represent the last mixing event prior to eruption. We always chose the steepest gradients close to the crystal rims, taking into account that any effects related to cutting angles or crystal orientation should give longer apparent diffusion times. Two different approaches were undertaken: (1) a quantitative Ba compositional profiles were measured by point analyses along a short transect crossing growth discontinuities and (2) grey-scale profiles were taken parallel to the acquired point profiles. Assuming that Ba dominates the backscattered electron intensities in sanidines, greyscale gradients can be used as a diffusive tracer. BSE images were processed using the ImageJ® software, in order to extract a numerical greyscale profile. In both cases, each profile was interpolated through a non-linear Boltzmann fit curve with the Mathematica® software. A few traverses done at angles smaller than 90° to the compositional boundary interface were corrected by multiplying the distance values by the sinus of the traverse angle relative to the vertical on the interface. Our preliminary

  4. Detailed investigation of Long-Period activity at Campi Flegrei by Convolutive Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, P.; De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; Falanga, M.

    2016-04-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of seismic signals continuously recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the entire year 2006. The radiation pattern associated with the Long-Period energy release is investigated. We adopt an innovative Independent Component Analysis algorithm for convolutive seismic series adapted and improved to give automatic procedures for detecting seismic events often buried in the high-level ambient noise. The extracted waveforms characterized by an improved signal-to-noise ratio allows the recognition of Long-Period precursors, evidencing that the seismic activity accompanying the mini-uplift crisis (in 2006), which climaxed in the three days from 26-28 October, had already started at the beginning of the month of October and lasted until mid of November. Hence, a more complete seismic catalog is then provided which can be used to properly quantify the seismic energy release. To better ground our results, we first check the robustness of the method by comparing it with other blind source separation methods based on higher order statistics; secondly, we reconstruct the radiation patterns of the extracted Long-Period events in order to link the individuated signals directly to the sources. We take advantage from Convolutive Independent Component Analysis that provides basic signals along the three directions of motion so that a direct polarization analysis can be performed with no other filtering procedures. We show that the extracted signals are mainly composed of P waves with radial polarization pointing to the seismic source of the main LP swarm, i.e. a small area in the Solfatara, also in the case of the small-events, that both precede and follow the main activity. From a dynamical point of view, they can be described by two degrees of freedom, indicating a low-level of complexity associated with the vibrations from a superficial hydrothermal system. Our results allow us to move towards a full description of the complexity of

  5. Disclosing Multiple Magma Degassing Sources Offers Unique Insights of What's Behind the Campi Flegrei Caldera Unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, R.; Civetta, L.; Orsi, G.; Arienzo, I.; D'Antonio, M.; Di Renzo, V.

    2013-12-01

    The definition of the structure and evolution of the magmatic system of Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), Southern Italy, has been a fundamental tool for the assessment of the short-term volcanic hazard. The ensemble of geophysical and petrologic data show that the CFc magmatic system has been -and still is- characterized by two major reservoirs at different depths. From the deep one (around 8 km), less evolved magmas crystallize and degas, supplying fluids and magmas to the shallow (3-4 km) reservoirs. A thorough reconstruction of processes occurring in magma chamber/s prior and/or during the CFc eruptions has shown that magmas entering shallow reservoirs mixed with resident and crystallized batches. Also the 1982-85 unrest episode has been related to a magma intrusion of 2.1 x 10^7 m^3 at 3-4 km depth, on the basis of geophysical data (ground deformation, gravimetry, seismic imaging) and their interpretation. Thermodynamic evaluation of magma properties, at the time of emplacement, suggests for such an intrusion a bulk density of 2.000 kg/m^3 . Such a value testifies the high amount of exsolved volatiles within the system. The available record of geochemical and isotopic data on surface fumaroles, coupled with melt inclusion data, has already shown that dual (deep and shallow) magma degassing from such two reservoirs, as well as their interaction with the hydrothermal system, allows explaining the relevant fluctuations observed at crater fumaroles after the 1982-85 magma intrusion. An important role was played by the rapid crystallization (around 30 years) of the shallow magma, such that in the recent years gas discharges should be fuelled mostly by the deep magma. Such a process is well recorded in the fumarolic gas composition of the last ~10 years, but has to be reconciled with the unrest dynamics which took place after year 2000, characterized by a slow but continuous ground uplift. All geochemical indicators (major species and noble gases) point to three possible

  6. Real-time measurements of Hg0 and H2S at La Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) and Mt. Amiata volcano (Siena, Central Italy): a new geochemical approach to estimate the distribution of air contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Capecchiacci, F.; Di Lonardo, C.; D'Alessandro, W.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The emission of Hg and H2S from natural and anthropogenic sources may have a great environmental impact in urban areas as well as in the surroundings of active and passive degassing volcanoes. Mercury is present in the atmosphere mainly in its elemental form (Hg0~98 %), which has a relatively high volatility, low solubility and chemical inertness. Hydrogen sulfide, one of the most abundant gas species in volcanic fluids, is highly poisoning and corrosive. In this study, an innovative real-time method for the measurements of Hg0 and H2S concentrations in air was carried out at La Solfatara Crater, a hydrothermally altered tuff-cone nested in the town of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy), and at Mt. Amiata volcano (Central Italy), where a world-class Hg mining district abandoned in the seventies and a presently-exploited geothermal field for the production of electrical energy occur. The main aims were (i) to test this new methodological approach and (ii) to investigate Hg0 and H2S concentrations and the chemical-physical parameters regulating their spatial distribution in polluted areas. A portable Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer with high frequency modulation of light polarization (Lumex RA-915M) was used in combination with a pulsed fluorescence gas analyzer (Thermo Scientific Model 450i) to measure Hg0 and H2S, respectively. The instruments were synchronized and set at high-frequency acquisition (10 sec and 1 min, respectively). Measurements were carried out along pathways (up to 12 km long) at an average speed of <10 km/h and coupled with GPS data and meteorological parameters. In selected sites, passive samplers were positioned to determine the time-integrated Hg0 and H2S concentrations to be compared with the real-time measurements. The results indicate that this approach is highly efficient and effective in providing reliable and reproducible Hg0 and H2S concentrations and can be used to identify and characterize gas emitters in different environments.

  7. Rock physics of fibrous rocks akin to Roman concrete explains uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, Tiziana; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2015-08-01

    Uplifts in the Campi Flegrei caldera reach values unsurpassed anywhere in the world (~2 meters). Despite the marked deformation, the release of strain appears delayed. The rock physics analysis of well cores highlights the presence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix that results from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that characterizing the cementitious pastes in modern and Roman concrete. The formation of fibrous minerals by intertwining filaments confers shear and tensile strength to the caprock, contributing to its ductility and increased resistance to fracture.

  8. Timescales of magma processes occurred prior to recent Campi Flegrei caldera eruptions: first results from diffusion profiles on plagioclase phenocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Massimo; Arienzo, Ilenia; Fedele, Lorenzo; Iovine, Raffaella; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Civetta, Lucia; Orsi, Giovanni; Wörner, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the timescales of magma rising and stagnation, as well as mingling/mixing processes occurring in the shallow plumbing system of an active volcano is crucial for volcanic hazard assessment and risk mitigation. Among few recently developed methodologies, high-precision, high spatial resolution analysis of major-, minor- and trace elements on zoned phenocrysts through electron microprobe techniques represents a powerful tool to provide good estimates of timescales of pre-eruptive magma rising, stagnation and/or mingling/mixing processes. To this purpose, volcanic rock samples of trachytic composition representative of the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.7 ka CAL BP) occurred at the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy) have been selected. The investigation has been carried out in the framework of Project V2 - Precursori di Eruzioni, funded by the Italian Dipartimento per la Protezione Civile - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The investigated rock samples are pumice fragments from which double-polished, 100 µm thick thin sections have been prepared for analytical purposes. Back-scattered electrons (BSE) images have been acquired at the scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to identify the plagioclase phenocrysts suitable to be analyzed successively, selected among those that best display their zoning. After a careful observation of the BSE images, major-, minor- and selected trace element contents have been determined through combined energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive system electron microprobe analyses (EDS-WDS-EMPA) on transects crossing the growth zones of the selected phenocrysts. This methodology has allowed reconstructing the diffusion profile of some key-elements through the growth zones of the investigated phenocrysts. Successively, the diffusion profiles have been combined with textural features obtained through BSE images in order to obtain diffusion models aimed at estimating the timescales of crystals

  9. Hydrothermal alteration of surficial rocks at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei): Petrophysical properties and implications for phreatic eruption processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Isaia, Roberto; Aßbichler, Donjá; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-06-01

    Solfatara crater is located within the Campi Flegrei caldera to the west of Naples (Italy). It is one of the largest fumarolic manifestations known, and the rocks hosting the hydrothermal system are affected by intense hydrothermal alteration. Alteration can result in changes of degassing behavior, and in the formation of a cap rock thereby increasing the probability of phreatic eruptions. Here, we investigate the effects of alunitic (solfataric) alteration on the mineralogy, the physical properties (porosity, density, permeability) and the mechanical properties (strength) of the rocks involved, as well as its influence on fragmentation and ejection behavior. Our results show that the pristine mineralogy of deposits from the vicinity of the Solfatara cryptodome and from Pisciarelli is almost completely replaced by amorphous silica and alunite. The differences in the degree of alteration among the samples series are reflected in the investigated properties and behavior as well as in the analysis of the experimentally generated particles. Alunitic alteration increases porosity and permeability, whereas it reduces density, elastic wave velocity and strength leading to higher fragmentation and ejection speeds for the sample series examined in this study. Our results also show that alteration results in the generation of a high fraction of fines (particle sizes < 10 μm) during fragmentation, mainly composed of alunite crystals. Due to their potential for inducing chronic disease, dispersion of such material should represent a serious health hazard on a local scale and the evaluation of precautions should be considered.

  10. 3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, R.; Tizzani, P.; Manconi, A.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, S.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.

    2012-04-01

    In active volcanic areas deformation signals are generally characterized by non-linear spatial and temporal variations [Tizzani P. et al., 2007]. This behaviour has been revealed in the last two decades by the so-called advanced DInSAR processing algorithms, developed to analyze surface deformation phenomena [Berardino P. et al., 2002; Ferretti C. et al., 2001]. Notwithstanding, most of the inverse modelling attempts to characterize the evolution of the volcanic sources are based on the assumption that the Earth's crust behaves as a homogeneous linear elastic material. However, the behaviour of the upper lithosphere in thermally anomalous regions (as active volcanoes are) might be well described as a non-Newtonian fluid, where some of the material proprieties of the rocks (i.e., apparent viscosities) can change over time [Pinkerton H. et al., 1995]. In this context, we considered the thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust in order to develop a new 3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera, Southern Italy. More specifically, according to Tizzani P. et al. (2010), we integrated in a FEM environment geophysical information (gravimetric, seismic, and borehole data) available for the considered area and performed two FEM optimization procedures to constrain the 3D distribution of unknown physical parameters (temperature and viscosity distributions) that might help explaining the data observed at surface (geothermal wells and DInSAR measurements). First, we searched for the heat production, the volume source distribution and surface emissivity parameters providing the best-fit of the geothermal profiles data measured at six boreholes [Agip ESGE, 1986], by solving the Fourier heat equation over time (about 40 kys). The 3D thermal field resulting from this optimization was used to calculate the 3D brittle-ductile transition. This analysis revealed the presence of a ductile region, located beneath the centre of

  11. The Project Serapis: High Resolution Seismic Imagingof The Campi Flegrei Caldera Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Virieux, J.; Capuano, P.; Chiarabba, C.; de Franco, R.; Makris, J.; Michelini, A.; Musacchio, G.; Serapis Group

    During September 2001, an extended active seismic survey has been performed in the gulfs of Naples and Pozzuoli in the framework of the so called SERAPIS (SEismic Re- flection Acquisition Project for Imaging Structures). The project SERAPIS is aimed at the acquisition in the bays of Naples and Pozzuoli, on land and at the sea bottom (using sea bottom seismographs), of seismic signals emitted by a very dense network of airgun sources. The energization is performed through the syncronized implosion of bubbles produced by a battery of three to twelve, 16 liters airguns, mounted on the oceanographic vessel NADIR, owned by the french company IFREMER, which supported the project at no cost. The experiment has been designed to have 2D-3D acquisition lay-outs and its objective is the high resolution imaging of the main shal- low crustal discontinuities underneath the major neapolitan volcanic complexes. In particular some desired targets are the location and spatial definition of the magmatic feeding system of Campi Flegrei and the morphologic reconstruction of the interface separating the shallow volcano-alluvium sediments and the Mesozoic carbonates, re- cently detected and accurately imaged underneath Mt.Vesuvius volcano. A secondary but not less important objective is the denser re-sampling of areas in the Bay of Naples prospicient to Mt.Vesuvius, which have been investigated during the last marine sur- vey using the same vessel in 1997 (MareVes 97). Sixty, three-component stations have been installed on-land in the areas of Campi Flegrei, Mt.Vesuvius and on the islands of Ischia and Procida. In particular, the Mt.Vesuvius stations have been deployed along a 40 km long, SE-NW profile crossing the Campanian Plain toward the limestone out- crops. 72 sea bottom seismographs (OBS) have been installed in the gulfs of Naples and Pozzuoli by the University of Hamburg, with the logistic support of Geopro smbh and Geolab Italia. The OBS network geometry follows the main

  12. Sr-O isotope systematics in the Campi Flegrei magma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörner, Gerhard; Iovine, Raffaella; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; D'Antonio, Massimo; Arienzo, Ilenia; Civetta, Lucia; Orsi, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Combined radiogenic Sr- and stable O-isotopes are a powerful tool to distinguish between (a) contamination of mantle magma sources by fluids and subducted sediment and (b) assimilation of magmas during ascent through the crust. Advance in laser fluorination mass spectrometry permits to measure small samples and single mineral grains. This allows to directly link Sr- and O-isotope measurements practically for the same sample material. Although isotopic heterogeneity remains a problem even at this level, this approach avoids problems of weathering and mineral-melt disequilibria. We analysed mineral separates (feldspar, Fe-cpx, Mg-cpx, magnetite, olivine) from 37 samples covering the stratigraphic sequence of the Campi Flegrei volcanic field: Pre-Campanian Ignimbrite (Pre CI; >39.28 ka), Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 39.28 ka), Post Campanian Ignimbrite/Pre Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (Post CI/pre NYT; <39.28 and > 14.90 ka), Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT; 14.90 ka), and Post-Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (Post NYT; 12.8 ka-1538 A.D.) deposits. Sr isotopic compositions were determined using standard cation-exchange methods on separated hand-picked feldspar, clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts (~300mg) and on whole rocks, in case of not enough amount of crystals. By infrared laser fluorination was, instead, measured the oxygen isotopic composition of ~0.3 mg of hand-picked phenocrysts. Recalculating measured mineral O-isotope values to magmatic values to account for mineral-melt 18O/16O-fractionation at various SiO2-contens of the melt should provide a data set that better constrains magma isotope compositions and magma sources. Sr-isotopes span a range from 0.7069 to 0.7082 that exceed the variations in the bulk rock samples (0.7071-0.7081). However, these ranges vary significantly between eruptive periods. For example the Sr-isotope variation in the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff is only between 0.70750 and 0.70754 for minerals and whole rocks. Similarly, recalculated δ18O-melt values show

  13. Fiber-Reinforced Rocks Akin to Roman Concrete Help Explain Ground Deformation at Campi Flegrei Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, Tiziana; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2016-04-01

    The caldera of Campi Flegrei is one of the active hydrothermal systems of the Mediterranean region experiencing notable unrest episodes in a densely populated area. During the last crisis of 1982-1984, nearly 40,000 people were evacuated for almost two years from the main town of Pozzuoli, the Roman Puteoli, due to the large uplifts (~2 m over two years) and the persistent seismic activity. The evacuation severely hampered the economy and the social make-up of the community, which included the relocation of schools and commercial shops as well as the harbor being rendered useless for docking. Despite the large uplifts, the release of strain appears delayed. Seismicity begins and reaches a magnitude of 4.0 only upon relatively large uplifts (~ 70-80 cm) contrary to what is generally observed for calderas exhibiting much lower deformation levels. Over and above the specific mechanism causing the unrest and the lack of identification of a shallow magmatic reservoir (< 4 km) by seismic data, there is a core question of how the subsurface rocks of Campi Flegrei withstand a large strain and have high strength. We performed a series of direct measurements on deep well cores by combining high-resolution microstructural and mineralogical analyses with the elastic and mechanical properties of well cores from the deep wells drilled in the area right before the unrest of 1982-1984 - San Vito (SV1 and SV2) and Mofete (MF1, MF2, MF5). The rock physics analysis of the well cores provides evidence for the existence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a natural, coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix made of intertwining filaments of ettringite and tobemorite, resulting from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that

  14. The Monte Nuovo eruption: the only historical event of the Campi Flegrei caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Arienzo, Ilenia; Buononato, Salvatore; Civetta, Lucia; Carandente, Antonio; D'Antonio, Massimo; di Renzo, Valeria; Orsi, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The Monte Nuovo eruption, the last event of the Campi Flegrei caldera, has been reconstructed through geological, volcanological and petrological investigations, and analyses of historical documents. The eruption, lasted one week and characterised by three vents, included three distinct phases. The main vent (MV) was located in the present crater, whereas two minor vents were along the southern (SV) and north-eastern (NEV) slopes of the Monte Nuovo tuff cone. The sequence of deposits has been subdivided in 5 members named A through E. The eruption began on September 29, 1538, at 7 p.m., and its first and main phase, lasted until the night of September 30. This phase generated almost continuous explosions mainly phreatomagmatic, producing pyroclastic density currents (pdćs) and minor short-lived, low eruption columns, which deposited members A and B. Member A, erupted in about 12 hours through the MV, forms the largest part of the cone. Phreatomagmatic explosions at the SV produced mainly pdćs which deposited Member B only in the southern sector of Monte Nuovo. Strombolian explosions at the SV and NEV deposited Member C over a narrow area. This activity was followed by a pause lasted two days. The eruption resumed on October 3 at 4 p.m. and lasted until the next night. This second phase of the eruption was characterized by a discontinuous sequence of low-energy phreatomagmatic and magmatic explosions at the MV, which deposited Member D. On October 6, at 4 p.m. explosive activity resumed and lasted few hours, mainly with low-energy magmatic explosions of a small dome, grown during the preceding two days, which produced Member E. During this phase 24 people died while climbing the slopes of the newly formed cone. The juvenile products of the Monte Nuovo eruption are phenocryst-poor rocks containing alkali feldspars and subordinate clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides. The are light-coloured pumice and dark scoria fragments, and represent the most evolved magma erupted

  15. Laboratory experiments and continuous fluid monitoring at Campi Flegrei to understand pressure transients in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woith, Heiko; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Chiodini, Giovanni; Pilz, Marco; Walter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The hydrothermal system beneath Campi Flegrei is strongly affected by sub-surface processes as manifested by the existence of a geothermal "plume" below Solfatara (Bruno et al. 2007), associated with formation of new fumaroles and the spatial pattern of exhalation vents. Within the frame of MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) under Grant agreement no 308665), pressure tansients in the hydrothermal system of Campi Flegrei shall be studied using a combination of laboratory experiments and continuous pressure/temperature monitoring at fumaroles, mudpools, hot springs, and geothermal wells. Four groundwater monitoring sites were installed in September 2013: one in the Fangaia mud pool inside Solfatara and three within the geothermal area of Agnano, which is located roughly 3 km to the East of the Solfatara crater. In 2014 additional sensors were installed in Pisciarelli. Autonomous devices are being used to record the water level and water temperature at 10 minute intervals. Records reveal significant changes of the hydrothermal system in September 2013 at the Agnano main spring during the night from 23 to 24 September. Both, the water level and the water temperature dropped significantly, confirmed by visual inspection of the spa operators. The pool of the main spring almost emptied and the flow rate was significantly reduced, implying a profound change in the system. Similar water level drops occurred in the following months. Gas bubbles are likely to play a major role with respect to spatio-temporal variations in shallow fluid systems below Solfatara. Thus, additional to the field measurements we investigate potential bubble-related mechanisms capable to increase fluid pressure. The BubbleLab at GFZ has been setup. We are able to simulate earthquake ground motions with a shaking table, track the size and velocity of rising bubbles via a camera system, and quantify transients with a set of

  16. Geochemical clues on the origin of the current accelerating deformation of Campi Flegrei caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    An accelerating process of ground deformation is currently affecting the Campi Flegrei caldera. The deformation pattern is here explained with the overlapping of two processes: short time pulses that are caused by injection of magmatic fluids into the hydrothermal system, and a longer time process of heating of the rock. The short pulses were highlighted by comparing fumarolic compositions and ground deformations. The two independent data sets show the same sequence of anomalous peaks with a delay of ˜ 200 days of the geochemical signal with respect to the geodetic signal. This correspondence strongly support the occurrence of episodes of magmatic fluid injection into the hydrothermal system feeding the fumaroles of Solfatara. Seismic swarms, whose frequency is increasing in the time, accompanies each of this episode. The heating of the hydrothermal system, which parallels the long-period accelerating curve, is inferred by temperature-pressure gas geoindicators. Referring to a recent interpretation that relates variations in the fumarolic inert gas species to open system magma degassing, we infer that the heating is caused by an enrichment in water of the magmatic fluids, in addition to an increment in their flux and an increased frequency of the degassing events. A physical numerical model of the injection of magmatic fluids into the hydrothermal system nicely reproduces many of the observed data including the thermal evolution independently inferred from the fumarolic composition.

  17. Hydrothermal fluid venting in the offshore sector of Campi Flegrei caldera: A geochemical, geophysical, and volcanological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, R.; Aiuppa, A.; Sulli, A.; Caliro, S.; Chiodini, G.; Acocella, V.; Ciraolo, G.; Di Vito, M. A.; Interbartolo, F.; Nasello, C.; Valenza, M.

    2016-10-01

    The ongoing unrest at the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) in southern Italy is prompting exploration of its poorly studied offshore sector. We report on a multidisciplinary investigation of the Secca delle Fumose (SdF), a submarine relief known since antiquity as the largest degassing structure of the offshore sector of CFc. We combined high-resolution morphobathymetric and seismostratigraphic data with onshore geological information to propose that the present-day SdF morphology and structure developed during the initial stages of the last CFc eruption at Monte Nuovo in AD 1538. We suggest that the SdF relief stands on the eastern uplifted border of a N-S-trending graben-like structure formed during the shallow emplacement of the Monte Nuovo feeding dike. We also infer that the high-angle bordering faults that generated the SdF relief now preferentially allow the ascent of hot brines (with an equilibrium temperature of 179°C), thereby sustaining hydrothermal degassing on the seafloor. Systematic vertical seawater profiling shows that hydrothermal seafloor venting generates a sizeable CO2, pH, and temperature anomaly in the overlying seawater column. Data for the seawater vertical profile can be used to estimate the CO2 and energy (heat) outputs from the SdF area at ˜50 tons/d (˜0.53 kg/s) and ˜80 MW, respectively. In view of the cause-effect relationship with the Monte Nuovo eruption, and the substantial gas and energy outputs, we consider that the SdF hydrothermal system needs to be included in monitoring programs of the ongoing CFc unrest.

  18. Time-lapse integrated geophysical imaging of magmatic injections and fluid-induced fracturing causing Campi Flegrei 1983-84 Unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Siena, Luca; Crescentini, Luca; Amoruso, Antonella; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Castellano, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical precursors measured during Unrest episodes are a primary source of geophysical information to forecast eruptions at the largest and most potentially destructive volcanic calderas. Despite their importance and uniqueness, these precursors are also considered difficult to interpret and unrepresentative of larger eruptive events. Here, we show how novel geophysical imaging and monitoring techniques are instead able to represent the dynamic evolution of magmatic- and fluid-induced fracturing during the largest period of Unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy (1983-1984). The time-dependent patterns drawn by microseismic locations and deformation, once integrated by 3D attenuation tomography and absorption/scattering mapping, model injections of magma- and fluid-related materials in the form of spatially punctual microseismic bursts at a depth of 3.5 km, west and offshore the city of Pozzuoli. The shallowest four kilometres of the crust work as a deformation-based dipolar system before and after each microseismic shock. Seismicity and deformation contemporaneously focus on the point of injection; patterns then progressively crack the medium directed towards the second focus, a region at depths 1-1.5 km south of Solfatara. A single high-absorption and high-scattering aseismic anomaly marks zones of fluid storage overlying the first dipolar centre. These results provide the first direct geophysical signature of the processes of aseismic fluid release at the top of the basaltic basement, producing pozzolanic activity and recently observed via rock-physics and well-rock experiments. The microseismicity caused by fluids and gasses rises to surface via high-absorption north-east rising paths connecting the two dipolar centres, finally beingq being generally expelled from the maar diatreme Solfatara structure. Geophysical precursors during Unrest depict how volcanic stress was released at the Campi Flegrei caldera during its period of highest recorded seismicity

  19. The Rock Physics of Fiber-Reinforced Rocks Helps Explain Uplifts at Campi Flegrei Volcano-Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Kanitpanyacharoen, W.

    2015-12-01

    The caldera of Campi Flegrei is one of the active volcano-hydrothermal systems of the Mediterranean region experiencing notable unrest episodes in a densely populated area. One peculiar trait characterizes the unrest of this system: the ability of withstanding large uplifts before setting off a swarm of microeartquakes. Therefore, one core question is how the subsurface rocks of Campi Flegrei withstand such a large strain and have high strength. The rock physics analysis of well cores up to 3 km provides evidence for the existence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a natural, coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The impermeable caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix made of intertwining filaments of ettringite and tobemorite, resulting from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that of the engineering of the Roman concrete. The formation of fibrous minerals by intertwining filaments confers shear and tensile strength to the caprock, contributing to its ductility and increased resistance to fracture. The importance of these findings lies not only on the fibrous and compositionally nature of the caprock but also on its possible physicochemical deterioration. Given the P-T-XCO2 conditions regulating the decarbonation reactions, possible influx of new brine into the Campi Flegrei system dilutes the existing CO2, thus triggering further decarbonation reaction. This leads to the formation of additional CO2, methane, and steam. As these gases rise toward the surface, they are halted by the natural concrete-like layer, which would lead to pore pressure increase and subsequent ground deformations.

  20. Hydrothermal activity and subsurface soil complexity: implication for outgassing processes at Solfatara crater, Campi Flegrei caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Isaia, Roberto; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Moretti, Roberto; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The Solfatara area and its fumaroles are the main surface phenomena of the vigorous hydrothermal activity within the active Campi Flegrei caldera system. The existing fault system appears to have a major control on outgassing which in turn leads to a strong alteration of the volcanic products. Moreover the maar-nature of the crater, and its filling by more recent volcanic deposits, resulted in a complex fractured and multilayered cap to the rising gases. As a consequence the hydrothermal alteration differently affects the rocks within the crater, including pyroclastic fallout ash beds, pyroclastic density current deposits, breccias and lavas. The induced changes in both original microstructure and physical and mechanical properties of the rocks control the outgassing behavior. Here, we report results from a measurement survey conducted in July 2015, and aimed to characterize the in-situ physical (temperature, humidity) and mechanical (permeability, strength, stiffness) properties. The survey also included a mapping of the surficial hydrothermal features and their distributions. Chemical analyses and laboratory measurements (porosity, granulometry) of selected samples were additionally performed. Results show that the crater floor area comprises very different kinds of soils, from fine grained, thin laminated deposits around the two bubbling Fangaia mud pools, to crusted hummock formations along the SE and NE border of the crater. Dry and solid alunite-rich deposits are present in the western and southern part. Furthermore we observed evidences of a beginning of crust formation within the central part of the crater. A large range of surface temperatures, from boiling point to ambient temperature, were measured throughout the surveyed area. Outgassing occurs mainly along the crack system, which has also generated the crusted hummocks. Elsewhere the fluid circulation in the subsoil is favored by the presence of coarse and highly porous sulfur-hardened levels, whereas

  1. Authigenic Mineral Cycling in Roman Seawater Concrete with Campi Flegrei Pumiceous Ash Pozzolan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. D.; Mulcahy, S. R.; Chen, H.; Li, Q.; Cappelletti, P.; Carraro, C.; Wenk, H. R.

    2015-12-01

    Alteration of Campi Flegrei pumiceous ash in Roman concrete harbor structures along the central Italian coast produced zeolite and Ca-silicate minerals that have reinforced cementitious fabrics for >2000 years. X-ray microdiffraction experiments and electron microprobe analyses show that diverse alteration paths produced authigenic phillipsite and Al-tobermorite in the pyroclasts, pores, and cementing matrix of mortars in Romacons drill cores from Portus Cosanus, Portus Neronis, and Baianus Sinus. These minerals have cation exchange capabilities for some radionuclides and heavy metal cations and are candidate sorbents for concrete waste encapsulations. Compositions of phillipsite in certain Portus Cosanus and Portus Neronis pumice clasts are similar to those in the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. Dissolution of this phillipsite and alkali feldspar produced new, authigenic phillipsite with less Si, greater Al and Ca, Al-tobermorite, and poorly-crystalline binder in pumice vesicles. Conversely, alteration of trachytic glass to clay mineral (nontronite) in a Baianus Sinus tuff clast is associated with new, authigenic phillipsite and Al-tobermorite in the tuff and cementing matrix. The Al-tobermorite has lower Al/(Si+Al) and Ca/(Si+Al) compared to Al-tobermorite in relict lime clasts. These more siliceous crystals, similar to those in hydrothermally-altered basalt, have 11.3 Å d-spacing in [001]. Raman spectra show symmetrical bending of Si-O-Si and Si-O-Al linkages, Si-O and Si-Al symmetrical stretching, and possible Q3 Si and Al tetrahedral peaks that suggest cross-linking of silicate chains-an important factor in cation exchange. The authigenic crystals refine pore space, contribute to binding in interfacial zones, and obstruct microcrack propagation. The well-constrained history of temperature variations and seawater immersion could provide further information for understanding alteration in volcanoclastic deposits and predicting regenerative processes in high performance

  2. The thermal regime of the Campi Flegrei magmatic system reconstructed through 3D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Renzo, Valeria; Wohletz, Kenneth; Civetta, Lucia; Moretti, Roberto; Orsi, Giovanni; Gasparini, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    We illustrate a quantitative conductive/convective thermal model incorporating a wide range of geophysical, petrological, geological, geochemical and isotopical observations that constrain the thermal evolution and present state of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) magmatic system. The proposed model has been computed on the basis of the current knowledge of: (1) the volcanic and magmatic history of the volcano over the last 44 ka, (2) its underlying crustal structure, and (3) the physical properties of the erupted magmas. 3D numerical simulations of heat conduction and convection within heterogeneous rock/magma materials with evolving heat sources and boundary conditions that simulate magma rise from a deep (≥ 8 km depth) to shallow (2-6 km) reservoirs, magma chamber formation, magma extrusion, caldera collapse, and intra-caldera hydrothermal convection, have been carried out. The evolution of the CFc magmatic system through time has been simulated through different steps related to its changes in terms of depth, location and size of magma reservoirs and their replenishment. The thermal modeling results show that both heat conduction and convection have played an important role in the CFc thermal evolution, although with different timing. The simulated present heat distribution is in agreement with the measured geothermal profiles (Agip, 1987), reproduces the thermal gradient peaks at the CFc margins in correspondence to the anomalies in surface gradients (Corrado et al., 1998), and suggests temperatures of 700 °C at depth of 4 km in the central portion of the caldera, in agreement with the estimated temperature for the brittle-ductile transition (Hill, 1992).

  3. Investigation of hydrothermal activity at Campi Flegrei caldera using 3D numerical simulations: Extension to high temperature processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Costa, Antonio; Chiodini, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Hydrothermal activity at Campi Flegrei caldera is simulated by using the multiphase code MUFITS. We first provide a brief description of the simulator covering the mathematical formulation and its applicability at elevated supercritical temperatures. Then we apply, for the first time, the code to hydrothermal systems investigating the Campi Flegrei caldera case. We consider both shallow subcritical regions and deep supercritical regions of the hydrothermal system. We impose sophisticated boundary conditions at the surface to provide a better description of the reservoir interactions with the atmosphere and the sea. Finally we carry out a parametric study and compare the simulation results with gas temperature and composition, gas and heat fluxes, and temperature measurements in the wells of that area. Results of the parametric study show that flow rate, composition, and temperature of the hot gas mixture injected at depth, and the initial geothermal gradient strongly control parameters monitored at Solfatara. The results suggest that the best guesses conditions for the gas mixture injected at 5 km depth correspond to a temperature of ~ 700 °C, a fluid mass flow rate of about 50-100 kg/s, and an initial geothermal gradient of ~ 120 °C/km.

  4. Comparison between 3D model of Pisciarelli area (Campi Flegrei caldera) through Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Teresa; Somma, Renato; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The volcanic/geothermal area of Pisciarelli is located within Campi Flegrei caldera .This last is a densely populated area, including the Pozzuoli town and bordering the western side of the Naples city, this causes a high vulnerability and consequently a high volcanic risk. In the recent decades this area has experienced minor ground uplift episodes accompanied by low magnitude seismicity and by strong intensification of degassing activity in particular localized at Pisciarelli area. We present the results of the Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), using a Reigl VZ1000®, analysis of Pisciarelli area performed in June 2013 and the comparison with the data acquired later in March 2014. We apply the TLS technique based on Time of Flight (TOF) method in order to define an accurate 3D digital model for detailed analysis of this area performing numerous scans from different points of view in the area. In this ways was ensured a good coverage of the whole investigated area in order to avoid shaded portion due to the high soil degassing activity. Such fact limits the capacity of laser penetration is caused by wavelength near infrared range. For each survey was obtained a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from the reconstructed data and both were compared. In particular, we have identified two "critical" areas of interest that will be monitored more frequently. These are: 1) in the lower part of the studied area a major fault line that bounding the Agnano caldera moderately NE-dipping; 2) in the upper part of the study area a zone of depletion with its zone of accumulation. The DTM were georeferenced into the UTM-WGS84 reference frame. The aim of this work is to define a procedure to compare between 3D model applied to monitoring of this area. Also to evaluate of volumetric and morphologic changes and to recognizing unstable masses by comparison of 3D data. For this purpose other TLS surveys will be performed in the upcoming in this active volcanic/geothermal area.

  5. The extimated presence of differentiated higly explosive magmas beneath Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei: evidence from geochemical and textural studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Lucia; Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Highly catastrophic explosive eruptions are supplied by Si-rich magmas, generated at shallower level in crust by the evolution of mantle liquids. The timescale of these evolution processes is a crucial factor, because of its control on the length of volcano repose interval leading to high explosive events. Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius alkaline volcanic systems, located respectively at few kilometers west and east of Neapolitan metropolitan area, produced a variety of eruptions ranging from not explosive lava flows and domes to highly destructive eruptions. Both these high risk volcanoes are in repose time since the last eruption occurred in the 1538 and 1944 BP, respectively. Since that time, the volcanoes experienced fumarolic activity, low level of seismicity with rare earthquakes swarms, as well as two bradyseismic crisis (1969-1972 and 1982-1984) localized in the center of Campi Flegrei caldera, that generated a net uplift of 3.5 m around the town of Pozzuoli. A wide low velocity layer interpreted as an extended magmatic body has been detected at 8-10 km depth beneath these volcanoes by seismic data. The capability of this reservoir to erupt explosively again strongly depends on magma differentiation degree, therefore the knowledge of the time lapse necessary at not explosive mafic liquids to differentiate toward explosive magmas is very crucial to predict the size of a possible short-term future eruption in Campanian area. Our petrologic data indicate that a multi-depth supply system was active under the Campanian Plain since 39 ka. Fractional crystallization during magma cooling associated with upward migration of less dense evolved liquids appears to be the prevalent differentiation process. Our results indicate that huge steam exolution occurred during the late stage of trachyte and phonolite crystallization thus accounting for the high Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of eruptions supplied by these melts. Moreover our CSD data on phenocrysts reveal

  6. Rapid differentiation in a sill-like magma reservoir: a case study from the campi flegrei caldera

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Lucia; Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, geophysical investigations have detected wide magma reservoirs beneath quiescent calderas. However, the discovery of partially melted horizons inside the crust is not sufficient to put constraints on capability of reservoirs to supply cataclysmic eruptions, which strictly depends on the chemical-physical properties of magmas (composition, viscosity, gas content etc.), and thus on their differentiation histories. In this study, by using geochemical, isotopic and textural records of rocks erupted from the high-risk Campi Flegrei caldera, we show that the alkaline magmas have evolved toward a critical state of explosive behaviour over a time span shorter than the repose time of most volcanic systems and that these magmas have risen rapidly toward the surface. Moreover, similar results on the depth and timescale of magma storage were previously obtained for the neighbouring Somma-Vesuvius volcano. This consistency suggests that there might be a unique long-lived magma pool beneath the whole Neapolitan area. PMID:23050096

  7. Rapid differentiation in a sill-like magma reservoir: a case study from the campi flegrei caldera.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Lucia; Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, geophysical investigations have detected wide magma reservoirs beneath quiescent calderas. However, the discovery of partially melted horizons inside the crust is not sufficient to put constraints on capability of reservoirs to supply cataclysmic eruptions, which strictly depends on the chemical-physical properties of magmas (composition, viscosity, gas content etc.), and thus on their differentiation histories. In this study, by using geochemical, isotopic and textural records of rocks erupted from the high-risk Campi Flegrei caldera, we show that the alkaline magmas have evolved toward a critical state of explosive behaviour over a time span shorter than the repose time of most volcanic systems and that these magmas have risen rapidly toward the surface. Moreover, similar results on the depth and timescale of magma storage were previously obtained for the neighbouring Somma-Vesuvius volcano. This consistency suggests that there might be a unique long-lived magma pool beneath the whole Neapolitan area.

  8. ROCK PHYSICS. Rock physics of fibrous rocks akin to Roman concrete explains uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera.

    PubMed

    Vanorio, Tiziana; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2015-08-07

    Uplifts in the Campi Flegrei caldera reach values unsurpassed anywhere in the world (~2 meters). Despite the marked deformation, the release of strain appears delayed. The rock physics analysis of well cores highlights the presence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix that results from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that characterizing the cementitious pastes in modern and Roman concrete. The formation of fibrous minerals by intertwining filaments confers shear and tensile strength to the caprock, contributing to its ductility and increased resistance to fracture.

  9. Modelling of InSAR (LOS) changes by means of 3D extended pressured bodies with free geometry. Application to Campi Flegrei.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Antonio. G.; Fernandez, Jose; Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Berrino, Giovanna

    2010-05-01

    InSAR measures can provide information about changes in distance between the ground and the satellite in radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction. Sometimes, as in the case of volcanic activity, the corresponding ground deformations can be modeled by means of pressure and/or mass sources. Usually, point sources and regular prolate or oblate bodies are used as source geometry for deformation. In this communication, we show a new method for non-linear inversion of position and gravity changes as produced by extended bodies with a free geometry. Their structures are described as aggregation of elemental sources with anomalous density and pressure, and they are modeled to fit the whole data and to keep some regularity conditions. A growth process permits to build general geometrical configurations. The method is tested by application to data of gravity and InSAR (LOS data for ascending and descending orbits) for the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei (Italy). Results are drawn with respect a structural gravimetric model and compared with previous models.

  10. Repeated fluid-transfer episodes as a mechanism for the recent dynamics of Campi Flegrei caldera (1989-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, L.; Giudicepietro, F.; Aquino, I.; Borriello, G.; Del Gaudio, C.; Lo Bascio, D.; Martini, M.; Ricciardi, G. P.; Ricciolino, P.; Ricco, C.

    2011-04-01

    We have analyzed a multiparametric data set of seismological, geodetic and geochemical data recorded at Campi Flegrei caldera since 1982. We focus here on the period 1989-2010 that followed the last bradyseismic crisis of 1982-1984. Since then, there have been at least five repeated minor episodes of ground uplift accompanied by seismicity. We have reanalyzed old paper and digital seismic data sets dating back to 1982. The paper recordings show evidence of long-period events in January 1982 and March 1989, and we have digitized some of these significant waveforms. Furthermore, the revision of digital seismograms dating back to 1994 shows a significant swarm of long-period events in August 1994. Volcano-tectonic and long-period events hypocenters have been relocated in a three-dimensional velocity model. Statistical analysis of volcano-tectonic seismicity shows many similarities and few differences between 1982-1984 and the following period 1989-2010. Long-period waveforms have been analyzed using spectral analysis, which shows a grouping into three macrofamilies. Similarities in the seismic signature of episodes of minor uplift suggest that they originate from the injection of fluids into the deep part of a geothermal reservoir (about 2.5 km depth) and in its transfer toward a shallower part (about 0.75 km depth). Most of the observed geophysical signals are related to this second phase. The evidence consists of spatial and temporal connections between the ground deformation, long-period and volcano-tectonic seismicity and changes in the geochemical parameters of fumaroles. In this study we focused our analysis on two uplift episodes observed in 2000 and 2006. The joint inversion of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) and tiltmeter data show that during these periods the ground deformation was generated by at least two distinct sources located at different depths, with the shallower activated in the later stages of the uplift episodes. Our interpretation

  11. The Late-Holocene evolution of the Miseno area (south-western Campi Flegrei) as inferred by stratigraphy, petrochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology:Chapter 6 in Volcanism in the Campania Plain — Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ignimbrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Insinga, Donatella; Calvert, Andrew T.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Morra, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Annamaria; Sacchi, Marco; Scarpati, Claudio; Saburomaru, James; Fedele, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    This study on terrestrial and marine successions increases the understanding of the Late-Holocene volcanological and stratigraphical evolution of the south-western part of Campi Flegrei caldera.Stratigraphic data derived from field studies of two major tuff vents located along the coastal zone, namely Porto Miseno and Capo Miseno, clearly indicate that the Porto Miseno tuff ring slightly predates the Capo Miseno tuff cone. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating experiments, carried out on fresh sanidine separates from pumice samples, yielded a plateau age of 5090±140 yr BP for Capo Miseno and 6490±510 yr BP for Porto Miseno vent, thus confirming field observations.The volcanoclastic input derived from this recent and intense eruptive activity played a major role in the inner-shelf stratigraphic evolution of the Porto Miseno Bay deposits that have been drilled up to 40 m depth off the crater rim. The cored succession is characterised by transgressive marine deposits (mostly volcanic sand) with two intercalated peat layers (t1 and t2), dated at 3560±40 yr BP and 7815±55 yr BP (14C), respectively, interbedded with a 1–5 m thick pumice layer (tephra C). Peat layers have been chronostratigraphically correlated with two widespread paleosols onland while petrochemical analyses allowed us to correlate tephra C with the Capo Miseno tuff cone deposits.The results presented in this study imply a Late-Holocene volcanic activity that is also well preserved in the marine record in this sector of the caldera where a new chronostratigraphic reconstruction of the eruptive events is required in order to better evaluate the hazard assessment of the area.

  12. Experimental investigations on the explosivity of steam-driven eruptions: A case study of Solfatara volcano (Campi Flegrei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Mayer, Klaus; Orsi, Giovanni; Moretti, Roberto; Isaia, Roberto; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-11-01

    Steam-driven eruptions, both phreatic and hydrothermal, expel exclusively fragments of non-juvenile rocks disintegrated by the expansion of water as liquid or gas phase. As their violence is related to the magnitude of the decompression work that can be performed by fluid expansion, these eruptions may occur with variable degrees of explosivity. In this study we investigate the influence of liquid fraction and rock petrophysical properties on the steam-driven explosive energy. A series of fine-grained heterogeneous tuffs from the Campi Flegrei caldera were investigated for their petrophysical properties. The rapid depressurization of various amounts of liquid water within the rock pore space can yield highly variable fragmentation and ejection behaviors for the investigated tuffs. Our results suggest that the pore liquid fraction controls the stored explosive energy with an increasing liquid fraction within the pore space increasing the explosive energy. Overall, the energy released by steam flashing can be estimated to be 1 order of magnitude higher than for simple (Argon) gas expansion and may produce a higher amount of fine material even under partially saturated conditions. The energy surplus in the presence of steam flashing leads to a faster fragmentation with respect to gas expansion and to higher ejection velocities imparted to the fragmented particles. Moreover, weak and low permeability rocks yield a maximum fine fraction. Using experiments to unravel the energetics of steam-driven eruptions has yielded estimates for several parameters controlling their explosivity. These findings should be considered for both modeling and evaluation of the hazards associated with steam-driven eruptions.

  13. Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012-2013 volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana

    2015-08-01

    We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at Campi Flegrei caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km3 of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area.

  14. Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012–2013 volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera

    PubMed Central

    D’Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at Campi Flegrei caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km3 of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area. PMID:26279090

  15. Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012-2013 volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana

    2015-08-17

    We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at Campi Flegrei caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km(3) of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area.

  16. 3D image of Brittle/Ductile transition in active volcanic area and its implication on seismicity: The Campi Flegrei caldera case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; Luca, D'auria; Susi, Pepe; Giuseppe, Solaro; Pietro, Tizzani

    2015-04-01

    The thermo-rheology of the rocks is a crucial aspect to understand the mechanical behavior of the crust in young and tectonically active area. As a consequence, several studies have been performed since last decades in order to understand the role of thermic state in the evolution of volcanic environments. In this context, we analyze the upper crust rheology of the Campi Flegrei active caldera (Southern Italy). Our target is the evaluation of the 3D geometry of the Brittle-Ductile transition beneath the resurgent caldera, by integrating the available geological, geochemical, and geophysical data. We first performed a numerical thermal model by using the a priori geological and geophysical information; than we employ the retrieved isothermal distribution to image the rheological stratification of the shallow crust beneath caldera. In particular, considering both the thermal proprieties and the mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust, we performed, in a Finite Element environment, a 3D conductive time dependent thermal model through an numerical of solution of the Fourier equation. The dataset consist in temperature measurements recorded in several deep wells. More specifically, the geothermal gradients were measured in seven deep geothermal boreholes, located in three main distinct areas: Mofete, Licola, and San Vito. In addition, we take into account also the heat flow density map at the caldera surface calculated by considering the thermal measurements carried out in 30 shallow water wells. We estimate the isothermal distribution of the crust calibrating two model parameters: the heat production [W], associated to the magma injection episodes in the last 60 kyears within the magma chamber and the heat flow coefficient [W/m2*K] at the external surface. In particular, the optimization procedure has been performed using an exhaustive grid search, to minimize the differences between model and experimental measurements. The achieved results allowed us to

  17. Seafloor slow vertical displacement inferred by sea bottom pressure measurements in shallow water: an application to the Campi Flegrei volcanic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; Locritani, Marina; Embriaco, Davide; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; La Rocca, Adriano; Pinto, Salvatore; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The vertical component of sea floor displacement in tectonic or volcanically active areas can be observed using sea bottom pressure recorders. These measurements are usually acquired in areas affected by strong dynamics with large vertical displacement and in deep water, where the noise induced by the sea state is low. Under these conditions the contribution of the variation of sea water density and the contribution of the instrumental drift - a typical feature of the bottom pressure recorders - can be negligible. We have developed a new methodology to monitor vertical sea floor displacement both in areas with small and slow deformation, and in shallow water. We take advantage of bottom pressure recorder data, augmented with ancillary sea level, barometric and water physical parameters measurements. We have applied this method to the data collected by a bottom pressure recorder deployed at 100 m w.d. in the Campi Flegrei Caldera as part of CUMAS multiparameter monitoring system. During several months of 2011 we have observed a small uplift episode related to the bradiseismic activity of the area. These observations are compatible with other geodetic data recorded in the region and provide unprecedented measurements of the vertical deformation in the marine area.

  18. Operational short-term Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment of tephra fallout: an example from the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, Laura; Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) represents the most complete scientific contribution for planning rational strategies aimed at mitigating the risk posed by volcanic activity at different time scales. The definition of the space-time window for PVHA is related to the kind of risk mitigation actions that are under consideration. Short intervals (days to weeks) are important for short-term risk mitigation actions like the evacuation of a volcanic area. During volcanic unrest episodes or eruptions, it is of primary importance to produce short-term tephra fallout forecast, and frequently update it to account for the rapidly evolving situation. This information is obviously crucial for crisis management, since tephra may heavily affect building stability, public health, transportations and evacuation routes (airports, trains, road traffic) and lifelines (electric power supply). In this study, we propose a methodology for the short-term PVHA and its operational implementation, based on the model BET_EF, in which measures from the monitoring system are used to routinely update the forecast of some parameters related to the eruption dynamics, that is, the probabilities of eruption, of every possible vent position and every possible eruption size. Then, considering all possible vent positions and eruptive sizes, tephra dispersal models are coupled with frequently updated meteorological forecasts. Finally, these results are merged through a Bayesian procedure, accounting for epistemic uncertainties at all the considered steps. As case study we retrospectively study some stages of the volcanic unrest that took place in Campi Flegrei (CF) in 1982-1984. In particular, we aim at presenting a practical example of possible operational tephra fall PVHA on a daily basis, in the surroundings of CF at different stages of the 1982-84 unrest. Tephra dispersal is simulated using the analytical HAZMAP code. We consider three possible eruptive sizes (a low, a medium and a

  19. The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 uc(ad))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36 hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive crisis

  20. The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36?| hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive

  1. Definition of Brittle Ductile Transition of the upper crust beneath the Campi Flegrei-Ischia Volcanic District and its impact on natural seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, Pietro; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Santilano, Alessandro; Gola, Gianluca; Pepe, Susi; D'Auria, Luca; Solaro, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The thermo-rheology behaviour of the rocks is a crucial aspect to understand the mechanical behaviour of the crust of tectonically active area. As a consequence, several studies have been performed since last decades in order to clarify the role of thermic state in the evolution of volcanic areas. In this framework, the knowledge of the Brittle-Ductile transition inside the upper crust may provide insights to verify the roles that some hypothesized mechanisms, such as slab pull, crustal delamination might have played in the evolution of a tectonically active region. The goal of our study was the 3D imaging of the crust rheology beneath the active Campi Flegrei-Ischia Volcanic District and its impact on natural seismicity. Despite many works have been done on the internal structure of the active volcanoes, the determination of the 3D rheological stratification of the crust below the caldera has not yet been tackled. To fill this gap of knowledge, we proposed the definition of 3D geometry of the Brittle-Ductile transition calculated via numerical optimization modelling based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical available data. We first performed a 3D numerical modelling of thermal field by using the a priori geological and geophysical information starting to thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the crust beneath the caldera. We developed a suitable 3D conductive/convective time-dependent thermal numerical model solving the Fourier equation and further we used the retrieved thermal model to image a 3D rheological stratification of the shallow crust below the volcanic district. Finally we demonstrate the role of the crustal rheology on seismicity cut off and its implication on maximum expected earthquakes magnitude.

  2. Automatized near-real-time short-term Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment of tephra dispersion before eruptions: BET_VHst for Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei during recent exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Sandri, Laura; Rouwet, Dmtri; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) represents the most complete scientific contribution for planning rational strategies aimed at mitigating the risk posed by volcanic activity at different time scales. The definition of the space-time window for PVHA is related to the kind of risk mitigation actions that are under consideration. Short temporal intervals (days to weeks) are important for short-term risk mitigation actions like the evacuation of a volcanic area. During volcanic unrest episodes or eruptions, it is of primary importance to produce short-term tephra fallout forecast, and frequently update it to account for the rapidly evolving situation. This information is obviously crucial for crisis management, since tephra may heavily affect building stability, public health, transportations and evacuation routes (airports, trains, road traffic) and lifelines (electric power supply). In this study, we propose a methodology named BET_VHst (Selva et al. 2014) for short-term PVHA of volcanic tephra dispersal based on automatic interpretation of measures from the monitoring system and physical models of tephra dispersal from all possible vent positions and eruptive sizes based on frequently updated meteorological forecasts. The large uncertainty at all the steps required for the analysis, both aleatory and epistemic, is treated by means of Bayesian inference and statistical mixing of long- and short-term analyses. The BET_VHst model is here presented through its implementation during two exercises organized for volcanoes in the Neapolitan area: MESIMEX for Mt. Vesuvius, and VUELCO for Campi Flegrei. References Selva J., Costa A., Sandri L., Macedonio G., Marzocchi W. (2014) Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: a case study for tephra fallout, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011252

  3. Probing the structure of a caldera for geothermal assessment using enhanced passive seismic tomography. The example of the Campi Flregrei (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo, M.; Tramelli, A.; Troise, C.; de Natale, G.

    2015-12-01

    Campi Flegrei (southern Italy) is one of the most studied calderas of the world due to its geothermal potential that was exploited since Romans' age, and its eruption and seismic risk, affecting a densely populated region. The caldera is marked by strong vertical deformations of the soil called bradyseisms, which are often accompanied by seismic crises. In particular the bradyseismic crises of 1982-84 are remembered for the large number of earthquakes that exceeded 16000 events recorded. Seismicity has been used to model the distribution of the elastic parameters with the aim to study the volcano behavior. However, till now seismic velocity models, calculated with standard tomography, failed in resolving small structures (<1.5-2km) located also at shallow depth, which could be responsible of small eruption as the last one that originated the Monte Nuovo monogenic cone in 1538. Here we show Vp and Vp/Vs models carried out by applying an enhanced seismic tomography that uses the Double Difference method (DD, Zhang and Thurber, 2003) complemented with the Weighted Average Model post-processing (WAM, Calò et al., 2009, Calò et al., 2011, 2013). The 3D models obtained with this procedure benefit of the high resolving power due to DD method, which uses both absolute and differential data, and of the improved reliability offered by WAM, which allows to overcome the drawbacks of the standard inversion methods. Our approach allowed to image structures with linear dimension of 0.5-1.2km, resulting in an improvement of the resolving power at least two times of the other published models (e.g. Priolo et al., 2012). Results show small bodies of high Vp and Vp/Vs at shallow depth (2.5-3.5 km) that could be associated either with magmatic intrusions or fluid saturated rocks, probably responsible of unrest episodes. At shallower depth (0.5-2.0 km), the Vp/Vs model is able to discern between water- and gas- bearing regions giving insight on the assessment of the potential of the

  4. Principles of volcanic risk metrics: Theory and the case study of Mount Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Woo, Gordon

    2009-03-01

    Despite volcanic risk having been defined quantitatively more than 30 years ago, this risk has been managed without being effectively measured. The recent substantial progress in quantifying eruption probability paves the way for a new era of rational science-based volcano risk management, based on what may be termed "volcanic risk metrics" (VRM). In this paper, we propose the basic principles of VRM, based on coupling probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment and eruption forecasting with cost-benefit analysis. The VRM strategy has the potential to rationalize decision making across a broad spectrum of volcanological questions. When should the call for evacuation be made? What early preparations should be made for a volcano crisis? Is it worthwhile waiting longer? What areas should be covered by an emergency plan? During unrest, what areas of a large volcanic field or caldera should be evacuated, and when? The VRM strategy has the paramount advantage of providing a set of quantitative and transparent rules that can be established well in advance of a crisis, optimizing and clarifying decision-making procedures. It enables volcanologists to apply all their scientific knowledge and observational information to assist authorities in quantifying the positive and negative risk implications of any decision.

  5. Monitoring the geothermal fluid using time lapse electrical resistivity tomography: The Pisciarelli fumarolic field test site (Campi Flegrei, South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Alessandro; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Reanto; Caputo, Teresa; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Pisciarelli area is a fumarolic field subject to very short time morphological changes. A number of critical problems affect this area, i.e. increase of temperature of the fumaroles above the average background temperature, local seismicity and occurrence of fumaroles mixed with jets of boiling water. The presence of a very shallow aquifer seem to have the control on the behavior and composition of the fumaroles. This fumarolic field is still largely unknown regarding geophysical surveys mainly because of its limited space, surrounded on the eastern side by intense urbanization inside the large Agnano crater (Troiano et al. 2014). Currently is mainly affected by geochemical, thermal and seismic monitoring which may not fully explain the behaviour of fluids surface. Many monitoring or time lapse (TL) applications are discussed in literature (e.g., White, 1994; Daily et al., 1995; Barker and Moore, 1998; Ramirez and Daily, 2001; Carter, 2002; Slater et al., 2002; Singha and Gorelick, 2005; Cassiani et al., 2006; Swarzenski et al., 2006; de Franco et al., 2009). However all these experiments are devoted to the use of the ERT for tracer tests or in contaminant hydrology and are characterized by a short monitoring period due to the complexity and problems of long-time instrument maintenance. We propose and present a first approach of a geophysical monitoring by time lapse electrical resistivity in a fumarolic field. The profiles were acquired in January 2013, in January, March, May, July, September and November 2014 respectively. They cross the Pisciarelli area following approximately the NS direction and were characterized by a 2.5 m electrode spacing and maximum penetration depth of about 20 m. and will supply fundamental evidences on the possible seasonal resistivity fluctuations or if the resistivity changes are indicative of an increase in volcanic gases present in the hydrothermal system.

  6. The effect of the sea on hazard assessment for tephra fallout at Campi Flegrei: a preliminary approach through the use of pyPHaz, an open tool to analyze and visualize probabilistic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo

    2014-05-01

    Campi Flegrei (CF) is a large volcanic field located west of the Gulf of Naples, characterized by a wide and almost circular caldera which is partially submerged beneath the Gulf of Pozzuoli. It is known that the magma-water interaction is a key element to determine the character of submarine eruptions and their impact on the surrounding areas, but this phenomenon is still not well understood and it is rarely considered in hazard assessment. The aim of the present work is to present a preliminary study of the effect of the sea on the tephra fall hazard from CF on the municipality of Naples, by introducing a variability in the probability of tephra production according to the eruptive scale (defined on the basis of the erupted volume) and the depth of the opening submerged vents. Four different Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) models have been defined through the application of the model BET_VH at CF, by accounting for different modeling procedures and assumptions for the submerged part of the caldera. In particular, we take into account: 1) the effect of the sea as null, i.e. as if the water were not present; 2) the effect of the sea as a cap that totally blocks the explosivity of eruptions and consequently the tephra production; 3) an ensemble model between the two models described at the previous points 1) and 2); 4) a variable probability of tephra production depending on the depth of the submerged vent. The PVHA models are then input to pyPHaz, a tool developed and designed at INGV to visualize, analyze and merge into ensemble models PVHA's results and, potentially, any other kind of probabilistic hazard assessment, both natural and anthropic, in order to evaluate the importance of considering a variability among subaerial and submerged vents on tephra fallout hazard from CF in Naples. The analysis is preliminary and does not pretend to be exhaustive, but on one hand it represents a starting point for future works; on the other hand, it is a good

  7. A chemostratigraphic study of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy): Insights on magma chamber withdrawal and deposit accumulation as revealed by compositionally zoned stratigraphic and facies framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Sparice, D.; Perrotta, A.; Laiena, F.

    2016-09-01

    Petrochemical analyses of juvenile samples from twenty stratigraphic sections of the Campanian Ignimbrite medial deposits, located from 30 to 79 km from the vent, are presented here. Sampling has accurately followed a well-defined stratigraphic framework and the new component facies scheme. The Campanian Ignimbrite succession is formed by a basal plinian pumice fall deposit, overlain by a complex architecture of pyroclastic density current deposits emplaced from a single sustained pyroclastic density current through a mechanism of vertical and lateral accretion. The deposit is broadly zoned, from more evolved trachyte at its base to less evolved trachyte at its top, and is similarly less evolved with increasing distance from the area of emission. Irregular chemical trends are locally observed and interpreted to represent only a limited, "patchy" record of the entire vertical geochemical trend. The petrochemical variation observed horizontally was ascribed to changes in the flow dynamics and interaction between the advancing flow and the underlying topography. The results of this study were used to propose a unified volcanological-petrological model for the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, taking into account the emplacement of both the proximal (i.e., the "Breccia Museo" formation) and medial deposits.

  8. Trachyte Obsidian Blocks in the Lag-Breccia of Ignimbrite Campana (Campi Flegrei, Italy). Additional Experimental Data related to the magma ascent conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, R. C.; Dolfi, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Obsidian blocks occurring frequently in the Lag-breccia of the Ignimbrite Campana super-eruption (IC) have been found to mime strictly the magma composition and the phenocrysts assemblage of the main eruptive ash- flow unit, possibly representing a quenched fraction of the magmatic system. To date, in spite of the several investigations on the erupted rocks, conclusive data on the fissural vents location, intracrustal reservoir(s) depth and dissolved volatiles in the melt, are controversial. The obsidian blocks show, typically, millimetric euhedral sanidine phenocrysts (up to 10-12 vol.%) regularly associated with salitic pyroxene, corroded bytownite, euhedral andesine, ulvo-spinel, apatite and biotite (totalling 4-6 vol.%). All these phases, but the bytownite, appear to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with the melt as shown by the equilibrium experiments performed at subliquidus T and confining P(H2O) of 50, 100, and 200 MPa. At 100 and 200 MPa, in particular, the entry order of mineral phases is corresponding to the obsidian one, with near liquidus co-crystallization of pyroxene, plagioclase and ulvospinel. Crystallisation is scarce until the appearance of sanidine(40-60°C below the liquidus), which brings quickly to the complete solidification of the magmatic system. Other experiments at the same P's and T's just above liquidus were performed to determine the H2O solubility in the melt both under equilibrium conditions (respectively 2.6, 4.7, and 6.9 wt.%) and under slow decompression gradients. In these last experiments performed by decreasing the confining P from 100 to 50 MPa with gradients up to 0.02 MPa/s and delay times before quenching from 0 to 12 h, no vesiculation was observed at the SEM scale, despite the amount of dissolved H2O (3.4wt.%) resulted significantly higher than the equilibrium value at the final experimental P. The effect of slow decompression rates at shallow depths keeps the volatiles into the melt enhancing the magma ascent already triggered at higher depths by the increase of the dissolved H2O due to the extensive crystal-liquid fractionation from a parent magma basaltic-trachyandesitic in composition (Fowler et al., J. Petrol., 2007).

  9. Seafloor doming driven by active mantle degassing offshore Naples (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guido; Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Structures and processes associated with shallow water hydrothermal fluid discharges on continental shelves are poorly known. We report geomorphological, geophysical, and geochemical evidences of a 5.5 x 5.3 km seabed doming located 5 km offshore the Naples harbor (Italy). The dome lies between 100 and 170 m of water depth and it is 15-20 m higher than the surrounding seafloor. It is characterized by a hummocky morphology due to 280 sub-circular to elliptical mounds, about 660 cones, and 30 pockmarks. The mounds and pockmarks alignments follow those of the main structural discontinuity affecting the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching require relatively low pressures (about 2-3 MPa), and the sub-seafloor structures, which consists of 'pagodas' affecting the present-day seabed, record the active upraise, pressurization, and release of magmatic fluids. The gas composition of the sampled submarine emissions is consistent with that of the emissions from the hydrothermal systems of Ischia, CampiFlegrei and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, and CO2 has a magmatic/thermometamorphic origin. The 3He/4He ratios (1.66-1.96 Ra) are slightly lower than in the Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei volcanoes (~2.6-3.0 Ra) indicating the contamination of fluids originated from the same magmatic source by crustal-derived radiogenic 4He. All these evidences concur to hypothesize an extended magmatic reservoir beneath Naples and its offshore. Seabed doming, faulting, and hydrothermal discharges are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions. We conclude that seabed deformations and hydrothermal discharge must be included in the coastal hazard studies.

  10. The structure of the Campanian Plain and the activity of the Neapolitan volcanoes (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandone, Roberto; Bellucci, Francesca; Lirer, Lucio; Rolandi, Giuseppe

    1991-08-01

    The central Campanian Plain is dominated by the structural depression of Acerra whose origin is tectonic, but may have been enlarged and further depressed after the eruption of the Campanian Ignimbrite (42-25 ka). The deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite are possibly the results of multiple eruptions with huge pyroclastic deposits that covered all the Campanian Plain. The more recent activity of Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Procida occurred on the borders of Acerra depression and resulted from a reactivation of regional faults after the Campanian Ignimbrite cycle. The activity of Vesuvius produced the building of a stratovolcano mostly by effusive and plinian explosive eruptions. The Campi Flegrei area, on the contrary, was dominated by the eruption of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff at 12 ka that produced a caldera collapse of the Gulf of Pozzuoli. The caldera formation controlled the emplacement of the recent activity of Campi Flegrei and the new volcanoes were formed only within the caldera or along its rim.

  11. First hydroacoustic evidence of marine, active fluid vents in the Naples Bay continental shelf (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Genovese, Simona; Sacchi, Marco; Barra, Marco; Rumolo, Paola; Tamburrino, Stella; Mazzola, Salvatore; Basilone, Gualtiero; Placenti, Francesco; Aronica, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of a multidisciplinary research aimed at the detection and mapping of Active Fluid Vents (AFVs) at the seafloor of the Naples Bay, Italy. This segment of the Campania continental margin is characterised by severe Quaternary extension and intense volcanism at Ischia and Procida islands, the Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complexes. High resolution hydroacoustic profilers were used to identify and localize fluid emission from the seafloor. ROV direct observation showed that each emission centre is generally composed by the coalescence of several emitting points. CTD probes showed that there are no significant gradients in temperature profiles. The results of this study include the detection and mapping of 54 fluid emission points all located in the - 71/- 158 m depth range, and spatially distributed into four main clusters. Three of the described clusters are located along the margin of a complex, toe-shaped seafloor morphology southwest of the Somma-Vesuvius, representing the shallow expression of partly buried, coalesced depositional features (namely, two flank collapses and one pyroclastic flow) associated with the Late Pleistocene activity of the volcano. The fourth AFV cluster was detected at the morphological - high, located about 8 km south of Naples (Banco della Montagna), represented by a field of volcaniclastic diapirs composed of massive pumiceous deposits originated from the Campi Flegrei intruding rising through the latest Quaternary-Holocene marine deposits. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AFV in this area could be genetically linked to the interaction between volcanic related seafloor morphologies and the main, NE striking faults present in the area, i.e. the Magnaghi-Sebeto line and the Vesuvian fault.

  12. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Vivo, B.; Rolandi, G.; Gans, P.B.; Calvert, A.; Bohrson, W.A.; Spera, F.J.; Belkin, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ∼ 150 km3 (DRE) trachytic Campanian Ignimbrite, which is situated north-west of Naples, Italy, is one of the largest eruptions in the Mediterranean region in the last 200 ky. Despite centuries of investigation, the age and eruptive history of the Campanian Ignimbrite is still debated, as is the chronology of other significant volcanic events of the Campanian Plain within the last 200–300 ky. New 40Ar/39Ar geochronology defines the age of the Campanian Ignimbrite at 39.28 ± 0.11 ka, about 2 ky older than the previous best estimate. Based on the distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite and associated uppermost proximal lithic and polyclastic breccias, we suggest that the Campanian Ignimbrite magma was emitted from fissures activated along neotectonic Apennine faults rather than from ring fractures defining a Campi Flegrei caldera. Significantly, new volcanological, geochronological, and geochemical data distinguish previously unrecognized ignimbrite deposits in the Campanian Plain, accurately dated between 157 and 205 ka. These ages, coupled with a xenocrystic sanidine component > 315 ka, extend the volcanic history of this region by over 200 ky. Recent work also identifies a pyroclastic deposit, dated at 18.0 ka, outside of the topographic Campi Flegrei basin, expanding the spatial distribution of post-Campanian Ignimbrite deposits. These new discoveries emphasize the importance of continued investigation of the ages, distribution, volumes, and eruption dynamics of volcanic events associated with the Campanian Plain. Such information is critical for accurate assessment of the volcanic hazards associated with potentially large-volume explosive eruptions in close proximity to the densely populated Neapolitan region.

  13. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     ... cover at least 160,000 acres in this part of Italy, where rice is the most important crop. These views of the region were acquired on May ... May 8, 2005 - Natural color and composite images of rice cultivation in Northwest Italy. project:  MISR ...

  14. Research progress in volcanology in the Neapolitan area, southern Italy: a review and some alternative views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivo, Benedetto; Petrosino, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; Rolandi, Giuseppe; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2010-05-01

    Comprehensive reviews are given for the major volcanic systems that occur in the greater metropolitan area of Naples, southern Italy; Mt. Somma-Vesuvius to the east and the Campi Flegrei volcanic system to the west. Also included in the review is a detailed discussion of the large, highly explosive Campania Volcanic Zone (CVZ) ignimbrite events. These volcanic areas have been studied for more than 100 years, yet significant differences of opinion exist related to fundamental issues of origin and distribution. We present some alternative views related to petrogenesis on some issues based on more than 25 years of research. The relationship between risk assessment and management that impacts the threatened society or culture and the past and ongoing fundamental volcanological research is an essential part of the science. Countries with limited resources may be forced to accept an increased risk but even highly industrialized societies may not be able to completely eliminate deaths from volcanic eruptions. Scientific studies of the hazardous regions should be comprehensive and include reasonable alternative interpretations as this information reveals the level of confidence that must be conveyed to the public officials. The authors review the state of the art of risk assessment and management of the volcanic hazards in the Neapolitan region in light of the review of research.

  15. Satellite-derived surface temperature and in situ measurement at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, M.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Buongiorno, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    Ground thermal anomalies in volcanic-hydrothermal systems, where the outflow of hot fluids gives rise to fumarolic fields, soil degassing, and hot soils, have, up to now, rarely been investigated by using satellite. Here we report a comparison between surface temperature derived by satellite data and a large data set of measured soil temperatures and CO2 fluxes for a volcanic-hydrothermal system, the Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Campi Flegrei, Italy). Surface temperatures derived from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data are compared with soil temperatures and CO2 fluxes from four surveys performed in 2003, 2010, and in 2014. The good match between the spatial distributions of computed and measured temperatures suggests the adequacy of satellite data to describe the Solfatara thermal anomaly, while the correspondence between temperatures and CO2 fluxes, evidences the link between degassing and heating processes. The ASTER derived surface temperatures (14-37°C) are coherent with those measured in the soil (10-97°C at 10 cm depth), considering the effect of the thermal gradients which characterize the degassing area of Solfatara. This study shows that satellite data can be a very powerful tool with which to study surface thermal anomalies, and can provide a supplementary tool to monitor thermal evolution of restless volcanoes.

  16. First integrated tephrochronological record for the last ∼190 kyr from the Fucino Quaternary lacustrine succession, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccio, Biagio; Niespolo, Elizabeth M.; Pereira, Alison; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Albert, Paul G.; Arienzo, Ilenia; Regattieri, Eleonora; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Gaeta, Mario; Galli, Paolo; Mannella, Giorgio; Peronace, Edoardo; Sottili, Gianluca; Florindo, Fabio; Leicher, Niklas; Marra, Fabrizio; Tomlinson, Emma L.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first integrated tephrochronological study (major and trace elemental glass composition, Sr and Nd isotope analyses, and 40Ar/39Ar dating) for the last one tenth (∼82 m) of the ∼900 m-thick Quaternary lacustrine succession of the Fucino Basin, the largest and probably only Central Apennine intermountain tectonic depression that hosts a continuous lacustrine succession documenting the Plio-Quaternary sedimentary history up to historical times. Major element glass compositions, determined using a wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe (WDS-EMPA), yielded the geochemical fingerprinting needed for a reliable identification of most of the 23 stratigraphically ordered tephra layers under investigation. These include tephra from Italian volcanoes such as Campi Flegrei, Etna, Colli Albani, Ischia, Vico, Sabatini, and undefined volcanic sources in the Neapolitan area and Latium region. The recognition of key Mediterranean marker tephra layers (e.g. X-5 and X-6) is supported by trace element data acquired by Laser Ablation Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The Sr and Nd isotope compositions of selected layers where also determined for circumscribing the volcanic source of distal tephra and for supporting correlations with individual eruptive units. We also propose a new, more expeditious covariation diagram (CaO/FeOtot vs Cl) for identifying the volcanic source of trachytic to phonolitic and tephrytic to phonolitic tephra, that are the most common compositions of pyroclastic rocks from volcanoes of Campania and Latium regions. Finally, we present five new 40Ar/39Ar age determinations, including a new, analytically well-supported, and more precise 40Ar/39Ar age for the widespread Y-7 tephra, and the first 40Ar/39Ar age determinations for one tephra from the Sabatini volcanic district (∼126 ka) and one tephra from Neapolitan volcanic area (Campi Flegrei?; ∼159 ka). These newly dated tephra are widely dispersed (e.g. Monticchio

  17. The role of volcanic activity and climate in alluvial fan growth at volcanic areas: an example from southern Campania (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Di Vito, M. A.

    2004-06-01

    Volcaniclastic-rich alluvial fans developed in the southern Campanian Plain (Italy) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in an area eastward of the Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei volcanoes. Meanwhile, bedrock-rich alluvial fans developed in areas unaffected by pyroclastic deposition. Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcaniclastic-rich alluvial fans show some important differences: (i) late Pleistocene alluvial fans were dominated by hyperconcentrated flow deposits, whereas the Holocene ones were dominated by debris flows deposits; and (ii) late Pleistocene fans consist of several superimposed sedimentary bodies, characterized by homogeneous volcaniclastic material, whereas Holecene fans show either volcaniclastic bodies with homogenous lithology or mixed lithology (i.e., juvenile fractions eroded from different tephra layers). These differences are not related to the amount of volcaniclastic supply in time, but seem to be linked to changes in climatic condition between late Pleistocene and Holocene. Rapid remobilization of the pyroclastic material was favored by climatic and vegetation conditions of the study area during the late Pleistocene, when a semiarid setting dominated by steppe-like vegetation prevailed. During Holocene, the general increase in temperature and humidity favored vegetation and soil development and stabilization of the loose volcaniclastic materials. Thus, part of volcaniclastic material was stored in the catchments and was available for erosion a long time after an eruption. Shallow soil slips, active also today, generated volcaniclastic debris flows characterized by mixed lithology of pumice and scoria.

  18. Multiple Reservoirs in the Mofete Field, Naples, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Carella, R.; Guglielminetti, M.

    1983-12-15

    Mofete field, located near Naples, in southern Italy, lies within the large Campi Flegrei caldera. Drilling for geothermal fluids was carried out unsuccessfully in 1939-1954. AGIP, in joint venture with the national utility ENEL, after intensive exploration efforts, resumed drilling at the end of 1978; several new deep wells indicate the presence of a water dominated field in Mofete with three reservoirs (only the shallowest of which was reached by previous wells). The deepest aquifer, tapped by well Mofete 5 at the depth of about 2700 m, contains hypersaline fluids (about 516000 ppm TDS at atmospheric conditions corresponding to about 150000 ppm in the reservoir) with a bottom hole temperature of about 360{degrees}C. The intermediate level, reached by well Mofete 2 at 1900 m depth, is characterized by low salinity fluids (about 38000 ppm TDS at the surface corresponding to 18000 ppm calculated in the reservoir) with a reservoir temperature of 340{degrees}C. The uppermost reservoir, tapped by wells Mofete 1, 3D, 7D, 8D and 9D ranges between 550 and 1500 m depth and has water with salinity ranging from 40000 to 76000 ppm TDS at the surface corresponding to 28000 to 52000 ppm in the reservoir with a bottom temperature of 230-308{degrees}C. The uppermost aqifer is in fractured volcanic rocks while the other two are in a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary complex. Long term production and injection tests will be carried out shortly to ascertain the main characteristics of the field.

  19. Lateral variations of seismic intensity attenuation in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carletti, Francescantonia; Gasperini, Paolo

    2003-12-01

    A tomographic study of the attenuation of seismic intensity in the Italian territory has been carried on the basis of a felt report database including more than 50 000 macroseismic observations. The spatial variations of the attenuation coefficients have been computed on meshes of 50 and 25 km and compared with other geophysical observables. By checkerboard and restore tests using a Gaussian error with a realistic amplitude of one intensity degree we verified that a selected set including about 20000 observations is able to reliably reproduce the imposed patterns. For the laterally varying attenuation model we also found a general reduction and a more uniform distribution of the average locality residual with respect to an isotropic attenuation law. The comparison of the inversion results with seismic velocity tomography of the crust and upper mantle shows fair correspondences between high-attenuation and low-velocity areas (Tyrrhenian slope of northern and central Apennines) as well as between low-attenuation and high-velocity ones (Po valley and Adriatic coast). The normalized attenuation functions computed for some areas of Italy also agree fairly well with empirical non-parametric attenuation functions determined by others, from accelerometer data. A clear correlation was found between the inferred behaviour of the slope of the attenuation function in the vicinity of the source (distance <45 km) and the heat flow. In fact, the most attenuating zones almost coincide with the highs of heat flow located along the northern Tyrrhenian coast of Tuscany and Latium and in the other volcanic areas (Campi Flegrei, Mount Etna, Colli Euganei and Monti Lessini). This clear correlation represents a convincing confirmation of the physical grounds on which the use and interpretation of macroseismic data is based.

  20. Mt. Vesuvius and Naples, Italy as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The ancient eruption of Vesuvius (the volcanoe near the center of the frame) destroyed the town of Pompeii located on the southeast flank. But the larger town of Naples, between Vesuvius (to the south) and the large, circular, lake-filled caldera of Campi Flegrei (to the west) is also close to volcanic hazards. In this view, Naples is the gray urban area with substantial coastal development just northwest of Vesuvius. Other landmarks marking the Italian coast include the small island of Capri, just off the west-pointing peninsula, and the city of Salerno on the coast just south of the same peninsula.

  1. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  2. Methane production and consumption in an active volcanic environment of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Simona; Tedesco, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Methane fluxes were measured, using closed chambers, in the Crater of Solfatara volcano, Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), along eight transects covering areas of the crater presenting different landscape physiognomies. These included open bare areas, presenting high geothermal fluxes, and areas covered by vegetation, which developed along a gradient from the central open area outwards, in the form of maquis, grassland and woodland. Methane fluxes decreased logarithmically (from 150 to -4.5 mg CH4 m(-2)day(-1)) going from the central part of the crater (fangaia) to the forested edges, similarly to the CO2 fluxes (from 1500 g CO2 m(-2)day(-1) in the centre of the crater to almost zero flux in the woodlands). In areas characterized by high emissions, soil presented elevated temperature (up to 70 degrees C at 0-10 cm depth) and extremely low pH (down to 1.8). Conversely, in woodland areas pH was higher (between 3.7 and 5.1) and soil temperature close to air values. Soil (0-10 cm) was sampled, in two different occasions, along the eight transects, and was tested for methane oxidation capacity in laboratory. Areas covered by vegetation mostly consumed CH4 in the following order woodland>macchia>grassland. Methanotrophic activity was also measured in soil from the open bare area. Oxidation rates were comparable to those measured in the plant covered areas and were significantly correlated with field CH4 emissions. The biological mechanism of uptake was demonstrated by the absence of activity in autoclaved replicates. Thus results suggest the existence of a population of micro-organisms adapted to this extreme environment, which are able to oxidize CH4 and whose activity could be stimulated and supported by elevated concentrations of CH4.

  3. Comparative proximal features of the main Plinian deposits (Campanian Ignimbrite and Pomici di Base) of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpati, Claudio; Sparice, Domenico; Perrotta, Annamaria

    2016-07-01

    The proximal Plinian fall deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 38 ky, Fedele et al., 2008) and Pomici di Base (PdB; 18 ky, Bertagnini et al., 1998) have been investigated in order to understand the contribution of each part of the plume to the proximal sedimentation. Following Houghton et al. (2004b) we consider three main transport regimes: jet phase (producing facies Fb), buoyant region of the plume (producing facies Fa) and direct lateral ejection (producing facies Fc). As well documented in medial locations (Sparks et al., 1992, 1997; Ernst et al., 1996), transport regimes can develop different facies even in proximal locations according to the dynamics of the eruptive column. Our proximal deposits show stratification and diffuse bedding allowing us to introduce two new facies: stratified Fa (sFa) and diffuse bedded Fb (dbFb). These facies retain the transport regime previously proposed for Fa (buoyant plume) and Fb (jet phase) but their lithological features are influenced by near-vent depositional conditions. Lithology and sedimentological data (grain-size, componentry, maximum clasts) suggest that most of the sedimentation occurred mainly from the buoyant plume with simultaneous contribution from the other two different dynamic regimes. Coarse clasts falling from the lower margins of the plume strongly affected the sedimentation of the CI proximal fall deposit with a minor contribution from lithic clasts ballistically emplaced and partial collapses of the plume forming pyroclastic density currents. In contrast, the PdB proximal fall deposit was strongly affected by coarse clasts emplaced directly from the vent through parabolic trajectories, with very little contribution of material emplaced from the lower part of the plume. These differences can be attributed to different vent/conduit processes acting during the eruptions.

  4. Permeability estimates from artificial drawdown and natural refill experiments at Solfatara volcano, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woith, Heiko; Chiodini, Giovanni; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-04-01

    The hydrothermal system beneath Campi Flegrei is strongly affected by sub-surface processes as manifested by a geothermal "plume" below Solfatara, associated with the formation of mud-pools (Fangaia), fumaroles (Bocca Grande, Pisciarelli), and thermal springs (Agnano). Within the frame of MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant agreement no 308665), pressure transients in the hydrothermal system of Campi Flegrei are being continuously monitored at fumaroles, mudpools, hot springs, and geothermal wells. In total, waterlevel and temperature is recorded at 8 sites across the hydrothermal plume along a profile aligned between Agnano Termal in the East and Fangaia in the West. Autonomous devices are used to record the water level and water temperature at 10 minute intervals. At Fangaia mudpool water level and water temperature are dominantly controlled by rain water. Thus, the pool is refilled episodically. Contrary, the water level at a well producing hot water (82°C) for the Pisciarelli tennis club drops and recovers at nearly regular intervals. The induced water level changes are of the order of 1-2m and 3-4m in case of the mudpool and the hot-water-well, respectively. At first glance, both monitoring sites might seem to be fully useless to access natural changes in the Campi Flegrei fluid system. At a second thought, both timeseries provide a unique opportunity to monitor potential permeability changes in the aquifer system. A similar approach had been proposed to deduce earthquake-related permeability changes from Earth tide variations. Contrary to the indirect Earth tide approach, we have the chance to estimate the hydraulic aquifer properties from our monitoring data directly, since each time series contains a sequence of discrete hydraulic tests - namely drawdown tests and refill experiments. Although our Cooper-Jacob approach is really crude, we obtained reasonable permeability

  5. Flash floods along the Italian coastal areas: examples from Pozzuoli city, Campania, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Matano, Fabio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sacchi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Italian western coastal areas are the most exposed in the country to low-pressure systems coming from the central-western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the last years, many Italian coastal villages were struck by floods and flow processes triggered by high-intensity and short-duration rainfall, typical of flash flood events. In the Campania region (SW Italy) a series of events has caused several fatalities and heavy damages in the last decades, i.e. the flash floods of Casamicciola - Ischia Island (10/11/2009 - 1 fatality) and Atrani (9/9/2010 - 1 fatality). In this work we describe the rainfall properties and the ground effects of the 2009, 2010 and 2011 flash floods which involved the city of Pozzuoli, along the Campi Flegrei coast, where a catastrophic flood event (13 fatalities) is reported in 1918 in the AVI Project database. Rainfall data were measured at a sampling rate of 10 minutes by a regional Civil Protection rain gauge located in the city of Pozzuoli near the areas struck by the flash flood effects. In order to analyze the extreme features of the rainstorms and compare them, we have considered the 1-hour maximum rainfall amount and the 10-min peak storm intensity value for each event. The first rainstorm occurred on 14 September 2009; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 34.4 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 57.6 mm/h. The second rainstorm occurred on 30 July 2010; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 40.6 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 126 mm/h. The third rainstorm occurred on 06 November 2011; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 44.2 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 67.2 mm/h. The three described rainstorms all triggered erosional processes and shallow landslides in the upper part of the Pozzuoli drainage basin that supplied sheet flows and hyperconcentrated flows downstream, with severe damage to the human structures built near or inside the

  6. Cluster analysis applied to velocity, attenuation and gravity tomography: the case of Campanian district volcanoes (southern italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiano, A.; di Giuseppe, M.; Petrillo, Z.; de Siena, L.; Siniscalchi, A.; Berrino, G.

    2009-12-01

    The interpretation of the results of seismic velocity, attenuation and gravity inversion are usually based on the qualitative observation and comparison of the different tomographic images. A promising tool to jointly interpret tomographic models based on different parameters resides in the application of statistical classification methods, such as the k-means clustering method, which minimizes the logic distance among each group of observations having homogeneous physical properties and maximizes the same quantity between groups. The correlation between the models is subsequently examined and significant classes (volumes of high correlation) are identified. Such technique is able to spatially clusterize the zones having similar characteristics in a statistical sense. Each zone is finally identified by the barycenter (centroid) of the corresponding cluster. Although the Vp velocity, Qp and Qs attenuation structures and density anomalies of Mt.Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei area Italy, have been already interpreted, to obtain a quantitative interpretation gathered in a unified model consistent with the entire dataset, a cluster analysis was applied to these models. This analysis permitted to define a simplified model of the volcanic complexes in terms of the independent geophysical parameters, characterized by sharp and well defined boundaries . This post-interpretation technique on one hand is largely far from being quantitative in terms of rock lithology , but in the same time is fast, easy and useful to retrieve the main patterns of the investigated structures. In other words, k-means cluster analysis may act as a bridge between qualitative interpretation (based on the visual comparison of the different structures obtained with different tomography techniques) and more quantitative approaches (based on the joint inversion of multiple attributes).

  7. Signature of magmatic processes in ground deformation signals from Phlegraean Fields (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagagli, Matteo; Montagna, Chiara Paola; Longo, Antonella; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Ground deformation signals such as dilatometric and tiltmetric ones, are nowadays well studied from the vulcanological community all over the world. These signals can be used to retrieve information on volcanoes state and to study the magma dynamics in their plumbing system. We compared synthetic signals in the Very Long Period (VLP, 10-2 - 10-1 Hz) and Ultra Long Period (ULP, 10-4 - 10-2 Hz) bands obtained from the simulation of magma mixing in shallow reservoirs ([3],[4]) with real data obtained from the dilatometers and tiltmeters network situated in the Phlegraean Fields near Naples (Italy), in order to define and constrain the relationships between them. Analyses of data from the October 2006 seismic swarm in the area show that the frequency spectrum of the synthetics is remarkably similar to the transient present in the real signals. In depth studies with accurated techniques for spectral analysis (i.e wavelet transform) and application of this method to other time windows have identified in the bandwidth around 10-4Hz (between 1h30m and 2h45m) peaks that are fairly stable and independent from the processing carried out on the full-band signal. These peaks could be the signature of ongoing convection at depth. It is well known that re-injection of juvenile magmas can reactivate the eruption dynamics ([1],[2]), thus being able to define mixing markers and detect them in the ground deformation signals is a relevant topic in order to understand the dynamics of active and quiescent vulcanoes and to eventually improve early-warning methods for impending eruptions. [1] Arienzo, I. et al. (2010). "The feeding system of Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy): dragging the past into present activity and future scenarios". In: Chemical Geology 270.1, pp. 135-147. [2] Bachmann, Olivier and George Bergantz (2008). "The magma reservoirs that feed supereruptions". In: Elements 4.1, pp. 17-21. [3] Longo, Antonella et al. (2012). "Magma convection and mixing

  8. Current and future trends of Volcanology in Italy and abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, P.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology in Italy and in the world has rapidly developed during last decades. In the Seventies, stratigraphy and petrology provided the basic knowledge on the volcanic activities that still forms the root for modern volcano research. During the Eighties and Nineties the interest was more on the quantitative description of the volcanic processes, with enormous progresses in different but complementary fields including laboratory measurements and experiments, physico-mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, geophysical surveys and inverse analysis, and volcano monitoring and surveillance. In year 2000 a large number of magma properties and magmatic and volcanic processes was characterized at a first or higher order. Volcano research in Italy during the first decade of the new millennium has further developed along those lines. To-date, the very high risk Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius volcanoes, and the less risky but permanently active Etna and Stromboli volcanoes, are among the best monitored and more deeply investigated worldwide. The last decade has also seen coordinated efforts aimed at exploring exploitation of knowledge and skills for the benefit of the society. A series of projects focused on volcanic hazard and risk have joined >1000 researchers from Italian and foreign (Europe, US, Japan) Universities and Research Centers, on themes and objectives jointly defined by scientists from INGV and end-users from the national Civil Protection Department. These projects provide a global picture of volcano research in year 2010, that appears to be evolving through i) further rapid developments in the fields of investigation listed above, ii) their merging into effective multidisciplinary approaches, and iii) the full inclusion of the concepts of uncertainty and probabilities in volcanic scenario predictions and hazard forecast. The latter reflects the large inaccessibility of the volcanic systems, the extreme non-linear behaviour of volcanic processes put in

  9. Geochemical and biochemical evidence of lake overturn and fish kill at Lake Averno, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliro, S.; Chiodini, G.; Izzo, G.; Minopoli, C.; Signorini, A.; Avino, R.; Granieri, D.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Averno is situated in the homonymous crater in the northwestern sector of the Campi Flegrei active volcanic system in Campania region, Italy. In February 2005 a fish kill event was observed in the lake, prompting a geochemical survey to ascertain the possible cause. In February 2005 a geochemical survey revealed that the lake water was unstratified chemically and isotopically, presumably, as a result of lake overturn. This fish kill phenomenon was recorded at least two other times in the past. In contrast to the February 2005 results, data collected in October 2005, shows the Lake Averno to be stratified, with an oxic epilimnion (surface to 6 m) and an anoxic hypolimnion (6 m to lake bottom at about 33 m). Chemical and isotopic compositions of Lake Averno waters suggest an origin by mixing of shallow waters with a Na-Cl hydrothermal component coupled with an active evaporation process. The isotopic composition of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, as well as the composition of the non-reactive dissolved gas species again supports the occurrence of this mixing process. Decreasing levels of SO 4 and increasing levels of H 2S and CH 4 contents in lake water with depth, strongly suggests anaerobic bacterial processes are occurring through decomposition of organic matter under anoxic conditions in the sediment and in the water column. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis processes coexist and play a pivotal role in the anaerobic environment of the Lake Averno. The sulfate reducing bacterial activity has been estimated in the range of 14-22 μmol m - 2 day - 1 . Total gas pressure of dissolved gases ranges between 800 and 1400 mbar, well below the hydrostatic pressure throughout the water column, excluding the possibility, at least at the survey time, of a limnic eruption. Vertical changes in the density of lake waters indicate that overturn may be triggered by cooling of epilimnetic waters below 7 °C. This is a possible phenomenon in winter periods if atmospheric

  10. Tephrochronology offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insinga, Donatella; Sulpizio, Roberto; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Morabito, Simona; Morra, Vincenzo; Sprovieri, Mario; di Benedetto, Claudia; Lubritto, Carmine; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    the coring site. The definition of the source area of these two major events is still a matter of debate. However, the Somma-Vesuvius complex reasonably sourced the Schiava deposits while a Campi Flegrei provenance for the Codola deposits cannot be ruled out (Di Vito et al., 2008). These latters, known as C10 tephra in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic sea (Paterne et al., 1988; Giaccio et al., 2008), in particular, represent reliable regional markers for the whole central Mediterranean area. References De Vivo, B., Rolandi, G., Gans, P.B., Calvert, A., Bohrson,W.A., Spera, F.J., Belkin, H.E., 2001. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy). Mineralogy and Petrology 73, 47-65. Di Vito,M.A., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., D'Orazio, M., 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: newinsights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.177, 19-48. Giaccio, B., Isaia, R., Fedele, F.G., Di Canzio, E., Hoffecker, J., Ronchitelli, A., Sinitsyn, A., Anikovich, M., Lisitsyn, S.N., 2008. The Campanian Ignimbrite and Codola tephra layers: two temporal/stratigraphic markers for the Early Upper Palaeloithic in southern Italy and eastern Europe. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 177, 210-228. Paterne M., Guichard F. & Labeyrie J., 1988. Explosive activity of the south Italian volcanoes during the past 80.000 years as determined by marine tephrochronology. J. Volcanol. Geother. Res. 34, 153-172. Paterne, M., Guichard, F., 1993. Triggering of volcanic pluses in the Campanian area, south Italy, by periodic deep magma in.ux. Journal of Geophysical Research 98 (B2), 1861-1873. Rio, D., Raffi, I., Villa, G., 1990. Pliocene-Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil distribution patterns in the western Mediterranean. In: Kastens, K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, vol. 107. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, pp. 513-533. Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G

  11. Geodetic Monitoring System Operating On Neapolitan Volcanic Area (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingue, F.; Ov-Geodesy Team

    The Neapolitan volcanic area is located in the southern sector of the Campanian Plain Graben including three volcanic active structures (Somma-Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia). The Somma-Vesuvius complex, placed East of Naples, is a strato-volcano composed by a more ancient apparatus (Mt. Somma) and a younger cone (Mt. Vesu- vius) developed inside Somma caldera. Since last eruption (1944) it is in a quiescent state characterised by a low level seismicity and deformation activity. The Campi Fle- grei, located West of Naples, are a volcanic field inside an older caldera rim. The last eruption, occurred in the 1538, built up the Mt. Nuovo cone. The Campi Flegrei are subject to a slow vertical deformation, called bradyseism. In the 1970-1972 and 1982-1984 they have been affected by two intense episodes of ground upheaval (ac- companied by an intense seismic activity)0, followed by a subsidence phase, slower than uplift and still active. Though such phenomenon has not been followed by erup- tive events, it caused serious damages, emphasizing the high volcanic risk of the phle- grean caldera. The Ischia island, located SW of Naples, has been characterised by a volcanic activity both explosive and effusive, occurred mainly in the last 50,000 years. These events modelled the topography producing fault systems and structures delim- iting the Mt. Epomeo resurgent block. The last eruption has occurred on 1302. After, the dynamics of the island has been characterised by seismic activity (the strongest earthquake occurred on 1883) and by a meaningful subsidence, on the S and NW sec- tors of the island. The concentration of such many active volcanoes in an area with a dense urbanization (about 1,500,000 inhabitants live) needs systematic and contin- uous monitoring of the dynamics. These information are necessary in order to char- acterise eruptive precursors useful for modelling the volcanoes behaviour. Insofar, the entire volcanic Neapolitan area, characterised by a

  12. Matching high-resolution seismic and electrical resistivity profiling to infer the shallow structure of Solfatara Volcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Pier Paolo; Gresse, Marceau; Maraio, Stefano; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Di Fiore, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    -surface geological interpretation of Solfatara area and to better understand and relate temporal changes of geophysical and geochemical measurements to the shallow geological structure of the most active volcano of Campi Flegrei Caldera, Italy, which it is presently characterized by an activity renewal, resulting in an enhanced hydrothermal activity and fumarolic emission increase.

  13. Seismic and acoustic detection of a bolide airburst in the Gulf of Naples (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, Luca; Marotta, Enrica; Martini, Marcello; Ricciolino, Patrizia

    2006-10-01

    On 10 September 2005 at 1711 LT (1511 UT) a loud boom was heard on the Ischia island. A clear seismic signal was also recorded by the seismic monitoring network of the Neapolitan volcanic areas (Ischia, Campi Flegrei, and Mount Vesuvius) and on a regional station (Mount Massico). On the basis of the seismic recordings and on acoustic phenomena reports, we relate this event to the atmospheric explosion (airburst) of a bolide about 15 km SW of Ischia at an elevation of about 11.5 km. The location has been obtained through nonlinear traveltime inversion in a realistic atmospheric model including wind effects. We show, using statistical estimators, how the traveltime pattern is due to both atmospheric winds and the bolide trajectory. Using the same reasoning we discard a human origin (supersonic jet or sea-air missile). In addition, we also propose a new algorithm for fast acoustic traveltime computation for a supersonic moving source.

  14. A combined morphostructural/fluid migration model of Pisciarelli area (Campi Flegrei caldera - CFc) through structural and integrated Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Teresa; Di Giuseppe, Maria Guilia; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Renato; Isaia, Roberto; Vitale, Stefano; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Solfatara-Pisciarelli (S-P) area was characterized by an intense eruptive activity during the last 5 ka and is presently the highly distributed degassing zones inside the CFC, worldwide well-known for its bradyseismic phenomenon. The last two main crises occurred during the 1970-72 and 1982-84, associated with an overall 3.5 m of ground uplift and an elevate rate of low magnitude seismicity. A strong direct relationship has always been observed between the increase of hydrothermal activity in the S-P area and ground uplift of the CFc. More recently starting from the 2005 a new gradual increase of the hydrothermal activity and ground uplift has been observed, with a steep growth of these effects from 2012, accompanied by seismic events with highest magnitude of 1.8. The Pisciarelli area has been the site of a significant morphological changes of its hydrothermal field including new fumarolic vents and a wide enlargement of a mud pool. Monitoring either landscape deformation than fluids migration of the S-P activity can be considered a good indicator of the volcanic dynamics taking place in the whole CFc caldera. This study shows a first attempt to integrate multidisciplinary approach including volcanological and structural field surveys and studies such us TLS and ERT signals applied to this highly dynamic areas. A detailed geo-structural survey allow us to characterize the complex pattern of fractures and faults recorded in the volcanic rocks in different times of the polyphasic CFc volcanic history. In order to statistically record data about fault and fracture (i) attitudes and (ii) spacing, the scan line method was applied. The whole planar structure is the locus of the well-known fumaroles and mud pools of Pisciarelli. A first time detailed Digital Terrestrial Model DTM of the area with an accuracy of 5cm obtained through TLS has been integrated combining the ERT of the lower part of the area, characterized by a widespread fumarolic activity and soil diffuse degassing, mainly in correspondence to fractures and faults. The TLS analysis of the area was performed applying the technique based on Time of Flight method in order to define an accurate 3D digital model for detailed analysis of this area. Several scans were performed in order to avoid shaded areas due to the presence of either fumaroles than soil degassing. The dense vapour emission in the area, in fact limits the ability of penetration of the laser scanner. Electrical measurements has been acquired to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity, which is a physical parameter particularly sensitive to the presence of low-resistivity phases, such as aqueous fluids and partial melts. In such a way, the volume of subsurface fluids has been constrained and the rheology of the subsoil in the Pisciarelli area has been reconstructed. Combining all the data a structural and geomorphological model of the area has been obtained. Similar dataset could be acquired in the future in order to estimate any structural changes that may occur in this interesting volcanic area therefore providing a better hazard assessment.

  15. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  16. Integrated multi-parameters Probabilistic Seismic Landslide Hazard Analysis (PSLHA): the case study of Ischia island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccavale, Mauro; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco; Mazzola, Salvatore; Somma, Renato; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Ischia island is a large, complex, partly submerged, active volcanic field located about 20 km east to the Campi Flegrei, a major active volcano-tectonic area near Naples. The island is morphologically characterized in its central part by the resurgent block of Mt. Epomeo, controlled by NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems, by mountain stream basin with high relief energy and by a heterogeneous coastline with alternation of beach and tuff/lava cliffs in a continuous reshape due to the weather and sea erosion. The volcano-tectonic process is a main factor for slope stability, as it produces seismic activity and generated steep slopes in volcanic deposits (lava, tuff, pumice and ash layers) characterized by variable strength. In the Campi Flegrei and surrounding areas the possible occurrence of a moderate/large seismic event represents a serious threat for the inhabitants, for the infrastructures as well as for the environment. The most relevant seismic sources for Ischia are represented by the Campi Flegrei caldera and a 5 km long fault located below the island north coast. However those sources are difficult to constrain. The first one due to the on-shore and off-shore extension not yet completely defined. The second characterized only by few large historical events is difficult to parameterize in the framework of probabilistic hazard approach. The high population density, the presence of many infrastructures and the more relevant archaeological sites associated with the natural and artistic values, makes this area a strategic natural laboratory to develop new methodologies. Moreover Ischia represents the only sector, in the Campi Flegrei area, with documented historical landslides originated by earthquake, allowing for the possibility of testing the adequacy and stability of the method. In the framework of the Italian project MON.I.C.A (infrastructural coastlines monitoring) an innovative and dedicated probabilistic methodology has been applied to identify

  17. Probability hazard map for future vent opening at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    shows a tendency to concentrate along the NE and S rifts, as well as Valle del Bove, increasing the difference in probability between these areas and the rest of the volcano edifice. It is worthy notice that a higher significance is still evident along the W rift, even if not comparable with the ones of the above mentioned areas. References Marzocchi W., Sandri L., Gasparini P., Newhall C. and Boschi E.; 2004: Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: The example of volcanic hazard at Mount Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB00315U. Marzocchi W., Sandri, L. and Selva, J.; 2008: BET_EF: a probabilistic tool for long- and short-term eruption forecasting, Bull. Volcanol., 70, 623 - 632, doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0157-y. Selva J., Orsi G., Di Vito M.A., Marzocchi W. And Sandri L.; 2012: Probability hazard mapfor future vent opening atthe Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, Bull. Volcanol., 74, 497 - 510, doi: 10.1007/s00445-011-0528-2.

  18. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  19. Heavy Metals Concentrations in top Soils of Urban Areas (Naples - Southern Italy) as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Origin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.

    2001-12-01

    Heavy metals pollution, which mainly originates from automobile exhausts and industry, is a serious danger for human health. The source and extension of heavy metals pollution in the top soils has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. The role of the soil processes in accumulating or mobilising metals is very important in environmental science due to the central position of the soil in the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. Concentrations of heavy metals in top soils, collected in green areas and public parks in metropolitan Naples area have been determined to provide information on specific emission sources. In addition to toxic metals, such as Pb, As, Cd, Cr and others, we have investigated the top soils as well for Pt group elements (PGEs), because since 1993 it is mandatory within EC for all new petrol driven motor vehicles to be equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converter. In Italy this law has come into effect in 1998, but still is allowed to old vehicles use lead gasoline, though now the big majority of cars is equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converters. Emission of abraded fragments of catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts will certainly determine environmental contamination with Pt group elements (PGEs), since many Pt complexes are highly cytotoxic and, in small dose, are strong allergens and potent sensitiser. The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities and vehicles traffic is an interesting area to be monitored in order to check the pollution state of the soils. The geology of the area is prevalently represented by volcanics, erupted from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. To compile multi-element geochemical maps baseline we have sampled in situ and transported top soil for a total of 200 samples. The survey have been carried at about 200 sites covering an area of about 120 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the highly urbanised area and 1 km x 1 km

  20. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  1. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  2. Comparison of Premier CAMPY Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY Tests with Culture for Laboratory Diagnosis of Campylobacter Enteric Infections ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Paul A.; Chen, Li; Holiday, Iris; Rawling, Russell A.; Novak-Weekley, Susan M.; Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter enteritis is a food-borne or waterborne illness caused almost exclusively by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by Campylobacter coli. These organisms produce indistinguishable clinical diseases and together represent the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and the leading cause of enteric infection throughout the world. The conventional approach to the laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis is based on the recovery of the organism from a stool specimen, which requires the use of a specialized medium incubated at 42°C for several days in an artificially created microaerophilic environment. Recently, several commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) have been developed for the direct detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in stool specimens. This study compared conventional culture with three EIA methods, the Premier CAMPY EIA (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), the ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in 485 patient stool samples. Discordant results were arbitrated by using an in-house, real-time PCR assay that was developed and validated by a public health reference laboratory. Following analyses of the discrepant specimens by PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of both the Premier CAMPY and ProSpecT Campylobacter EIAs were 99.3% and 98%, respectively, while the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.2%. By use of the PCR test as the reference standard, culture detected 127 of 135 Campylobacter-positive stool specimens, yielding a sensitivity of 94.1%. These results showed that the three EIAs evaluated in this study provide a rapid and reliable alternative for the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections with C. jejuni and C. coli and that conventional culture may no longer be recognized as the “gold standard” for

  3. Vocational Training in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This document on vocational training in Italy contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the population of Italy. Chapter 2 describes the Italian economy through the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. Chapter 3 describes education and vocational training in Italy, including regional agricultural and nonagricultural vocational…

  4. Effects of Intense Rainfall On The Coastal City of Naples, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braca, G.; Esposito, E.; Mazzarella, A.; Porfido, S.; Tranfaglia, G.

    In the early hours of September 15, 2001 the city of Naples and some of the sur- rounding towns were hit by a violent storm (max value 167 mm) which lasted about 3 hours. It was clustered in two very intense showers (with a mean intensity higher than 50 mm/h) that occurred between 01:40 and 02:30 and 03:20 and 04:00 UTC. More than 350 million Euro in damage was done, three men drowned and otherr were injured, three buildings were completely destroyed, 23 buildings and dozens of roads were heavily damaged. Power lines, drain and trunk lines were impacted and dis- rupted. Also the major soccer stadium was heavily damaged. An initial analysis of this exceptional precipitation event was carried out on the basis of data collected from real time network and diagram recordings. The meteorological event was undoubtedly one of the most intense events ever recorded, since 1866, on the territory of the Hydro- graphic and Mareographic National Service, Division of Naples. A comparison with historical events since 1900 has been carried out. In the last century, in fact, numerous sliding phenomena were induced by heavy rain fall, and caused severe damage to the economical, social and infrastructural condition of the metropolitan area. The city of Naples is located in the southern part of the Campanian Plain, which is prevalently composed of a large variety of pyroclastic deposits (tuff, pozzolane, pumices) related to both, Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius volcanic activity, whereas alluvial soils and sea shore sand are recognized along the coastline. In particular, the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff Formation is characterized by an intricate network of artificial cavities which have been excavated since Greek and Roman times. According to historical descriptions five main slide types can be identified: rock fall, earthflow (landslide), collapse, flood and lahar. A correlation between monthly precipitation and type of sliding phenomena has been performed.

  5. 4-D imaging and monitoring of the Solfatara crater (Italy) by ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Woith, Heiko; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Imaging shallow subsurface structures and monitoring related temporal variations are two of the main tasks for modern geosciences and seismology. Although many observations have reported temporal velocity changes, e.g., in volcanic areas and on landslides, new methods based on passive sources like ambient seismic noise can provide accurate spatially and temporally resolved information on the velocity structure and on velocity changes. The success of these passive applications is explained by the fact that these methods are based on surface waves which are always present in the ambient seismic noise wave field because they are excited preferentially by superficial sources. Such surface waves can easily be extracted because they dominate the Greeńs function between receivers located at the surface. For real-time monitoring of the shallow velocity structure of the Solfatara crater, one of the forty volcanoes in the Campi Flegrei area characterized by an intense hydrothermal activity due to the interaction of deep convection and meteoric water, we have installed a dense network of 50 seismological sensing units covering the whole surface area in the framework of the European project MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant agreement no 308665). Continuous recordings of the ambient seismic noise over several days as well as signals of an active vibroseis source have been used. Based on a weighted inversion procedure for 3D-passive imaging using ambient noise cross-correlations of both Rayleigh and Love waves, we will present a high-resolution shear-wave velocity model of the structure beneath the Solfatara crater and its temporal changes. Results of seismic tomography are compared with a 3-D electrical resistivity model and CO2 flux map.

  6. The geofingerprint of Pyroclastic Rocks/Typic Herorthents/Piedirosso chain surveyed in the Roccamonfina terroir, northwest Campania region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, M.; Grilli, E.; Morra, V.; Prohaska, T.; Buondonno, A.; Langella, A.

    2012-04-01

    brown. Water pH is neutral-subacid in the whole soil profile. For all horizons the Cation Exchange Capacity and the content of allophanic materials are very low. The profile is classified as Typic Xerorthents (USDA-NRCS, 2010). By Land Suitability analysis, soil belongs to S1 class highly suitable for vineyards. Although the site is located on the southern slope of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex, mineralogical data along with the survey investigation account for a substrate constituted by deposits of the Campania Ignimbrite eruption (39.000 ka). However, we cannot disregard the hypothesis that autochthonous pyroclastic products could have affected the pedogenetic process, as the sampled site is placed on the borders of a fluvial axis, thus allowing the deposition during flood periods of oldest deposits pertaining to the Roccamonfica volcanic activity (0.58-0.1 Ma). As far as the ICP analysis are considered it should be remarked that trace elements do not provide useful information as possible geotracers. In fact, as already discussed in previous researches, the artificially induced processes, such as fractionation and/or enrichment of specific elements, occurring during the growth of the grapes and the wine production (pruning, fertilization, manuring, wine production and bottling) preclude that trace and ultratrace element concentrations transfer to the final product (wine) information univocally linked to the substrate. The whole 87Sr/86Sr compositional range, here defined as the geofingerprint of the investigated chain, is within 0.7076 and 0.7088 with the highest values showed by the wine. By contrast, the lowest ratios were measured in the leaves (0.7076-0.7077). These data compared with those of the pyroclastic products of Roccamonfina (typical range 0.7066-0.7099) and Campi Flegrei (0.7065-0.7086) enable to confirm that, also for the investigated terroir, the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio can be positively considered as geotracer of wines produced on volcanic areas

  7. Counseling in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  8. Adapting coastal structures to a moving relative sea level: Roman Time geoarchaeological evidence from Posillipo promontory (Naples, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucelli, Pietro; Cinque, Aldo; Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Pappone, Gerardo; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Posillipo promontory belongs to the southern periphery the active volcanic complex called Campi Flegrei. Especially the central caldera of CF is well known for offering a rich geoarchaeological record of the vertical ground movements it has been suffering since Roman times; which includes the ruins of Portus Julius (built in 37 BC) presently found between 10 and 5 m bsl and the Middle Ages Lithophaga perforations at about 7m asl on the marble columns of the Serapeo building (Morhange, 2006 and references therein). In order to better constraint the vertical movements suffered by the Posillipo promontory during the last two millennia, we selected three geoarcaeolgical coastal sites (Nisida Roman port, Marechiaro Roman port and Villa Robery) and we studied them by means of both geomorphological observations and geophysical surveys (Side Scan Sonar and Single Beam echo-sounder). Within the submerged Roman port of Nisida, built in the 1st AD, we found two pilae of the ancient pier. The submersion measuring of the well-preserved one provided a palaeo-sea level at 3.1±0.30 m bsl. In the submerged Roman port of Marechiaro, we recognized a still preserved breakwater connected to the tuffaceous sea cliff, and submerged foundations of a 1st century small sea-side villa. Nearby there is also a two-storeyed Roman building (Palazzo degli Spiriti), built in the 1st cent. BC and later restructured to adapt to a phase of subsidence (Gunther 1908). From our submersion measurements, two different paleo-sea levels can be deduced: one for the 1st cent. BC at -4.4 + -0.50 m and another for the 1st cent. AD at -3 + - 0.30 m. Finally, in front of the modern Villa Rosebery the sea bottom shows a sub-horizontal element at -3m to -3.5m bsl, emerged during the 1st BC century. In fact, at least three houses were erected there during said century (Gunther, 1908). As the area was very little elevated, an alignment of pilae was also constructed to protect those houses from the breakers. By

  9. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products.

  10. Religious slaughter in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Mattiacci, C; De Angelis, G; Marini, P; Cuccurese, A; Rossi, R; Catanese, B

    2010-06-01

    This research aims to understand the prevalence of religious slaughter practices in Italy. Two different ways of slaughtering animals are identified. Conventional slaughter is performed with prior stunning; kosher slaughter is practiced without stunning. Halal slaughter is performed for most animals without stunning. Halal slaughter with prior stunning is acceptable for 5.90% of small ruminants. For Halal slaughter in Italy, the terms "religious slaughter with stunning" and "religious slaughter without stunning" should be used to differentiate religious slaughter practices, keeping animal welfare in perspective.

  11. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... coast of Sicily, to the southwest of mainland Italy. Major eruptions have been issuing from both summit and flank vents. Fine ash falling ... repeated caldera collapse, and partially buried by younger volcanic structures. Eruptions are related to a complex tectonic situation, ...

  12. Beginning Reading in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    Teaching practices in Italy, where teachers combine three different methods for teaching reading, may provide insight into ways to improve methodologies in the United States. The first method is the natural method, which, unlike American methods, teaches reading and writing simultaneously with the emphasis on writing. The teacher writes as…

  13. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  14. Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996

    PubMed Central

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Rossi, Giacomo; Mani, Paolo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed. PMID:23347844

  15. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  16. Lithospheric VS models in the Campanian Plain (Italy) by integrating Rayleigh wave dispersion data from noise cross-correlation functions and earthquake recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.

    2014-09-01

    Cross-correlation functions of long noise recordings with two broadband stations and earthquake recordings in the Campanian Plain have been processed with frequency time analysis to extract the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves. Group velocities have been combined with regional group and phase velocity data in the non-linear inversion, with Hedgehog method, in order to get average shear wave velocity models for lithospheric structures extending to 73 km of depth. The structural model below the central part of the Campanian Plain is characterized by a covering of pyroclastics and alluvial sediments, about 2 km thick, on the carbonate platform with VS ranging from 2.30-2.40 to 2.85-3.15 km/s. However, the presence of lava bodies within the carbonates cannot be excluded in the light of the same density and seismic velocities. At greater depths, a main feature is represented by a sharp increment of velocity around 8-9 km of depth (VS of 3.85 km/s), which can be attributed to the presence of metamorphic rocks, overlying a low VS layer (5% velocity reduction), at about 14-15 km of depth. Such structural model resembles those found below the quiescent Roccamonfina and Colli Albani volcanoes, and can be interpreted as the signature of a cooling magma chamber. Moreover, a low VS layer is detected at 8-9 km of depth towards the Apennines and at 6 km of depth in the southernmost part of the Campanian Plain, nearby Mt. Vesuvius. Such low velocity layer seems to be a regional feature since it has been found below Roccamonfina in the North, Campi Flegrei, bay of Napoli and Mt. Vesuvius in the South, and can be explained by the widespread presence of partially melted material below the whole Campanian area.

  17. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  20. Airborne precursor missions in support of SIR-C/X-SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Oettl, H.; Pampaloni, P.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA DC-8 and DLR E-SAR airborne imaging radars have been deployed over several sites in Europe and the U.S. in support of SIR-C/X-SAR (Shuttle Imaging Radar-C/X-Synthetic Aperture Radar) science team investigations. To date, data have been acquired in support of studies of alpine glaciers, forests, geology, oceanography, and calibration. An experimental campaign with airborne sensors will take place in Europe in June to July 1991 which will allow multitemporal surveys of several Europeans sites. Current plans are for calibration and ecology experiments to be undertaken in Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom. Coordinated multitemporal aircraft and ground campaigns are planned in support of hydrology experiments in Italy, the United Kingdom, and Austria. Data will also be acquired in support of oceanogrqhy in the Gulf of Genova, North Atlantic, Straits of Messina and the North Sea. Geology sites will include Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio, Italy.

  1. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  2. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  3. The Language Situation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Italy, within the framework of language policy and language planning. It presents an account of multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social variation, educational issues and phenomena of language contact both within and outside Italy. The four main threads are (1) the current…

  4. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  5. Comparison of CampyPak II with standard 5% oxygen and candle jars for growth of Campylobacter jejuni from human feces.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Luechtefeld, N W; Blaser, M J; Reller, L B

    1982-08-01

    To determine optimal temperature and atmospheric conditions for isolating Campylobacter jejuni from fecal specimens of humans, we studied six laboratory isolates and 19 fecal specimens that were known to contain C. jejuni. We compared incubations in 5% oxygen, the CampyPak II (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) with 6 plates per jar (CP-6) and 12 plates per jar (CP-12), and candle jars at 37 and 42 degrees C. At both temperatures, the colony sizes for the laboratory strains were larger in the 5% O2 and the CP-6 than under the other two conditions. For the primary isolations, CP-12 failed to detect one and two campylobacters at 42 and 37 degrees C, respectively, whereas the candle jar failed to detect one at 42 degrees C and four at 37 degrees C. Colony size was again larger in the 5% O2 and the CP-6. For all four atmospheric conditions tested, colonies were significantly larger at 42 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. These studies showed that incubation at 42 degrees C in either 5% O2 or the CampyPak II with six plates per jar was optimal for primary isolation of C. jejuni from fecal specimens of humans. The candle jars incubated at 42 degrees C appeared to be satisfactory for primary isolation of C. jejuni from human feces, but incubation at 37 degrees C was not acceptable.

  6. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.

  7. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system.

    PubMed

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-09-22

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes.

  8. Late-stage volatile saturation as a potential trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Michael J.; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Isaia, Roberto; Pyle, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Magma reservoirs are thought to grow relatively slowly, assembling incrementally under volatile-saturated conditions. Eruptions may be triggered by injections of volatile-rich melt, or generation of over-pressure due to protracted crystallization. Here, we analyse fluorine, chlorine and water in apatite crystals trapped at different stages of magma evolution, and in melt inclusions from clinopyroxene and biotite crystals expelled during an explosive eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, about 4,000 years ago. We combine our geochemical analyses with thermodynamic modelling to reconstruct the evolution of magmatic volatile contents leading up to the explosive eruption. We find that the magma reservoir remained persistently water-undersaturated throughout most of its lifetime. Even crystals in contact with the melt shortly before eruption show that the magma was volatile-undersaturated. Our models suggest that the melt reached volatile saturation at low temperatures, just before eruption. We suggest that late-stage volatile saturation probably triggered the eruption, and conclude that `priming’ of the magma system for eruption may occur on timescales much shorter than the decadal to centennial timescales thought typical for magma reservoir assembly. Thus, surface deformation pulses that record magma assembly at depth beneath Campi Flegrei and other similar magmatic systems may not be immediately followed by an eruption; and explosive eruptions may begin with little warning.

  9. Stress-induced brittle fragmentation of magmatic melts: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, Ralf; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Raue, Hannes; Sonder, Ingo; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2006-08-01

    The release of kinetic energy during explosive volcanic eruptions is a key parameter for hazard assessment and civil defense. The explosive production of volcanic ash by intensive fragmentation of magma and host rocks represents a substantial part of this energy. For cases of explosive eruption where predominantly host rock was fragmented (phreatomagmatic eruptions) to form the major part of volcanic ash, rock mechanical parameters could be measured and fragmentation energies assigned. In cases where most of the produced ash is of juvenile origin (magmatic eruptions) a general method for the determination of fragmentation energy is still lacking. In this article we introduce a thermodynamic approach that relates grain size data of the produced ash deposits to shear rates acting during the deformation of magma. With the use of a standardized fragmentation experiment the physical parameters needed to determine the specific fragmentation energy and deformation history were measured. The experiment was calibrated and tested with two case histories of the Campi Flegrei volcanic field (southern Italy). Both eruptions are classified as "most probable worst-case scenarios" during the next period of activity, to be expected within the next 10-100 years. Using the experimentally determined specific fragmentation energies, the total mass of produced ash of each eruption, and assuming an energy dissipation as observed in the experiments, the total kinetic energy release of the worst-case Campi Flegrei eruptive events to come were calculated with 25 and 40 kt TNT equivalent.

  10. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes.

  11. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system

    PubMed Central

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. PMID:27652775

  12. Gastric cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D

    1991-01-01

    Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. Italy is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in Italy. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis.

  13. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  14. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  15. Graviquakes in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, P.; Barba, S.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the mechanics of crustal normal fault-related earthquakes, and show that they represent dissipation of gravitational potential energy (graviquakes) and their magnitude increases with the involved volume (delimited by the seismogenic fault and an antithetic dilated wedge in its hangingwall), and the fault dip. The magnitude increases with the deepening of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT), which in turn enlarges the involved volume. The fault dip seems rather controlled by the static friction of the involved crustal layers. We apply the model to the extensional area of the Italian peninsula, whose geodynamics is controlled by the Alpine and Apennines subduction zones. The latter has a well-developed backarc basin and a large part of the accretionary prism is affected by on-going extensional tectonics, which is responsible for most of peninsular Italy seismicity. Analyzing the seismic record of the Apennines, the length of seismogenic normal faults tends to be at most about 3 times the hypocenter depth. We compile a map of the brittle-ductile transition depth and, assuming a fixed 45° or 60° fault dip and a dilated wedge developed during the interseismic period almost perpendicular to the fault plane, we compute the maximum volume of the hangingwall collapsing at the coseismic stage, and estimate the maximum expected magnitude. Lower magnitude values are obtained in areas with thinner brittle layer and higher heat flow. Moreover, lower magnitude relative to those theoretically expected may occur in areas of higher strain rate where faults may creep faster due to lower frictional values.

  16. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  17. Republic of Italy (country profile).

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Italy focuses on the following: cities and regions; population growth; households and families; housing and construction; ethnicity and religion; education; economy and labor force; consumption; and transport and communications. Italy, with its total area of 116,374 square miles, is about the size of Florida and Georgia combined. Its 56.6 million people form the 2nd largest population in Western Europe, after West Germany, but slightly larger than Great Britain and France. The main administrative divisions are 20 regions, subdivided into 95 provinces. The provinces in turn are divided into 8090 "comuni" or municipalities. The 6 cities with more than 500,000 people are Roma, Milano, Napoli, Torino, Genova, and Palermo. They account for 14% of the population. The 43 cities with between 100,000-500,000 account for another 13%. There are 373 middle-sized communities with between 20,000 and 100,000 people, accounting for 26% of population. Italy has a regional problem. The line separating the regions of Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, and Lazio from the regions to the south and east is important. The regions north of it hold 62% of the population but are responsible for 73% of the gross national product (GNP) and 78% of the industrial product. The regions to the south are economically much weaker. At the time of the last Italian census on October 25, 1981, the country counted 56.6 million inhabitants. Compared to 33.5 million at the turn of the century, this implies an average annual growth rate of .61%. Between 1900-70, nearly 20 million Italians left their country. Most settled in the US, Argentina, and Brazil. Beginning in the 1960s, a new sort of migration was added as young Italians temporarily left to work in the more prosperous countries of northern Europe. The birthrate, which had declined slowly to 18/1000 during the 1960s, fell more rapidly during the 1970s, to 10.9/1000 in 1981 and 10.3 in 1984. The death rate in Italy has changed little

  18. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery.

  19. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  20. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  1. Seafloor doming driven by degassing processes unveils sprouting volcanism in coastal areas

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Ventura, Guido

    2016-01-01

    We report evidences of active seabed doming and gas discharge few kilometers offshore from the Naples harbor (Italy). Pockmarks, mounds, and craters characterize the seabed. These morphologies represent the top of shallow crustal structures including pagodas, faults and folds affecting the present-day seabed. They record upraise, pressurization, and release of He and CO2 from mantle melts and decarbonation reactions of crustal rocks. These gases are likely similar to those that feed the hydrothermal systems of the Ischia, Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, suggesting the occurrence of a mantle source variously mixed to crustal fluids beneath the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching by gas upraising and pressurization processes require overpressures in the order of 2–3 MPa. Seabed doming, faulting, and gas discharge are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions. PMID:26925957

  2. Seafloor doming driven by degassing processes unveils sprouting volcanism in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Ventura, Guido

    2016-03-01

    We report evidences of active seabed doming and gas discharge few kilometers offshore from the Naples harbor (Italy). Pockmarks, mounds, and craters characterize the seabed. These morphologies represent the top of shallow crustal structures including pagodas, faults and folds affecting the present-day seabed. They record upraise, pressurization, and release of He and CO2 from mantle melts and decarbonation reactions of crustal rocks. These gases are likely similar to those that feed the hydrothermal systems of the Ischia, Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, suggesting the occurrence of a mantle source variously mixed to crustal fluids beneath the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching by gas upraising and pressurization processes require overpressures in the order of 2–3 MPa. Seabed doming, faulting, and gas discharge are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions.

  3. Seafloor doming driven by degassing processes unveils sprouting volcanism in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Ventura, Guido

    2016-03-01

    We report evidences of active seabed doming and gas discharge few kilometers offshore from the Naples harbor (Italy). Pockmarks, mounds, and craters characterize the seabed. These morphologies represent the top of shallow crustal structures including pagodas, faults and folds affecting the present-day seabed. They record upraise, pressurization, and release of He and CO2 from mantle melts and decarbonation reactions of crustal rocks. These gases are likely similar to those that feed the hydrothermal systems of the Ischia, Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, suggesting the occurrence of a mantle source variously mixed to crustal fluids beneath the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching by gas upraising and pressurization processes require overpressures in the order of 2-3 MPa. Seabed doming, faulting, and gas discharge are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions.

  4. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  5. Towards a detailed distal tephrostratigraphy in the Central Mediterranean: The last 20,000 yrs record of Lago Grande di Monticchio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Sabine; Kraml, Michael; Keller, Jörg

    2008-10-01

    A detailed compilation of distal tephrostratigraphy comprising the last 20,000 yrs is given for the Central Mediterranean region. A total of 47 distinct ash layers identified in the maar lake sediments of Lago Grande di Monticchio (Basilicata, Southern Italy) are compared with proximal and distal terrestrial-marine tephra deposits in the circum-central Mediterranean region. The results of these studies provide valuable information for reconstructing the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene dispersal of pyroclastic deposits from south Italian explosive volcanoes, in particular Somma-Vesuvius, the Campi Flegrei caldera, Ischia Island and Mount Etna. Prominent tephras are discussed with respect to their reliability as dating and correlation tools in sedimentary records. Ashes from Plinian eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius (i.e. Avellino, Mercato, Greenish, Pomici di Base), for instance, are well-defined by their distribution patterns and their unique composition. The widespread Y-1 tephra from Mount Etna, on the other hand, derived most likely from two distinct Plinian events with changing wind conditions, and therefore becomes a less reliable stratigraphic marker. Statistical-numerical calculations are presented in order to discriminate between Holocene tephras from the Campi Flegrei caldera (i.e. Astroni 1-3, Agnano Monte Spina, Averno 1, Lagno Amendolare), since these ashes are characterized by an almost indistinguishable chemical fingerprint. As a highlight, numerous Campanian eruptions of proposed low-intensity have been identified in the distal site of Monticchio suggesting a revision of existing tephra dispersal maps and re-calculation of eruptive conditions. In summary, the tephra record of Monticchio is one of the key successions for linking both, terrestrial records from Central-southern Italy and marine sequences from the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic and Ionian Seas.

  6. Mixing-to-eruption timescales: an integrated model combining numerical simulations and high-temperature experiments with natural melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagna, Chiara; Perugini, Diego; De Campos, Christina; Longo, Antonella; Dingwell, Donald Bruce; Papale, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Arrival of magma from depth into shallow reservoirs and associated mixing processes have been documented as possible triggers of explosive eruptions. Quantifying the timing from beginning of mixing to eruption is of fundamental importance in volcanology in order to put constraints about the possible onset of a new eruption. Here we integrate numerical simulations and high-temperature experiment performed with natural melts with the aim to attempt identifying the mixing-to-eruption timescales. We performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of the arrival of gas-rich magmas into shallow reservoirs. We solve the fluid dynamics for the two interacting magmas evaluating the space-time evolution of the physical properties of the mixture. Convection and mingling develop quickly into the chamber and feeding conduit/dyke. Over time scales of hours, the magmas in the reservoir appear to have mingled throughout, and convective patterns become harder to identify. High-temperature magma mixing experiments have been performed using a centrifuge and using basaltic and phonolitic melts from Campi Flegrei (Italy) as initial end-members. Concentration Variance Decay (CVD), an inevitable consequence of magma mixing, is exponential with time. The rate of CVD is a powerful new geochronometer for the time from mixing to eruption/quenching. The mingling-to-eruption time of three explosive volcanic eruptions from Campi Flegrei (Italy) yield durations on the order of tens of minutes. These results are in perfect agreement with the numerical simulations that suggest a maximum mixing time of a few hours to obtain a hybrid mixture. We show that integration of numerical simulation and high-temperature experiments can provide unprecedented results about mixing processes in volcanic systems. The combined application of numerical simulations and CVD geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes could be decisive for the preparation of hazard mitigation during volcanic unrest.

  7. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  8. Integration in Italy: A Dynamic Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrigan, Carol

    The result of trips by American special educators to Italy in 1984 and 1986, this paper reviews laws, public policy, and events in Italy's recent history leading to widespread desegregation of the disabled special schools and other institutions. The review of legislation focuses on National Law 517 (1977) with such specified strategies for pupil…

  9. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b (ca. 91 kyr), has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR

  10. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2012-09-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: cryptotephra PT0915-1 with the 512 AD eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-2 with the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), cryptotephras PT0915-3 and PT0915-4 with Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-5 with the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-7 with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), cryptotephra PT0915-8 with the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and tephra PT0915-9 with the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). Tephra PT0915-11 could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents a hitherto unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and

  11. The geothermal potential of the Campania volcanic district and new heat exchanger technologies for exploitation of highly urbanised areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal research in Campania region (Italy), started since the 1930, and continued until the '80 by the SAFEN, ENEL and AGIP companies. Such exploration activity highlighted that most of the volcanic districts of the Campania Region have a very high geothermal gradient and heat flow. In particular, inside the Campi Flegrei caldera and at Ischia island the geothermal gradient measured inside the deep wells reaches temperatures above 100° C between few tens and few hundreds of metres of depth, while the heat flow varies between 120-160 mWm-2 at Agnano and Mofete (Campi Flegrei main drill sites) to more than 500 mWm-2 at Ischia island (south-western sector). A general review of the available literature data (temperature at depth, stratigraphic sections, logs etc.) of the deep wells (down to 3 km b.s.l.) allowed us to quantify the geothermal potential (thermal and electric) of such district. The geothermal potential is about 6 GWy for the Campi Flegrei (Mofete and S. Vito sectors) and 11 GWy for the Ischia island (south-western sector) showing a geothermal reservoir with water and vapour dominant respectively. This results in strong potential interest for economic exploitation of the geothermal resource, both in the range of low-medium enthalpy at few hundreds of meters depth and of high enthalpy at depths of 1-2 km. In this study we try to model the effectiveness of new technologies of boreholes heat exchangers, which would allow to avoid fluid withdrawal, then strongly decreasing the environmental impact. The proposed technology consists of a double-pipe placed in a borehole heat exchange that can work coupled with an ORC. The two pipes, one inside the other, are located in the well in order to transfer the thermal energy to the working fluid during the descent in the external pipe and then go back through the internal pipe properly isolated. We propose a complete design of the borehole heat exchangers. The design activity is performed on a theoretical basis

  12. Italy: old problems, new books.

    PubMed

    Agazzi, Evandro

    1989-01-01

    Agazzi's bibliographic essay of recent titles in Italian on biomedical issues also discusses the Catholic versus the secular approaches to bioethics in Italy. Among the publications mentioned are several of a philosophical or theological nature: M. Mori's volume on artificial insemination, and second editions of well-established textbooks on biomedical ethics by S. Leone, E. Sgreccia, S. Spinsanti, and D. Tettamanzi. Legal issues in reproductive technologies are addressed in the Santosuosso Commission's report on regulating artificial procreation, and in a book discussing the report. Secular writings on ethical issues have appeared in issues cited here of the journals Prospettive Settanta and Biblioteca della Libertà. Also mentioned in Agazzi's essay are a critique of the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's Instruction on Respect for Human Life, and a booklet of articles related to the 20th anniversary of the encyclical Humanae Vitae.

  13. Psychosurgery in Italy, 1936-39.

    PubMed

    Kotowicz, Zbigniew

    2008-12-01

    In 1936 Egas Moniz introduced a new method for treating mental illness--psychosurgery. This new procedure was taken up immediately in a number of countries, including Italy. In most countries its introduction was slow and the numbers of operations were in single figures, but in Italy the introduction was rapid and around a dozen neuropsychiatrists reported much higher numbers of operations performed. Also in Italy the first innovations to the technique, notably the transorbital variation, were introduced. Moreover, all these activities took place without any sign of the protest seen elsewhere. Conditions that allowed the acceptance of this risky procedure seemed to be a consequence of the way in which the professions of neurology and psychiatry had been merged in Italy.

  14. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  15. The health of foreign workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Capacci, Fabio; Carnevale, Francesco; Gazzano, Noel

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of 2002, there were 1,600,000 foreign-born persons living in Italy; the majority from countries outside Europe. Those residing in the country for working purposes were 800,680. Italy's shift to a tertiary and service-oriented economy has considerably modified the working market, concentrating demand at two extremes: on one hand, a highly specialized workforce, and on the other, a totally unqualified, mobile, and flexible one, which includes most immigrants.

  16. [Rosenfeld in Italy (1978 to 1985)].

    PubMed

    de Masi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I try to throw some light on Rosenfeld's thought and his way of working when he came to Italy. I would like to show, in a sketchy way, the evolution of his thought and in particular the new way he looked at clinical practice at that time. My point is that the Rosenfeld we met in Italy was able to open new horizons in clinical practice, implicitly questioning some of his own or his circle's previous viewpoints.

  17. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  18. Attenuation tomography of the main volcanic regions of the Campanian Plain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Siena, Luca; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

    2010-05-01

    Passive, high resolution attenuation tomography is used to image the geological structure in the first upper 4 km of shallow crust beneath the Campanian Plain. Images were produced by two separate attenuation tomography studies of the main volcanic regions of the Campanian Plain, Southern Italy, Mt. Vesuvius volcano and Campi Flegrei caldera. The three-dimensional S wave attenuation tomography of Mt. Vesuvius has been obtained with multiple measurements of coda-normalized S-wave spectra of local small magnitude earthquakes. P-wave attenuation tomography was performed using classical spectral methods. The images were obtained inverting the spectral data with a multiple resolution approach expressively designed for attenuation tomography. This allowed to obtain a robust attenuation image of the volumes under the central cone at a maximum resolution of 300 m. The same approach was applied to a data set recorded in the Campi Flegrei area during the 1982-1984 seismic crisis. Inversion ensures a minimum cell size resolution of 500 meters in the zones with sufficient ray coverage, and 1000 meters outside these zones. The study of the resolution matrix as well as the synthetic tests guarantee an optimal reproduction of the input anomalies in the center of the caldera, between 0 and 3.5 km in depth. Results allowed an unprecedented view of several features of the medium, like the residual part of solidified magma from the last eruption, under the central cone of Mt. Vesuvius, and the feeding systems and top of the carbonate basement, 3 km depth below both volcanic areas. Vertical Q contrast image important fault zones, such as the La Starza fault, as well as high attenuation structures that correspond to gas or fluid reservoirs, and reveal the upper part of gas bearing conduits connecting these high attenuation volumes with the magma sill revealed at about 7 km in depth by passive travel-time tomography under the whole Campanian Plain.

  19. 4D volcano gravimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the

  20. Investigations with the Sentinel-1 Interferometric Wide Swath mode: first results and comparison with in-situ geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgstrom, Sven; Del Gaudio, Carlo; De Martino, Prospero; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Siniscalchi, Valeria; Prats-Iraola, Pau; Nannini, Matteo; Costantini, Mario; Minati, Federico; Walter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The contribution focuses on the current status of the ESA study entitled "INSARAP: Sentinel-1 InSAR Performance study with TOPS Data". The study investigates the performance of the interferometric wide swath (IW) mode of Sentinel-1, which is implemented using the terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS) mode. In this regard, first analyses with Sentinel-1 time series will be shown, with a comparison with in-situ geodetic measurements on different test sites identified in the framework of the study, namely, Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius area in Italy, Istanbul city in Turkey, and Mexico City. The evaluation of the results will be performed by exploiting mainly continuous GPS stations located on the different sites, besides leveling measurements when also available. Also in a recent past, the comparison between InSAR and continuous GPS data, the latter projected into the radar LOS, has proven to be very effective for a cross comparison, besides InSAR Cal/Val activities, as it was for instance in the case of the recent inflation events occurred in Campi Flegrei area, marked by the well know bradyseismic phenomenon. Although continuous GPS networks are characterized by a poor space coverage in comparison with InSAR results, continuous GPS data recording allows to complement the geodetic information from InSAR sensors, limited by their revisiting time. The issue to be faced in this study is the possibility to deal with very low deformation rates in comparison with the Sentinel-1 C-band data, although the Sentinel-1 time series we expect to get from October 2014 to date should allow the identification of ground deformation in the areas of interest.

  1. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern.

  2. COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation and GPS data to study the source responsible of ground deformation beneath the urban area of Naples (Southern Italy) in 2012-2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Susi

    2016-04-01

    To understand uplift phenomenon occurred during the April 2012 - January 2013 time interval at Campi Flegrei caldera, we exploited the displacement time series obtained by processing 90 SAR images acquired from the COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation along ascending orbits via the well-known DInSAR algorithm referred to as SBAS algorithm, and the measurements provided by 14 continuous GPS stations deployed within the caldera and belonging to the permanent INGV-OV monitoring network. In particular, the caldera has shown a rapid uplift of about 6 cm with a peak rate of about 3 cm/month in December 2012. This event led the Italian Civil Protection to raise the alert level of the volcano from green to yellow. Using a novel geodetic inversion technique we imaged the kinematics of the intrusion of a magmatic sill beneath the town of Pozzuoli at a depth of about 3100 m. The retrieved kinematics was then used as input to infer the dynamics of the sill intrusion using a recently developed numerical model. The best fit obtained by non-linear inverse approach that consider a time-varying deformation field is a penny-shaped source located at a depth of 3100 m. To study the detail of the intrusion process we have applied a geodetic imaging technique to determine the spatial and temporal kinematics of the ground deformation source in the selected period. The retrieved temporal pattern of the source geometry reflects that of a growing sill that, at the end of the considered period, has a roughly elliptical geometry with an extension of about 6 km in the EW direction and about 4 km in the NS one. The maximum aperture of the sill is of about 30 cm at its center. To understand the dynamics of this phenomenon we used a numerical model of the emplacement of a magmatic sill, to fit the retrieved geometry. The parameters to be determined are: the average magma viscosity, the amount of magma already present in the sill before the 2012-2013 episode and the magma injection rate. Results show

  3. Tuberculosis and leprosy in Italy: new skeletal evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Roberts, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy are infections caused by Mycobacteria. This paper documents new skeletal evidence in Italy from the Iron Age site of Corvaro (Central Italy; 5th century BCE) and the Roman site of Palombara (Central Italy; 4th-5th century CE), and briefly reviews the extant evidence for these infections in Italy. The skeletal evidence for TB in Italy is more ancient than for leprosy, and is more common. The oldest evidence for both mycobacterial diseases is in the North of Italy, but this could be by chance, even if biomolecular models suggest a land route from the East to central Europe, especially for leprosy.

  4. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years. PMID:20386624

  5. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  6. Vesuvian and Phlegraean tephra layers as a tool to reconstruct the evolution of marine and continental sedimentary environments in the area of Naples (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vito, Mauro; Sacchi, Marco; de Vita, Sandro; Molisso, Flavia; Insinga, Donatella

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that tephra layers represent a fundamental tool in the chronostratrigraphic analysis of sedimentary successions. Particularly, tephrostratigraphy plays a key role in the integrated study of subaerial environments coupled with subaqueous settings were there is a higher potential for the preservation of the stratigraphic record. Recent studies conducted on the mixed siliciclastic-volcaniclastic environments of the Campania coastal zone suggest that the study of tephra layers is also relevant to the analysis of facies associations and depositional settings. The comparison between stratigraphic successions exposed on land and cored at sea in the Gulf of Naples, allowed the recognition of isochrone surfaces, marked by the products of explosive volcanic eruptions, which have been useful in making correlations between marine and continental sedimentary basins. These surfaces and the recognized tephra layers also helped to better constrain the palaeoenvironmental conditions that influenced their evolution. In particular it has been highlighted the role played by volcanic activity in determining a strong variability in the sedimentation rate in both marine and sedimentary environments. Volcanic activity affected both the short and long term evolution of these basins as it produced highly dispersed pyroclastic deposits, which instantaneously covered wide areas at sea-land interface, and were reworked for very long times, causing the overloading of the drainage systems and the increasing of sedimentation rates, with repeated flood and mass-deposition episodes. The time-span investigated with this study includes the past 5 ka, during which volcanism at both Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei caldera has been characterized by Plinian, sub-Plinian, Ultrastrombolian and Strombolian, intense explosive activity, with pyroclastic fallout deposits widely dispersed in the eastern quadrants of the volcanoes. The investigations carried out on land interested quarried

  7. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care. PMID:22389841

  8. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  9. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104

  10. Genomic characterization of porcine rotaviruses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Martella, V; Pratelli, A; Greco, G; Tempesta, M; Ferrari, M; Losio, M N; Buonavoglia, C

    2001-01-01

    A total of 23 rotavirus strains isolated from pigs were analyzed. Twenty strains had been isolated from diarrheic piglets from an outbreak that occurred in northern Italy in 1983. Three strains had been isolated in 1984 from swine herds located in distinct areas of northern Italy. All 23 strains were characterized as type G6P[5] by PCR. The isolation from piglets of rotaviruses displaying typical bovine G- and P-type specificities points out the high frequency of rotavirus transmission between cattle and pigs.

  11. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-06-20

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations... made in a journey through... the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book.

  12. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608) were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538) were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%), whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p < 0.001) for immigrants and patients born in Italy, respectively. Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network. PMID:21923939

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  16. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... Pasta from Italy and Turkey: Investigation Nos. 701- TA-365-366 and 731-TA-734-735 (Third...

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  18. The University in Italy: Historical Background and Changing Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeschini, Marco

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of higher education in Italy. Discusses the nature and function of the Italian university; changes in Italy's system of higher education over the years; the issue of academic autonomy in Italy; and reform in Italian universities over the next few years (going corporate and walking the tightrope between autonomy and national…

  19. Linguistic Classification in Italy: Problems and Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John Earl

    1980-01-01

    The schema generally used to describe the linguistic situation in Italy includes two categories: dialetto regionale (regional dialect) and italiano regionale (regional Italian). These stand apart from the widely accepted sociolinguistic model "variety--dialect--language." It is demonstrated that both these categories should be treated…

  20. Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

  1. Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus. PMID:21470460

  2. An Urban Renewal School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, Italy, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…

  3. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  4. Italy's Treasures Are in Their Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    Each year more than 300 applicants vie for 18 slots at the Central Institute of Restoration, the program responsible for the restoration of many of Italy's greatest works of art, and the training of experts in the repair of objects of artistic and/or cultural significance. Successful candidates must demonstrate knowledge of art history, chemistry,…

  5. A Critical Bibliography of Materials on Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Anne; Chapman, Rosemary

    This ungraded, annotated bibliography includes books of history and society, literature and culture and a special section devoted to the southern part of Italy. Filmstrips, slides and films are listed in the audiovisual materials bibliography. Also included is a list of sources of books and audio-visual materials that are included in a multi-media…

  6. Is There an America in Italy's Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, William K.

    2005-01-01

    When the author first heard that Italy wants to adopt the American model of education, his immediate reaction was, "Why would you want to do that?" American schools can scarcely teach students to read and write. American students are abysmally ignorant about history, geography, and world affairs. In international assessments of…

  7. The Study of Behavioural Development in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battacchi, Marco W.

    1984-01-01

    Examines professional education and current research trends in developmental psychology in Italy. Current trends have been investigated by a multi-dimensional content analysis of the studies published or accepted for publication in qualified journals between 1978-May 1983. (Author/AS)

  8. Bedbug infestations recorded in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Masetti, Massimo; Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2007-03-01

    In summer 2003 two separate infestations due to the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius) occurred in Pisa, Italy. Cutaneous reaction was evident and one patient developed a severe bullous eruption. In both cases there was circumstantial evidence for association with international travel.

  9. How America Saved Italy and the World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    wrote about Naples post-Allied liberation. There, mobs of men, women and children beat each other over candy Allied soldiers threw their way, and boys...Sicily and Italy. For further reading see Gene Santoro’s Mafia Allies: The True Story of America’s Secret Alliance with the Mob in World War II. 73

  10. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  11. A reappraisal of seismic Q evaluated at Mt. Etna volcano. Receipt for the application to risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    A new approach in dealing with seismic risk in the volcanic areas of Italy, by taking into account the possible occurrence of damaging pre- or syn-eruptive seismic events, is exciting the scientific interest and is actually the topic developed in several research projects funded by the European Community (e.g., UPStrat-MAFA, www.upstrat-mafa.ov.ingv.it/UPstrat/) and the Civil Defense Department of Italy. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the local attenuation-distance relations. In the present paper, we make a survey of the estimates of the seismic quality factor of the medium reported in literature for the Etna area. In the framework of a similar paper published for the Campi Flegrei zone in Southern Italy, we first review the results on seismic attenuation already obtained for Etna and then apply a standard technique to separately measure intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients from passive seismic data recorded by the Etna seismological network. Indications are then given for the correct utilization of the attenuation parameters to obtain the best candidate quality factor Q to be used in this area for seismic risk purposes.

  12. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  13. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  14. [Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844 in Italy].

    PubMed

    Stella, E; Sobrero, L

    1978-12-01

    The authors provide here the data concerning the first italian finding of tick Hemaphysalis concinna (Ixodidae). Two males of this species--which has a large geographic diffusion--were actually caught for the first time in Italy, in July 1977. They were found on the ground of the Castel Porziano estate (Rome) at sealevel, in two different grassy places. The authors describe their morphological characters and provide some essential data on the environment of Castel Porziano.

  15. Population exposed to landslide risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Munafò, Michele; Baiocco, Fabio; Marinosci, Ines; Chiocchini, Raffaella; Mugnoli, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides counting over 486,000 mass movements with a total area of 20,700 square kilometres equal to 6.9% of the national territory. Moreover Italy is a densely urbanized country: 8101 municipalities, about 200 inhabitants per sq. km, 16,000 km of rail network and 180,000 km of road network. Landslides caused more than 5000 fatalities in the last century and considerable damage to urban areas, transport infrastructure and facilities, environmental and cultural heritage. The aim of this work is to estimate the population exposed to landslide risk in Italy. The input data are: the Italian Landslide Inventory, the Italian Population Census data and the high-resolution Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer (Geoland2). The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) realised by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-governing Provinces, identifies landslides occurred in the national territory in accordance with standardized methods and using a detailed landslide mapping (1:10,000 scale). The 14th Population Census, made by ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) in 2001, contains data of resident population for the 382,534 census tracts in which Italy is divided. The pan-European high-resolution (HR) Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer, realized using remote sensing data within the GMES initiative (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) by European Commission and European Space Agency, contains the degree of imperviousness (between 0 and 100%). GIS overlay of this information layer (20 x 20 m grid) with census tracts has allowed the spatialization of population within urban settlements of each census tract. This methodology has been particularly useful in the case of rural census tracts characterized by large surface area and low population density. The methodology could be also applied to estimate the population exposed to

  16. Molecular detection of bovine kobuviruses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Pistilli, Maria Gabriella; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2012-12-01

    Faecal samples obtained from either asymptomatic or diarrhoeic calves in Italy were screened for bovine kobuviruses (BKVs) using specific primers. BKV RNA was detected in 4.9 % of the samples, with higher positivity rates in diarrhoeic calves (5.3 %) than in asymptomatic animals (4.8 %), although the difference was not statistically significant. Upon sequence analysis, all of the Italian viruses formed a tight group along with BKV-like sequences previously detected in Thailand and Japan.

  17. Italy. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-09-01

    Tramontana . . . . . .. ...... . 23- 6 (4) Foehn . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. 6 3, Regional discussion of climate ....... . . 23- 6 a. Italian Alps...all of Italy, the Po Valley a cold front, has the most extreme climate. Winters are cild, (4) Poehn - The foehn is a. downslope wind cloudy, and...in Liguria and northern noon. In the western part of the valley, the foggy Tuscany, The foehn is usually associated with the weather may persist for

  18. Malaria in illegal Chinese immigrants, Italy.

    PubMed

    Matteelli, A; Volonterio, A; Gulletta, M; Galimberti, L; Maroccolo, S; Gaiera, G; Giani, G; Rossi, M; Dorigoni, N; Bellina, L; Orlando, G; Bisoffi, Z; Castelli, F

    2001-01-01

    A cluster of 22 imported malaria cases, 21 caused by Plasmodium falciparum, was observed among illegal Chinese immigrants in northern Italy in the summer of 2000. The rate of severe disease was high because the patients were not immune and they sought health-care services late in their illness because of their clandestine status. Recognition of the outbreak was delayed because no regional alert system among infectious diseases hospitals was in place.

  19. Gastroenteritis Outbreak at Holiday Resort, Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Prencipe, Vincenza; Ripani, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Cristina; Casaccia, Claudia; Crudeli, Silvia; Ferri, Nicola; Giovannini, Armando; Marconi, Maria Maddalena; Marfoglia, Cristina; Melai, Valeria; Savini, Giovanni; Scortichini, Giampiero; Semprini, Primula; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2008-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, a gastroenteritis outbreak spread throughout a holiday resort in central Italy. Fecally contaminated groundwater and seawater were leaking into the non–drinking-water system, which was found to be connected to the drinking-water system of a large resort. This contamination had a primary role in the onset of the outbreak and spread of the infection. PMID:18325266

  20. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy].

    PubMed

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L

    2011-01-01

    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration.

  1. [A note on induced abortion in Italy].

    PubMed

    Cagiano De Azevedo, R

    1980-01-01

    The adoption of a recent law on abortion (1978) makes available in Italy new statistics at both the national and regional levels. Following the official source of ISTAT, the abortion rate/100 livebirths in 1979 was about 28%, about 40% in the northern part of Italy, and only 16% in Mezzogiorno. This abortion rate, as an average data at the national level, corresponds to a normal position among similar rates in western countries; closer to EEC member states. But the regional variability seems a very interesting new aspect of the Italian tryptic (north, center, south) largely presented in many demographic indicators. 3 factors are presented as a possible explication of this variability: a real different attitude of women and couples towards abortion from cultural, religious, and political points of view; the coexistence of legal and illegal abortion despite the adoption of a new liberal law; and the very important disequilibrium in the distribution of structures and medical services available to assure abortions in different parts of the country. Some other demographic points related to abortion are also presented here, particularly in connection with age structure of women and their marital status. Future trends in abortion with subsequent effects on fertility are also discussed at the end of this article. The arguments follow 2 alternatives presented in Italy by the National Committee on Population and the Committee of Demographic Studies. (author's modified)

  2. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  3. 3D Imaging of Brittle/Ductile transition of the crust beneath the resurgent calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, P.; Castaldo, R.; Pepe, S.; Solaro, G.

    2012-04-01

    Rheology is a crucial factor to understand the mechanical behaviour and evolution of the crust in young and tectonically active belts. The aim of this paper is to investigate the rheological properties of the crust beneath resurgent calderas as Long Valley caldera (California USA) and Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy). Through the rheological proprieties of the calderas area, we highlight the driving process that determine the cut off of the local seismicity [K. Ito, 1993]. In this context, we consider the thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneity of the crust in order to develop a 3D conductive time dependent thermal model of the upper crust beneath the two calderas. More specifically we integrate geophysical information (gravimetric, seismic and boreholes data) available for the considered area in FEM environment [Manconi A. et al., 2010]. We performed a numerical solution of Fourier equation to carry out an advance optimization of the real measured data. We produce a set of forward models and propose, in order to analyse and solve the statistical problem, the Monte Carlo optimization procedures as Genetic Algorithm [Manconi A. et al., 2009]. In particular we search for the heat production, the volume source distribution and the surface emissivity parameters that providing the best-fit of the geothermal profiles data measured at boreholes, by solving the non stationary heat flow equation (Campanian Ignimbrite eruption about 40 kyr for Campi Flegrei caldera and Bishop tuff eruption about 700 kyr for Long Valley caldera). The performed thermal fields allow us to obtain the rheological stratification of the crust beneath two resurgent calderas; the models suggest that the uprising of a ductile layer which connects the upper mantle to the volcanic feeding system could determine the stress conditions that controlled the distribution of seismicity. In fact, the computed 3D imaging of Brittle/Ductile transition well agrees with the seismic hypocentral distribution

  4. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  5. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  6. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  7. Biophysical science in Italy: SIBPA turns 40.

    PubMed

    Giacomazza, Daniela; Musio, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    This Special Issue of Biophysical Chemistry includes a selection of the papers presented at the XXI Congress of the Italian Society of Pure and Applied Biophysics (i.e., SIBPA, Società Italiana di Biofisica Pura ed Applicata) held on September 2012 at the University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Topics cover all biophysical disciplines, from molecular to cellular, to integrative biophysics giving an almost comprehensive view of the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches, proper of the modern biophysics. SIBPA, which celebrates its 40th anniversary in 2013, has steadily grown and appeals to both specialists and a wider general audience.

  8. Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Pregliasco, F.; Sodano, L.; Mensi, C.; Selvaggi, M. T.; Adamo, B.; D'Argenio, P.; Giussani, F.; Simonetti, A.; Carosella, M. R.; Simeone, R.; Dentizi, C.; Montanaro, C.; Ponzio, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners. PMID:10083710

  9. View of northeastern Italy including Venice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of northeastern Italy including the Venice (Venezia) area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The mountainous area is the Dolomite Alps. The most conspicuous stream northeast of Venice is the Piave River. The city near the center of the picture on the Brenta River is Bassano del Grappa. The large city of Padua (Padova) is on the western bank of the Grenta near the clock.

  10. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mariacher, A.; Millanta, F.; Guidi, G.; Perrucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals. PMID:27354971

  11. Italy: abortion and nationalized health care.

    PubMed

    Mori, M

    1984-12-01

    Most of the recent public and scholarly interest in Italy concerning bioethical issues has centered on abortion, general reform of the health care system, and deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill. Medical decisions are thought to concern technical rather than moral issues, and are generally left to physicians. Although ethics is a formal part of the medical curriculum only in Catholic universities, physicians have recently shown more of an interest in bioethical issues, as have philosophers. At present, however, the author is aware of only one non-Catholic institution that is devoted to the study of ethical questions in medicine.

  12. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  13. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During June 9–September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  14. Invasive Type e Haemophilus influenzae Disease in Italy

    PubMed Central

    degli Atti, Marta Luisa Ciofi; Cardines, Rita; Salmaso, Stefania; Renna, Giovanna; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2003-01-01

    We describe the first reported cases of invasive type e Haemophilus influenzae disease in Italy. All five cases occurred in adults. The isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and eight other antimicrobial agents. Molecular analysis showed two distinct type e strains circulating in Italy, both containing a single copy of the capsulation locus. PMID:12604001

  15. Mazzini and the Radical Movement in Nineteenth-Century Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noether, Emiliana P.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the origins of radicalism in Italy, specifically the emergence in 1831 of Giuseppe Mazzini as the advocate of Italian nationalism and radicalism. Examines Mazzini's role in Italy and among European revolutionaries, concluding that his legacy led to the establishment of the Italian republic in the twentieth century. (GEA)

  16. Young People and Alcohol in Italy: An Evolving Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…

  17. Large-Scale Assessments and Educational Policies in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiani, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Despite Italy's extensive participation in most large-scale assessments, their actual influence on Italian educational policies is less easy to identify. The present contribution aims at highlighting and explaining reasons for the weak and often inconsistent relationship between international surveys and policy-making processes in Italy.…

  18. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  19. 75 FR 14628 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty finding on pressure sensitive plastic tape from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4128 (March 2010), entitled Pressure Sensitive Plastic...

  20. Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in Italy for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in Italy for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.

  1. The way forward in Italy for iodine.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Antonella; DI Cosmo, Caterina; DE Angelis, Simona; DA Cas, Roberto; Stacchini, Paolo; Pastorelli, Augusto; Vitti, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Italy is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. In 1848 an ad hoc committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, identified extensive areas afflicted by endemic goiter and endemic cretinism in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. Since then many epidemiological studies have been conducted in our country. These showed that iodine deficiency was present not only in mountain areas but also in coastal areas. In 1972 the iodization of salt at 15 mg/kg was allowed by law and iodized salt was distributed on request to selected endemic areas. Five years later the distribution was extended to the whole country. However the sale of iodized salt was not mandatory at that time and only a small fraction of the Italian population started using iodized salt. In 1991 the content of iodine in the salt was raised to 30 mg/kg and in 2005 a nationwide salt iodization program was finally implemented. Some years later a nationwide monitoring program of iodine prophylaxis was also implemented. Since 2005 the sale of iodized salt in Italian supermarkets has increased (34% in 2006, 55% in 2012), although it has been observed that the use of iodized salt is still low in the communal eating areas and in the food industry. These data are coherent with recent epidemiological studies showing that some regions in our country are still characterized by mild iodine deficiency and a high frequency of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. This implies that further efforts should be made to successfully correct iodine deficiency in Italy.

  2. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control.

  3. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  4. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock.

  5. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

    2013-06-01

    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  6. Patients dropping out of treatment in Italy.

    PubMed

    Morlino, M; Martucci, G; Musella, V; Bolzan, M; de Girolamo, G

    1995-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent and the specific features of drop-out for patients having a first contact with an university psychiatric outpatient clinic in Italy over the course of 1 year and to determine which variables were associated with early termination of treatment. Of the 158 patients selected for this study, there was an overall 3-month drop-out rate following the first visit of 63%. Of the 59 patients who had returned once after the initial contact, 28 interrupted subsequently the treatment, although the therapist's plan included further visits. The overall drop-out rate at 3 months was thus 82%. The only 2 variables associated with drop-out rates were the patients' perception of the severity of their disorder and the psychiatric history: continuing patients were more frequently in agreement with the clinician's judgment as compared with those who dropped out and were more likely to have already been in psychiatric treatment.

  7. Floating production systems planned for Italy, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    EMH has signed a contract to design, fabricate and install a permanent deepwater, gravity-based single-point mooring (SPM) system and floating oil storage facility in Societa Energio Montedison's (SEM) Vega field off Italy. The design of the system is described. The system is designed to accomodate production rates of 75,000 bpd. The oil will be loaded from the storage tanker into shuttle tankers which will take it to area refineries. The shuttle tankers can moor either in tandem or side-by-side for loading. Also described in this paper are three Nigerian offshore fields -- Akam, Adanga and Ebughu -- being developed by Ashland Oil. They will be brought onstream through the use of an integrated floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) system. Production from all three fields will be piped to a central manifold platform to which a tanker will be permanently moored via a soft-yoke mooring system.

  8. Women and botany in Risorgimento Italy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2004-01-01

    The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in Italy by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists.

  9. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-02-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. In a foredeep regime, the remarkably fast heating rates, due to the rapid burial during late Tertiary, caused a rapid generation of oil mainly in the Triassic carbonate source rocks. Such generation, combined with the high over-burden pressure and a contemporaneous development of an intense tectonic compression, resulted in the expulsion of immature, heavy oils. Examples of this are evident in the central Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and southeastern Sicily. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulating thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  10. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  11. Monitoring the Pollino Earthquake Swarm (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, D.; Passarelli, L.; Govoni, A.; Rivalta, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) representone of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the lastcenturies. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms.The most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity.The range host a number of additional sub-parallel faults.Their rheology is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host largeearthquakes and the level and the style of deformation.Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faultsis therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have been jointly monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Using the array, we automatically detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included inlocal catalogues corresponding to completeness above M~0.5.In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin.However, the eastward spread towards the northern tio of the CF in 2013 marksa phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin.The event locations indicate spatially distinct clusters with different mechanisms across the E-W trending Pollino Fault.The clusters differ in strike and dip.Calibration of the local magnitude scale confirms earlier studies further north in the Apennines. The station corrections show N-S variation indicating that the Pollino Fault forms an important structural boundary.

  12. 75 FR 8114 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR...

  13. Ethics committees in Italy--a time for change?

    PubMed

    Wray, E

    2000-01-01

    The Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) in Italy has recently produced an unprecedented discussion document on the state of ethics committees in Italy, with an invitation to interested parties to comment on proposed changes to their fundamental structure. After this consultation, and taking note of relevant official publications and the most recent national and international literature on the subject, the CNB proposes to produce a final, definitive document that will consider options for the future development of such committees.

  14. The state of art of shotcrete in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Pelizza, S.; Tesio, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper reports the large experience of use of shotcrete in Italy, both in tunnels and above ground. In tunnelling, for more than 30 years, shotcrete has been used for many hundreds of kilometers of tunnel construction. Technical rules for shotcrete use in Italy do not yet exist. SIG-Italian Tunnelling Society- has formed the Working Group Use of Shotcrete. This working group, operating since 1988, has the specific task to adapt the use of shotcrete to international standards.

  15. [Italy and Spain in the face of immigration].

    PubMed

    Alotta, S

    1997-01-01

    "Spain and Italy share a common heritage as far as emigration is concerned. Their country men went abroad looking for jobs for a long period of their history. At present this is the fate of the extra community immigrants. Scholars maintain that Spain and Italy face this new situation with a fear greater than necessary. An attempt is made to explain immigration in a more rational way. At the same time...the debate about racism and antiracism [is examined]." (EXCERPT)

  16. Estimated prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy in 2015.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bezzini, Daiana

    2017-03-01

    Italy is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis (MS) as confirmed by the numerous prevalence and incidence studies conducted in several regions/districts of the country. Nevertheless, there are no recent published epidemiological data, nor studies about the total prevalence of MS in Italy. Our aim was to update as of 2015 the prevalence rates of MS in different geographical areas using already published epidemiological studies, and to estimate the overall prevalence of the disease in Italy. We made a search in MEDLINE database of all published studies on epidemiology of MS in Italy. Then, we applied, to the already published prevalence data, the last published incidence and mortality rates to recalculate, as of 2015, the prevalence of MS. So, we calculated the mean prevalence rate from our extrapolations, and we applied it to the population in 2015 to estimate the number of MS patients in Italy. Our prevalence extrapolations ranged from 122 to 232 cases/100,000 in the mainland and Sicily, with an average of 176/100,000, and from 280 to 317 cases/100,000 in Sardinia with an average of 299/100,000. Applying these media to the Italian population in 2015, we obtained an estimate of more than 109,000 MS patients in Italy. Our estimates were higher than the latest published rates but consistent with the annual increase of prevalence due to incidence that exceeds mortality, with the increase of survival and, maybe, with the probable increase of incidence.

  17. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  18. Characterization of fire regime in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Mastinu, S.; Masala, F.; Sirca, C.; Spano, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the last decades, a number of Authors highlighted the crucial role of forest fires within Mediterranean ecosystems, with impacts both negative and positive on all biosphere components and with reverberations on different scales. Fire determines the landscape structure and plant composition, but it is also the cause of enormous economic and ecological damages, beside the loss of human life. In Sardinia (Italy), the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, forest fires are perceived as one of the main environmental and social problems, and data are showing that the situation is worsening especially within the rural-urban peripheries and the increasing number of very large forest fires. The need for information concerning forest fire regime has been pointed out by several Authors (e.g. Rollins et al., 2002), who also emphasized the importance of understanding the factors (such as weather/climate, socio-economic, and land use) that determine spatial and temporal fire patterns. These would be used not only as a baseline to predict the climate change effect on forest fires, but also as a fire management and mitigation strategy. The main aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the last three decades (1980-2010). For the analyzed period, fire statistics were provided by the Sardinian Forest Service (CFVA - Corpo Forestale e di Vigilanza Ambientale), while weather data for eight weather stations were obtained from the web site www.tutiempo.it. For each station, daily series of precipitation, mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were available. The present study firstly analyzed fire statistics (burned area and number of fires) according to the main fire regime characteristics (seasonality, fire return interval, fire incidence, fire size distribution). Then, fire and weather daily values were averaged to obtain monthly, seasonal and annual values, and

  19. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  1. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Italy (GARD-Italy): strategy and activities.

    PubMed

    Laurendi, Giovanna; Mele, Sonia; Centanni, Stefano; Donner, Claudio F; Falcone, Franco; Frateiacci, Sandra; Lazzeri, Marta; Mangiacavallo, Antonino; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Viegi, Giovanni; Pisanti, Paola; Filippetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The steady increase in incidence of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) now constitutes a serious public health problem. CRDs are often underdiagnosed and many patients are not diagnosed until the CRD is too severe to prevent normal daily activities. The prevention of CRDs and reducing their social and individual impacts means modifying environmental and social factors and improving diagnosis and treatment. Prevention of risk factors (tobacco smoke, allergens, occupational agents, indoor/outdoor air pollution) will significantly impact on morbidity and mortality. The Italian Ministry of Health (MoH) has made respiratory disease prevention a top priority and is implementing a comprehensive strategy with policies against tobacco smoking, indoor/outdoor pollution, obesity, and communicable diseases. Presently these actions are not well coordinated. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), set up by the World Health Organization, envisages national bodies; the GARD initiative in Italy, launched 11/6/2009, represents a great opportunity for the MoH. Its main objective is to promote the development of a coordinated CRD program in Italy. Effective prevention implies setting up a health policy with the support of healthcare professionals and citizen associations at national, regional, and district levels. What is required is a true inter-institutional synergy: respiratory diseases prevention cannot and should not be the responsibility of doctors alone, but must involve politicians/policymakers, as well as the media, local institutions, and schools, etc. GARD could be a significant experience and a great opportunity for Italy to share the GARD vision of a world where all people can breathe freely.

  2. [The management of foreign workers in Italy].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Sergio; Valenti, Antonio; Persechino, Benedetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, the globalisation and important geopolitical changes have widened the spatial boundaries of international migrations which have reached a so global scope today that they influence the economic, political and social trend of countries of origin, transit and destination. According to the UN, the international labour mobility involved more than 200 million people in 2010, that is approximately 10% of the world's total population. In Italy, in the beginning of 2010 foreign residents amounted to 4.2 million, that is to say, 7% of the total population (ISTAT, 2011). Host countries have been forced to implement a series of policies aimed at combating illegal immigration and employment of foreign people. Special attention must be given to the issue of migrant workers who have become increasingly important actors in the social and productive sectors and, as a consequence, the need for preventive and protective measures taking into consideration the specific work-related hazards is growing more and more urgent. With this respect, the regulatory framework for occupational health and safety now contains explicit references to migrant workers as provided in the Leg. Decree 81/08 with subsequent integrations and modifications. First of all, the issue of occupational health and safety for migrant workers must take into account of the linguistic, social and cultural problems of the different ethnical groups that are present in our country.

  3. EHR and data protection issues in Italy.

    PubMed

    Virone, Maria Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Technological progresses and the changed way to collect, access and use data are at the bottom of the European Commission proposal for a "General Data Protection Regulation" (25 January 2012). Implications of safeguarding privacy and harmonization of existing rules are extremely important also for national Health Systems. Mobility of patients and health professionals as well as cross-border healthcare connected with the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare Services are modifying traditional medical approaches and applications. New tools, as Electronic Health Records, provide significant benefits as empowering health consumers and minimizing health costs. Anyway, EHRs have limits: for example, they should cause risks for individuals, professionals and institutions in terms of personal injuries and liabilities. In this scenario, it's evident that technical aspects (as health standards and interoperability) are as important as legal and regulatory privacy issues. Presently, mandatory acts on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of health e-Data still missing at all levels. Italy is adopting binding and non-binding legal documents to tackle the problem. Are they enough?

  4. [Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in Italy].

    PubMed

    Girardi, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, incidence of tuberculosis in Europe was 52.2 cases per 100,000 population, with lower rates in European Union (average 16.7 per 100.000) e and rates above 100 per 100.000 in the former Soviet Union. In Italy, incidence rates of tuberculosis have been fairly stable in the last two decades around 7 reported cases per 100.000 population. However, the epidemiological picture has clearly changed. Spread of HIV infection and immigration from high incidence countries had a major impact on epidemiological dynamics. In particular, the proportion of reported cases occurring among persons born in high incidence countries increase during the last decade, and it is now close to 50%. A similar trend has been observed in most Western European countries. Strategies for tuberculosis control should include: a general approach to tuberculosis which favor access to care and ensures rapid detection and treatment of all the cases; screening and provision of preventive treatment for contacts of contagious cases and for persons in other high risk groups. Upstream social determinants of tuberculosis need also to be addressed in order to move towards the goal of tuberculosis elimination.

  5. Space Radar Image of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The summit of the Mount Etna volcano on the island of Sicily, Italy, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is shown near the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of purple, green, yellow and pink surrounding the four small craters at the summit. Etna is one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world and scientists are using this radar image to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. Etna has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history, with the most recent significant eruption in 1991-1993. Scientists are studying Etna as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its high level of activity and potential threat to local populations. This image was acquired on October 11, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 37.8 degrees North latitude and 15.1 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 51.2 kilometers by 22.6 kilometers (31.7 miles by 14.0 miles).

  6. Prevalence of congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Alessandra; Bianco, Flaviana; D'Amico, Adele; Moroni, Isabella; Messina, Sonia; Bruno, Claudio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mora, Marina; Astrea, Guja; Magri, Francesca; Comi, Giacomo P.; Berardinelli, Angela; Moggio, Maurizio; Morandi, Lucia; Pini, Antonella; Petillo, Roberta; Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Minetti, Carlo; Mongini, Tiziana; Ricci, Enzo; Gorni, Ksenija; Battini, Roberta; Villanova, Marcello; Politano, Luisa; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Muntoni, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We provide a nationwide population study of patients with congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy. Methods: Cases were ascertained from the databases in all the tertiary referral centers for pediatric neuromuscular disorders and from all the genetic diagnostic centers in which diagnostic tests for these forms are performed. Results: The study includes 336 patients with a point prevalence of 0.563 per 100,000. Mutations were identified in 220 of the 336 (65.5%). The cohort was subdivided into diagnostic categories based on the most recent classifications on congenital muscular dystrophies. The most common forms were those with α-dystroglycan glycosylation deficiency (40.18%) followed by those with laminin α2 deficiency (24.11%) and collagen VI deficiency (20.24%). The forms of congenital muscular dystrophy related to mutations in SEPN1 and LMNA were less frequent (6.25% and 5.95%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study provides for the first time comprehensive epidemiologic information and point prevalence figures for each of the major diagnostic categories on a large cohort of congenital muscular dystrophies. The study also reflects the diagnostic progress in this field with an accurate classification of the cases according to the most recent gene discoveries. PMID:25653289

  7. The Ignimbrite Campana Magma Chamber: Pre-eruptive P-t-x Conditions From Melt Inclusion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marianelli, P.; Proto, M.; Sbrana, A.

    The Ignimbrite Campana (36 ka) represents the most powerful eruption characterizing the volcanic history of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The eruption was fed by a stratified magma chamber (Civetta et al., 1997). This study, based on melt inclusion investigations in phenocrysts of pumice, is aimed to better constrain depth, thermal conditions and composition of magmas hosted in the magma chamber. Samples from the Breccia Museo products (proximal deposits of the Ignimbrite Campana) were selected, due to their sin-eruptive and sin-depositional quenching. On the basis of melt inclusions investigations important informations about crystallization conditions (P, T, X) and volatile contents have been obtained. Glass compositions fall in the trachyte field close to the trachyte-phonolite boundary, similarly to the others Ignimbrite Campana products. The temperature of homogenization ranges between 850 and 1135°C. These values of temperature, that can be assumed as crystallization temperatures, correlate to the host crystal compositions with the highest one corresponding to melt inclusions trapped in less Fe-rich pyroxene. FTIR analyses on double -polished melt inclusions were carried out in order to investigate H2O and CO2 contents. Preliminary results indicate values of H2O that range from about 2 up to 8.0wt%, whereas CO2 was not detected. Lowest values of H2O (modal value = 2- 3wt%) correspond to the melt inclusions from layers at the top of the Breccia Museo (pumice flow deposits). Minimum pressures of crystallization are estimated in the range 100-200 MPa, assuming saturation conditions for the trapped melts and calculating the solubility of H2O in trachytic magmas according to the model of Moore et al. (1998). References Civetta L., Orsi G., Pappalardo L., Fisher R.V., Heiken G., Ort M. (1997): Geochemical zoning, mingling, eruptive dynamics and depositional processes ­ the Campanian Ignimbrite, Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 75: 183

  8. Update on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Conversano, Michele

    2014-05-01

    As in many countries in Western Europe, in Italy tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease. In the last decade its incidence has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants, the threshold considered to define a country as low prevalence. The epidemiological picture, however, is very different in the countries of Eastern Europe and in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the incidence of TB continues to increase and in some cases is accompanied by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant TB. The present review describes the epidemiology of TB in Italy. In 2008, the incidence rate was 3.8 cases per 100,000 for people born in Italy, and 50-60 cases per 100,000 for those born abroad. There was an increase in cases from Eastern Europe. The crude mortality rate for TB in 2006 was 0.7 deaths per 100,000 residents. Although TB is a low-prevalence disease in Italy, its epidemiology is changing. Since 1955, more than 160,000 people in Italy have died from this potentially preventable and curable disease.

  9. A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification.

  10. Adolescents' attitudes to abortion in samples from Italy and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Agostino, M B; Wahlberg, V

    1991-01-01

    Both Italy and Sweden have legislated abortion without grounds since the 1970s but background conditions in the two countries are bipolar. The overall purpose of the present study was to investigate a sample of adolescents from Italy and Sweden regarding their attitudes towards abortion and their knowledge of family planning and to compare the results from the two countries. A questionnaire was distributed among 400 adolescents, 177 from Stockholm, Sweden and 223 from Rome and Locri, Italy. Whereas Sweden is a relatively homogeneous country. Italy has large regional differences regarding social and other aspects. For this reason two regions of Italy were studied separately. The participants were all secondary school students. The results indicated that nearly all adolescents in both countries were concerned about abortion and its consequences, although their concern was expressed differently, in accordance with their religious and cultural norms and also with their background in sexual education. The present study raises questions concerning the knowledge level as an outcome of sex education programs. In fact comparing the answers between the Italian and the Swedish samples no particular difference, in favour of the Swedish adolescents was noticed.

  11. Thermoregulation of alpacas bred in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello, Silvana; Formis, Elena; Barbieri, Sara

    2011-03-01

    The present study monitored daily and seasonal variations of rectal temperature in response to different environmental temperatures in alpacas bred in the Italian Apennines at 300 m a.s.l. In each season, the rectal temperature of 33 clinically healthy alpacas was measured three times/day (morning, midday, afternoon). Ambient temperatures were also recorded. Rectal temperatures ranged from a minimum value of 35.1 to a maximum of 39.4°C, with a maximum daily thermal excursion (ΔTrec) of 3.2°C. Temperatures increased throughout the day, with highly significant differences recorded in both young and adult animals between all the time bands ( P < 0.001). These differences were particularly dramatic for adults in summer, when the mean rectal temperature in the morning was 36.3 ± 0.13°C, probably as a consequence of recent shearing. Significant ΔTrec differences were recorded depending on the season in both young and adult animals ( P < 0.001), with the highest ΔTrec values recorded in summer (although the highest daily ambient excursion value was recorded in winter). In conclusion, similarly to alpacas bred in their natural environment, alpacas bred in Italy show a wide thermal neutrality zone, which is probably an adaptive response, that allows the animals to save energy. In the Italian Apennines, in order to prevent situations of hypothermia, with possible detrimental effects on alpacas' health and welfare, shearing should be carried out only in warm seasons.

  12. Concentration variance decay during magma mixing: a volcanic chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugini, Diego; de Campos, Cristina P.; Petrelli, Maurizio; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-09-01

    The mixing of magmas is a common phenomenon in explosive eruptions. Concentration variance is a useful metric of this process and its decay (CVD) with time is an inevitable consequence during the progress of magma mixing. In order to calibrate this petrological/volcanological clock we have performed a time-series of high temperature experiments of magma mixing. The results of these experiments demonstrate that compositional variance decays exponentially with time. With this calibration the CVD rate (CVD-R) becomes a new geochronometer for the time lapse from initiation of mixing to eruption. The resultant novel technique is fully independent of the typically unknown advective history of mixing - a notorious uncertainty which plagues the application of many diffusional analyses of magmatic history. Using the calibrated CVD-R technique we have obtained mingling-to-eruption times for three explosive volcanic eruptions from Campi Flegrei (Italy) in the range of tens of minutes. These in turn imply ascent velocities of 5-8 meters per second. We anticipate the routine application of the CVD-R geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes in future in order to constrain typical “mixing to eruption” time lapses such that monitoring activities can be targeted at relevant timescales and signals during volcanic unrest.

  13. Concentration variance decay during magma mixing: a volcanic chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugini, D.; De Campos, C. P.; Petrelli, M.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The mixing of magmas is a common phenomenon in explosive eruptions. Concentration variance is a useful metric of this process and its decay (CVD) with time is an inevitable consequence during the progress of magma mixing. In order to calibrate this petrological/volcanological clock we have performed a time-series of high temperature experiments of magma mixing. The results of these experiments demonstrate that compositional variance decays exponentially with time. With this calibration the CVD rate (CVD-R) becomes a new geochronometer for the time lapse from initiation of mixing to eruption. The resultant novel technique is fully independent of the typically unknown advective history of mixing - a notorious uncertainty which plagues the application of many diffusional analyses of magmatic history. Using the calibrated CVD-R technique we have obtained mingling-to-eruption times for three explosive volcanic eruptions from Campi Flegrei (Italy) in the range of tens of minutes. These in turn imply ascent velocities of 5-8 meters per second. We anticipate the routine application of the CVD-R geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes in future in order to constrain typical "mixing to eruption" time lapses such that monitoring activities can be targeted at relevant timescales and signals during volcanic unrest.

  14. Concentration variance decay during magma mixing: a volcanic chronometer

    PubMed Central

    Perugini, Diego; De Campos, Cristina P.; Petrelli, Maurizio; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    The mixing of magmas is a common phenomenon in explosive eruptions. Concentration variance is a useful metric of this process and its decay (CVD) with time is an inevitable consequence during the progress of magma mixing. In order to calibrate this petrological/volcanological clock we have performed a time-series of high temperature experiments of magma mixing. The results of these experiments demonstrate that compositional variance decays exponentially with time. With this calibration the CVD rate (CVD-R) becomes a new geochronometer for the time lapse from initiation of mixing to eruption. The resultant novel technique is fully independent of the typically unknown advective history of mixing – a notorious uncertainty which plagues the application of many diffusional analyses of magmatic history. Using the calibrated CVD-R technique we have obtained mingling-to-eruption times for three explosive volcanic eruptions from Campi Flegrei (Italy) in the range of tens of minutes. These in turn imply ascent velocities of 5-8 meters per second. We anticipate the routine application of the CVD-R geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes in future in order to constrain typical “mixing to eruption” time lapses such that monitoring activities can be targeted at relevant timescales and signals during volcanic unrest. PMID:26387555

  15. Impact of Sulfur Starvation in Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Cultures of the Extremophilic Microalga Galdieria phlegrea (Cyanidiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Carfagna, Simona; Bottone, Claudia; Cataletto, Pia Rosa; Petriccione, Milena; Pinto, Gabriele; Salbitani, Giovanna; Vona, Vincenza; Pollio, Antonino; Ciniglia, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    In plants and algae, sulfate assimilation and cysteine synthesis are regulated by sulfur (S) accessibility from the environment. This study reports the effects of S deprivation in autotrophic and heterotrophic cultures of Galdieria phlegrea (Cyanidiophyceae), a unicellular red alga isolated in the Solfatara crater located in Campi Flegrei (Naples, Italy), where H2S is the prevalent form of gaseous S in the fumarolic fluids and S is widespread in the soils near the fumaroles. This is the first report on the effects of S deprivation on a sulfurous microalga that is also able to grow heterotrophically in the dark. The removal of S from the culture medium of illuminated cells caused a decrease in the soluble protein content and a significant decrease in the intracellular levels of glutathione. Cells from heterotrophic cultures of G. phlegrea exhibited high levels of internal proteins and high glutathione content, which did not diminish during S starvation, but rather glutathione significantly increased. The activity of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), the enzyme synthesizing cysteine, was enhanced under S deprivation in a time-dependent manner in autotrophic but not in heterotrophic cells. Analysis of the transcript abundance of the OASTL gene supports the OASTL activity increase in autotrophic cultures under S deprivation.

  16. Removal of systematic seasonal atmospheric signal from interferometric synthetic aperture radar ground deformation time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Sergey V.; Trishchenko, Alexander P.; Tiampo, Kristy; González, Pablo J.; Zhang, Yu; Fernández, José

    2014-09-01

    Applying the Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset interferometric synthetic aperture radar algorithm to about 1500 Envisat and RADARSAT-2 interferograms spanning 2003-2013, we computed time series of ground deformation over Naples Bay Area in Italy. Two active volcanoes, Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, are located in this area in close proximity to the densely populated city of Naples. For the first time, and with remarkable clarity, we observed decade-long elevation-dependent seasonal oscillations of the vertical displacement component with a peak-to-peak amplitude of up to 3.0 cm, substantially larger than the long-term deformation rate (<0.6 cm/yr). Analysis, utilizing surface weather and radiosonde data, linked observed oscillations with seasonal fluctuations of water vapor, air pressure, and temperature in the lower troposphere. The modeled correction is in a good agreement with observed results. The mean, absolute, and RMS differences are 0.014 cm, 0.073 cm, and 0.087 cm, respectively. Atmospherically corrected time series confirmed continuing subsidence at Vesuvius previously observed by geodetic techniques.

  17. 78 FR 11627 - Certain Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Rescission of... on certain granular polytetrafluoroethylene (``PTFE'') resin from Italy. The period of review...

  18. Immigrants’ children’s transition to secondary school in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Barban, Nicola; White, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Choosing a secondary school represents an important step in the lives of students in Italy, in that it has a strong bearing on their ultimate educational achievement and labor force trajectory. In this paper, we analyze the effect of generational status and length of residence on the transition to secondary school among immigrants living in Italy. Using data from the ITAGEN2 follow-up, we analyze scholastic results from the middle school final exam and the choice of secondary school among the adolescents in Italy. Children of immigrants are more likely to have inferior outcomes on the middle school exam and to enroll in vocational and polytechnic schools. Our multivariate results indicate that, after controlling for the family’s human capital and other key background factors, immigrant students show greater propensity to choose a vocational path. Differences between immigrants and natives in secondary school tracks are also manifest when previous scholastic results are taken into account. PMID:25587204

  19. Provision of mental health care in general practice in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Tansella, M; Bellantuono, C

    1991-01-01

    The main features of the psychiatric system and of the general practice system in Italy since the psychiatric reform and the introduction of a national health service are briefly described. Research conducted in Italy confirms that a large proportion of patients seen by general practitioners have psychological disorders and that only some of those patients whose psychological problems are identified by general practitioners are referred to specialist psychiatric care. Thus, the need to identify the best model of collaboration between psychiatric services and general practice services is becoming increasingly urgent. The chances of improving links between the two services and of developing a satisfactory liaison model are probably greater in countries such as Italy where psychiatric services are highly decentralized and community-based, than in countries where the psychiatric services are hospital-based. PMID:1807308

  20. The relationship between happiness and health: evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    We test the relationship between happiness and self-rated health in Italy. The analysis relies on a unique dataset collected through the administration of a questionnaire to a representative sample (n = 817) of the population of the Italian Province of Trento in March 2011. Based on probit regressions and instrumental variables estimates, we find that happiness is strongly correlated with perceived good health, after controlling for a number of relevant socio-economic phenomena. Health inequalities based on income, work status and education are relatively contained with respect to the rest of Italy. As expected, this scales down the role of social relationships.

  1. [The history of migration and national identity in Italy].

    PubMed

    Lonni, A

    1993-01-01

    The author explores trends in migration from and within Italy and their impact on nationalism, politics, and social change. "In the last two centuries, Italy has witnessed significant population displacements. Firstly the seasonal emigration of the modern era: secondly, between 1880 and the immediate post-war (1950) [period], the European and transoceanic 'great emigration'. During the fifties and sixties, displacements took place within the peninsula from South to North. Finally, from the second half of the seventies, immigration from the...'Third world' began." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND ITA)

  2. Ozone fluxes over various plant ecosystems in Italy: a review.

    PubMed

    Cieslik, S

    2009-05-01

    Among air pollutants, ozone is the most important stressor to vegetation, which undergoes damage and biomass reduction after penetration of ozone molecules into the leaf tissues through the stomata. Stomatal ozone fluxes are considered the governing factor needed to assess risk to plant health due to ozone. Although this parameter may be calculated by modeling, direct measurements are scarce. Moreover, southern European situations, especially regarding Italy, require special attention due to the decoupling between ozone concentrations and fluxes. This work reviews ozone flux measurements made during the last 15 years through Italy.

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7012 - Tax exemptions (Italy)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7012 Tax exemptions (Italy)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Italy)—Representation (MAR 2012)...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7012 - Tax exemptions (Italy)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7012 Tax exemptions (Italy)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Italy)—Representation (MAR 2012)...

  5. 78 FR 48146 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ...-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on certain pasta (pasta) from Italy,\\1\\ covering the period July 1, 2011, through June... Order and Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Pasta From Italy, 61...

  6. 75 FR 56992 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review and Consideration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances... certain pasta from Italy with respect to gluten-free pasta. Based on sufficient evidence submitted by... duty order on pasta from Italy. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order and Amended Final...

  7. 77 FR 49780 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Italy for the..., ``Petitioners'') timely requested that the Department conduct an administrative review of KME Italy SpA...

  8. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and... revocation of the antidumping duty (AD) orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would likely lead to... from Italy and Turkey would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of a countervailable subsidy,...

  9. 77 FR 47816 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed... circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy (``pasta'') with respect to... from Italy.\\1\\ On remand, Del Verde S.p.A. was found to have a de minimis dumping margin, and...

  10. 75 FR 78223 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Changed... revocation, in part, of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy. See Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review and Consideration of Revocation of Order,...

  11. 76 FR 15209 - 150th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... the Unification of Italy, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On March 17, Italy celebrates the 150th anniversary of its unification as a single state. On this day, we... own Union, Giuseppe Garibaldi's campaign for the unification of Italy inspired many around the...

  12. 78 FR 20091 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty... of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy.\\1\\ Pursuant to requests from interested... Pasta From Italy: Notice of Final Results of 15th Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, Final...

  13. 75 FR 81212 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Final Results of the Thirteenth Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Final Results of the Thirteenth... from Italy. The review covers two manufacturers/exporters: Pastificio Lucio Garofalo (Garofalo) and.... (Fasolino/Euro-American Foods). See Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

  14. 76 FR 71311 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty... opportunity to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy.\\1... administrative review of pasta from Italy in the Federal Register.\\3\\ On November 7, 2011, Granoro withdrew...

  15. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  16. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313,...

  17. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea... contained in USITC Publication 4154 (May 2010), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan,...

  18. 75 FR 8925 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Preliminary Results of... pressure sensitive plastic tape from Italy pursuant to section 751(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended... review request. See Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping...

  19. 75 FR 17124 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Notice of Continuation of Antidumping Duty Finding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... International Trade Administration Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Notice of Continuation of... plastic tape (PSP Tape) from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping and of... to be revoked. See Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Final Results of Expedited...

  20. 75 FR 27706 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review AGENCY... Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75... Plastic Tape from Italy: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 74...

  1. The "Accademia della Crusca" in Italy: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An informal organisation that is becoming quite influential in the spread of Italian in Italy, as well as abroad, is the "Accademia della Crusca" which began its activities during the Renaissance, under quite different auspices. Founded in Florence in 1582-1583, this Academy was inspired by the theories of Pietro Bembo (1470-1547), a…

  2. Racism, "Race" and Ethnographic Research in Multicultural Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobbo, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts: in the first one, after mentioning episodes of violence against immigrants, the author discusses the issues of "race" and racism within the debate on immigration and diversity taking place in Italy. Pointing out a number of relevant indications and reflections that qualify such debate, she argues…

  3. Answers to Education Problems in Rural Italy. Chapter 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federighi, Paolo; Parlavecchia, Giovanni

    Since the mid-1980s, the Tuscany (Italy) regional government, the University of Florence (adult education department), and the Commune of Castelfiorentino have participated in a joint project aimed at narrowing the ever-widening gap between different segments of the Castelfiorentino population with regard to education and culture. The project…

  4. Inviting Children's Creativity: A Story of Reggio Emilia, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Baji

    1992-01-01

    Describes a student project of the Anna Frank school for three to six year olds in Reggio Emilia, Italy, in which students developed creativity by exploring the world of dinosaurs. Underscores the reciprocity between children and teachers in guiding the project. (AC)

  5. School Quality and Family Background in Italy. Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio; Checchi, Daniele

    This study investigated whether combined reduction in teacher-student ratios and increase in parental education in Italy between the late 1940s and the late 1980s has significantly impacted the educational attainment and labor market returns of Italians born between 1941-70. Data came from the 1993, 1995, 1998, and 2000 Survey on the Income and…

  6. SYMPOSIUM IN ITALY: FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from Europe, North America and South America convened in Capri, Italy, April 24-28, 2006 for the Ninth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was Eutrophication: The toxic effects of ammonia, nitrite and th...

  7. Waterborne norovirus outbreak during a summer excursion in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Pavoni, Enrico; Tofani, Silvia; Consoli, Marta; Galuppini, Elisa; Losio, Marina Nadia; Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Varisco, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In September 2011, an acute gastroenteritis outbreak affected 33 children in Northern Italy. Patients had drunk river water during an excursion. Identical GI.4 norovirus genomes were detected from one patient's stools and from the river water. Improper discharge of human sewage into the river may have caused this waterborne outbreak.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enteritidis, southern Italy, 1990-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Nastasi, A.; Mammina, C.; Cannova, L.

    2000-01-01

    During 1990 to 1998, we identified multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis in southern Italy. Plasmids containing class I integrons and codifying for synthesis of extended- spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Active surveillance for resistance to antimicrobial agents is needed to guard against the possible spread of resistant clones. PMID:10905977

  9. Gli Italiani nel Mondo: Italy's Workers around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabaccia, Donna

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the migration of Italians who left Italy to search for work and migrated in multiple directions around the world forming a global network of social connections to their homeland. Explains that Italian men migrated much more often than women to work in construction, mining, industry, and on plantations or do other forms of agriculture.…

  10. Research on inverse methods and optimization in Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larocca, Francesco

    1991-01-01

    The research activities in Italy on inverse design and optimization are reviewed. The review is focused on aerodynamic aspects in turbomachinery and wing section design. Inverse design of blade rows and ducts of turbomachinery in subsonic and transonic regime are illustrated by the Politecnico di Torino and turbomachinery industry (FIAT AVIO).

  11. A Flexible School for Early Childhood Education in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design of a flexible school for childhood education in Milan, Italy. The architecture of this school takes into account children's development and the different ways they experience space according to their age. The facilities will include not only a nursery school and kindergarten, but also a drop-in day-care centre, a…

  12. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  13. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  14. Religious and Spiritual Education in Disability Situations in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friso, Valeria; Caldin, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    In this short article, the authors focus on religious and spiritual education's potential to offer social and spiritual inclusion for students with a disability. They take the view that the religious and spiritual education teacher in such situations is positioned better when seeing such teaching as a special vocation. They use Italy as the case…

  15. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed.

  16. Italy Presses Forward in Educating Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Doyle, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Italy has a long history of including students with disabilities in general education classes. Their efforts offer unique perspectives and practices from which other countries may benefit. The article highlights four notable attributes about the Italian approach and discusses implications for American schools.

  17. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010... correction of the initiation notice on January 12, 2011 (76 FR 2083). On January 13, 2011, Commerce notified... 17, 2011; Responses to the 13 items requested in the Commission's notice of institution (75 FR...

  18. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant to section 751(c) of...

  19. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy (53 FR...

  20. School Evaluation and Consultancy in Italy. Sliding Doors towards Privatisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpieri, Roberto; Grimaldi, Emiliano; Vatrella, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the increasing centrality assumed by non-educational consultants in the processes of policy design and knowledge production about education in Italy. We identify the recent establishment of the National School Evaluation System as a key policy trajectory and we focus on the case of the last policies to evaluate Italian…

  1. Continuing Training in Firms and Trainer Development in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Paola; Marchetti, Aldo

    In Italy, all responsibility for vocational training has been delegated to the regions. At the regional level, three types of training are available: training for work, on-the-job training, and training under special state legislation. No obligation is placed on employers to train the work force. Most worker training is informal and conducted…

  2. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  3. Psychological Reactions to Crime in Italy: 2002-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerio, Piero; Roccato, Michele

    2007-01-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of the data collected by the Observatory of the North-West (a mail panel representative of the Italian population over 18), describing the trends in the distribution of fear of crime (FC) and of concern about crime as a social problem (CC) in Italy between the end of 2002 and the beginning of 2004. After analyzing…

  4. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federighi, Paolo; And Others

    Nine adult education programs being conducted in Italy are described in the case studies in this packet. The courses range from adult basic education to continuing education courses in languages and management. Most are described in connection with the area of the country in which they are offered. The following programs are profiled: (1) public…

  5. The (Adverse) Effects of Expanding Higher Education: Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppedisano, Veruska

    2011-01-01

    Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…

  6. The English National Curriculum Assessment System: A Commentary from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Emma

    2009-01-01

    In Italian secondary schools, it is not literature that is studied but the history of literature; it is not philosophy that is studied but the history of philosophy. Similarly, in higher education, history students even have to take an exam in the history of historiography. This is to say that in Italy, history plays a key cultural role. That is…

  7. Italy feels the effect of another deadly quake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Using radar data from the Copernicus Sentinel-1 satellites, the European Space Agency has released images showing the devastating effect of the 6.5-magnitude earthquake that struck central Italy on 30 October – the largest in the country for over three decades.

  8. Standpoints on Quality: Listening to Children in Verona, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Deborah; Mazzoni, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood research and policy, globally, are focusing increasingly on issues of "quality" in early childhood education. However, much of the focus to date has been on adult notions of quality, with little attention being devoted to children's accounts. Conducted in the context of early childhood education in Verona, Italy, this…

  9. Understanding how active volcanoes work: a contribution from synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polacci, M.; Baker, D. R.; Mancini, L.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanoes are complex systems that require the integration of many different geoscience disciplines to understand their behaviour and to monitor and forecast their activity. In the last two decades an increasing amount of information on volcanic processes has been obtained by studying the textures and compositions of volcanic rocks. Five years ago we started a continuing collaboration with the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra Sincrotrone, a third generation synchrotron light source near Trieste, Italy, with the goal of performing high-resolution, phase-contrast X-ray tomographic scans and reconstructing 3-D digital volumes of volcanic specimens. These volumes have been then used for the visualization of the internal structure of rocks and for the quantification of rock textures (i.e., vesicle and crystal volume fraction, individual vesicle volumes and shapes, vesicle connectivity, vesicle volume distributions, permeability simulations etc.). We performed tomographic experiments on volcanic products erupted from different hazardous volcanic systems in Italy and around the world: Campi Flegrei, Stromboli, Etna (Southern Italy), Villarrica (Chile), Yasur and Ambrym (Vanuatu Islands). As an example, we used the results of these studies to constrain the dynamics of vesiculation and degassing in basaltic (Polacci et al., 2006; Burton et al., 2007; Colò et al., 2007; Andronico et al., 2008; Polacci et al., 2008a) and trachytic (Piochi et al., 2008) magmas. A better knowledge of how gas is transported and lost from magmas has led us in turn to draw new implications on the eruptive style of these active, hazardous volcanoes (Polacci et al., 2008b). Work in progress consists of optimizing our procedure by establishing a precise protocol that will enable us to quantitatively study the 3-D texture and composition of rocks in a statistically representative way. Future work will concentrate on the study of the spatial relations between phases (crystals, vesicles and glass) in rocks

  10. Structure analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population in North Italy. First analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population based on vegetative compatibility groups in Northern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to gain insight into the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Italy, populations of Aspergillus flavus on maize produced in the most affected area were characterized. Forty-six percent of A. flavus, isolated from maize kernels collected in 5 districts of northern Italy betwe...

  11. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna

    2010-09-18

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  12. Boundaries inside the body: women's sufferings in southern peasant Italy.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, M

    1990-06-01

    In a village of Southern Italy the secret world of women's emotions is fundamentally expressed through the body. The female body is open to events of the world and absorbs and feels their effect and defines a new identity, a minimal one. This gives rise to a symbolic anatomy, pathology, and physiology that serve to distinguish male and female worlds and to bridge inner and outer experience. These "traces" of external and extraordinary events, which in the past and in daily life have cut the secret and emotional world of women, are inscribed on the body. This body becomes a phenomenological memoir that opens a new way of interpreting distress and suffering and illness. This article represents a bridge from the interpretation of suffering and illness in Southern Italy via Gramsci and De Martino to a metacultural process of creating a polysemic and multilevel sense of self.

  13. First molecular evidence of kobuviruses in goats in Italy.

    PubMed

    Melegari, Irene; Di Profio, Federica; Sarchese, Vittorio; Martella, Vito; Marsilio, Fulvio; Di Martino, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    By screening 139 rectal swabs collected from either asymptomatic or diarrhoeic goats in Italy, we identified kobuvirus RNA in eight samples (5.8 %). Higher positivity rates were observed in diarrhoeic goats (6.5 %, 3/46) than in asymptomatic animals (5.4 %, 5/93), although the difference was not statistically significant. Based on the analysis of a portion of the 3D gene, four strains were found to share the highest nucleotide (nt) sequence identity with bovine kobuviruses (95.0-98.0 %), which had been detected previously in calves in the UK and Korea. Interestingly, two strains were genetically related to the newly discovered caprine kobuviruses (83.0-97.0 % nt sequence identity), which had been identified in black goats in Korea and in roe deer in Italy. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that kobuviruses are common enteric viruses of goats, although their clinical relevance remains to be investigated.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Italy.

    PubMed

    Falcone, E; Cordioli, P; Tarantino, M; Muscillo, M; La Rosa, G; Tollis, M

    2003-09-01

    The genetic characteristics, of 38 field isolates of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) collected in 1999 from sick or healthy and persistently infected cattle of dairy farms situated in northern Italy, were investigated. A partial 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequence of each isolate was determined and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. All the isolates were classified as belonging to the BVDV-1 genotype and could be assigned to different BVDV-1 groups, namely BVDV-1b (n = 20), BVDV-1d (n = 6) and BVDV-1e (n = 10). Two remaining isolates could be classified as BVDV-1f and BVDV-1h, respectively. These results provided evidence for genetic heterogeneity of BVDV in Italy, and contribute to a better knowledge of the circulation of BVDV strains, and to their classification.

  15. [The Cagliari (Italy) Court authorizes the preimplantation genetic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Jorqui Azofra, María

    2007-01-01

    Today, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been greatly accepted within the framework of positive law of many European countries. Nevertheless, in other countries, such as Italy, it is forbidden by law. The ruling of the Civil Court of Cagliari which has authorized its use to a Sardinian couple, has opened, in this way, a small crack to be able to asses possible modifications to the Italian regulation on this matter. This article analyses the ruling of the Civil Court of Cagliari (Italy) from an ethical and legal perspective. The criteria which is used to analyse the legitimacy or illegitimacy of the practice of PGD is analysed. That is, on reasons which could justify or not the transfer of embryos in vitro to the woman. With this objective in mind, the Italian and Spanish normative models which regulates this controversial subject are looked at. As a conclusion, a critical evaluation of the arguments presented is made.

  16. [Malignant pustule in province of Milan, Italy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gelosa, L

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary the statistical data are reported about human malignant pustule denounced in Italy in different Districts, in Lombardia and in Province of Milan. Correlatively the outbreaks and cases of haematic anthrax in animals declared in Italy, in different Districts, in Lombardia and in Province of Milan. Then the outbreaks of malignant pustule in Province of Milan are related in 1975-1977 period in the resident population where is considerable concentration of the leather manufactures. The epidemiological and microbiological researches have determined the relation among the outbreak of malignant pustule and the working of the hides imported from African Countries (Nigeria, Tanzania, Ethiopia, South Africa, Burundi-Kenya, Uganda) containing the spores of b. anthrax. The spores besides to cause infections of the workmen employed in the hide manufacture (industrial anthrax) through the effluents and solid refuses from the tanneries, are dispended upon the tiled ground and determine outbreak the haematic anthrax in the animals and agricultural coutaneus anthrax in the men.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Di Loria, Antonio; Sedlak, Kamil; Mariani, Ugo; Fusco, Giovanna; Fulgione, Domenico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis, an important zoonosis, can be transmitted by eating meat or drinking milk of animals infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Samples were collected from 238 donkeys in the year 2010 in Italy, which included 207 females and 31 males of five breeds and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month-24 years). Sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test and the indirect fluorescent antibody test; 5 and 8% seropositivity were recorded, respectively. We found significant correlation between the presence of T. gondii antibodies and sex, age, grazing and presence of cats on the farms and their access to donkey feed. This is the first detection of T. gondii antibodies in donkeys in Italy.

  18. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy). The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654

  19. The fabbrica della penicillina in postwar Italy: an institutionalist approach.

    PubMed

    Taroni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the motives and long-term effects of the momentous decision to build a world-class biomedical research laboratory, the International Center for Chemical Microbiology, at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome, rather than develop domestic production of penicillin to meet the needs of a destitute postwar Italy. An institutionalist approach will provide a richer vision of the intersections of scientific and national political history in postwar Italy and the Cold War. The Center failed in its modernising mission due to an insular mentality producing an 'enclosure effect' against the State, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The absence of a scientific base together with an economic policy of 'liberal protectionism' that placed premiums on import tariffs and the licensing of foreign products explains the path dependency of the pharmaceutical industry during the postwar years and its demise in the 1960s.

  20. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery: new trends in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Italy there exists quite a long and rich history in minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Pioneer Italian surgeons have been amongst those who first adopted video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) to perform procedures such as lobectomy and esophagectomy, respectively and quite many others have provided important contributions related to minimally invasive thoracic surgery and have proposed innovative ideas and creative technical refinements. According to a web search on recent studies published in Italy on minimally invasive thoracic surgery along the last 3 years, uniportal, nonintubated, and robotic VATS as well as VATS lobectomy have been found to represent the most frequently investigated issues. An ongoing active investigation in each of these sub-topics is contributing to a better definition of indications advantages and disadvantages of the various surgical strategies. In addition it is likely that combination strategies including adoption of uniportal and nonintubated approaches will lead to define novel ultra-minimally invasive treatment options. PMID:26605315

  1. Stress and burnout among teachers in Italy and France.

    PubMed

    Pedrabissi, L; Rolland, J P; Santinello, M

    1993-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to show differences between culture-bound stress levels in two samples of elementary and junior high school teachers in Italy (N = 299) and in France (N = 217), using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach & Jackson, 1981) as a questionnaire. The results confirmed the influence of sociocultural background on stress levels in both samples in relation to age. Personal accomplishment was the most discriminating indicator in the two groups.

  2. France, Italy and the 2002/2003 Iraq Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    America’s market economy, high-quality entertainment productions, and sense of individuality. At the same time, the French are loath to cede their...of the popular vote. According to a contemporary report, Berlusconi promises the first unabashedly free- market government in Italy since World War...States, and championed economic liberalization, tax reductions, and market reforms.100 Berlusconi’s alliance with the Lega Nord and the National

  3. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2013-09-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to save lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, and for the implementation of a national landslide warning system, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that have resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For the purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides on lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions on the role of the environmental factors on the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The

  4. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-02-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to saving lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For this purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found to be nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides in Calabria into lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions about the role of the environmental factors in the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The thresholds can also be used for landslide hazard

  5. [Libero Martoni: The paediatrician who brought "Nelson" to Italy].

    PubMed

    Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F

    2011-02-01

    Libero Martoni, director of the paediatric clinic in Bologna, brought the study of paediatrics to Italy and through an accurate and precise translation, introduced him to Italian paediatricians. Since 1955, the year of the first Italian translation, it has remained to today the fundamental text of paediatrics. It brought a remarkable contribution to the field of puericulture, hepatology and oncohematolgy, both in research and in manuals.

  6. [Knowledge of oral hygiene amongst adolescents in Lombardy, Italy].

    PubMed

    Camoni, Nicole; Arpesella, Marisa; Cutti, Sara; Livieri, Monica; Lanati, Niccolò; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated oral hygiene knowledge among a group of 12-year-old students in Lombardy, Italy (n=182). Two different questionnaires were administered, respectively to adolescents and to their parents. Results indicate a low level of general knowledge on this topic. Factors influencing knowledge include the number of learning sources and yearly access to a dental clinic. The described situation highlights the need to implement school-based educational interventions.

  7. Patient and citizen participation in health care decisions in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goss, Claudia; Renzi, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing recognition in Western healthcare systems of the importance of considering preferences of patients and the public in tailoring health services and treatment plans. The active collaboration between doctor and patient has recently been encouraged through the shared decision-making model. Aim of the present contribution is to describe the current state of patient and public participation in healthcare in Italy. First, we will briefly outline the organization of the Italian National Health Service; second, we will describe the governmental and institutional initiatives regarding participation; third, some examples of associations and initiatives promoting patient participation will be provided; forth, we will report on research projects on patient participation published in peer-reviewed journals; and finally, we will provide some examples on training activities promoting patient participation. The Italian National Health Plan and many regional and local health authorities in Italy explicitly recognize the importance of patient/citizen participation in healthcare decisions at the macro, meso and micro level of decision-making. However, application of a shared model is still at an early stage in Italy. The reported experiences have yielded positive results and have shown that particular attention should be dedicated to more disadvantaged subgroups of the population, involving patient organisations, enhancing patient/citizen knowledge and adopting approaches that take the specific context into account.

  8. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Italy using kernel estimation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccolo, Elisa; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.

    2013-07-01

    A representation of seismic hazard is proposed for Italy based on the zone-free approach developed by Woo (BSSA 86(2):353-362, 1996a), which is based on a kernel estimation method governed by concepts of fractal geometry and self-organized seismicity, not requiring the definition of seismogenic zoning. The purpose is to assess the influence of seismogenic zoning on the results obtained for the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of Italy using the standard Cornell's method. The hazard has been estimated for outcropping rock site conditions in terms of maps and uniform hazard spectra for a selected site, with 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years. Both spectral acceleration and spectral displacement have been considered as ground motion parameters. Differences in the results of PSHA between the two methods are compared and discussed. The analysis shows that, in areas such as Italy, characterized by a reliable earthquake catalog and in which faults are generally not easily identifiable, a zone-free approach can be considered a valuable tool to address epistemic uncertainty within a logic tree framework.

  9. Kaposi's sarcoma in Italy before and after the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, M.; Franceschi, S.; Barchielli, A.; Falcini, F.; Carli, S.; Cocconi, G.; Conti, E.; Crosignani, P.; Gafà, L.; Giarelli, L.

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in 1976-90 was assessed in Italy, taking advantage of a network of nine population-based cancer registries covering, at its maximum, approximately 5.6 million subjects. The first examined period (1976-84) substantially reflects the epidemiology of KS prior to the AIDS epidemic in the registration areas. Elevated incidence rates, standardised to the Italian population of 1981, of 1.05/100,000 men and 0.27/100,000 women emerged in 1976-84 (i.e. from two- to threefold higher than in the USA and Sweden, more than tenfold higher than in England and Wales). These high rates, especially remarkable in the Registry from the south of Italy (i.e. Ragusa, 3.01/100,000 men and 0.54/100,000 women) suggest that the prevalence of the still unknown causative agent for KS was high, at least in some parts of Italy, prior to the AIDS epidemic. In the most recent period (1985-90), an approximately twofold increase in KS incidence rates in Italian men below age 50 was observed (from 0.15 in 1976-84 to 0.47 in 1985-90). Conversely, declines in KS incidence were recorded in older men. PMID:8297730

  10. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

    2013-01-01

    CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  11. Ticks infesting humans in Italy and associated pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (TBDs). The incidence of human TBDs in Italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available. Methods Samples (n = 561) were collected from humans in four main geographical areas of Italy (i.e., northwestern, northeastern, southern Italy, and Sicily), which represent a variety of environments. After being morphologically identified, ticks were molecularly tested with selected protocols for the presence of pathogens of the genera Rickettsia, Babesia, Theileria, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia and Anaplasma. Results Ticks belonged to 16 species of the genera Argas, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, with Ixodes ricinus (59.5%) being the species most frequently retrieved, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (21.4%). Nymphs were the life stage most frequently retrieved (41%), followed by adult females (34.6%). The overall positivity to any pathogen detected was 18%. Detected microorganisms were Rickettsia spp. (17.0%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.8%), Borrelia afzelii (0.5%), Borrelia valaisiana (0.3%), C. N. mikurensis (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.6%). Conclusions Results indicate that people living in the Italian peninsula are at risk of being bitten by different tick species, which may transmit a plethora of TBD causing pathogens and that co-infections may also occur. PMID:25023709

  12. Diabetic Retinopathy in Italy: Epidemiology Data and Telemedicine Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    Midena, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    In Italy, the number of people living with diabetes is about 3.5 million (5.5% of the population), with an increase by about 60% in the last 20 years and with 1 person out of 3 older than 65 years. The Italian Health Service system estimates that 10 billion euros is spent annually on caring for patients with diabetes, a figure that increases yearly. No national data on prevalence and incidence of legal blindness in patients with diabetes and no national registry of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) are currently available. However, the available epidemiological data (in several locations throughout the country) are consistent with those reported in other European countries. The use of telemedicine for the screening of DR in Italy is confined to geographically limited locations. The available data in the literature on implementation and use of telematic screening proved to be successful from patient, caregiver, and authorities point of view. This review addresses the available epidemiological data on DR and telematic screening realities in Italy and thus may help in establishing a national screening program. PMID:27990441

  13. [Latin American women in Italy: a new reality of the international migration system].

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, C; Ferruzza, A

    1996-04-01

    The authors examine characteristics of female migration from Latin America to Italy. Aspects considered include country of origin, fertility behavior, age, employment status, household characteristics, and marriage patterns.

  14. [Emigration, immigration, and the composition of classes in Italy in the 1970s].

    PubMed

    Dalla Costa, M

    1981-01-01

    Labor force trends in Italy during the 1970s are analyzed, with particular reference to labor force participation by women. Migration trends, including migration from Italy to the rest of Europe, from developing countries to Italy, and from the south to the north of Italy, are reviewed. Factors affecting female labor force participation that are considered include the depression, the austerity program, inflation, automation in factories, computerization in offices, stratification of the labor force, decentralization, domestic labor, and the feminist movement. The effect of these factors on women's attitude toward reproduction is also considered.

  15. Volcano geodesy: The search for magma reservoirs and the formation of eruptive vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dvorak, J.J.; Dzurisin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Routine geodetic measurements are made at only a few dozen of the world's 600 or so active volcanoes, even though these measurements have proven to be a reliable precursor of eruptions. The pattern and rate of surface displacement reveal the depth and rate of pressure increase within shallow magma reservoirs. This process has been demonstrated clearly at Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Long Valley caldera, California; Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy; Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea; and Aira caldera and nearby Sakurajima, Japan. Slower and lesser amounts of surface displacement at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming, are attributed to changes in a hydrothermal system that overlies a crustal magma body. The vertical and horizontal dimensions of eruptive fissures, as well as the amount of widening, have been determined at Kilauea, Hawaii; Etna, Italy; Tolbachik, Kamchatka; Krafla, Iceland; and Asal-Ghoubbet, Djibouti, the last a segment of the East Africa Rift Zone. Continuously recording instruments, such as tiltmeters, extensometers, and dilatometers, have recorded horizontal and upward growth of eruptive fissures, which grew at rates of hundreds of meters per hour, at Kilauea; Izu-Oshima, Japan; Teishi Knoll seamount, Japan; and Piton de la Fournaise, Re??union Island. In addition, such instruments have recorded the hour or less of slight ground movement that preceded small explosive eruptions at Sakurajima and presumed sudden gas emissions at Galeras, Colombia. The use of satellite geodesy, in particular the Global Positioning System, offers the possibility of revealing changes in surface strain both local to a volcano and over a broad region that includes the volcano.

  16. Hepatitis E Virus Circulation in Italy: Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montesano, Carla; Giovanetti, Marta; Ciotti, Marco; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Grifoni, Alba; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, has been classified into four main genotypes and a number of subtypes. New genotypes have been recently identified in various mammals, including HEV genotype 3, which has a worldwide distribution. It is widespread among pigs in developed countries. Objectives This study investigated the genetic diversity of HEV among humans and swine in Italy. The date of origin and the demographic history of the HEV were also estimated. Materials and Methods A total of 327 HEV sequences of swine and humans from Italy were downloaded from the national centre for biotechnology information. Three different data sets were constructed. The first and the second data set were used to confirm the genotype of the sequences analyzed. The third data set was used to estimate the mean evolutionary rate and to determine the time-scaled phylogeny and demographic history. Results The Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree and the time of the most common recent ancestor estimates showed that the root of the tree dated back to the year 1907 (95% HPD: 1811 - 1975). Two main clades were found, divided into two subclades. Skyline plot analysis, performed separately for human and swine sequences, demonstrated the presence of a bottleneck only in the skyline plot from the swine sequences. Selective pressure analysis revealed only negatively selected sites. Conclusions This study provides support for the hypothesis that humans are probably infected after contact with swine sources. The findings emphasize the importance of checking the country of origin of swine and of improving sanitary control measures from the veterinary standpoint to prevent the spread of HEV infection in Italy. PMID:27226798

  17. Eucoleus boehmi infection in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; di Cesare, Angela; Lepri, Elvio; Cassini, Rudi; Zanet, Stefania; Deni, Dario; Chiari, Mario; Ferroglio, Ezio

    2014-12-15

    In the last decade an increase of the number of red foxes in anthropized habitats across European countries, including Italy, has been observed. This pones implications in terms of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals; in fact, there are evidences of the role of foxes as reservoirs and amplifiers of a broad spectrum of parasites infecting pets. The present study evaluated the prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi, an emerging extra-intestinal nematodes of the Capillariinae subfamily, in red foxes. The nasal passages and sinuses of 179 red foxes culled from several areas of northern and central Italy were inspected and the mucosal surfaces were scrapped and examined for adult nematodes and eggs, microscopically and genetically identified. Overall 55 foxes (30.7%) were found to be infected with E. boehmi, i.e. 27 on inspection of the nasal passages and sinuses and 28 on mucosal flush and scraping. The occurrence of E. boehmi was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to the sampling location, the age and gender of the animals examined; the higher rates of prevalence were observed in animals culled in Piedmont (43.3%) and in female (60.6%) and adult (38.1%) subjects. A total of 184 adult parasites were recovered, with a mean intensity of infection of 3.34, and a more frequent localization of E. boehmi in the nasal passages rather than in the sinuses. A significant (p < 0.05) relationship was found between the parasite burden and body condition and age of the animals; the intensity of infection was significantly higher in juveniles (mean: 6.3 specimens) and in animals showing poor fox body condition (mean: 7.8 specimens). These results show that E. boehmi is highly prevalent in the red fox populations of certain areas of Italy. Epidemiological implications are discussed, with a special focus on the role that this wild canid may have in the increasing transmission of nasal eucoleosis to domestic dogs.

  18. PREFACE: XIV Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2014-07-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 29-31 October, 2013. The meeting was held at the Palazzone, an elegant Renaissance Villa, commissioned by the Cardinal Silvio Passerini (1469-1529), Bishop of Cortona, and presently owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennial Conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of nuclear physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to stimulate new ideas and promote collaborations between different research groups. The Conference was attended by 46 participants, coming from 13 Italian Universities and 11 Laboratories and Sezioni of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN. The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on the following main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems Nuclear Structure Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Quark-Gluon Plasma Nuclear Astrophysics Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited review talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Giacomo De Angelis from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the INFN SPES radioactive ion beam project. Sara Pirrone, INFN Sezione di Catania, gave a talk on the symmetry energy and isospin physics with the CHIMERA detector. Finally, Mauro Taiuti (Università di Genova), National Coordinator of the INFN-CSN3 (Nuclear Physics Experiments), reported on the present status and future challenges of experimental nuclear physics in Italy. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of INFN who helped make the conference possible. I Bombaci, A Covello

  19. Attributable risks for stomach cancer in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; D'Avanzo, B; Negri, E; Decarli, A; Benichou, J

    1995-03-16

    The proportions of gastric cancer cases attributable (or attributable risks, AR) to consumption of traditional foods (i.e., pasta, rice and maize), low intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C, short duration of use of an electric refrigerator, low educational level, and family history of gastric cancer were computed using data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy. Between 1985 and June 1993 a total of 746 incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer cases and 2,053 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic, non-digestive-tract diseases, unrelated to long-term modifications of diet, were interviewed. The ARs were 48% for low intake of beta-carotene, 40% for high consumption of traditional foods, and 16% for low intake of vitamin C. Overall, these 3 dietary factors explained 73% of the gastric cancer cases in the population. Five percent of all cases were attributable to less than 30 years' use of an electric refrigerator, 15% to low educational level, and 5% to family history of gastric cancer. In individuals over age 60, a greater proportion of cases was attributable to traditional foods, low education and late adoption of electric refrigeration (58% vs. 32% aged under 60), suggesting that correlates of lower social class, influenced lifestyle, and dietary habits more markedly in earlier than in more recent generations. According to our estimates, over 3 quarters of the gastric cancer cases in this area are explainable in terms of the risk factors considered. Increased consumption of vitamin C and beta-carotene, and reduced consumption of traditional foods, would help to avoid over 10,000 out of 14,000 stomach-cancer deaths in Italy every year. Consequently, stomach cancer, which is still the third leading cause of cancer death in Italy, would represent only about 2% of all cancer deaths.

  20. Virus investigation in ticks from migratory birds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Fabiola; Toma, Luciano; Ciervo, Alessandra; Di Luca, Marco; Faggioni, Giovanni; Lista, Forigio; Rezza, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    The role of migratory birds in circulation tick-borne viruses needs to be better defined. In order to assess the potential role of migratory birds in exotic virus spread, we conducted a study to identify ticks collected from migratory birds in the Central Region of Italy, and performed molecular investigation for Crimea-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHFV), West Nile fever (WNFV) and Usutu (USUV) in the vectors. A total of 137 competent ticks were collected with predominance of Hyalomma species. Although, negative results were obtained for all viruses considered, the high proportion of Hyalomma ticks highlights the potential risk for the dissemination of tick-borne viruses through infested migratory birds.

  1. Soft budget constraints in health care: evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Rosella; Menoncin, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    The reforms that have reshaped the public health care systems have often been coupled with devolution. However, this process has frequently been accompanied by widespread soft budget constraint policies. In this paper we argue that the soft budget constraint arises from a cooperative game between local authorities that force Central Government to bail them out. Our theoretical model is tested using data for Italian regions for the period 2002-2006 and our hypothesis is verified. Although the model uses Italy as a benchmark, we believe that the framework we propose could be extended to other federal contexts where resources are distributed unevenly and preferences are asymmetric.

  2. Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Historical data about floods represent an important tool for the comprehension of the hydrological processes, the estimation of hazard scenarios as a basis for Civil Protection purposes, as a basis of the rational land use management, especially in karstic areas, where time series of river flows are not available and the river drainage is rare. The research shows the importance of the improvement of existing flood database with an historical approach, finalized to collect past or historical floods event, in order to better assess the occurrence trend of floods, in the case for the Apulian region (south Italy). The main source of records of flood events for Apulia was the AVI (the acronym means Italian damaged areas) database, an existing Italian database that collects data concerning damaging floods from 1918 to 1996. The database was expanded consulting newspapers, publications, and technical reports from 1996 to 2006. In order to expand the temporal range further data were collected searching in the archives of regional libraries. About 700 useful news from 17 different local newspapers were found from 1876 to 1951. From a critical analysis of the 700 news collected since 1876 to 1952 only 437 were useful for the implementation of the Apulia database. The screening of these news showed the occurrence of about 122 flood events in the entire region. The district of Bari, the regional main town, represents the area in which the great number of events occurred; the historical analysis confirms this area as flood-prone. There is an overlapping period (from 1918 to 1952) between old AVI database and new historical dataset obtained by newspapers. With regard to this period, the historical research has highlighted new flood events not reported in the existing AVI database and it also allowed to add more details to the events already recorded. This study shows that the database is a dynamic instrument, which allows a continuous implementation of data, even in real time

  3. The photovoltaic-aeolian plant at Passo Mandrioli /Italy/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolari, P. U.; Garulli, A.; Nobili, D.; Sardo, A.

    1980-12-01

    The use of aeolian-photovoltaic power generation to supply the needs of an isolated farm house in Northern Italy is presented, noting the experimental character of the project. Estimated energy consumption is 1650 kWh for lighting and various appliances. The system includes two power generators (aeolian and photovoltaic) connected in parallel, battery storage, regulation and control circuit, inverter, supplementary generator and a complete data acquisition subsystem. Design characteristics such as the tower height, electrical output and lightning protection are given, together with the parameters to be continuously monitored including meteorological data, wind speed and the angular speed of the propeller.

  4. Productivity improvement by frontier horizontal drilling in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Schenato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Italian domestic activity on horizontal wells has been specially addressed to carbonate reservoir and specifically targeted to re-entry in existing wells. The speech will focus on the specific experience matured in frontier applications in Italy, from 1989 with the short radius drain holes in Sicily, throughout world record deep water short radius in the southern part of Adriatic sea and depth world record medium radius in a HP/HT reservoir in the Po Valley. Production results will be reported as well as the achieved technological aspects.

  5. The Vegetarian Habit in Italy: Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Elisa; Mazzarini, Giorgia; Gasperi, Gaia; Bottoni, Maria Chiara; Vallorani, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Many individuals around the world follow vegetarian diet. The aim of this study was to examine the variables associated to a vegetarian diet. Data were drawn from the national cross-sectional survey "Health and use of health care in Italy". Vegetarian habit was prevalent in 0.79% of sample, mainly females. Multivariate model has confirmed the association between vegetarianism and females, age, level of education, marital status separated/divorced/single, diabetes, bad state of perceived health. Little to no research has been conducted in this area until now. As for all types of diet, the vegetarian one should be controlled.

  6. Evolving Arms Transfer Rationales: The Case of Italy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    began to 5 Libro Bianco-La Difesa, 1977, 57-92. 6 1bid. 23 reconstitute and reequip her armed forces. The 1950’s were tumultuous for the activity in...discussion of the early arms trade in Italy. 8 La Difesa-- Libro Bianco, Ministero della Difesa d’Italia, 1985. 74. 24 in recognizing the problem, the... Libro Bianco, p.xiv. This quote is a portion of the introduction to the White Book written by the Minister of Defense, Giovanni Spadolini. 31 however

  7. Sea water contamination in underground waters of salento (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, G; Cardellicchio, N; Dell'Atti, A; Genga, A; Strisciullo, G

    2001-01-01

    In the present work, a study of a physico-chemical characterisation of underground waters, utilised for agriculture and human use in the Lecce district (Southern Italy) has been reported. The aim of the work has been to define the quality of underground waters in the different areas and to value salt contamination due to seawater intrusion. Statistical techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA), have been utilised to examine the correlations among the different parameters and to define contamination areas. The results have shown a high salt contamination in artesian wells of the Ionian Sea coast.

  8. [Appropriateness of referrals for magnetic resonance imaging in Latium, Italy].

    PubMed

    Prota, Federica; Rosano, Aldo; San Martini, Elena; Cau, Norberto; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Long wait times for access to Nuclear Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations are a concern and for this reason the project "Appropriateness of referrals for MRI examinations" has been launched in Latium (Italy). The aim of this preliminary study was to describe the main characteristics of MRI referrals in the region. Findings highlight a large variation in referral rates across the region, with 80% of MRI referrals being ordered by general practitioners and family pediatricians. The latter points to the possibility of inappropriate referrals for MRI imaging in Latium.

  9. Isolation of encephalomyocarditis virus from dormice (Myoxus glis) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Amaddeo, D; Cardeti, G; Autorino, G L

    1995-04-01

    Two isolates of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus (ZRC 276RA/90 and ZRC 292RA/90) were isolated from two dormice (Myoxus glis) in Tuscany, Italy. The two isolates were lethal for laboratory mice and caused a rapid cytopathic effect characterized by rounded and wrinkled cells in both baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero). We found neutralizing antibodies against EMC virus in 408 (77%) of 529 domestic pigs (Sus scrofa scrofa) and in 165 (49%) of 338 wild boars (S. scrofa ferus majori) in Tuscany.

  10. Occupational Medicine and Hygiene: applied research in Italy.

    PubMed

    Copello, F; Garbarino, S; Messineo, A; Campagna, M; Durando, P

    2015-08-05

    The goal of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene is that of ensuring safety, health and well-being at workplaces, mainly assessing and preventing existing occupational risks. Scientific research in this field can provide useful arguments and further evidence upon which effective, efficient and sustainable policies and preventive measures have to be chosen and applied by the occupational physician in work-life. This paper summarizes four original studies, conducted in different professional settings across Italy, focusing on critical items, such as stress and violence, biological risks and sleep hygiene. The knowledge obtained can be useful to orientate proper preventive programs aimed at improving workplace health.

  11. Description of Bakernema dauniense n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vovlas, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    Bakernema dauniense n. sp., a bisexual species from the rhizosphere of Pinus halepensis Mill. in Italy, is described and illustrated. Primary differentiating characteristics of the female are body annules bearing short, membranous projections 1.4-2.2 μm long, an anterior vulval lip slightly overlapping the posterior, and a linearly arcuate vagina. The juvenile differs markedly from adults by having annules with a beaded margin, which lack membranous projections. Generic and specific relationships of B. dauniense n. sp. are discussed. This occurrence is the first for a species of Bakernema in Europe. PMID:19283202

  12. 77 FR 53844 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of... (the Department) initiated administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and... ball bearings and parts thereof from France and Italy in accordance with section 751(a) of the...

  13. 78 FR 15046 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews AGENCY: United... five-year reviews of certain pasta from Italy and Turkey (78 FR 9937, February 12, 2013)....

  14. Governance and Leadership in Public Schools: Opportunities and Challenges Facing School Leaders in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paletta, Angelo; Bezzina, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to explore the evolution of school leadership in Italy toward a model of leadership for learning. Italy is undergoing radical changes in the governance structures (school autonomy and accountability) affecting schools in general, and school principals in particular, based on the way they promote, manage, and monitor the…

  15. Discourses of Merit. The Hot Potato of Teacher Evaluation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzanò, Giovanna; Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Italy is well known for its difficulty in introducing any educational evaluation system. This paper explores the dynamics which occurred in Italy in 2010-2011, within the context of the umpteenth national pilot of school and staff evaluation. Our research object is an unfinished project, observed in its development. We get close to the struggles…

  16. Who Cares for Me? Grandparents, Nannies and Babysitters Caring for Children in Contemporary Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarti, Raffaella

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the factors and features of the revival of paid care and domestic work in Italy. While Italy is experiencing a boom in the recourse to carers for the elderly, there is not a corresponding expansion in paid private childcare, in spite of growing female employment and limited public services for children. One of the reasons…

  17. 76 FR 27634 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Changed... countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on certain pasta from Italy.\\1\\ We are now revoking this order, in part, with..., the Preliminary Results are hereby adopted as the final results. \\1\\ See Certain Pasta From...

  18. Detection of Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in Italy.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Nicetto, Martina; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Caldin, Marco; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine natural infections by Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in Italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. Ticks from dogs living in southern Italy were all identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=25), ticks from central Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=8) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9), ticks from northern Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=45), Dermacentor marginatus (n=3), and one I. ricinus. Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia canis were the only pathogens detected in 7 (8%), 4 (4%), and 2 (2%) out of 91 ticks, respectively. L. infantum was detected in I. ricinus from central Italy and in Rh. sanguineus from northern and central Italy. Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae were detected in Rh. sanguineus ticks from central and southern Italy (Sicily), respectively. Bab. canis was detected in D. marginatus ticks from northern Italy.

  19. 77 FR 39735 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines Determination On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings From Italy... the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4337 (June 2012), entitled Stainless Steel...

  20. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...

  1. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy,...

  2. 76 FR 54207 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Italy. See Initiation of Five-Year... in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. See Stainless Steel Plate From...

  3. Bambini: Early Care in Education in Pistoia, Italy, A Child-Friendly City. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Gandini, Lella; Peon-Casanova, Luis; Danielson, Jim

    Noting that Maria Montessori pioneered early childhood education (ECE) reform in Italy, and the surge in innovation in ECE after WWII, this videotape describes the early childhood system in the city of Pistoia, Italy, known for its high-quality and innovative services. The 30-minute video offers footage from 2 of the 9 full-day infant toddler…

  4. Myth and Reality: A Response to Lynn on the Determinants of Italy's North-South Imbalances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Emanuele; Giugliano, Ferdinando

    2011-01-01

    In his article "In Italy, North-South differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy," Richard Lynn claims to have found the reason causing the divergence between the Northern and the Southern regions of Italy. This article identifies the four main hypotheses formulated in his paper…

  5. Minority Language Planning and Micronationalism in Italy: The Cases of Lombardy and Friuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After an introduction to the Italian linguistic situation, highlighting the remarkable number of language varieties present in Italy today, the paper goes on to review briefly the history of micronationalism in Italy, and to propose a classification of language planning based on the distinction between macro- and micronationalism. There follows a…

  6. Trace Element Mobility During Mixing of Magmas as a Proxy for Determination of Volcanic Eruption Time-Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugini, Diego; de Campos, Cristina P.; Petrelli, Maurizio; Poli, Gampiero; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    derive a relationship relating the degree of ‘diffusive fractionation' to the mixing time-scales. Application of the ‘diffusive fractionation' model to the two studied pyroclastic sequences allowed us to apply the relationship derived by numerical simulations and experiments to estimate the mixing time-scales for these two magmatic systems. Results indicate that mixing processes in Astroni 6 and Averno 2 systems lasted for approximately two and nine days, respectively, prior to eruption. References Civetta L, Orsi G, Pappalardo L, Fisher RV, Heiken G, Ort M (1997) Geochemical zoning, mingling, eruptive dynamics and depositional processes - the Campanian Ignimbrite, Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy. J Volcanol Geother Res 75:183-219 De Campos CP, Dingwell DB, Fehr KT (2004) Decoupled convection cells from mixing experiments with alkaline melts from Phlegrean Fields. Chem Geol 213:227-251 Orsi G, de Vita S, Di Vito M (1996) The restless, resurgent Campi Flegrei nested caldera (Italy): constraints on its evolution and configuration. J Volcanol Geother Res 74:179- 214 Perugini D, De Campos C, Dingwell DB, Petrelli M, Poli G (2008) Trace Element Mobility During Magma Mixing: Preliminary Experimental Results. Chem Geol 256:146-157 Perugini D, Petrelli M, Poli G (2006) Diffusive Fractionation of Trace Elements by Chaotic Mixing of Magmas. Earth Planet Sci Lett 243:669-680

  7. How to predict Italy L'Aquila M6.3 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guangmeng

    2016-04-01

    According to the satellite cloud anomaly appeared over eastern Italy on 21-23 April 2012, we predicted the M6.0 quake occurred in north Italy successfully. Here checked the satellite images in 2011-2013 in Italy, and 21 cloud anomalies were found. Their possible correlation with earthquakes bigger than M4.7 which located in Italy main fault systems was statistically examined by assuming various lead times. The result shows that when the leading time interval is set to 23≤ΔT≤45 days, 8 of the 10 quakes were preceded by cloud anomalies. Poisson random test shows that AAR (anomaly appearance rate) and EOR (EQ occurrence rate) is much higher than the values by chance. This study proved the relation between cloud anomaly and earthquake in Italy. With this method, we found that L'Aquila earthquake can also be predicted according to cloud anomaly.

  8. 75 FR 67108 - Cut-To-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Cut-To-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea AGENCY: United... countervailing duty orders on cut-to-length (``CTL'') carbon steel plate from India, Indonesia, Italy, and Korea and the antidumping duty orders on CTL carbon steel plate from India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan,...

  9. 75 FR 29976 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy... antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from Italy. See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  10. 76 FR 15940 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... and parts thereof from ] France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1... thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. See Ball Bearings and Parts...

  11. 75 FR 69402 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United... duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the...

  12. 77 FR 73415 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. On October 16, 2012, the Department... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy.\\1\\ The period...

  13. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and... orders on stainless steel wire rod (SSWR) from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Spain, and... Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan: Final Results of...

  14. 77 FR 24932 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Italy, Germany and Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Italy, Germany and Japan: Continuation of..., Italy and Japan would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping, and the determinations by... antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Italy, Germany and Japan, pursuant to...

  15. 78 FR 959 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year... and revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely... respect to Italy was inadequate. Notwithstanding the Commission's adequacy determination regarding...

  16. 77 FR 15718 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta from Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results... countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy, covering the period January 1, 2010, through December 31... information from the Government of Italy and the respondent company, Molino e Pastifico Tomasello, S.p.A.,...

  17. 78 FR 52133 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Review; 2012-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Review; 2012... duty order on brass sheet and strip from Italy for the period March 1, 2012, through February 28, 2013... and strip from Italy for the period March 1, 2012, through February 28, 2013,\\1\\ based on a request...

  18. 78 FR 24670 - Notice of a Determination Regarding the Swine Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions in Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions in Italy AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... based on our review of the documentation submitted by the Government of Italy in support of its request... surveillance, prevention, and control measures implemented by Italy in the four Regions and two...

  19. 76 FR 58299 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation...

  20. 78 FR 2368 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Reviews of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset... orders on certain pasta (``pasta'') from Italy and Turkey. As a result of these reviews, the Department... published antidumping duty orders on pasta from Italy and Turkey in July 1996.\\1\\ On September 4, 2012,...

  1. 76 FR 6601 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Amended Final Results of the Thirteenth Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Amended Final Results of the Thirteenth... pasta from Italy for the period of review (POR) of July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009. See Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Final Results of the Thirteenth Antidumping Duty Administrative Review,...

  2. 76 FR 67473 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of... From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the...

  3. 75 FR 11116 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Amended Final Results of the Twelfth Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Amended Final Results of the Twelfth... its final results of the twelfth administrative review for certain pasta from Italy for the period of review (POR) of July 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008. See Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of...

  4. 76 FR 65179 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of the Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of... from Italy, covering the period January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009. See Certain Pasta from Italy: Preliminary Results of the 14th (2009) Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR...

  5. 76 FR 35910 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Review)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission... from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely...

  6. 78 FR 9937 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing and Antidumping Duty Orders on Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey AGENCY: United States... from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  7. 75 FR 81214 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Italy: Preliminary Results of the Full Second Five...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (``SSSS'') in coils from Italy, pursuant to... of the antidumping duty order on SSSS in coils from Italy from the following petitioners: AK Steel... preliminarily determine that revocation of the antidumping duty order on SSSS in coils from Italy would...

  8. Impact of universal vaccination against varicella in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Castiglia, Paolo; Gallo, Tolinda; Giuffrida, Sandro; Locuratolo, Francesco; Tafuri, Silvio; Martinelli, Domenico; Prato, Rosa; Amodio, Emanuele; Vitale, Francesco; Bonanni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination (UVV) has been decided but postponed, as a national programme, until 2015, when data from Regions which have already implemented it will be available. Starting from 2003, eight Italian Regions (Basilicata, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany and Veneto) have progressively introduced UVV, in their immunization programme, with different schedules in children aged 13–15 months and 5–6 years, currently a two-dose schedule is adopted by all Regions. In June 2013, an Interregional Group on Varicella Vaccination (IGVV) has been established in order to assess the effectiveness of varicella vaccination with standardized and shared tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of varicella vaccination on the incidence and hospitalizations due to varicella and its complications in the period 2003–2012 in order to support the Italian decision makers on the future national adoption. Preliminary data showed that a general reduction of incidence and hospitalization rates was observed in the study period, resulting in relevant savings for the National Health Service. Immunization coverage with first dose at 24 months of age was high in all Regions (84%–95%) in 2012. Adverse events due to varicella vaccines were rare and without permanent sequelae. Underreporting of varicella cases and delays in the administration of the first dose of varicella vaccines were the main critical issues. In conclusion, solid evidences in support of universal UVV arise from the experiences available today in Italy. PMID:25483517

  9. Potential SRF generation from a closed landfill in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Passamani, Giorgia; Ragazzi, Marco; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the possibility of producing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and "combustible SRF" from a landfill located in the north of Italy, where the waste is placed in cylindrical wrapped bales. Since the use of landfills for the disposal of municipal solid waste has many technical limitations and is subject to strict regulations and given that landfill post-closure care is very expensive, an interesting solution is to recover the bales that are stored in the landfill. The contents of the bales can then be used for energy recovery after specific treatments. Currently the landfill is closed and the local municipal council together with an environmental agency are considering constructing a mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plant for SRF production. The municipal solid waste that is stored in the landfill, the bio-dried material produced by the hypothetically treated waste in a plant for bio-drying, and the SRF obtained after the post-extraction of inert materials, metals and glass from the bio-dried material were characterized according to the quality and classification criteria of regulations in Italy. The analysis highlighted the need to treat the excavated waste in a bio-drying plant and later to remove the inert waste, metals and glass. Thus in compliance with Italian law, the material has a high enough LHV to be considered as "combustible SRF", (i.e. an SRF with enhanced characteristics).

  10. Maternity rights, work, and health in France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the principles and the implementation of maternity rights (MR) in France and Italy. Results show that MR are well established in both countries, where about 80% of women employed during pregnancy were back to work 1 year after childbirth. Nevertheless, social inequalities were found. Less-educated women and those who had manual jobs or worked in small firms in the private sector or off-the-books were less likely to take an extended leave and to return to work. Despite differences in child care provisions, quality and accessibility of child care were common concerns for both French and Italian mothers. Employment was not related to any health problem in Italy 1 year after birth; in France, unemployed new mothers had high rates of psychological distress. Financial worries and marital problems were associated with several health problems in both countries. In conclusion, combining work and motherhood is possible in these 2 countries without too many costs for women, at least for the more privileged among them. However, this relative ease could vanish if social and economic conditions changed for the worse.

  11. The Establishment of an Operational Earthquake Forecasting System in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Lombardi, Anna Maria; Casarotti, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    Just after the Mw 6.2 earthquake that hit L'Aquila, on April 6 2009, the Civil Protection nominated an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) that paved the way to the development of the Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF), defined as the "procedures for gathering and disseminating authoritative information about the time dependence of seismic hazards to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes". In this paper we introduce the first official OEF system in Italy that has been developed by the new-born Centro di Pericolosità Sismica at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The system provides every day an update of the weekly probabilities of ground shaking over the whole Italian territory. In this presentation, we describe in detail the philosophy behind the system, the scientific details, and the output format that has been preliminary defined in agreement with Civil Protection. To our knowledge, this is the first operational system that fully satisfies the ICEF guidelines. Probably, the most sensitive issue is related to the communication of such a kind of message to the population. Acknowledging this inherent difficulty, in agreement with Civil Protection we are planning pilot tests to be carried out in few selected areas in Italy; the purpose of such tests is to check the effectiveness of the message and to receive feedbacks.

  12. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  13. Health websites in Italy: use, classification and international policy.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Maceratini, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss international policy in relation to the use of health websites and we describe the results obtained from application of a search engine to the recognition and classification of health websites in Italy. We then compare the results with health websites in other countries. Effective use of technology has led to medical advances that have not only extended life expectancy, but also fuelled an increasingly well-informed public to expect more and more from today's healthcare providers. As a consequence of the Web's rapid, chaotic growth, the resulting network of information lacks organization and structure and the quest for a method of quickly finding relevant and reliable information is spawning the growth of Internet portal sites. The US and the European Union and now Italy, have established the importance of rules to check the quality of health sites both for the non-professional users (citizens), mainly for privacy and security (for example, of medical records); and for health operators (physicians and others), where the most important thing is to evaluate the quality of content. In June 2001, the search engine used here found 2627 Italian health sites, of which only 46 exhibited the HON Code, and they can be classified into: 1% personal medical sites, 17% health portals, 18%, metasites, 27% documental sites and 37% information sites for health operators and/or for citizens.

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of viral hepatitis A in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ajelli, Marco; Fumanelli, Laura; Manfredi, Piero; Merler, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Viral hepatitis A is still common in Italy, especially in Southern regions. In this study, a metapopulation model for hepatitis A virus (HAV) transmission is proposed and analyzed. Analytical results on the asymptotic and transient behaviors of the system are carried out. Based on the available Italian movement data, a national spatial contact matrix at the regional level, which could be used for new studies on the transmission dynamics of other infectious diseases, is derived for modeling fluxes of individuals. Despite the small number of fitted parameters, model simulations are in good agreement with the observed average HAV incidence in all regions. Our results suggest that the mass vaccination program introduced in one Italian region only (Puglia, the one with the highest endemicity level) could have played a role in the decline of HAV incidence in the country as a whole. The only notable exception is represented by Campania, a Southern region showing a high endemicity level, which is not substantially affected by HAV dynamics in Puglia. Finally, our results highlight that the continuation of the vaccination campaign in Puglia would have a relevant impact in decreasing long-term HAV prevalence, especially in Southern Italy.

  15. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Servadei, F; Begliomini, C; Gardini, E; Giustini, M; Taggi, F; Kraus, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a revised Italian motorcycle-moped-scooter helmet law on crash brain injuries. Design: A pre-post law evaluation of helmet use and traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurrence from 1999 to 2001. Setting: Romagna region, northeastern Italy, with a 2000 resident population of 983 534 persons. Participants: Motorcycle-moped rider survey for helmet use compliance and all residents in the region admitted to the Division of Neurosurgery of the Maurizio Bufalini Hospital in Cesena, Italy for TBI. Outcome measures: Helmet use compliance and change in TBI admissions and type(s) of brain lesions. Results: Helmet use increased from an average of less than 20% to over 96%. A comparison of TBI incidence in the Romagna region shows that there was no significant variation before and after introduction of the revised helmet law, except for TBI admissions for motorcycle-moped crashes where a 66% decrease was observed. In the same area TBI admissions by age group showed that motorcycle mopeds riders aged 14–60 years sustained significantly fewer TBIs. The rate of TBI admissions to neurosurgery decreased by over 31% and epidural hematomas almost completely disappeared in crash injured moped riders. Conclusions: The revised Italian mandatory helmet law, with police enforcement, is an effective measure for TBI prevention at all ages. PMID:12966016

  16. Middle Eocene seagrass facies from Apennine carbonate platforms (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Laura; Benedetti, Andrea; Brandano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Two stratigraphic sections located in the Latium-Abruzzi (Monte Porchio, Central Apennines, Central Italy) and in the Apulian carbonate platform (S. Cesarea-Torre Tiggiano, Salento, Southern Italy) were measured and sampled to document the sedimentological characteristic and the faunistic assemblages of Middle Eocene seagrass deposits. The faunistic assemblages are dominated by porcellaneous foraminifera Orbitolites, Alveolina, Idalina, Spiroloculina, Quinqueloculina, Triloculina and abundant hooked-shaped gypsinids, associated with hooked red algae and green algae Halimeda. Fabiania, rotaliids and textulariids as well as nummulitids are subordinated. The samples were assigned to Lutetian (SBZ13-16) according to the occurrence of Nummulites cf. lehneri, Alveolina ex. gr. elliptica, Idalina berthelini, Orbitolites complanatus, Slovenites decastroi and Medocia blayensis. At Santa Cesarea reticulate nummulites occur in association with Alveolina spp. and Halkyardia minima marking the lower Bartonian (SBZ17). Three main facies associations have been recognised: I) larger porcellaneous foraminiferal grainstones with orbitolitids and alveolinids deposited into high-energy shallow-water settings influenced by wave processes that reworked the sediments associated with a seagrass; II) grainstone to packstone with small porcellaneous foraminifera and abundant permanently-attached gypsinids deposited in a more protected (e.g., small embayment) in situ vegetated environment; III) bioclastic packstone with parautochthonous material reworked from the seagrass by rip currents and accumulated into rip channels in a slightly deeper environment. The biotic assemblages suggest that the depositional environment is consistent with tropical to subtropical vegetated environments within oligotrophic conditions.

  17. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key.

  18. Pattern of susceptibility to measles in Italy. Serological Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Salmaso, S.; Gabutti, G.; Rota, M. C.; Giordano, C.; Penna, C.; Mandolini, D.; Crovari, P.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of seroprevalence and incidence data we describe the distribution of individuals susceptible and immune to measles in Italy in 1996-97. In regions where vaccination coverage was at least 70%, approximately 10% of 3-year-old children were susceptible to measles, whereas 40% were in this category in regions with lower vaccination coverage. Seroprevalence among children older than 4 years was similar for the two groups of regions; in the age group 20-39 years it was approximately 95%. During 1990-96 in the regions with lower vaccination coverage the incidence was highest among children aged 4-6 years, and the median age of cases was 7 years; in the regions with higher vaccination coverage, however, the incidence remained at around 5% for the age group 4-16 years, and the overall median age was 10 years. These data confirm the partial reduction in measles incidence in Italy, although transmission has still not been interrupted. The size and geographical distribution of the current pool of susceptible individuals can be expected to present an obstacle to measles elimination if appropriate vaccination strategies, such as catch-up campaigns, are not adopted. PMID:10994277

  19. An "Imperfect" Contraceptive Society: Fertility and Contraception in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gribaldo, Alessandra; Judd, Maya D; Kertzer, David I

    2009-09-01

    Italy represents an unexpected and in some ways paradoxical outcome in terms of fertility control: a drop to one of the lowest birth rates in the world has been accompanied by the preponderant use of "traditional" methods despite the availability of "modern" contraception. Using data from 349 interviews conducted in 2005-2006 in four Italian cities, we argue that Italian women achieve "unplanned" AND desired conceptions through the use of withdrawal and natural methods. While data from other countries reveal similar notions of ambivalence surrounding pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use, Italy stands out for the surprising correlation between highly "managing" the conditions under which children are born and the socially commended approach of "letting births happen". Such results suggest the need to rethink theoretical understandings of low fertility. Through the use of non-technological methods individuals manipulate culturally produced norms and beliefs about the appropriate moment to have a child; simultaneously, their actions are embedded in larger cultural, economic, and political processes.

  20. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown.

  1. Work-related injuries among immigrant workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Michele Antonio; Baglio, Giovanni; Cacciani, Laura; Spagnolo, Amedeo; Rosano, Aldo

    2013-02-01

    In Italy, work-related injuries among immigrant workers are an emerging concern. In this study, we compared the occurrence of work-related injuries between legally residing immigrants from High Migration Pressure Countries and Italians and evaluated the associations with potential risk factors. Using data from the 2007 Labour Force Survey conducted by Italy's National Institute of Statistics, we examined the relationship between the occurrence of work-related injuries in the previous 12 months and being an immigrant among a nationally representative sample. The occurrence of work-related injuries was significantly higher among immigrant males compared to Italian males (adjusted OR = 1.82; 95 % CI 1.53-2.16), particularly in the construction sector, for which the results showed a U-shaped trend of the odds ratios of injuries for immigrants compared to Italians with increasing number of years of work in the same job. No associations were found among women. The findings suggest that prevention programs need to be implemented to limit the burden of work-related injuries among immigrants.

  2. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States.

  3. Equity in Access to Health Care Services in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Glorioso, Valeria; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide new evidence on whether and how patterns of health care utilization deviate from horizontal equity in a country with a universal and egalitarian public health care system: Italy. Data Sources Secondary analysis of data from the Health Conditions and Health Care Utilization Survey 2005, conducted by the Italian National Institute of Statistics on a probability sample of the noninstitutionalized Italian population. Study Design Using multilevel logistic regression, we investigated how the probability of utilizing five health care services varies among individuals with equal health status but different SES. Data Collection/Extraction Respondents aged 18 or older at the interview time (n = 103,651). Principal Findings Overall, we found that use of primary care is inequitable in favor of the less well-off, hospitalization is equitable, and use of outpatient specialist care, basic medical tests, and diagnostic services is inequitable in favor of the well-off. Stratifying the analysis by health status, however, we found that the degree of inequity varies according to health status. Conclusions Despite its universal and egalitarian public health care system, Italy exhibits a significant degree of SES-related horizontal inequity in health services utilization. PMID:24949515

  4. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  5. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma in Italy, 1985–1998

    PubMed Central

    Dal Maso, L; Polesel, J; Ascoli, V; Zambon, P; Budroni, M; Ferretti, S; Tumino, R; Tagliabue, G; Patriarca, S; Federico, M; Vercelli, M; Giacomin, A; Vicario, G; Bellù, F; Falcini, F; Crocetti, E; De Lisi, V; Vitarelli, S; Piffer, S; Stracci, F; Serraino, D; Rezza, G; Franceschi, S

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate incidence rates (IRs) of classic Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS) in Italy after the spread of AIDS, we distinguished CKS from AIDS-related KS (AKS) using an ‘ad hoc' record linkage procedure between 15 Cancer Registries (CRs) (21% of the Italian population) and the national AIDS Registry. Between 1985 and 1998, 874 cases of CKS and 634 cases of AKS were diagnosed in the study areas. CKS accounted for 16 and 27% of KS cases below 55 years of age in men and women, respectively, but for 91 and 100% of those above age 55. The IRs for CKS were 1.0/ in men and 0.4/100 000 in women, but they varied between 0.3 in Umbria and 4.7 in Sassari in men, and between 0.1 in Parma and 1.7 in Sassari in women. IRs of CKS in both genders were stable between 1985–1987 and 1993–1998. In Northern and Central CRs the IR (adjusted for age and gender) for CKS was 0.5 in individuals born in the same area, but 1.6 in individuals born in Southern Italy or in the Islands (rate ratio=3.2) suggesting that KS-associated herpesvirus, the cause of KS, is acquired early in life. PMID:15570306

  6. HHV-8 prevalence, immunosuppression and Kaposi's sarcoma in South Italy.

    PubMed

    Crispo, A; Tamburini, M; De Marco, M R; Ascierto, P; Silvestro, P; Ronga, D; Tridente, V; Desicato, S; Carbone, S; Fabbrocini, G; Spiteri, D; Montella, M

    2001-05-01

    The identification of HHV-8 has opened the way for numerous epidemiological studies aimed at determining both the prevalence of HHV-8 in various sub-groups of the population (affected or not by KS) and at identifying possible cofactors necessary for the development of KS. We set up a study to evaluate the prevalence of HHV-8 in the South of Italy in KS cases, hospital patients and blood donors and to verify the role of immunosuppression in KS. In KS patients the prevalence of lytic and latent antigens were both 91% (29 positive cases). Lytic and latent antigens have prevalence rates of 20% and 15% respectively in hospital patients. In the donor group the rates were 16% for lytic antigens and 2% for latent antigens. The most recurrent chronic pathology in KS patients was cardiopathy (5 cases). The pathological case histories report 4 cases of Herpes Zoster, 6 of diabetes, one case of hepatitis C who had also had gonorrea. There was also a case, negative to HHV-8, who had had malaria after residing for three years in Oristano in Sardinia (a zone with high endemic malaria). Our study confirms that in Southern Italy there are relatively high prevalences of HHV-8 both in the general population and in blood donors and that immunodysregulation may be involved in the pathogenesis of KS. Other studies are necessary to confirm the sexual transmission of the HHV-8 virus and to better understand the natural history of HHV-8 infection.

  7. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  8. ELF signals and EQLs in Central Italy in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, Cristiano

    2010-05-01

    Instrumental studies of earthquake electromagnetic phenomena began in the 1800's in Italy. These studies were inspired by several observations reported on in the XVIII century collections of earthquake phenomena and the inventions of the first electric and magnetic instruments. From about fifteen years ago in Italy a VLF electromagnetic monitoring which concerns sub ionospheric channel of propagation has been active. It has produced interesting results in connection with seismic activity. Recently, a continuous monitoring of LF, ELF and SLF electromagnetic signals was started in Central Italy. This was done to verify the usefulness of this research field so to understand earthquake processes and forecasting. The first station started operating near the city of Fermo, in the Marche region in 2006; while a second station started operating in Perugia, in the Umbria region in 2008. The Fermo station was initially set up with only a low frequency amplifier but from mid 2007 it has also been equipped with a long wave radio receiver tuned at 150 KHz. The electrode and the antenna are oriented along a north-south direction. Signals are recorded in wave and spectral image files through a maximal sample frequency of 2-5.5 KHz, so that a maximum signal frequency of 1-2.75 KHz can be analysed, while minimum frequency is limited by amplifier band equal to 4 Hz. The Perugia station was set up with a couple of low frequency amplifiers which work on two orthogonal electrodes, oriented along north-south and east-west directions. At this station the maximum sample frequency is 2-22 KHz so a maximum signal frequency of 1-11 KHz can be analysed, while minimum frequency is limited to 4 Hz. Several signals were recorded before and after the Aquila earthquake and on the occasions of other central Italy seismic swarms in 2009. Here the search for a physical link between seismic events and electromagnetic signals is being carried out. At the opposite end of the electromagnetic spectrum

  9. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  10. Managing induced riverbank filtration (IRF) at the Serchio River well field, Tuscany, Italy (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Ansiati, Alberto; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Costabile, Gennarino; Dietrich, Peter; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Bonari, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Along the Serchio River (Tuscany -Italy) a series of well fields is set for an overall amount of about 1 m3/s pumped groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany (mainly to the town of Lucca, Pisa and Livorno). Water is pumped enhancing riverbank filtration into a high yield (10-2 m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer by artificially rising river head and setting pumping well fields along the river reach. However, being it unmanaged aquifer recharge, concerns arise both for quality and quantity of the abstracted groundwater. It happens in dry climate extremes (i.e. 2002/2003 or 2011/2012) that Serchio River flow falls below minimum environmental flow (MEF). Long term contamination of river water had been causing contamination of groundwater, as in 2002/2006, when pesticide contaminated surface water was polluting the well fields causing several problems to water supply. Such problems were overcome by setting in place derogatory regulations and then through dissemination and stakeholder activities reducing pesticide presence in surface water (EU LIFE SERIAL WELLFIR project). Although widely adopted, IRF is also not well stated from a regulatory point of view, eventually leading to concerns by a legal point of view. Within the framework of the MARSOL FPVII-ENV-2013 project an experimental site at a well field will be set to demonstrate the feasibility (by a technical, social and market point of view) and the benefits of managing IRF versus the unmanaged option. The Serchio experimental site will involve merging existing and proved technologies to produce a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote data acquisition and transmission and GIS physically-based fully distributed numerical modeling to continuously monitor and manage well fields, reducing also human operated activities. The DSS along with the installed sensors, data transmission and storage tools will constitute a prototype whose potential market exploitation

  11. Contemporary and concurrent extension and compression in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, P.; Mariucci, M.; Pierdominici, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present the latest updating and the complete collection of data on the contemporary stress orientations in Italy. Data are relative to different stress indicators: borehole breakouts from deep drillings, crustal earthquake focal mechanisms and fault data. With respect to the previous compilation, performed in 2004, 206 new entries complete the definition of the horizontal stress orientation and tectonic regime in the most part of the territory, and bring new information mainly in Sicily and along the Apenninic belt. With an increase of 37% with respect to the previous compilation, now the global Italian dataset consists of 499 records with a reliable quality for stress maps. The total dataset includes the following active stress indicators: 56% borehole breakouts, 39% single earthquake focal mechanisms, and 5% represented by formal inversions of focal mechanisms, faults and overcoring data. A quality ranking between A and E is assigned to each stress data, with A being the highest quality and E the lowest. Only A-, B- and C-quality stress indicators are considered consistent for analyzing stress patterns. Depth interval of the entire dataset is between 0 to 40 km. The results in map are reported in terms of minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) because most of earthquakes present an extensional regime. Concerning breakouts, their orientations correspond to Shmin; since all the considered faults are normal faults, we assume the Shmin direction as perpendicular to the fault strike when no information on slip direction is available. The achieved results can be summarized in 3 main points: i) in some areas of Italy (Sicily, Friuli and Po Plain in the northern Italy), the alignment of horizontal stresses closely matches the ~N-S direction of ongoing crustal motions with respect to stable European plate. This result can be associated to the first-order stress field that drives the plate movement; ii) along the entire Apenninic belt - from north to south- a diffuse

  12. Economic aspects in the management of diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Marcellusi, A; Viti, R; Sciattella, P; Aimaretti, G; De Cosmo, S; Provenzano, V; Tonolo, G; Mennini, F S

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic-degenerative disease associated with a high risk of chronic complications and comorbidities. The aim of this study is to estimate the average annual cost incurred by the Italian National Health Service (NHS) for the treatment of DM stratified by patients' comorbidities. Moreover, the model estimates the economic impact of implementing good clinical practice for the management of patients with DM. Methods Data were extrapolated from administrative database of the Marche Region and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed from a clinical board in order to estimate patients with DM only, DM+1, DM+2, DM+3 and DM+4 comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy). Regional data were considered a good proxy for implementing a previously developed cost-of-illness (COI) model from Italian NHS perspective already published. A scenario analysis was considered to estimate the economic impact of good clinical practice implementation in the treatment of DM and its comorbidities in Italy. Results The model estimated an average number of patients with DM per year in the Marche region of 85.909 (5.5% of population) from 2008 to 2011. The mean costs per patients with DM only, DM+1, DM+2, DM+3 and DM+4 comorbidities were €341, €1,335, €2,287, €5,231 and €7,085 respectively. From the Italian NHS perspective, the total economic burden of DM in Italy amounted to €8.1. billion/year (22% for drugs, 74% for hospitalization and 4% for visits). Scenario analysis demonstrates that the implementation of good clinical practice could save over €700 million per year. Conclusions This model is the first study that considers real world data and COI model to estimate the economic burden of DM and its comorbidities from the Italian NHS perspective. Integrated management of the patients with DM could be a good driver for the reduction of the costs of this disease in Italy. PMID:27843551

  13. Middle Pleistocene ostracod assemblages from Lake Trasimeno, Perugia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchegiano, Marta; Gliozzi, Elsa; Buratti, Nicoletta; Ariztegui, Daniel; Cirilli, Simonetta

    2014-05-01

    Lake Trasimeno is a meso-eutrophic, shallow (<6 m deep) and large lake (~120km2) located in central Italy, at 259 m above sea level. A preliminary age model based on pollen data for a core retrieved along the present southern shore of the lake (north of the Panicarola town) suggests that the record may be as old as Middle Pleistocene. An ongoing multidisciplinary study of a 175 m long sedimentary core includes magnetic properties, sedimentary microfacies, paleontology, palynology and bulk elemental geochemistry. This contribution focus on the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the topmost 30 m of the core using ostracods. A total of 245 samples have been taken at a 13 cm sampling interval. On the whole, 13 species referable to 10 genera were collected (Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Candona angulata, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp.1, Limnocythere stationis, Darwinula stevensoni, Cyprideis sp., Leptocythere spp., Fabaeformiscandona fabaeformis, Cyclocypris ovum). Abrupt changes in the abundance of the assemblages were found along the studied core alternating sections with very abundant ostracod remains with others with scant (or even null) individuals. Moreover, the changes observed in the composition of the ostracod assemblages are interpreted as recording environmental variations. In particular, two intervals are significant for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of this sedimentary succession: 1) the section from 25.60 m to 23.50 m is characterized by a rich ostracod fauna (dominated by Cyprideis sp., Candona angulata and Leptocythere spp.). These assemblages possibly indicate an increase in salinity or alkalinity of the water body; 2) the interval from 21.05 m to 17.60 m contains Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp. 1, Limnocythere stationis and Darwinula stevensoni. Limnocythere stationis is a central European species, until now in Italy only described in the Holocene of

  14. [Epidemiologic Study of Mortality during summer 2003 in Italy].

    PubMed

    Conti, Susanna; Meli, Paola; Minelli, Giada; Solimini, Renata; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Vichi, Monica; Beltrano, M Carmen; Perini, Luigi

    2004-01-01

    Following the unusually hot summer this year and the dramatic news from neighboring countries such as France, the Italian Minister of Health requested an epidemiologic mortality study during summer 2003, to investigate whether there had been an excess of deaths in Italy, particularly for the elderly population. Communal offices, which provide vital statistics, were asked for the number of deaths among resident people, occurred from June 1 to August 31, for 2003 and 2002, for the 21 Italian regions capitals. A mortality increase of 3,134 deaths was observed for 2003; most of them (92%) were people aged 75 years and older. The highest increases were observed in the North Western cities (Turin, Milan, Genoa). The relationship between mortality and climatic indexes (T. max, Humidex) was investigated and a clear correlation was observed.

  15. Modeling the Landscape Drivers of Fire Recurrence in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotta, Carlo; Di Vito, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a selected set of landscape factors (mainly land use types) and fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy) in the years 2005-2010. Our results point out that fire occurrence in already burned areas is lower than expected in natural and semi-natural land cover types, like forest and shrublands. To the contrary, like in all regions where human activity is the main source of fire ignitions, the probability of fire recurrence is higher at low altitudes and close to roads and to urban and agricultural land cover types, thus showing marked preference for those landscape factors denoting higher anthropogenic ignition risk.

  16. Indoor radon concentration in geothermal areas of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Ciolini, R; Mazed, D

    2010-09-01

    The indoor radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration was measured between January and June in the schools of two geothermal areas in Tuscany, central Italy. One of these areas (the Larderello area) is characterized by a large number of geothermal power plants, covering about 9% of the world's geothermal power production. In contrast, the other area, Monte Pisano, has not any such facilities. About 250 measurements were made using track etch detectors. Only a slight difference in the concentrations between the two major sampling areas (98 Bq m(-3) for Larderello area and 43 Bq m(-3) for Monte Pisano area) was found, and this was related to different geological characteristics of the ground and not the presence of the geothermal plants. The measured radon concentrations were always well below the intervention levels in both areas, and health risks for students and personnel in the examined schools were excluded.

  17. Does feedback influence patient - professional communication? Empirical evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Murante, Anna Maria; Vainieri, Milena; Rojas, Diana; Nuti, Sabina

    2014-06-01

    Healthcare providers often look for feedback from patient surveys. Does health-professional awareness of patient survey results improve communication between patients and providers? To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the data of two surveys on organizational-climate and patient experience in Italy. The two surveys were conducted in 26 hospitals in the Tuscany region and involved 8942 employees and 5341 patients, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the patient experience index significantly improved by 0.35 points (scale: 0-100) when the professionals' knowledge of the patient survey results increased by 1%. These findings suggest that the control systems should focus more on the dissemination phase of patient survey results among health professionals in order to improve the quality of services.

  18. One century of Solar Physics in Italy 1850-1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righini, A.

    In this paper we briefly describe the story of Solar Physics in Italy during one century and we try to evaluate its international impact. At the beginning, in the serendipitous phase, we have e relevant contribution of italian solar physicist like Secchi and Tacchini. The choice of the Abetti father and son to build in Arcetri a Solar Tower, under the technical supervision of George Ellery Hale, could have given to italian solar physics the trust to compete in the international arena. However the lack of necessary technology, the war, and the choice to use the tower for patrol of the solar chromosphere kept italian solar physics from developing at the level of its competitors at the end of the first half of the XX century.

  19. The evolution of health-policy making in Italy.

    PubMed

    France, George; Taroni, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of health care policy in Italy suggests that in recent years the pace of change in the health care system has accelerated. Although the basic features of universalism, comprehensiveness, and funding from general taxation have remained remarkably constant, the capacity to innovate policy tools and their settings and to take account of domestic and international experience seems to have increased. The political will and capacity to combat entrenched interests may also have increased, although implementation is still weak. The imperative to contain public expenditure has heavily conditioned health policy and will continue to do so. This has occurred mainly at the national level, but as the principal locus of health-policy making progressively shifts to the regions, so too will the constraining effect of this imperative move downward. If the decentralization process continues, problems could arise due to interregional differences in capacities to formulate and implement appropriate policies and to tackle special interest groups.

  20. Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pace, Antonino; Romano, Violante; D'Orazio, Stefano; Varriale, Lorena; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2017-01-06

    Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp. were not found. The study shows that C. coli can be isolated from the cages of apparently healthy pet birds, which should therefore be considered as potential carriers of C. coli and a possible source of infection for humans and companion animals.

  1. AlpArray-Italy: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; D'Alema, Ezio; Capello, Marco; Cavaliere, Stefania Danesi, Adriano; Margheriti, Lucia; Massa, Marco; Mazza, Salvatore; Mazzarini, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Moretti, Milena; Nardi, Anna; Piccinini, Davide; Piromallo, Claudia; Pondrelli, Silvia; Salimbeni, Simone; Serpelloni, Enrico; Solarino, Stefano; Vallocchia, Massimiliano; Lovati, Sara; Santulin, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the European joint research initiative AlpArray (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch/), we deployed overall 20 seismic broad-band stations in Northern Italy and on two islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Capraia and Montecristo) during Fall-Winter 2015. All the stations, connected in real-time, were installed at sites selected according to the AlpArray Seismic Network plan: 16 temporary stations running for two to three years and 4 new permanent stations in sites already occupied by accelerometers of the INGV national network. Most temporary stations are equipped with REF TEK 130S digitizers and Nanometrics Trillium Compact 120s sensors (a couple have Nanometrics Trillium 120P and one Streckeisen STS2). For each site we describe the settings and discuss the noise levels, the site effects and the preliminary sensitivity analysis.

  2. Psychosocial Indicators in North African Immigrant Women in Italy.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Caccialupi, Maria Giovanna; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2017-03-03

    The present research evaluated the psychosocial health and quality of life of North African (NA) immigrant women living in Italy. A survey of 205 NA-born and Italian-born women was carried out. Psychosocial, sociodemographic and migration data were collected. Anthropometric indices were computed by direct measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Multivariate analysis showed that the main explanatory variable for all dimensions of psychosocial status was the migrant status. Other explanatory variables were educational level and number of children for psychological discomfort, and weight status for well-being, quality of life and stress. Anthropometric indices were explanatory variables for quality of life. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence of higher psychological stress and discomfort and lower well-being and quality of life in immigrant women. Public social support is necessary to control, maintain and improve the mental health outcomes of immigrant communities in the host country.

  3. Oral hirudiniasis in a stray dog, first report in Italy

    PubMed Central

    RAELE, Donato Antonio; GALANTE, Domenico; CAFIERO, Maria Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a male stray dog was recovered at Ente Nazionale di Protezione Animali (ENPA) kennel of Manfredonia, Apulia region, showing oral bleeding and physical prostration. The dog fell in a water canal and was trapped. During the clinical examination, a specimen of leech was revealed into its oral cavity. The parasite, probably entered by drinking unfiltered and contaminated water, has been identified as an adult of aquatic leech Limnatis nilotica. Leeches could overrun wide variety of animals, and few reports about blood sucking leech infestations in mammals are available in literature. This paper describes here the first oral hirudiniasis in a dog in Italy and highlights the possibility of human nasopharyngeal leech-related infection in Apulia region. PMID:26004432

  4. Femicide in Italy: national scenario and presentation of four cases.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Elisa; Maiese, Aniello; Gitto, Lorenzo; Falco, Pietro; Maiese, Adamo; Bolino, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    Femicide is defined as the killing of a woman by a man because she is a woman. The incidence of femicide has increased over the past few years and accounted for 30.9% of all homicides in 2011 in Italy. Certain features are usually present including asphyxiation as the mechanism of death, an intimate partner as murderer, and a history of sentimental relationship between the victim and the offender. In this paper, we analyse the Italian experience of femicide comparing it with the international scenario. We present four cases of femicide showing peculiar mechanisms of death resulting from various methods of asphyxiation. In all the cases, there had been a relationship between the victim and the offender. We discuss the mechanism of asphyxiation used to kill the women, emphasizing the necessity of a careful evaluation of all data available to reach the correct conclusion in atypical cases of femicide.

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum seroprevalence in equids: a survey in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Giannetto, Claudia; Furco, Vincenzo; Alongi, Angela; Torina, Alessandra

    2012-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Equidae and investigate the possibility of exposure to the organism in Sicily (Southern Italy). During the study blood samples were collected in horses and donkeys housed in five of the nine provinces of Sicilian Island. Of 133 horses and 100 donkeys tested, respectively 9.0% and 6.0% were seroactive (IFAT) with A. phagocytophilum antigen. In only 4.7% of the horses, specific A. phagocytophilum DNA was recorded; in donkey, Anaplasma DNA was not found. Our results indicate a low prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Sicilian equids. This condition does not justify the exclusion of equids from prophylactic plans for this multihost pathogen infection, a zoonosis with a wide distribution in other European countries. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the possible mechanisms that involve the Equidae as host of this pathogen.

  6. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Catania (Italy): persistently endemic and underestimated].

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Rosalia; Cicciù, Francesca; Lombardo, Carmen; Cuccia, Mario; Salvo, Santa

    2009-01-01

    Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed at the laboratory of Department of Hygiene of the University of Catania (Italy), from 1998-2007 were evaluated. Specifically, demographic and personal data, area of origin and temporal trend of the 97 cases confirmed by microscopy in this 10-year period were examined. The data collected shows that the disease is still widely present in this area ; on the other hand official data regarding this disease appears incomplete and shows various inconsistencies. This is due to underreporting but also to scarce knowledge of the disease by physicians. Elimination of cutaneous leishmaniasis can be achieved by controlling leishmaniasis in dogs and improving environmental conditions; this requires greater efforts not only by institutions but also by individuals.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of the province of Ravenna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bastianoni, Simone; Marchettini, Nadia; Panzieri, Margherita; Ridolfi, Roberto

    2002-09-01

    This is a thermodynamic analysis of the Province of Ravenna (Italy) and its districts (Ravenna, Faenza and Lugo) and an evaluation of entropy waste production based on a balance sheet of greenhouse gases. The method used is energy analysis. The results show that the Province and Ravenna are characterized by a heavy exploitation of local non renewable resources, Faenza strikes a good balance between economic development and environment conservation and Lugo is less sustainable than the others. The greenhouse gas balance shows that the Province emits 10.5 times the quantity of greenhouse gases that it adsorbs and that the emissions reduction is required in the energy sector, which is responsible for 92% of the total.

  8. Vaccine storage in the community: a study in central Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, M.; Ripabelli, G.; Sammarco, M. L.; Manfredi Selvaggi, T. M.; Quaranta, A.

    1999-01-01

    Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunization programme, but in developed countries faulty procedures may occur more commonly than is generally believed. A survey was conducted in a health district in central Italy to assess the methods of vaccine transportation and storage. Of 52 primary vaccination offices inspected, 39 (76.5%) had a refrigerator for vaccine storage but only 17 (33.3%) kept records of received and stored doses. None of the seven main offices selected for monitoring had a maximum and minimum thermometer and none monitored the internal temperature of the refrigerator. Moreover, other faulty procedures, such as the storage of food and laboratory specimens in vaccine refrigerators and the storage of vaccines on refrigerator door shelves, indicated that the knowledge and practice of vaccine storage and handling were often inadequate. PMID:10327715

  9. The Legacy of Foundlings in Emilia-Romagna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Luciano; Mazzoni, Stanislao; Tagliavinil, Federica; Manfredini, Matteo

    2015-09-01

    Between 1820 and 1929, in Iggio and in Tiola, rural parishes not too distant from the respective chief towns, a large number of marriages occurred between natives and former foundlings. The study of the distribution of surnames within the provinces of Emilia-Romagna (Italy) leads one to believe that the phenomenon was quite widespread in this region. This kind of marriage caused a direct gene flow from the town centres to the adjacent hilly areas. In general, however, the flow does not appear to have been so high as to change remarkably the genetic structure of the populations involved in the reception of the former foundlings, regardless that a percentage of them were taken to the hospitals of the towns from the countryside, and that many of those effectively born in the cities were children of people whose genetic pool did not differ substantially from that of the residents of the adjacent hilly zones.

  10. [150 years of hygienic requirements of dwellings in Italy].

    PubMed

    Capasso, L; Schioppa, F S

    2012-01-01

    In Italy Public Health legislation had, since unification of the nation in 1861, a peculiar consideration for building hygiene, with a particular focus on dwellings. The first law about these themes is the number 5849 in 1888, named Crispi-Pagliani, after the Italian prime minister of the time and the hygienist who collaborated in lawmaking. The authors of the present work describe how laws evolved during 150 years of history, passing through social, demographic, political, economical, cultural and scientific changes. In the meantime they try to explain the role of public health practitioners in this field, also in relation with administrative processes that changed in time. Everything considering how indoor environment and home in particular are fundamental determinants of health, nowadays that people in richest countries spend most of their lifetime in this particular environment.

  11. Bruno Rossi and the Racial Laws of Fascist Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2011-03-01

    Bruno Rossi (1905-1993), one of the giants of 20th-century physics, was a pioneer in cosmic-ray physics and virtually every other aspect of high-energy astrophysics. His scientific career began at the University of Florence in 1928 and continued at the University of Padua until 1938, when the Fascist anti-Semitic racial laws were passed in Italy. He was dismissed from his professorship and was forced to emigrate, as described in unpublished letters and documents that display the international character of physics and physicists. His young bride Nora Lombroso, his love of physics, and the solidarity of the physics community gave him the courage to begin a new life in Copenhagen, Manchester, and in the New World at the University of Chicago, Cornell University, Los Alamos, and after the Second World War at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he became the center of a worldwide research network.

  12. Runoff generation through ephemeral streams in south-east Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.; Giustolisi, O.

    2012-04-01

    Ephemeral streams are morphological elements, typical of karst areas, characterized by relatively large and flat bottom transects (Camarasa & Tilford, 2002). These occasionally drain runoff generated by extreme rainfall events, characterized by high return periods. The activation of these streams was investigated by several authors for the Mediterranean regions, and in particular for south Spain and north Africa (Camarasa & Segura, 2001; De Vera, 1984). However, there are few analyses for karst areas of south-east of Italy (Cotecchia, 2006; Polemio, 2010). South-east of Italy, in particular the central part of Apulia, is characterized by a karst morphology, with a moderately elevated plateau, namely Murgia, which is drained by a network of ephemeral streams. These are normally dry, relatively short-length and straights, and their main outlets are on the coast. They normally drain water after extraordinary rainfall events, which can generate very high discharges, which can potentially flood the areas close to the streams. For this reason, the definition of an activation threshold for ephemeral streams is a paramount problem, even if this constitutes a complex problem, since the dynamics of the catchment drained by these streams in highly non-linear and biased by multiple variables (e.g. urbanization, land use, etc.). The main problem affecting the analysis and prediction of flood events in karst semi-arid regions is the almost complete absence of discharge time-series, measured at the outlets of the ephemeral streams. This prevents from the identification of accurate statistics of flood events and on the determination of rainfall events, which may potentially generate floods. Indeed, floods and in general flash floods are relatively rare events for semi-arid karst regions, however they can be really severe and disruptive, causing serious damages to people and infrastructures. This work presents an analysis of the ephemeral stream activation in karst semi-arid areas

  13. AlpArray-Italy: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; Bonatto, Luciana; Capello, Marco; Cavaliere, Adriano; Chiarabba, Claudio; D'Alema, Ezio; Danesi, Stefania; Lovati, Sara; Margheriti, Lucia; Massa, Marco; Mazza, Salvatore; Mazzarini, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Moretti, Milena; Nardi, Anna; Piccinini, Davide; Piromallo, Claudia; Pondrelli, Silvia; Salimbeni, Simone; Serpelloni, Enrico; Solarino, Stefano; Vallocchia, Massimiliano; Santulin, Marco; AlpArray Working Group

    2017-03-01

    Within the framework of the European collaborative research initiative AlpArray (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch), the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanolgia (INGV) deployed overall 20 broad-band seismic stations in Northern Italy and on two islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Capraia and Montecristo) during Fall-Winter 2015. The temporary deployment (16 stations) will run for two to three years and 4 INGV National Seismic Network accelerometric sites are now equipped with additional permanent broad-band sensors. The 16 temporary stations are equipped with REF TEK 130 digitizers and Nanometrics Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, a couple have Nanometrics Trillium 120P sensors and one a Streckeisen STS2. For each site we describe the settings and discuss the noise levels, the site effects and the preliminary sensitivity analysis.

  14. Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in animals of Apulia and Basilicata, Italy.

    PubMed

    Muscarella, Marilena; Armentano, Antonio; Iammarino, Marco; Palermo, Carmen; Amorena, Michele

    2016-06-30

    This study evaluates the presence of anticoagulant rodenticides in animals with a diagnosis of suspected poisoning and in bait samples. The survey was carried out from 2010 to 2012, in 2 regions of South Italy (Puglia and Basilicata) on 300 organs of animals and 90 suspected bait samples. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted using an analytical method based on high‑performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection (FLD) for the simultaneous determination of 8 anticoagulant rodenticides (bromadiolone, brodifacoum, coumachlor, coumafuryl, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, flocoumafen, and warfarin). The presence of anticoagulant rodenticides was detected in 33 organs of animals (11% of the total) and 6 bait samples (7% of the total). The most commonly detected compound was coumachlor (47% of 39 positive samples) followed by bromadiolone (24%), and brodifacoum (11%). The species mostly involved in anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning were dogs and cats. This study emphasizes the relevance of the determinations of anticoagulant rodenticides in cases of suspected poisoning in veterinary practice.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Earth Degassing and Structural Setting in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.

    2005-12-01

    A modelling of the water-rock-gas interaction in the groundwaters circulating in the aquifers of central southern Italy has shown that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) derives from deep carbon sources with an isotopic composition in the range of the CO2 emitted in Italy from active volcanoes, geothermal fields, and the many cold gas emissions located in the region. This suggests that a common, deep and inorganic source of CO2 is active in Italy as highlighted by the regional map of CO2 degassing that has been elaborated on the base of the deeply derived carbon dissolved in the groundwater. The map shows that two large degassing structures affect the Tyrrhenian side of the Italian peninsula. The northern degassing structure (TRDS, Tuscan Roman degassing structure) includes Tuscany, Latium and part of Umbria regions (~30000 km2) and releases ~ 1.4 × 1011 mol/year of deeply derived CO2. The southern degassing structure (CDS, Campanian degassing structure) occupies the Campania region (~ 10000 km2) and releases ~ 0.7 × 1011 mol/year of deeply derived CO2. The total CO2 released by TRDS and CDS (~ 2.1 × 1011) is globally significant, being ~ 10 % of the estimated present-day total CO2 discharge from sub aerial volcanoes of the Earth. The central parts of both TRDS and CDS coincide with the quaternary volcanism of Italy and with regions of high heat flow where were drilled many geothermal systems containing fluids saturated in CO2, i.e. with dissolved CO2 concentrations correspondent to the saturation values at the pressures (depths) of the geothermal reservoirs. These geothermal reservoirs represent the shallowest storage zone of the CO2 of deep provenance before the expulsion of the gas either directly in the atmosphere trough the numerous natural gas emissions of the area, or as dissolved gas species in the main aquifers. It is our opinion that the two degassing structures are the surface expression of two large plumes of mantle fluids which intrude

  16. [Recent demographic trends in Italy according to the results of the October 1981 census].

    PubMed

    Reyne, G

    1983-01-01

    Recent demographic trends in Italy are examined using the results of the 1981 census. The author notes that fertility continued to fall during the 1970s and that migration, although reduced in quantity, remains significant. The general pattern of internal migration continues to be from south to north, while an increasing trend to medium-size towns and suburban areas seems to have developed in northern and central Italy. In southern Italy urbanization is greater, particularly in coastal regions where tourism and new industrial plants have enhanced employment opportunities.

  17. Variations and trends of Fagaceae pollen in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Arca, Bachisio; Vargiu, Arnoldo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze variations in the start and the end dates of pollen season, date of maximum concentration peak, pollen season duration, pollen concentration value and Seasonal Pollen Index of airborne Fagaceae pollen series recorded in Sassari, Northern Italy, and to evaluate their relation to meteorological data. Daily pollen concentration data were measured from 1986 to 2008 in a urban area of northern Sardinia (Italy) using a Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap. The date of the peak occurrence was defined as the day when the cumulated daily pollen values reached the 50 % of the total annual pollen concentration. Meteorological data were recorded during the same period by an automatic weather station. Cumulative Degree days were calculated, for each year, from different starting dates using the daily averaging method. The correlation between meteorological variables and the different characteristics of pollen seasons was analyzed using Spearman's correlation tests. In the city of Sassari the Fagaceae airborne pollen content was mainly due to Quercus. The main pollen season took place from April to June. The longest pollen season appeared in the year 2002. The cumulative counts varied over the years, with a mean value of 5,336 pollen grains, a lowest total of 550 in 1986 and a highest total of 8,678 in 2001. Daily pollen concentrations presented positive correlation with temperature, and negative with relative humidity (p<0,0001) and with rainfall. In addition, Cumulative Degree days were significantly correlated with the dates of maximum concentration peak (p<0,0001).

  18. The social cost of chronic kidney disease in Italy.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Bellelli, S; Amato, M; Bianchi, S; Conti, P; Cupisti, A; Panichi, V; Rosati, A; Pizzarelli, F

    2016-10-03

    This study aims to estimate the mean annual social cost per patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) by stages 4 and 5 pre-dialyses and cost components in Italy. The multicenter cross-sectional study included all adult outpatients in charge of the 14 main Nephrology Centers of Tuscany Region during 7 weeks from 2012 to 2013. Direct medical costs have been estimated using tariffs for laboratory tests, diagnostic exams, visits, hospitalization and prices for drugs. Non-medical costs included expenses of low-protein special foods, travel, and formal and informal care. Patients' and caregivers' losses of productivity have been estimated as indirect costs using the human capital approach. Costs have been expressed in Euros (2016). Totals of 279 patients in stage 4 and 205 patients in stage 5 have been enrolled. The estimated mean annual social cost of a patient with CKD were €7422 (±€6255) for stage 4 and €8971 (±€6503) for stage 5 (p < 0.05). Direct medical costs were higher in stage 5 as compared to stage 4; direct non-medical costs and indirect costs accounted, respectively, for 41 and 5 % of the total social cost of CKD stage 4 and for 33 and 9 % of CKD stage 5. In Italy, the overall annual social cost of CKD was €1,809,552,398 representing 0.11 % of the Gross Domestic Product. Direct non-medical costs and indirect costs were weighted on the social cost of CKD almost as much as the direct medical cost. Patients, their families and the productivity system sustain the burden of the disease almost as much as the healthcare system.

  19. Uncertainty analysis for seismic hazard in Northern and Central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombardi, A.M.; Akinci, A.; Malagnini, L.; Mueller, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine uncertainty and parametric sensitivity of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and 1-Hz Spectral Acceleration (1-Hz SA) in probabilistic seismic hazard maps (10% probability of exceedance in 50 years) of Northern and Central Italy. The uncertainty in hazard is estimated using a Monte Carlo approach to randomly sample a logic tree that has three input-variables branch points representing alternative values for b-value, maximum magnitude (Mmax) and attenuation relationships. Uncertainty is expressed in terms of 95% confidence band and Coefficient Of Variation (COV). The overall variability of ground motions and their sensitivity to each parameter of the logic tree are investigated. The largest values of the overall 95% confidence band are around 0.15 g for PGA in the Friuli and Northern Apennines regions and around 0.35 g for 1-Hz SA in the Central Apennines. The sensitivity analysis shows that the largest contributor to seismic hazard variability is uncertainty in the choice of ground-motion attenuation relationships, especially in the Friuli Region (???0.10 g) for PGA and in the Friuli and Central Apennines regions (???0.15 g) for 1-Hz SA. This is followed by the variability of the b-value: its main contribution is evident in the Friuli and Central Apennines regions for both 1-Hz SA (???0.15 g) and PGA (???0.10 g). We observe that the contribution of Mmax to seismic hazard variability is negligible, at least for 10% exceedance in 50-years hazard. The overall COV map for PGA shows that the uncertainty in the hazard is larger in the Friuli and Northern Apennine regions, around 20-30%, than the Central Apennines and Northwestern Italy, around 10-20%. The overall uncertainty is larger for the 1-Hz SA map and reaches 50-60% in the Central Apennines and Western Alps.

  20. Ageing with HIV: newly diagnosed older adults in Italy.

    PubMed

    Orchi, N; Balzano, R; Scognamiglio, P; Navarra, A; De Carli, G; Elia, P; Grisetti, S; Sampaolesi, A; Giuliani, M; De Filippis, A; Puro, V; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among people in midlife and late adulthood has been increasing in Western countries over the last decade. We analyzed data from a prospective, observational multi-centre study on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV between January 2004 and March 2007 in 10 public counselling and testing sites in Latium, Italy. At diagnosis, routine demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are recorded, and patients are asked to complete a questionnaire investigating socio-demographic and psycho-behavioural aspects. To analyze the association of individual characteristics with age, we compared older adults (> or = 50 years) with their younger counterpart (18-49 years). To adjust for potential confounding effect of the epidemiological, clinical and behavioural characteristics, to identify factors associated with older age at HIV diagnosis, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 1073 individuals were identified, 125 of whom (11.6%) were aged 50 years or above. The questionnaire was completed by 41% (440/1073). Compared with their younger counterparts, a higher proportion of older patients were males, born in Italy, reported heterosexual or unknown HIV risk exposure, were never tested for HIV before and were in a more advanced stage of HIV infection at diagnosis. In addition, older adults had a lower educational level and were more frequently living with their partners or children. With respect to psycho-behavioural characteristics, older patients were more likely to have paid money for sex and have never used recreational drugs. Interestingly, no differences were found regarding condom use, which was poor in both age groups. These findings may have important implications for the management of older adults with HIV, who should be targeted by appropriate public health actions, such as opportunistic screening and easier access to healthcare. Moreover, strategies including information on HIV and prevention of risk