Science.gov

Sample records for campinas metropolitan region

  1. [Mortality in metropolitan regions].

    PubMed

    Simoes Ccds

    1980-01-01

    Data from the 1970 census and a 1974-1975 survey carried out in Brazil by the Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica are used to examine recent mortality trends in urban areas. Specifically, life expectancy in nine metropolitan areas is analyzed in relation to income, diet, and sanitary facilities in the home.

  2. [Spotted fever in Campinas region, State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Lima, Virgília Luna Castor; de Souza, Savina Silvana Lacerra; de Souza, Celso Eduardo; Vilela, Maria Filomena Gouveia; Papaiordanou, Priscila M O; Del Guércio, Vânia M F; Rocha, Marilú M M

    2003-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever was detected for the first time in the State of S o Paulo in 1929. However, there is no systematic reporting of the disease in the State. In 1985, three cases of the disease occurred in the municipality of Pedreira, located in the Campinas Region, belonging to the 5th Administrative Region, in the Northeast part of the State, including 88 municipalities. An investigation was conducted at the time, but the lack of case registry limited its scope. The present study was undertaken with the aim of recovering the history of the disease in the Region. Data recovered from several public health services for 1985-2000 were used to analyze incidence patterns. It was observed that the transmission area expanded and the number of suspected cases increased, especially after 1996, when mandatory reporting was established. Deaths due to spotted fever were observed in most of the years under study. The study concluded that spotted fever incidence is increasing in the Campinas Region. Complementary bio-ecological studies are currently under way to better understand the epidemiology of this disease, recognized worldwide as an emerging public health problem.

  3. Metropolitan and state economic regions (MASTER) model - overview

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.; Moe, R.J.; Scott, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    The Metropolitan and State Economic Regions (MASTER) model is a unique multi-regional economic model designed to forecast regional economic activity and assess the regional economic impacts caused by national and regional economic changes (e.g., interest rate fluctuations, energy price changes, construction and operation of a nuclear waste storage facility, shutdown of major industrial operations). MASTER can be applied to any or all of the 268 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) and 48 non-SMSA rest-of-state-areas (ROSAs) in the continental US. The model can also be applied to any or all of the continental US counties and states. This report is divided into four sections: capabilities and applications of the MASTER model, development of the model, model simulation, and validation testing.

  4. 40 CFR 81.25 - Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.25 Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Missouri-Kansas) consists...

  5. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.102 Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) consists...

  6. 40 CFR 81.86 - Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.86 Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Iowa-Nebraska-South Dakota) consists of...

  7. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  8. 40 CFR 81.85 - Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.85 Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Iowa-South Dakota) has...

  9. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region consists of the following territorial area (including the territorial... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air...

  10. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region consists of the following territorial area (including the territorial... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air...

  11. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region consists of the following territorial area (including the territorial... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air...

  12. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  13. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  14. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.28 Section 81.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  16. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.34 Section 81.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  17. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  18. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  19. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area...

  20. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  1. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  2. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.16 Section 81.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  4. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.34 Section 81.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  5. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.19 Section 81.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  6. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of...

  7. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial...

  8. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.34 Section 81.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  9. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  10. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of...

  11. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  12. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  13. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  14. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  15. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  17. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  19. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  20. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  1. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial...

  2. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  3. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  4. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of...

  5. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  6. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  8. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area...

  9. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial...

  10. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.16 Section 81.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  12. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.16 Section 81.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  13. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.19 Section 81.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  14. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.28 Section 81.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial...

  16. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  17. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area...

  18. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  19. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.19 Section 81.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  2. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area...

  3. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  4. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area...

  5. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  6. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.28 Section 81.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  8. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  9. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  10. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of...

  11. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial...

  12. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of...

  13. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  14. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  15. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  17. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  18. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  1. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  2. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  5. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  6. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  7. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial...

  8. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  9. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  10. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  12. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  13. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  14. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  15. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  17. 40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.227 Section 52.227 Protection of... Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (b) The following regulations are disapproved...

  18. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  19. Residential Construction Trends in America's Metropolitan Regions: 2010 and 2009 Editions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These two reports examine residential building permits in the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan regions at the county or jurisdictional level to determine whether there has been a shift toward redevelopment and which regions have seen the most change.

  20. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Region. The Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) consists of... County. In the State of Iowa: Clinton County, Louisa County, Muscatine County, Scott County....

  1. 40 CFR 81.50 - Metropolitan Omaha-Council Bluffs Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control Region. The Metropolitan Omaha-Council Bluffs Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Nebraska-Iowa... delimited): In the State of Nebraska: Douglas County, Sarpy County. In the State of Iowa:...

  2. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Region. The Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) consists of... County. In the State of Iowa: Clinton County, Louisa County, Muscatine County, Scott County....

  3. 40 CFR 81.85 - Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Region. The Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Iowa-South Dakota) has been... delimited): In the State of Iowa: Lyon County. In the State of South Dakota: Lincoln County, McCook...

  4. 40 CFR 81.85 - Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Region. The Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Iowa-South Dakota) has been... delimited): In the State of Iowa: Lyon County. In the State of South Dakota: Lincoln County, McCook...

  5. 40 CFR 81.85 - Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Region. The Metropolitan Sioux Falls Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Iowa-South Dakota) has been... delimited): In the State of Iowa: Lyon County. In the State of South Dakota: Lincoln County, McCook...

  6. 40 CFR 81.50 - Metropolitan Omaha-Council Bluffs Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control Region. The Metropolitan Omaha-Council Bluffs Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Nebraska-Iowa... delimited): In the State of Nebraska: Douglas County, Sarpy County. In the State of Iowa:...

  7. 40 CFR 81.50 - Metropolitan Omaha-Council Bluffs Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Control Region. The Metropolitan Omaha-Council Bluffs Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Nebraska-Iowa... delimited): In the State of Nebraska: Douglas County, Sarpy County. In the State of Iowa:...

  8. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Region. The Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) consists of... County. In the State of Iowa: Clinton County, Louisa County, Muscatine County, Scott County....

  9. [Metropolitan and regional health planning: dilemmas of the Pact for Health in the Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Monteiro, Paulo Henrique Nico; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Morais, Maria de Lima Salum e; Barboza, Renato

    2012-05-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between metropolitan and regional health planning based on the processes of regionalization and the Pact for Health in the Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil. The method used was a case study in two stages, namely during initial implementation of the Pact for Health (2007) and the Regional Administration Committees (CGR) and in 2010. Municipal and regional health systems managers and the director of the Metropolitan Agency were interviewed, and records were analyzed from ten years of meetings of the Regional Inter-Administration Committee and the Regional Development Council. Four issues emerged: financing and infrastructure; health services utilization; inefficiency of the Regional Health Administration's instruments and decision-making levels; and the relationship between different levels in the Administration. Metropolitan health management remained as an underlying issue, appearing only incidentally or tangentially to regional management. Despite some limitations, the CGR has been legitimized as a space for regional health management.

  10. 40 CFR 81.86 - Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Iowa-Nebraska-South Dakota) consists of the...)) geographically located within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Iowa:...

  11. 40 CFR 81.86 - Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Iowa-Nebraska-South Dakota) consists of the...)) geographically located within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Iowa:...

  12. 40 CFR 81.86 - Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Iowa-Nebraska-South Dakota) consists of the...)) geographically located within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Iowa:...

  13. Forecasting drug utilization and expenditure in a metropolitan health region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New pharmacological therapies are challenging the healthcare systems, and there is an increasing need to assess their therapeutic value in relation to existing alternatives as well as their potential budget impact. Consequently, new models to introduce drugs in healthcare are urgently needed. In the metropolitan health region of Stockholm, Sweden, a model has been developed including early warning (horizon scanning), forecasting of drug utilization and expenditure, critical drug evaluation as well as structured programs for the introduction and follow-up of new drugs. The aim of this paper is to present the forecasting model and the predicted growth in all therapeutic areas in 2010 and 2011. Methods Linear regression analysis was applied to aggregate sales data on hospital sales and dispensed drugs in ambulatory care, including both reimbursed expenditure and patient co-payment. The linear regression was applied on each pharmacological group based on four observations 2006-2009, and the crude predictions estimated for the coming two years 2010-2011. The crude predictions were then adjusted for factors likely to increase or decrease future utilization and expenditure, such as patent expiries, new drugs to be launched or new guidelines from national bodies or the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. The assessment included a close collaboration with clinical, clinical pharmacological and pharmaceutical experts from the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Results The annual increase in total expenditure for prescription and hospital drugs was predicted to be 2.0% in 2010 and 4.0% in 2011. Expenditures will increase in most therapeutic areas, but most predominantly for antineoplastic and immune modulating agents as well as drugs for the nervous system, infectious diseases, and blood and blood-forming organs. Conclusions The utilisation and expenditure of drugs is difficult to forecast due to uncertainties about the rate of adoption of new

  14. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  15. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  16. Clinical consequences of Tityus bahiensis and Tityus serrulatus scorpion stings in the region of Campinas, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; Fernandes, Luciane C R; Fernandes, Carla B; Branco, Maíra M; Prado, Camila C; Vieira, Ronan J; De Capitani, Eduardo M; Hyslop, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Scorpion stings account for most envenomations by venomous animals in Brazil. A retrospective study (1994-2011) of the clinical consequences of Tityus scorpion stings in 1327 patients treated at a university hospital in Campinas, southeastern Brazil, is reported. The clinical classification, based on outcome, was: dry sting (no envenoming), class I (only local manifestations), class II (systemic manifestations), class III (life-threatening manifestations, such as shock and/or cardiac failure requiring inotropic/vasopressor agents, and/or respiratory failure), and fatal. The median patient age was 27 years (interquartile interval = 15-42 years). Scorpions were brought for identification in 47.2% of cases (Tityus bahiensis 27.7%; Tityus serrulatus 19.5%). Sting severity was classified and each accounted for the following percentage of cases: dry stings - 3.4%, class I - 79.6%, class II - 15.1%, class III - 1.8% and fatal - 0.1%. Pain was the primary local manifestation (95.5%). Systemic manifestations such as vomiting, agitation, sweating, dyspnea, bradycardia, tachycardia, tachypnea, somnolence/lethargy, cutaneous paleness, hypothermia and hypotension were detected in class II or class III + fatal groups, but were significantly more frequent in the latter group. Class III and fatal cases occurred only in children <15 years old, with scorpions being identified in 13/25 cases (T. serrulatus, n = 12; T. bahiensis, n = 1). Laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, leukocytosis, elevations in serum total CK, CK-MB and troponin T, bicarbonate consumption and an increase in base deficit and blood lactate), electrocardiographic changes (ST segment) and echocardiographic alterations (ventricular ejected fraction <54%) were frequently detected in class III patients. Seventeen patients developed pulmonary edema, 16 had cardiac failure and seven had cardiogenic shock. These results indicate that most scorpion stings involved only local manifestations

  17. How Do School Learning Environments Differ across Australia's Rural, Regional and Metropolitan Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kevin; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study uses data from the Programme for International Student Assessment, a large and nationally representative dataset, to examine how learning environments vary across metropolitan, rural and regional schools in Australia. Research has shown that school climate and learning environments are related to student academic performance, but little…

  18. Women Workers in Regional Areas and in Large States and Metropolitan Areas, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been summarized on labor force participation and unemployment rates in 1971, of women 16 years of age and over, in the various census regions of the United States and in 10 large States and 20 large Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA's); separate data also have been summarized for women of…

  19. Extending Online and Blended Learning to Corporations in the New York Metropolitan Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubell, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article describes WebCampus.Stevens, the online graduate education and corporate training unit of Stevens Institute of Technology, which delivers one of the largest and most effective asynchronous learning network (ALN) and blended programs of any college or university in the New York metropolitan region. Under a newly awarded Sloan…

  20. A Multi-Scale Comparative Study of Shape and Sprawl in Metropolitan Regions of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation constitutes a multi-scale quantitative and qualitative investigation of patterns of urban development in metropolitan regions of the United States. This work has generated a comprehensive data set on spatial patterns of metropolitan development in the U.S. and an approach to the study of such patterns that can be used to further…

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama.

    PubMed

    Rengifo-Herrera, Claudia; Pile, Edwin; García, Anabel; Pérez, Alexander; Pérez, Dimas; Nguyen, Felicia K; de la Guardia, Valli; Mcleod, Rima; Caballero, Zuleima

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water) were associated with seropositivity.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Rengifo-Herrera, Claudia; Pile, Edwin; García, Anabel; Pérez, Alexander; Pérez, Dimas; Nguyen, Felicia K.; de la Guardia, Valli; Mcleod, Rima; Caballero, Zuleima

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water) were associated with seropositivity. PMID:28287391

  3. Comparison of life-cycle energy and emissions footprints of passenger transportation in metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-03-01

    A comparative life-cycle energy and emissions (greenhouse gas, CO, NO X, SO 2, PM 10, and VOCs) inventory is created for three U.S. metropolitan regions (San Francisco, Chicago, and New York City). The inventory captures both vehicle operation (direct fuel or electricity consumption) and non-operation components (e.g., vehicle manufacturing, roadway maintenance, infrastructure operation, and material production among others). While urban transportation inventories have been continually improved, little information exists identifying the particular characteristics of metropolitan passenger transportation and why one region may differ from the next. Using travel surveys and recently developed transportation life-cycle inventories, metropolitan inventories are constructed and compared. Automobiles dominate total regional performance accounting for 86-96% of energy consumption and emissions. Comparing system-wide averages, New York City shows the lowest end-use energy and greenhouse gas footprint compared to San Francisco and Chicago and is influenced by the larger share of transit ridership. While automobile fuel combustion is a large component of emissions, diesel rail, electric rail, and ferry service can also have strong contributions. Additionally, the inclusion of life-cycle processes necessary for any transportation mode results in significant increases (as large as 20 times that of vehicle operation) for the region. In particular, emissions of CO 2 from cement production used in concrete throughout infrastructure, SO 2 from electricity generation in non-operational components (vehicle manufacturing, electricity for infrastructure materials, and fuel refining), PM 10 in fugitive dust releases in roadway construction, and VOCs from asphalt result in significant additional inventory. Private and public transportation are disaggregated as well as off-peak and peak travel times. Furthermore, emissions are joined with healthcare and greenhouse gas monetized

  4. Model experiments on climate change in the Tokyo metropolitan area using regional climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, N.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    There is a possibility that the future atmospheric warming leads to more frequent heavy rainfall in the metropolitan area, thereby increasing the risk of floods. As part of REsearch Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, we started numerical model experiments for investigating the vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in water hazard assessments in the metropolitan area by the use of regional climate scenarios. The model experiments adopt dynamical downscaling techniques. Future climate projections obtained from regional climate model simulations at 20 km horizontal grid spacing are downscaled into finer grids (less than 5 km resolutions) of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System Version 6.0 modified by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED-RAMS). Prior to performing the dynamical downscaling experiments, the NIED-RAMS model biases are evaluated by comparing long-term surface meteorological observations with results of the model simulations that are carried out by using the Japanese Re-Analysis (JRA) data and Japan Meteorological Agency Meso-Scale Model outputs as the initial and boundary conditions.

  5. 40 CFR 81.15 - Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). 81.15 Section 81.15 Protection of... Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). The Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware) consists of the territorial...

  6. 40 CFR 81.15 - Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). 81.15 Section 81.15 Protection of... Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). The Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware) consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.15 - Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). 81.15 Section 81.15 Protection of... Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). The Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware) consists of the territorial...

  8. 40 CFR 81.15 - Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). 81.15 Section 81.15 Protection of... Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). The Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware) consists of the territorial...

  9. 40 CFR 81.15 - Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). 81.15 Section 81.15 Protection of... Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware). The Metropolitan Philadelphia Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware) consists of the territorial...

  10. [Network Analyses in Regional Health Care Research: Example of Dermatological Care in the Metropolitan Region of Hamburg].

    PubMed

    Augustin, J; Austermann, J; Erasmi, S

    2016-10-18

    Background: One of the overall objectives of the legislator is to ensure an overall "homogeneous", and easily accessible medical care for the population. The physician-patient ratio can be used to describe the regional health care situation. But this method does not provide information concerning the availability of, for instance, the nearest doctor. Therefore, further parameters such as accessibility must be taken into consideration. For this purpose, network analyses are an appropriate method. The objective of this study is to present methodological tools to evaluate the healthcare situation in the metropolitan region of Hamburg, primarily focusing on accessibility using dermatologists as an example. Methods: Analyzing data of 20 counties, the geographical distribution of N=357 dermatologists and the physician-patient ratio were calculated. In a second step, a network analysis regarding accessibility was performed. In order to calculate accessibility, address data (physicians) were transformed into coordinates, consisting of defined places (N=303) and restrictions (e. g. speed, turn restrictions) of the network. The calculation of population-based accessibility is based on grid cells for the population density. Results: Despite adequacy of the overall medical situation, differences in the availability of the nearest dermatologists in the metropolitan region are remarkable, particularly when use of public transport is taken into consideration. In some counties, over 60% of the population require at least one hour to get to the nearest dermatologist using public transportation. In rural regions within the metropolitan area are particularly affected. Conclusion: The network analysis has shown that the choice and availability of transportation in combination with the location (rural/urban) is essential for health care access. Especially elderly people in rural areas with restricted mobility are at a disadvantage. Therefore, modern health care approaches (e

  11. [Food satisfaction in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-06-01

    Although the study and measurement of satisfaction with life has generated great interest in the last 15 years, there are few works which address satisfaction with food-related life. In order to identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food-related life among Mapuche persons, a survey was applied to 400 Mapuche subjects in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile. The scales evaluated in the questionnaire included: SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life), lifestyles, food, and Mapuche acculturation. It was found that 41.0% were extremely satisfied, 40.5% satisfied, 17.2% somewhat satisfied and 1.2% dissatisfied with their food-related life. To identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food, an ordinal multinomial logit model was proposed, which was significant (p < 0.01) as a whole. The probability of high satisfaction with food-related life increases as there are fewer children in the household, the person's expenditure on food increases, the person consumes some Mapuche foods, is aged 55 or more, consumes red meat in moderation, consumes foods without additives, try to balance work and private life, does not read the labels of products, and if he/she had Mapuche friends at school. Thus satisfaction with food-related life in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region is related to demographic variables, expenditure on food, consumption of Mapuche foods and life-style.

  12. Biodiversity, biosphere reserves, and the Big Apple: a study of the New York Metropolitan Region.

    PubMed

    Solecki, William D; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the dimensions of biodiversity-urban society interactions within the New York Metropolitan Region, a 31-county area with a population of 21.5 million, and to explore pathways to reconcile dysfunctional relationships between these two ever-entwined systems. The article builds on the premise that urban biodiversity exists at a crucial nexus of ecological and societal interactions, linking local, regional, and global scales, and that urban ecologies are projected to become even more dynamic in the future, particularly as a result of global climate change. The pathway proposed to reconcile the biodiversity-urban society relationships is the incorporation of biosphere reserve strategies into regional environmental planning efforts focused on the New York/New Jersey Harbor/Estuary specifically and on the greater New York Metropolitan Region in general. The concepts of the "ecological footprint" and vulnerability to global environmental change are used to analyze the current interactions between biodiversity and urban society, and to evaluate the efficacy of adopting biosphere reserve strategies in the region. New York has long been at the forefront of American environmentalism and landscape planning. Coupled with this history is a still small but growing interest in regional environmental planning efforts (e.g., the U.S. EPA Harbor Estuary Program) and green infrastructure (e.g., the 2002 Humane Metropolis Conference organized by the Ecological Cities Project). The research presented here aims to contribute to these nascent activities. As a megacity, New York may serve as a model for other major cities of the world.

  13. Self-Reported Harassment and Bullying in Australian Universities: Explaining Differences between Regional, Metropolitan and Elite Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Peetz, David; Strachan, Glenda; Whitehouse, Gillian; Bailey, Janis; Broadbent, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    We analyse data from the largest survey of university staff in Australia to determine whether bullying and harassment are more common in regional than metropolitan and Go8 universities, and to what extent any differences could be attributed to other factors. While professional staff showed no difference in harassment rates between regional and…

  14. Earthquakes in the Los Angeles metropolitan region: A possible fractal distribution of rupture size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is debate on the maximum size of earthquake that is possible on any of several known fault systems in the greater Los Angeles metropolitan region, it is reasonable to assume that the distribution of earthquakes will follow a fractal distribution of rupture areas. For this assumption and an overall slip-rate for the region of approximately 1 centimeter per year, roughly one magnitude 7.4 to 7.5 event is expected to occur ever 245 to 325 years. A model in which the earthquake distribution is fractal predicts that additionally, there should be approximately six events in the range of magnitude 6.6 in this same span of time, a higher rate than has occurred in the historic record.

  15. Analysis of spatial patterns in near surface micro climatic conditions within Delhi Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last few decades there have been increasing awareness about Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect observed in particular large urban metropolitan regions. The most predominant characteristic of UHI is a warmer surface temperature across urban areas. Importantly, studies on UHI in the more densely populated and developing parts of Asia are rare. In this context, Delhi Metropolitan Region (DMR) is an excellent case study to explore the development of UHI, as it typifies an Asian mega city with a rapidly increasing population and associated anthropogenic effects on the urban environment. The impact of the UHI can also be traced to increased incidences of heat wave-related deaths and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the major determining factors of UHI development are the nature of land cover, size and urban morphology, population, and radiative property of the construction material broadly determine the spatial patterns of UHI occurrence. In order to determine the spatial pattern of local micro level variations in environmental factors on the prevailing climatic conditions, a set of 10 temporary weather stations were setup in different parts of the DMR for a one year period from June 2007 to July 2008. These stations recorded the air and dew point temperature, and relative humidity at hourly interval during the study period. The results of the analyses of the observed field data indicate substantial differences in the spatial patterns of variables under study, which were directly related to the prevailing land use and land cover. In the case of some of the sites there was an average time lag of approximately 2 hours for the time of maximum for both maximum and minimum temperatures. One of the sites, which were located in a less densely built-up area, with more parks and gardens surrounding it, recorded lower average temperatures.

  16. Analyses of heavy metals in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariúna, using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-rayfluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, L. C. F.; Canteras, F. B.; Moreira, S.

    2014-02-01

    A major consequence of accelerated urban and industrial development in the last decades is water pollution. In particular, metal contamination is a significant problem, causing serious changes to the environment and adversely affecting human health. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariúna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy, accounting for 2.7% of Gross National Product (GNP) and 7.83% of São Paulo State Product—or approximately $ 70.7 billion per year. Besides having a strong economy, the region also presents an infrastructure that provides the development of the entire metropolitan area. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, the evaluation of the quality of raw and treated effluent and, the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STP), especially with regard to heavy metals was performed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation technique. The results were compared with the allowed values established by Brazilian Legislation. For raw and treated effluents collected in Jaguariúna and Campinas city in the Stations of Treatment of Sewage (Camanducaia and Anhumas), Cr presented higher concentrations than the maximum allowed values established by CONAMA 357. However, it is necessary to do other studies to define the fraction of Cr+3 and Cr+6 to compare to the new legislation. The other elements were in agreement with established regulations. For sludge sampled in the same locations, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared with the CONAMA 375 and showed values smaller than the maximum allowed values, indicating the possibility to re-use the sludge.

  17. Geostatistical exploration of spatial variation of summertime temperatures in the Detroit metropolitan region

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Oswald, Evan M.; Brown, Daniel G.; Brines, Shannon J.; Gronlund, Carina J.; White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Rood, Richard B.; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of the warming climate urban temperature patterns have been receiving increased attention. Temperature within urban areas can vary depending on land cover, meteorological and other factors. High resolution satellite data can be used to understand this intra-urban variability, although they have been primarily studied to characterize urban heat islands at a larger spatial scale. Objective This study examined whether satellite-derived impervious surface and meteorological conditions from multiple sites can improve characterization of spatial variability of temperature within an urban area. Methods Temperature was measured at 17 outdoor sites throughout the Detroit metropolitan area during the summer of 2008. Kriging and linear regression were applied to daily temperatures and secondary information, including impervious surface and distance-to-water. Performance of models in predicting measured temperatures was evaluated by cross-validation. Variograms derived from several scenarios were compared to determine whether high-resolution impervious surface information could capture fine-scale spatial structure of temperature in the study area. Results Temperatures measured at the sites were significantly different from each other, and all kriging techniques generally performed better than the two linear regression models. Impervious surface values and distance-to-water generally improved predictions slightly. Restricting models to days with lake breezes and with less cloud cover also somewhat improved the predictions. In addition, incorporating high-resolution impervious surface information into cokriging or universal kriging enhanced the ability to characterize fine-scale spatial structure of temperature. Conclusions Meteorological and satellite-derived data can better characterize spatial variability in temperature across a metropolitan region. The data sources and methods we used can be applied in epidemiological studies and public health

  18. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  19. Regional Similarities in Seasonal Mortality across the United States: An Examination of 28 Metropolitan Statistical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Kalkstein, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Human mortality exhibits a strong seasonal pattern with deaths in winter far exceeding those in the summer. While the pattern itself is clear, there have been very few studies examining whether the magnitude or timing of seasonal mortality varies considerably across space. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comprehensive geographic analysis of seasonal mortality across the United States and to uncover systematic regional differences in such mortality. Unique seasonal mortality curves were created for 28 metropolitan statistical areas across the United States, and the amplitude and timing of mortality peaks were determined. The findings here indicate that the seasonality of mortality exhibits strong spatial variation with the largest seasonal mortality amplitudes found in the southwestern United States and the smallest in the North, along with South Florida. In addition, there were strong intra-regional similarities that exist among the examined cities, implying that environmental factors are more important than social factors in determining seasonal mortality response. This work begins to fill a large gap within the scientific literature concerning the geographic variation and underlying causes of seasonal mortality across the United States. PMID:23734179

  20. Smoke signs: patterns of tobacco billboard advertising in a metropolitan region

    PubMed Central

    Luke, D.; Esmundo, E.; Bloom, Y.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To use geographic information systems data and analyses to describe locations and characteristics of tobacco billboards in a large metropolitan area, and to assess the extent to which tobacco companies are locating billboards in close proximity to minority neighbourhoods and schools.
DESIGN—Observational study of billboards in a large metropolitan region.
SETTING—City and county of St Louis, Missouri.
PARTICIPANTS—All stationary billboards in the city and county of St Louis were eligible to be observed, with the exception of bus stop and street side retail advertising signs (for example, cigarette advertising at gas stations). A total of 1239 non-blank billboards were observed. All data were collected in early 1998.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Tobacco and non-tobacco billboard geographic distribution; billboard type and product brand frequencies; and billboard neighbourhood characteristics.
RESULTS—Almost 20% of the billboards contained tobacco advertising. Four of the top five and nine of the top 22 brands displayed on billboards were tobacco products. Billboards were located in all areas of St Louis except for the communities with the highest average incomes. Tobacco billboards were more likely to be found in low income areas and areas with a higher percentage of African Americans. Images of African American figures on tobacco billboards were concentrated in the most heavily African American populated regions of the city. Approximately 74% of all billboards in the city of St Louis were within 2000 feet (700 metres) of public school property.
CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco products were the single most heavily advertised type of product on billboards in St Louis. The geographic distribution of tobacco billboards, as well as the types of images found on these billboards, is consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco companies are targeting poor and minority communities with their advertising. Methods employing geographic information systems

  1. Climate Change and a Global City: An Assessment of the Metropolitan East Coast Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the research is to derive an assessment of the potential climate change impacts on a global city - in this case the 31 county region that comprises the New York City metropolitan area. This study comprises one of the regional components that contribute to the ongoing U.S. National Assessment: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change and is an application of state-of-the-art climate change science to a set of linked sectoral assessment analyses for the Metro East Coast (MEC) region. We illustrate how three interacting elements of global cities react and respond to climate variability and change with a broad conceptual model. These elements include: people (e.g., socio- demographic conditions), place (e.g., physical systems), and pulse (e.g., decision-making and economic activities). The model assumes that a comprehensive assessment of potential climate change can be derived from examining the impacts within each of these elements and at their intersections. Thus, the assessment attempts to determine the within-element and the inter-element effects. Five interacting sector studies representing the three intersecting elements are evaluated. They include the Coastal Zone, Infrastructure, Water Supply, Public Health, and Institutional Decision-making. Each study assesses potential climate change impacts on the sector and on the intersecting elements, through the analysis of the following parts: 1. Current conditions of sector in the region; 2. Lessons and evidence derived from past climate variability; 3. Scenario predictions affecting sector; potential impacts of scenario predictions; 4. Knowledge/information gaps and critical issues including identification of additional research questions, effectiveness of modeling efforts, equity of impacts, potential non-local interactions, and policy recommendations; and 5. Identification of coping strategies - i.e., resilience building, mitigation strategies, new technologies, education that

  2. Culture and self: are there within-culture differences in self between metropolitan areas and regional cities?

    PubMed

    Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kokubo, Teruyoshi; Kashima, Emiko S; Boxall, Dianne; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Macrae, Kristina

    2004-07-01

    Although differences in self-conception across cultures have been well researched, regional differences within a culture have escaped attention. The present study examined individual, relational, and collective selves, which capture people's conceptions of themselves in relation to their goals, significant others, and in groups, comparing Australians and Japanese participants living in regional cities and metropolitan areas. Culture, gender, and urbanism were found to be related to individual, relational, and collective selves, respectively. Australians emphasized individual self more than Japanese, women stressed relational self more than men, and residents in regional cities regarded collective self as more important than their counterparts in metropolitan areas. These findings provide support for the tripartite division of the self and suggest a need to construct a culture theory that links self and societal processes.

  3. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  4. [Change trend of vegetation cover in Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2012-11-01

    The MODIS-NDVI data from 2000 to 2009 were used to analyze the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of the vegetation cover in the Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics. During the study period, the proportion of the significantly increased pixels of NDVI occupied 20.7% while that of the significantly decreased pixels only occupied 4.1% of the total, and the decreasing rate of the NDVI was slightly faster than the increasing rate. The significant changes of the NDVI were mainly concentrated in the low altitude and small slope areas with intensive human activities, and two bands were formed in the plain area, i. e., the vegetation increasing band within the 5th Ring Road and the vegetation decreasing band from the 5th Ring Road to the outside areas of the 6th Ring Road. In the areas with significant vegetation change, there was an obvious transition between the high and low NDVI sections but less change in the medium NDVI section, mainly due to the conversion of land cover type. In the Capital function core area and ecological conservation zones, vegetation change represented a positive trend; while in the urban function expansion area and urban development area, vegetation change had the dual characteristics of both positive and negative trends. A series of ecological engineering projects during the preparatory period of the 2008 Olympics was the main cause of the vegetation increase in the study area.

  5. Managing the megacity for global sustainability: the new york metropolitan region as an urban biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Alfsen-Norodom, Christine; Boehme, Susan E; Clemants, Steven; Corry, Melody; Imbruce, Valerie; Lane, Benjamin D; Miller, Roberta Balstad; Padoch, Christine; Panero, Marta; Peters, Charles M; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William; Walsh, Daniel

    2004-06-01

    The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR), while not originally conceived to include urban areas, was intended to include sites representing all significant ecosystems with the goal of support for sustainable development locally and globally. Drawing on the example of the New York Metropolitan Region (NYMR), which has a population of 21.4 million, it is argued here that the eventual inclusion of the largest of the world's cities in WNBR not only is within the logic of the biosphere reserve concept, but would also benefit the network and its goals. The ecological significance of the NYMR, its role as a driver for global environmental change, as well as the efforts under way in the city to improve urban environmental management and governance are all examined. Potential added value to the WNBR of including megacities such as the NYMR is considered, in particular, regarding the sharing of best practices, lessons learned, and the strengthening of links between megacities and their global natural resource bases.

  6. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  7. Integrated solutions for urban runoff pollution control in Brazilian metropolitan regions.

    PubMed

    Morihama, A C D; Amaro, C; Tominaga, E N S; Yazaki, L F O L; Pereira, M C S; Porto, M F A; Mukai, P; Lucci, R M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important causes for poor water quality in urban rivers in Brazil is the low collection efficiency of the sewer system due to unforeseen interconnections with the stormwater drainage system. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian cities have adopted separate systems for sanitary sewers and stormwater runoff. Gradually these two systems became interconnected. A major challenge faced today by water managers in Brazil is to find efficient and low cost solutions to deal with this mixed system. The current situation poses an important threat to the improvement of the water quality in urban rivers and lakes. This article presents an evaluation of the water quality parameters and the diffuse pollution loads during rain events in the Pinheiros River, a tributary of the Tietê River in São Paulo. It also presents different types of integrated solutions for reducing the pollution impact of combined systems, based on the European experience in urban water management. An evaluation of their performance and a comparison with the separate system used in most Brazilian cities is also presented. The study is based on an extensive water quality monitoring program that was developed for a special investigation in the Pinheiros River and lasted 2.5 years. Samples were collected on a daily basis and water quality variables were analyzed on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Two hundred water quality variables were monitored at 53 sampling points. During rain events, additional monitoring was carried out using an automated sampler. Pinheiros River is one of the most important rivers in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region and it is also a heavily polluted one.

  8. A survey of gastrointestinal helminths in cats of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Norma; Serrão, Maria Lucia; Ferreira, Ana Maria R; Almeida, Núbia K O; Guerrero, Jorge

    2004-08-13

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in 135 cats over 1 year of age and inhabiting the metropolitan region of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was investigated by necropsy. These animals had two distinct origins: 99 cats (29 males and 70 females) were derived by capture in public areas (feral/stray) and 36 (12 males and 24 females) from shelters. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites was 89.6%. The following parasites, with their respective prevalence in parenthesis, were found: Dipylidium caninum (52.6%), Ancylostoma braziliense (65.9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8.9%), Toxocara cati (25.2%), Toxascaris leonina (11.9%), Physaloptera praeputialis (9.6%). Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 59.5% of the individuals. Of the 121 parasitized cats, 94 were feral/strays and 27 were from shelters. Among feral/stray cats, 80 were infected with A. braziliense (85%) and 17 of the shelter felids were infected with D. caninum (63%). Feral/stray cats had higher worm intensities (6411/94-68.2) than shelter cats (992/27-36.7). The helminth parasites most frequently found in feral/stray cats were Ancylostoma braziliense (47.5%) and D. caninum (47%) while in shelter cats, D. caninum was the predominant species (85.2%). Twenty seven cats (22.3%) had only A. braziliense and 19 (15.7%) were parasitized only with D. caninum. Among those cats harboring mixed infections A. braziliense and D. caninum were the species more frequently found (P < 0.001).

  9. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (<1.1 μm). These toxic metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere.

  10. 40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.227 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los... process sources with a process weight of 62,000 lbs. per hour or less. (3) Southern California APCD: (i...) Rule 401(b) submitted on August 15, 1980. (c) The rescission by the Southern California APCD of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.227 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los... process sources with a process weight of 62,000 lbs. per hour or less. (3) Southern California APCD: (i...) Rule 401(b) submitted on August 15, 1980. (c) The rescission by the Southern California APCD of...

  12. Use of ERTS-1 data for regional planning in the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments: A short brief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Land use and land use activity changes over discrete intervals of time represent basic data requirements in regional planning studies. Two examples of land use analysis required by the Council of Governments' transportation planning staff are described. Both were undertaken utilizing remote sensing imagery analysis. One study using large scale aircraft imagery developed a high degree of analytical detail and functional identification. The other, to support further detailed data base evaluation, utilizing ERTS-1 and small scale aircraft imagery, developed data identifying in more general detail major activity changes within the metropolitan region.

  13. Exploring relationships between building and transportation energy use of residents in U.S. metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pede, Timothy J.

    There is much potential to decrease energy consumption in the U.S. by encouraging compact, centralized development. Although many studies have examined the extent to which built environment and demographic factors are related to household energy use, few have considered both building and transportation energy together. We hypothesized that residents living further from city centers, or urban cores, consume more energy for both purposes than their inner city counterparts, resulting in a direct relationship between building and transportation energy usage. This hypothesis was tested with two case studies. The first focused on New York City. Annual building energy per unit of parcels, or tax lots, containing large multi-family structures was compared to the daily transportation energy use per household of traffic analysis zones (TAZs) (estimated with a regional travel demand model). Transportation energy showed a strong spatial pattern, with distance to urban core explaining 63% of variation in consumption. Building energy use was randomly distributed, resulting in a weak negative correlation with transportation energy. However, both correlation with distance to urban core and transportation energy became significant and positive when portion of detached single-family units for TAZs was used as a proxy for building energy. Structural equation models (SEMs) revealed a direct relationship between log lot depth and both uses of energy, and inverse relationship between portion of attached housing units and transportation energy. This supports the notion that sprawling development increases both the building and transportation energy consumption of households. For the second analysis, annual building and automobile energy use per household were estimated for block groups across the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan regions with Esri Consumer Expenditure Data. Both forms of energy consumption per household were lowest in inner cities and increased at greater distances from

  14. Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

    2011-12-01

    Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little

  15. Modeling the Impacts of Global Climate and Regional Land Use Change on Regional Climate, Air Quality and Public Health in the New York Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Kinney, P. L.

    2002-12-01

    There is an imminent need to downscale the global climate models used by international consortiums like the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to predict the future regional impacts of climate change. To meet this need, a "place-based" climate model that makes specific regional projections about future environmental conditions local inhabitants could face is being created by the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, in collaboration with other researchers and universities, for New York City and the 31 surrounding counties. This presentation describes the design and initial results of this modeling study, aimed at simulating the effects of global climate change and regional land use change on climate and air quality over the northeastern United States in order to project the associated public health impacts in the region. Heat waves and elevated concentrations of ozone and fine particles are significant current public health stressors in the New York metropolitan area. The New York Climate and Health Project is linking human dimension and natural sciences models to assess the potential for future public health impacts from heat stress and air quality, and yield improved tools for assessing climate change impacts. The model will be applied to the NY metropolitan east coast region. The following questions will be addressed: 1. What changes in the frequency and severity of extreme heat events are likely to occur over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and land cover (LU/LC) and climate change in the region? 2. How might the frequency and severity of episodic concentrations of ozone (O3) and airborne particulate matter smaller than 2.5 æm in diameter (PM2.5) change over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and climate change in the metropolitan region? 3. What is the range of possible human health impacts of these changes in the region? 4. How might projected future human

  16. Multilevel Hierarchical Modeling of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Responses to Urbanization in Nine Metropolitan Regions across the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kashuba, Roxolana; Cha, YoonKyung; Alameddine, Ibrahim; Lee, Boknam; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Multilevel hierarchical modeling methodology has been developed for use in ecological data analysis. The effect of urbanization on stream macroinvertebrate communities was measured across a gradient of basins in each of nine metropolitan regions across the conterminous United States. The hierarchical nature of this dataset was harnessed in a multi-tiered model structure, predicting both invertebrate response at the basin scale and differences in invertebrate response at the region scale. Ordination site scores, total taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) taxa richness, and richness-weighted mean tolerance of organisms at a site were used to describe invertebrate responses. Percentage of urban land cover was used as a basin-level predictor variable. Regional mean precipitation, air temperature, and antecedent agriculture were used as region-level predictor variables. Multilevel hierarchical models were fit to both levels of data simultaneously, borrowing statistical strength from the complete dataset to reduce uncertainty in regional coefficient estimates. Additionally, whereas non-hierarchical regressions were only able to show differing relations between invertebrate responses and urban intensity separately for each region, the multilevel hierarchical regressions were able to explain and quantify those differences within a single model. In this way, this modeling approach directly establishes the importance of antecedent agricultural conditions in masking the response of invertebrates to urbanization in metropolitan regions such as Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; and Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas. Also, these models show that regions with high precipitation, such as Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; and Portland, Oregon, start out with better regional background conditions of invertebrates prior to urbanization but experience faster negative rates of change with urbanization. Ultimately, this urbanization

  17. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  18. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study - the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study - were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  19. Ground-water resources of the south metropolitan Atlanta region, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Peck, Michael F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water resources of the nine county south metropolitan Atlanta region were evaluated in response to an increased demand for water supplies and concern that existing surface water supplies may not be able to meet future supply demands. Previous investigations have suggested that crystalline rock in the study area has low permeability and can not sustain well yields suitable for public supply. However, the reported yield for 406 wells drilled into crystalIine rock units in this area ranged from less than 1 to about 700 gallons per minute, and averaged 43 gallons per minute. The reported flow from 13 springs ranged from 0.5 to 679 gallons per minute. The yield of 43 wells and flow from five springs was reported to exceed 100 gallons per minute. Most of the high-yielding wells and springs were near contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithologic and weathering properties. The high-yielding wells and springs are located in a variety of topographic settings: hillsides, upland draws, and hilltops were most prevalent. The study area, which includes Henry, Fayette, Coweta, Spalding, Lamar, Pike, Meriwether, Upson and Talbot Counties, is within the Piedmont physiographic province except for the southernmost part of Talbot County, which is in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. In the Piedmont, ground-water storage occurs in joints, fractures and other secondary openings in the bedrock, and in pore spaces in the regolith. The most favorable geologic settings for siting highyielding wells are along contact zones between rocks of contrasting lithology and permeability, major zones of fracturing such as the Towaliga and Auchumpkee fault zones, and other numerous shear and microbreccia zones. Although most wells in the study area are from 101 to 300 feet deep, the highest average yields were obtained from wells 51 to 100 feet deep, and 301 to 500 feet deep. Of the wells inventoried, the average diameter of well casing was largest for wells located on hills and

  20. Implementing the Patient Portal of the PEHR in the Metropolitan Region Rhine-Neckar - Experiences with Liferay.

    PubMed

    Pensold, Peter; Schneider, Gerd; Aguduri, Lakshmi S; Brandner, Antje; Bronsch, Tobias; Schreiweis, Björn; Stein, Katharina E; Weiss, Nicolas; Yüksekogul, Nilay; Bergh, Björn; Heinze, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A patient portal with access to a personal cross-enterprise electronic health record (PEHR) had to be developed for the project "INFormation technology for PATient-oriented healthcare in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region" (INFOPAT). Liferay was chosen as the platform technology in previous researches. Multiple portlets for patients, study members, security officers and administrators had been developed in Java. In this paper all portlets are presented. For three portlets the communication between them, Liferay and the PEHR are described in detail. To communicate with the PEHR a façade called IHE Connector had been implemented too. Despite the broad functionality of the Liferay Core some workarounds had to be implemented. The lack of information in the provided documentation of Liferay lead to delays in development. The Liferay IDE and Liferay itself showed an unstable state.

  1. Spatial patterns of air pollutants and social groups: a distributive environmental justice study in the phoenix metropolitan region of USA.

    PubMed

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo; Boone, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying spatial distribution patterns of air pollutants is imperative to understand environmental justice issues. Here we present a landscape-based hierarchical approach in which air pollution variables are regressed against population demographics on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Using this approach, we investigated the potential problem of distributive environmental justice in the Phoenix metropolitan region, focusing on ambient ozone and particulate matter. Pollution surfaces (maps) are evaluated against the demographics of class, age, race (African American, Native American), and ethnicity (Hispanic). A hierarchical multiple regression method is used to detect distributive environmental justice relationships. Our results show that significant relationships exist between the dependent and independent variables, signifying possible environmental inequity. Although changing spatiotemporal scales only altered the overall direction of these relationships in a few instances, it did cause the relationship to become nonsignificant in many cases. Several consistent patterns emerged: people aged 17 and under were significant predictors for ambient ozone and particulate matter, but people 65 and older were only predictors for ambient particulate matter. African Americans were strong predictors for ambient particulate matter, while Native Americans were strong predictors for ambient ozone. Hispanics had a strong negative correlation with ambient ozone, but a less consistent positive relationship with ambient particulate matter. Given the legacy conditions endured by minority racial and ethnic groups, and the relative lack of mobility of all the groups, our findings suggest the existence of environmental inequities in the Phoenix metropolitan region. The methodology developed in this study is generalizable with other pollutants to provide a multi-scaled perspective of environmental justice issues.

  2. Spatial patterns of air pollutants and social groups: a distributive environmental justice study in the phoenix metropolitan region of USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo; Boone, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying spatial distribution patterns of air pollutants is imperative to understand environmental justice issues. Here we present a landscape-based hierarchical approach in which air pollution variables are regressed against population demographics on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Using this approach, we investigated the potential problem of distributive environmental justice in the Phoenix metropolitan region, focusing on ambient ozone and particulate matter. Pollution surfaces (maps) are evaluated against the demographics of class, age, race (African American, Native American), and ethnicity (Hispanic). A hierarchical multiple regression method is used to detect distributive environmental justice relationships. Our results show that significant relationships exist between the dependent and independent variables, signifying possible environmental inequity. Although changing spatiotemporal scales only altered the overall direction of these relationships in a few instances, it did cause the relationship to become nonsignificant in many cases. Several consistent patterns emerged: people aged 17 and under were significant predictors for ambient ozone and particulate matter, but people 65 and older were only predictors for ambient particulate matter. African Americans were strong predictors for ambient particulate matter, while Native Americans were strong predictors for ambient ozone. Hispanics had a strong negative correlation with ambient ozone, but a less consistent positive relationship with ambient particulate matter. Given the legacy conditions endured by minority racial and ethnic groups, and the relative lack of mobility of all the groups, our findings suggest the existence of environmental inequities in the Phoenix metropolitan region. The methodology developed in this study is generalizable with other pollutants to provide a multi-scaled perspective of environmental justice issues.

  3. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  4. Improving fossil fuel emissions scenarios with urban ecosystem studies: A case study in the Salt Lake-Ogden metropolitan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; Dudley-Murphy, E. A.; Emmi, P. C.; Forster, C. B.; Mills, J. I.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Peterson, T. R.

    2005-05-01

    Scenarios of the future trajectory of fossil fuel emissions have been generated at the global scale using assumptions about regional to global economic growth and demography. A limitation to this approach is the mismatch in scale between local geographical, cultural, and economic factors that influence patterns of energy and fuel use and their impact on global emissions. However, resolving mismatches between local and global processes has been successfully addressed in other aspects of carbon cycle science, such as natural sources and sinks of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. We propose a similar approach for reducing uncertainty in fossil fuel emissions scenarios with process-level studies of the factors underlying emissions at the local scale. We initiated a project to apply a whole ecosystem framework to the study of CO2 emissions in a rapidly urbanizing region in the United States. Our goal was to quantify both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of urban ecosystem function that determined net CO2 emissions from the major sectors in the Salt Lake-Ogden metropolitan region, an area characterized by good historical records, a highly seasonal climate, and a rapid rate of both population growth and urban expansion. We analyzed the strong linkages between energy use and climate in the region with data from the local utilities. We also applied a linked land use- transportation framework that quantified interactions between urban development and emissions from the transportation sector. These processes were captured in a systems dynamics model of urban ecosystem function that incorporated stakeholder involvement in model development using a mediated modeling approach. The model was validated with direct measurements of CO2 fluxes by eddy covariance and attribution of local CO2 concentrations to fuel types using stable isotopes. The model may be used to evaluate possible consequences of policy levers such as changes in urban developmental densities, acceleration of

  5. Improving fossil fuel emissions scenarios with urban ecosystem studies: A case study in the Salt Lake-Ogden metropolitan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; Dudley-Murphy, E. A.; Emmi, P. C.; Forster, C. B.; Mills, J. I.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Peterson, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    Scenarios of the future trajectory of fossil fuel emissions have been generated at the global scale using assumptions about regional to global economic growth and demography. A limitation to this approach is the mismatch in scale between local geographical, cultural, and economic factors that influence patterns of energy and fuel use and their impact on global emissions. However, resolving mismatches between local and global processes has been successfully addressed in other aspects of carbon cycle science, such as natural sources and sinks of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. We propose a similar approach for reducing uncertainty in fossil fuel emissions scenarios with process-level studies of the factors underlying emissions at the local scale. We initiated a project to apply a whole ecosystem framework to the study of CO2 emissions in a rapidly urbanizing region in the United States. Our goal was to quantify both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of urban ecosystem function that determined net CO2 emissions from the major sectors in the Salt Lake-Ogden metropolitan region, an area characterized by good historical records, a highly seasonal climate, and a rapid rate of both population growth and urban expansion. We analyzed the strong linkages between energy use and climate in the region with data from the local utilities. We also applied a linked land use- transportation framework that quantified interactions between urban development and emissions from the transportation sector. These processes were captured in a systems dynamics model of urban ecosystem function that incorporated stakeholder involvement in model development using a mediated modeling approach. The model was validated with direct measurements of CO2 fluxes by eddy covariance and attribution of local CO2 concentrations to fuel types using stable isotopes. The model may be used to evaluate possible consequences of policy levers such as changes in urban developmental densities, acceleration of

  6. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions

    PubMed Central

    de André, Paulo Afonso; Veras, Mariana Matera; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur) was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 µm, [PM2.5]). This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1) the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2) the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years) method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies. PMID:22760904

  7. The Prominence of Colleges and Universities in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Regional Report. Summary 09-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Denis M.; Marshall, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boston metropolitan area is recognized by many for its concentration of prestigious private colleges and universities. The metropolitan area is home to over 80 private colleges and universities employing 68,600 people and attracting over 360,000 students from all over the world. This report uses employment and wage data from the Bureau of…

  8. Climate change projections over three metropolitan regions in Southeast Brazil using the non-hydrostatic Eta regional climate model at 5-km resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyra, Andre; Tavares, Priscila; Chou, Sin Chan; Sueiro, Gustavo; Dereczynski, Claudine; Sondermann, Marcely; Silva, Adan; Marengo, José; Giarolla, Angélica

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this work is to assess changes in three metropolitan regions of Southeast Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Santos) based on the projections produced by the Eta Regional Climate Model (RCM) at very high spatial resolution, 5 km. The region, which is densely populated and extremely active economically, is frequently affected by intense rainfall events that trigger floods and landslides during the austral summer. The analyses are carried out for the period between 1961 and 2100. The 5-km simulations are results from a second downscaling nesting in the HadGEM2-ES RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations. Prior to the assessment of the projections, the higher resolution simulations were evaluated for the historical period (1961-1990). The comparison between the 5-km and the coarser driver model simulations shows that the spatial patterns of precipitation and temperature of the 5-km Eta simulations are in good agreement with the observations. The simulated frequency distribution of the precipitation and temperature extremes from the 5-km Eta RCM is consistent with the observed structure and extreme values. Projections of future climate change using the 5-km Eta runs show stronger warming in the region, primarily during the summer season, while precipitation is strongly reduced. Projected temperature extremes show widespread heating with maximum temperatures increasing by approximately 9 °C in the three metropolitan regions by the end of the century in the RCP8.5 scenario. A trend of drier climate is also projected using indices based on daily precipitation, which reaches annual rainfall reductions of more than 50 % in the state of Rio de Janeiro and between 40 and 45 % in São Paulo and Santos. The magnitude of these changes has negative implications to the population health conditions, energy security, and economy.

  9. The mortality effect of ship-related fine particulate matter in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Cope, Martin E; Goldsworthy, Brett; Goldsworthy, Laurie; Emmerson, Kathryn; Jegasothy, Edward; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the mortality effect of primary and secondary PM2.5 related to ship exhaust in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of Australia. A detailed inventory of ship exhaust emissions was used to model a) the 2010/11 concentration of ship-related PM2.5 across the region, and b) the reduction in PM2.5 concentration that would occur if ships used distillate fuel with a 0.1% sulfur content at berth or within 300 km of Sydney. The annual loss of life attributable to 2010/11 levels of ship-related PM2.5 and the improvement in survival associated with use of low-sulfur fuel were estimated from the modelled concentrations. In 2010/11, approximately 1.9% of the region-wide annual average population weighted-mean concentration of all natural and human-made PM2.5 was attributable to ship exhaust, and up to 9.4% at suburbs close to ports. An estimated 220 years of life were lost by people who died in 2010/11 as a result of ship exhaust-related exposure (95% CIβ: 140-290, where CIβ is the uncertainty in the concentration-response coefficient only). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth would reduce the population weighted-mean concentration of PM2.5 related to ship exhaust by 25% and result in a gain of 390 life-years over a twenty year period (95% CIβ: 260-520). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel within 300 km of Sydney would reduce the concentration by 56% and result in a gain of 920 life-years over twenty years (95% CIβ: 600-1200). Ship exhaust is an important source of human exposure to PM2.5 in the Sydney greater metropolitan region. This assessment supports intervention to reduce ship emissions in the GMR. Local strategies to limit the sulfur content of fuel would reduce exposure and will become increasingly beneficial as the shipping industry expands. A requirement for use of 0.1% sulfur fuel by ships within 300 km of Sydney would provide more than twice the mortality benefit of a requirement for ships to use 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth.

  10. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  11. [Primary healthcare: a multidimensional study on challenges and potential in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SP, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Heimann, Luiza Sterman; Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Telesi Júnior, Emilio; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Fausto, Márcia Cristina Rodrigues; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; Kayano, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents some results of a case study in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (SP, Brazil) as part of a multicentric study conducted in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The aim is to evaluate Primary Health Care (PHC) as a strategy to achieve integrated and universal healthcare systems. The methodological approach was based on five analytical dimensions: stewardship capability; financing; provision; comprehensiveness and intersectoral approach. The techniques included literature review, document analysis and interviews with key informants: policy makers; managers, experts, users and professionals. The results were organized in response to the challenges and possibilities of PHC as a structural system according to the five dimensions. The following emerged from the interviews: different interpretations on the concept and role of PHC and a consensus as the gateway to the system; weaknesses in funding; challenges in health workforce administration and the need for new legal-institutional design for regional management. The potential aspects were: broader coverage/universality, PHC as the basis for the organization of the system; connection with the territory and understanding specific population needs.

  12. Development of an Anthropogenic Soil Moisture Contribution Module in the NOAH-UCM for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the current research we address critical deficiencies in the coupled Noah-SLUCM (single layer urban canopy model), including representation of anthropogenic moisture sources in irrigated urban areas. The improved model is being used to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of water and energy cycling in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Work includes development of a high spatial (30 m) and temporal (1 hr) resolution Noah-SLUCM coupled model over a range of urban development. An irrigation scheme based on soil moisture deficit is developed to account for anthropogenic soil moisture contribution in highly watered landscapes, testing a range of temporal applications. Remotely sensed products (MODIS and Landsat), residential water consumption data from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), and in situ observations through the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) are utilized to improve model parameters and validate outputs. Surface meteorological fields, such as land surface temperature and evapotranspiration, are significantly improved when the developed irrigation module is used. Increased soil moisture results in a maximum decrease of 7 degrees in land surface temperature and a 10-20% increase in evapotranspiration rates in irrigated landscapes across the study domain. Ultimately, project results will contribute to the exploration of interactions among the components of the Earth system and improve our understanding and prediction of climate variability and change in regional urban systems.

  13. [Retrospective assessment of laboratory surveillance for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from adults of the Metropolitan Region (Chile): 2000-2006].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Aurora; Seoane, Mabel; San Martín, Oriana; Hormazábal, Juan C; Lagos, Rosanna

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the performance of the national norm for laboratory surveillance of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults of the Metropolitan Region (Chile). Material and Methods. We reviewed all notifications of isolates from patients > 15 years of age received by the Institute of Public Health of Chile during the period 2000-2006, submitted by health care facilities of the study region. We also reviewed the original records of sterile fluid cultures, in 14 public adult hospitals. Results. We found documentation of 1429 invasive S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from adult patients, including 1095 reported and 334 not-reported isolates. A 33% under-reporting rate was estimated for the 14 hospitals where local laboratory records were inspected. Age and clinical diagnosis were omitted in 23% and 78% of the notifications, respectively. Among 303 isolates from patients > 65 years of age that were investigated with Quellung reaction, 235 (78%) had capsular serotypes represented in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. Conclusions. The Ministry of Health of Chile announced implementation of 23-valent vaccine immunization program for the elderly. In the perspective of future evaluations of the impact of this intervention, the results of this study indicate the need of reinforcing adherence and improving the quality of notifications of invasive S. pneumoniae.

  14. [Differences in food consumption associated with ethnic group and acculturation in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Huaiquiñir, Valeska; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2009-12-01

    In order to identify differences in the food consumption and expenditure habits of Mapuches according to their ethnic group as consumers as well as their degree of acculturation, a personal survey was conducted on 400 people stratified by ethnic group in four districts of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. The empirical results showed that habits regarding the consumption of food groups included in the Family Budget Survey did not present any significant differences depending on the consumer's ethnic group, although the monthly expenditure on food is lower in Mapuche households. The ethnic origin and degree of acculturation in Mapuches are only significantly associated with the consumption of mate (herbal infusion) and food in restaurants. Mapuches maintain both food practices belonging to their traditional culture as well as foods incorporated more recently, such as mate. The degree of acculturation is significantly associated with the consumption of these foods; bi-cultural Mapuches present a higher probability of consuming a greater range of traditional foods than accultured Mapuches.

  15. Analysis of smoke cessation rate and profile of former smokers living in Belo Horizonte and Metropolitan Region

    PubMed Central

    Claudino, Luana Maria Oliveira; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the smoking cessation rate and to identify possible associated factors. Methods: Individuals from the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MG) aged 15 years or more who responded to the smoking supplement of the National Household Sample Survey were selected (n=1,297). An estimate was made of the tobacco-use cessation rate relative to the 95% confidence interval. To verify factors associated with smoking cessation, Pearson's χ2 test or Student's t test were used. Results: The general smoking cessation rate was 56.7% (95% confidence interval: 52.3-61.1), with 57.7% among men and 55.5% among women. The associated factors were higher age and income. Among the 19 individuals who had stopped smoking for less than 12 months, 52.6% had been seen by a physician or healthcare professional in the previous 12 months, and 60% of them were oriented to stop smoking, but only 1 (16.7%) had been oriented at a unit of the public national Unified Healthcare System. Conclusion: Despite high rates of smoking cessation, the methods made available by the Unified Healthcare System did not show good results. It is necessary to enhance the healthcare programs that aim to reduce the proportion of smokers in the population. Such measures can have a positive long-term influence in droping mortality and morbidity rates associated with smoking and the costs for healthcare services. PMID:24728252

  16. Thermal discomfort and hypertension in bus drivers and chargers in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Assunção, Ada Ávila

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between perception of temperature inside the bus and hypertension among 1126 collective transportation workers in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Thermal discomfort was determined based on the perception of temperature inside the bus. Hypertension was determined if participant had a medical diagnosis of this disease. Prevalence ratios (PR) for hypertension and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were adjusted using multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The perceptions of temperature inside the bus were tolerable (26.5%), disturbs a little (28.6%), disturbs a lot (34.8%) and unbearable (10.2%). The prevalence of hypertension was 14.3%. The thermal discomfort categories of disturbs a lot (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.02-1.95) and unbearable (PR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.16-2.63) were independently related to hypertension. Thermal discomfort was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. This finding should be considerate in new policies for public transportation.

  17. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ishibe, Takeo; Kimura, Hisanori; Honda, Ryou

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), which consists of about 300 seismic stations, since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region(Hirata et al., 2009). Using MeSO-net data, we obtain P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the hypocenter distribution (Ishida, 1992). Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we constructed a petrologic model. The Vp steps in subducting Izu forearc crust occurs at a depth of 30km (blueschist or greenschist to garnet amphibolite transformation) and a depth of 50km (garnet amphibolite to eclogite transformation). Both temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 600 degree C, respectively. The high Vp/Vs anomaly (>1.9) implies large amounts of fluid H2O released by garnet amphibolite to eclogite dehydration reactions. This study is supported by MEXT Japan under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters.

  18. [Descriptive study of homophobia and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of the transvestites in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Patricia Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Oscar Cardoso; de Sá, Janilson Barros

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to ascertain the vulnerabilities to HIV/Aids of transvestites of the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method was selected for data collection. Among the 110 transvestites, high indices of homophobia were found in locations such as: security services, work facilities, family and religious environments, neighborhood, school, stores, leisure spaces, and healthcare services. Among the situations of violence experienced, the predominant cases involved verbal aggression (81.8%) and physical aggression (68.2%). The HIV test carried out at some stage in their lives was reported by 84.4% of the subjects. A high level of knowledge of the forms of HIV prevention and transmission was detected. The majority of the transvestites began their sexual activity before 15 years of age without condom use. It was seen that in the context of the HIV/Aids epidemic, the strategies for health promotion can only be effective if factors for enhancing the understanding of the vulnerability to HIV/Aids, such as homophobia, are considered.

  19. Education, Demand, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan; Berube, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This report examines education gaps and industry demand in the nation's 100 largest metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas are a natural unit of analysis given that they offer the best approximation of a regional labor market. Moreover, the wide variation in metropolitan area economic performance, as documented by the Brookings MetroMonitor…

  20. Photochemical smog pollution in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region of Thailand in relation to O 3 precursor concentrations and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.-N.; Kim Oanh, N. T.

    Analysis of photochemical pollution was done using the available 5-yr monitoring data (1996-2000) from 11 monitoring stations in Bangkok and 5 stations in other surrounding provinces, i.e. the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Status and trend of O 3 as well as the monthly and diurnal variations were analyzed in relation to the local meteorological conditions as well as the regional transport of pollutants associated with the monsoon. The O 3 in Bangkok was found to be typical for the polluted urban areas with a lower concentration in the city center, especially at curbside stations, and higher concentration at the downwind locations. O 3 pollution was highest in 1997 with the maximum hourly average of 370 ppbv and the total hours exceeding the national hourly O 3 standard (100 ppbv) of 314 h, which is most likely related to the strong El Niño and the forest fire in Southeast Asia in this year. Meteorology-unadjusted trend shows a slight increase in O 3 from 1998 to 2000. Local emission and photochemistry are mainly responsible for O 3 episodes in the BMR. Seasonal fluctuations of O 3, however, were found to relate to the regional transport associated with the Asian monsoon. Highest O 3 pollution was found in the period from January to April (winter and local summer) and lowest during mid-rainy season, August. The O 3 increase isopleth diagram was constructed which shows that O 3 production in BMR is effective when the NO x/NMHC ratio is in the range of 0.04-0.15 with optimum ratio of around 0.07. Seasonal variations in NO x/NMHC ratios are consistent with the O 3 variations, i.e., optimum in summer (0.07), followed by winter (0.05), and the lowest in rainy season (0.03).

  1. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, A. P.; Snyder, D. C.; Stone, E. A.; Schauer, J. J.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Molina, L. T.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; de Foy, B.

    2009-01-01

    In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March 2006. Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows: i) urban site; PHg=187±300 pg m-3, RGM=62±64 pg m-3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m-3, and; ii) rural site; GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m-3. Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM), and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg+RGM) were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  2. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, A. P.; Snyder, D. C.; Stone, E. A.; Schauer, J. J.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Molina, L. T.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; de Foy, B.

    2008-07-01

    In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March, 2006. Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows: i) Urban site: PHg=187±300 pg m-3, RGM=62±64 pg m-3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m-3. ii) Rural site: GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m-3. Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM), and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg and RGM) were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  3. Customer Relationship Management: A Case Study from a Metropolitan Campus of a Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Edward R.; Owens, Alison; Yaghi, Shazhi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the users and uses of a centralised customer relationship management (CRM) system at a regional Australian university to improve the understanding of the staff experience of interacting with this customised technology. How and why the software is used by a cross section of university departments is explored through…

  4. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.

    2002-12-01

    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  5. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  6. Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters and their climatic effects for three metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, George

    By using both high-resolution orthoimagery and medium-resolution Landsat satellite imagery with other geospatial information, several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for three geographically distinct urban areas in the United States Seattle, Washington, Tampa Bay, Florida, and Las Vegas, Nevada, are obtained. Percent impervious surface is used to quantitatively define the spatial extent and development density of urban land use. Land surface temperatures were retrieved by using a single band algorithm that processes both thermal infrared satellite data and total atmospheric water vapor content. Land surface temperatures were analyzed for different land use and land cover categories in the three regions. The heterogeneity of urban land surface and associated spatial extents were shown to influence surface thermal conditions because of the removal of vegetative cover, the introduction of non-transpiring surfaces, and the reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces. Fifty years of in situ climate data were integrated to assess regional climatic conditions. The spatial structure of surface heating influenced by landscape characteristics has a profound influence on regional climate conditions, especially through urban heat island effects.

  7. Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters and their climatic effects for three metropolitan regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, George

    2008-01-01

    By using both high-resolution orthoimagery and medium-resolution Landsat satellite imagery with other geospatial information, several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for three geographically distinct urban areas in the United States – Seattle, Washington, Tampa Bay, Florida, and Las Vegas, Nevada, are obtained. Percent impervious surface is used to quantitatively define the spatial extent and development density of urban land use. Land surface temperatures were retrieved by using a single band algorithm that processes both thermal infrared satellite data and total atmospheric water vapor content. Land surface temperatures were analyzed for different land use and land cover categories in the three regions. The heterogeneity of urban land surface and associated spatial extents were shown to influence surface thermal conditions because of the removal of vegetative cover, the introduction of non-transpiring surfaces, and the reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces. Fifty years of in situ climate data were integrated to assess regional climatic conditions. The spatial structure of surface heating influenced by landscape characteristics has a profound influence on regional climate conditions, especially through urban heat island effects.

  8. Near-Field Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis of Metropolitan Tehran Using Region-Specific Directivity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Azad; Nicknam, Ahmad; Dadras, Ehsan Yousefi; Eftekhari, Seyed Nasrollah

    2017-01-01

    Ground motions are affected by directivity effects at near-fault regions which result in low-frequency cycle pulses at the beginning of the velocity time history. The directivity features of near-fault ground motions can lead to significant increase in the risk of earthquake-induced damage on engineering structures. The ordinary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) does not take into account such effects; recent studies have thus proposed new frameworks to incorporate directivity effects in PSHA. The objective of this study is to develop the seismic hazard mapping of Tehran City according to near-fault PSHA procedure for different return periods. To this end, the directivity models required in the modified PSHA were developed based on a database of the simulated ground motions. The simulated database was used in this study because there are no recorded near-fault data in the region to derive purely empirically based pulse prediction models. The results show that the directivity effects can significantly affect the estimate of regional seismic hazard.

  9. Human albumin use at hospitals in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, Guacira Corrêa de; Rozenfeld, Suely; Martins, Monica

    2010-05-01

    The study analyzes the use of human albumin in hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using inpatient data from the information system of Brazil's health system between 1999 and 2001. Death was the main outcome as patients died in 32% of admissions in which human albumin was used as compared with 4% of all admissions in the same period and region. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was included for risk adjustment. Human albumin was used in 10,111 in-patients more than 1 year old. 87,774 50-ml bottles of 20% human albumin were consumed at a cost of US$ 1,755. The main diagnoses were neoplasms (29.1%), diseases of the digestive system (17.5%) and circulatory system (16%). Death rate increased with age, public ownership of the hospital, clinical services (as opposed to surgical services), length of stay and use of intensive care. Death was associated with use of more than four bottles of human albumin (PR: 1.30; 99%CI: 1.23-1.37), adjusted for severity and speciality. The results are cause for concern as they may be related to poor compliance with guidelines, excess of risk to patients and unnecessary expenses for the public health system.

  10. Climate Science for Decision-Making in the New York Metropolitan Region. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Radley; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William; Bader, Daniel; Sohl, Linda

    2016-01-01

    New York City is one of the world's most vulnerable cities to coastal flooding, due to a high concentration of population and assets near a coastline exposed to warm-season tropical storms and cold -season Nor'easter storms. Among U.S. cities, New York City is second only to New Orleans in population living less than 4 ft above the local high tide. By the 2050s, average annual losses due to coastal flooding alone could exceed $2 billion for the combined New York City-Newark region. Perhaps the most iconic example of a vulnerable New York City asset is the financial district located at the southern tip of Manhattan, however low-lying coastal assets include the full complement of major highways, subways and tunnels, hospitals, schools, wastewater treatment plants, food distribution centers, and people's homes. Given the magnitude of the assets at risk, a compelling case can be made that long-term adaptation makes economic sense for New York City. Given New York's access to economic, human, and technological resources for resilience measures, the City may be able to achieve this resilience. The city's political environment-New York City is a place where climate science is generally not a partisan issue-and the city's experience with uncertainty and overall risk framing (e.g., financing of bond issues for multi-billion dollar infrastructure with multidecade expected lifetimes), encourage climate risk framing.

  11. Coastal Flood Risks in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand: Combined Impacts of Land Subsidence, Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duangyiwa, C.; Yu, D.; Wilby, R.; Aobpaet, A.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the fast-changing climatic and anthropogenic conditions at coastal regions, many coastal mega-cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to internal and external risks. The risk is particularly high for low-lying coastal cities in developing nations, with Southeast Asia recognized as a hotspot of vulnerability due to the increasing population density, rapid change of natural landscape associated with urbanization and intensified hydrological and atmospheric conditions at the coastal front in an uncertain climate future. The Bangkok Metropolitan Region is one of the largest coastal megacities in Southeast Asia that are challenged by the potential impacts due to climate change and anthropological variability in the coming decades. Climate-related risks in this region are associated with its relatively low-lying nature of the terrain and adjacency to the coast. Coastal inundation due to high tides from the sea occurs annually in the area close to the seashore. This is set to increase given a projected rising sea level and the sinking landscape due to groundwater extraction and urbanization. The aim of this research is, therefore, to evaluate the vulnerability of the city to sea level rise, land subsidence and storm surge. Distributed land subsidence rate, projected sea level rise and existing structural features such as flood defences are taken into account. The 2011 flood in Thailand is used as a baseline event. Scenarios were designed with projections of land subsidence and sea level rise to 2050s, 2080s, and 2100s. A two-dimensional flood inundation model (FloodMap, Yu and Lane 2006) is used to derive inundation depth and velocity associated with each scenario. The impacts of coastal flood risk on critical infrastructures (e.g. power supply, transportation network, rescue centers, hospitals, schools and key government buildings) are evaluated (e.g. Figure 1). Results suggest progressively increase but non-linear risks of coastal flooding to key coastal

  12. The High School "Space Race": Implications of a School-Choice Market Environment for a Michigan Metropolitan Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Metzger, Scott Alan; Bowers, Alex J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the implications of competition between school districts in a mid-Michigan metropolitan area. Over the 10-year period after Michigan's major school-funding reform in 1994, many urban and suburban districts found themselves competing for per-pupil state funding. Suburban districts need extra students to make up budgetary…

  13. Chemical composition of the major components of PM in different sites at the Metropolitan Region of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Castillo, M. A.; Rubio, M.; Gramsch, E.; Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago, Chile's capital is one of most polluted megacity (5.5 million of people) of the world. Currently, PM2.5 annual concentration is over 2.2 times the Chilean standard (20 μg/m3). Continuous measurements of non-refractory PM1.0 (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organics aerosols), black carbon, and PM2,5 mass concentration were determined using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research, Inc), absorption coefficient monitor (SIMCA, Santiago University) and dustrack monitor (TSI Inc) in order to know the temporal variability of the major components of PM. The measurements were carried out at kerbside, urban background, industrial and mixed residential/industrial locations during year 2012 and -2013. Meteorological data (Relative Humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and precipitations) were obtained from the air quality network operated by the environmental authority. The results show strong correlation with the metropolitan region major sources. Multiple regression analysis indicates that precipitations have a strong impact on PM1.0 soluble components; relative humidity has effects only on chloride, sulfate and black carbon. Chloride concentration decrease when temperature is increasing. The perceptual contribution of each component is similar among all sites. All sites shows that OA (Organics Aerosol) as the major constituent of PM1.0 (>50%), followed of nitrates (>13%). Sulfate could be used to differentiate the industrial site; due to there is a strong impact of SO2 emission. Combustion sources direct impact can be seen at BC contribution at industrial and kerbside site. Also, the OA/BC ratio shows slow value at kerbside (3.05) and industrial (3.26) site, and higher at urban background site (4.15). Aged organics aerosols are majority found at all sites (f43/f44 plot), indicating that regional background is strong in all results. These results will be compared with size distribution measurements available from previous

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Foreign-born South Asians in the Metropolitan New York/New Jersey Region.

    PubMed

    Manne, Sharon; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine; Ulpe, Rajiv; Sorice, Kristen

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine colorectal cancer (CRC) screening practices and factors associated with CRC screening among foreign-born South Asians living in the metropolitan New York-New Jersey area. Two hundred and eight men and women recruited from community settings in the New York and New Jersey metropolitan area completed a questionnaire that included demographics, CRC screening practices, health care access and practices, attitudes about the health care system, primary care physician support for CRC screening, cultural factors, and attitudes about CRC screening and CRC worry. Almost a third of the sample had not heard of any of CRC screening tests. Approximately 62 % of the sample had never had a CRC screening test and approximately 69 % of the sample was not currently on schedule with regard to CRC screening. When the relative contribution of significant correlates were evaluated, participants who had lived in the US for a longer time, who endorsed more CRC screening benefits, and who endorsed fewer CRC screening barriers were significantly more likely to have had CRC screening in the past. Participants who were more likely to use English in their daily life, who endorsed more CRC screening benefits, and endorsed fewer CRC screening barriers were more likely to be on schedule with regard to CRC screening. In conclusion, awareness of CRC screening and uptake of screening was low in this population of foreign-born South Asians. Interventions to promote CRC screening may benefit from targeting this subgroup of Asian Americans.

  15. Agricultural and green infrastructures: the role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco; Privitera, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented.

  16. Using multitemporal Landsat imagery to monitor and model the influences of landscape pattern on urban expansion in a metropolitan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yetao; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen; Chen, Chao; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Studying the interaction between landscape patterns and temporal land-use changes in a metropolitan area can improve understanding of the urbanization process. Multitemporal remote sensing imagery is widely used to map the urbanization-caused temporal land-use dynamics, which mainly appear as built-up growth. Remote sensing integrated with landscape metrics is also used to quantitatively describe the landscape pattern of the urban area in recent literature. However, few studies have focused on the interaction between the pattern and the process of urbanization in a metropolitan area. We propose a grid-based framework to analyze the influence of the landscape pattern on the built-up growth by using the multitemporal Landsat imagery. Remote sensing classification method is used to obtain thematic land-use maps. Built-up growth is then extracted from the multitemporal classification results by a postclassification change detection. Landscape pattern, which is quantitatively described by landscape metrics, is derived from the thematic land-use maps. A grid-based method is used to analyze the spatial variation of landscape pattern and its related built-up growth. Finally, the spatial relationship between the landscape pattern and the built-up growth characters is assessed and modeled by using the mathematical regression method. The present study shows that an apparent correlation between landscape pattern and built-up growth exists. The correlation reflects the inherent influences of landscape pattern on urban expansion. The landscape pattern indicates the land development stage, while the urbanization stage determines the speed and style of the following built-up growth. Scales, including temporal scale and spatial scale, are important to modeling the landscape pattern effects on the built-up growth. The proposed analysis framework is efficient in detecting and modeling the landscape pattern effects on the built-up growth.

  17. Interannual variability of a precipitation gradient along the semi-arid catchment areas for the metropolitan region of Lima- Peru in relation to atmospheric circulation at the mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Marco; Seidel, Jochen; Trachte, Katja

    2013-04-01

    The main moisture source for precipitation on the western slopes of the Central Andes is located east of the mountain range known as the Amazon basin. However, the Andean mountains, which reach up to 6000 m a.s.l., strongly influence climatic conditions along the Pacific coastline of South America as a climatic barrier for the low-level tropospheric flow and associated moisture transport from the Amazon basin. Additional, large scale subsidence caused by the South Pacific High inhabits convective rainfall at the Pacific coast where large metropolitan areas such as the Peruvian capital Lima are located. Two contrasts in precipitation can be found while crossing the Andean mountains from West to East. On the Pacific coast, at the location of the metropolitan area of Lima, no more than 10 mm mean annual rainfall occurs. In contrast, up to 1000 mm mean annual rainfall occur only 100 km east of Lima within the upper region (4000 m .a.s.l.) of the Western Cordillera. The transition takes place along the western slopes of the Western Cordillera and is characterised by a strong precipitation gradient. Here, catchment areas are located that provide most of the water resources needed to sustain an urban area of approximately 10 million people. This study investigates the interannual variability of the precipitation gradient between 1998 and 2012. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data of 22 rain gauge station, daily rainfall data of the Tropical Rainfall Mission (TRMM 3B42) at 0.25 degrees and reanalysis data at 36 km spatial resolution at the mesoscale. The reanalysis data was produced using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Station data was provided by the Peruvian weather service during the project "Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management in Urban Growth Centres Coping with Climate Change - Concepts for Lima Metropolitana (Peru) (LiWa)", which is financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). We are interested in the

  18. Effectiveness in the use of natural gas for the reduction of atmospheric emissions: case study--industrial sector in the metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, Roberto M; Galecio, Javier I; Salim, José A

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the potential of natural gas to reduce emissions from stationary combustion sources by analyzing the case study of the metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile. For such purposes, referential base scenarios have been defined that represent with and without natural gas settings. The method to be applied is an emission estimate based on emission factors. The results for this case study reveal that stationary combustion sources that replaced their fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions by 61%, sulfur oxides (SOx) by 91%, nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 40%, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) by 10%. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced by 1%. As a result of this emission reduction, in addition to reductions caused by other factors, such as a shift to cleaner fuels other than natural gas, technological improvements, and sources which are not operative, emission reduction goals set forth by the environmental authorities were broadly exceeded.

  19. Influence of urban form on landscape pattern and connectivity in metropolitan regions: a comparative case study of Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Hepcan, Çiğdem C; Hepcan, Şerif; Cook, Edward A

    2014-10-01

    Although ecological connectivity conservation in urban areas has recently been recognized as an important issue, less is known about its relationship to urban form and landscape pattern. This study investigates how urban morphology influences regional ecosystem pattern and landscape connectivity. Two metropolitan landscapes, Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey, were compared, both of which are fast-growing regions in their national context. A wide range of variables were considered for identifying natural and urban properties. The natural characteristics include typology of urban ecosystems, urban to natural cover ratio, dominant habitat type, urban biodiversity, landscape context, and connectivity conservation efforts. Urban parameters examine urban form, urban extent, urban cover proportion, growth rate, populations, urban gradient, major drivers of urbanization, urban density, and mode/approach of urban development. Twelve landscape metrics were measured and compared across the natural patches. Results show that there is little difference in landscape connectivity in the rural zones of Phoenix and Izmir, although Phoenix has slightly higher connectivity values. The connectivity variance in urbanized areas, however, is significantly dependent on the region. For example, Phoenix urban zones have substantially lower connectivity than either urban or suburban zones in Izmir. Findings demonstrate that small and compact urban settlements with more dense populations are more likely to conserve landscape connectivity compared to multiple-concentric but amalgamated urban form spreading all over the landscape (aka urban sprawl).

  20. Environmental inducers of schistosomiasis mansoni in Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anaruma Filho, Francisco; Sant'Ana, João Moreno; dos Santos, Rozely Ferreira; Castagna, Cláudio Luiz

    2010-11-01

    Human occupation/activity in the suburbs of the large cities in Brazil, together with high social vulnerability associated with poor living conditions, influence the dynamics of schistosomiasis mansoni as well as several other emerging and re-emerging diseases. Previous notification data surveys for Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil, carried out by the Information System for Notification Disease, show that there are distinct prevalence differences across healthcare districts of the city. This paper supports the hypothesis that the distribution of schistosomiasis is not random and that the centralized location of cases are linked to human behaviour, in particular to human activities that interfere with basic landscape structure. This paper analyzes the spatial patterns of the parasitic worm Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate host Biomphalaria comparing disease prevalence with natural conditions and the current pattern of territory occupation by the population. The spatial and hierarchical distribution of factors related to the environmental conditions and land use that indicate the risk for schistosomiasis has been surveyed. It was found that landscape characteristics define the areas at risk for this endemic disease and, as a result, a risk map comprising different risk classes was established. This risk map highlights the regions prone to become new foci for infection or that serves to maintain an existing focus. The research approach used attempts to introduce "geotechnology", i.e. a social application in which better knowledge about these foci, designated endemic "hot spots" can assist preventive public intervention measures in a way that is inexpensive and easy to handle.

  1. [Perception of the zoonosis and responsible pet care by the parents from public schools kindergarten located at metropolitan region of Recife, northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Maria Alves; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Lira, Nadja Maria Silva de

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this research was to examine parents' perception of the zoonosis and responsible pet care, observing their level of knowledge and awareness about the theme. A convenience sample of 64 parents from two kindergarten schools located at Metropolitan Region of Recife, Pernambuco State, was surveyed using a perception questionnaire. Findings indicate that 71.8 % didn't know the meaning of the term zoonosis, but 16% recognize at least one type of the disease. Diseases transmitted from animals to humans were associated to the way of transmission, as physical contact between animal and man, bite wound disease, fecal contamination of water, food with cysts or eggs of nematodes, skin penetration of nematodes, and also the arthropod borne disease. The major pet health care reported was rabies vaccine (92.2%), anthelmintic therapy (76.6%), and pet care provide by a veterinarian (82.8%). However, 23.4% of the parents had some knowledge about the zoonotic infections transmitted by dogs and cats feces. The parent's awareness not only about the risks about the diseases transmitted from animals to humans but also the responsible pet care, constitute a important tool to reduce risk of zoonosis transmission.

  2. [Do vitamins from foods fortified exceed the allowed limits? Study carried out in population young adolescent and young adult of the metropolitan region of Chile].

    PubMed

    Freixas Sepúlveda, Alejandra; Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Gaete Verdugo, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the usual consumption of vitamins in an adolescent population and young adult in the Metropolitan Region, were 213 food fortified with vitamins of the Chilean market. A survey of consumption and nutrient intake was calculated. The result added vitamins added to food. The normality of the variables of the intake was assessed and data were subjected to analysis of descriptive statisticians and percentiles are determined. Estimated percentages of subjects whose values exceed those fixed for DDR and UL listed for each vitamin and percentage of excess for each case. Discriminant analysis was performed using the M Box test. The correlation canonical and the Statisticians Wilks were estimated. Finally it was estimated the percentage of correctly classified data. Data were processed by the program SPSS 20.0 with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. The results indicate that you for all the studied vitamins, the percentage of subjects who more than the DDR is for total folate (96.4%) and the lowest percentage is given for the vitamin E and B12 in young adult women. The percentage of subjects who exceed the UL values is greatest for the vitamin B3 (91.9%). According to the canonical correlation, there are differences in behavior between the groups. It is recommended to monitor the behavior and consumption of food fortified with vitamins, especially of the complex B and A.

  3. SEROPREVALENCE OF NINE LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVARS IN WILD CARNIVORES, UNGULATES, AND PRIMATES FROM A ZOO POPULATION IN A METROPOLITAN REGION OF CHILE.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Beas, Eduardo; Abalos, Pedro; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel

    2015-12-01

    Serum samples from 130 individuals representing 42 species of carnivores, ungulates, and primates from a population of captive mammals in Metropolitan Region in Chile were tested for antibodies against nine serovars of Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test. Ten percent of the animals were seropositive to one or more serovars. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in ungulates (20.4%) compared to carnivores (3.8%) and primates (3.4%). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence among sex and age ranges. The most frequent serovar detected was Autumnalis, present in 53.4% of antibody-positive animals. Most positive animals had titers of ≤1 : 200, except for a maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) with titers of 1 : 400 against serovar Hardjo. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Leptospira exposure detected in native endangered pudu ( Pudu puda ) and the first confirmation of exposure to L. interrogans in captive wild mammals in Chile. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in future disease presentation for hepatitis or abortions in captive mammals in Chile.

  4. Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters for analysis of the climate effect of urbanization in various metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, G.

    This study investigates the impact of urban land use and land cover LULC changes on regional scale climate conditions By using both high resolution orthoimagery and medium resolution Landsat satellite imagery together with other geographic information several LULC parameters are obtained and utilized to determine LULC conditions and land surface thermal characteristics Impervious surface area ISA is used to quantitatively define urban spatial extent and development densities Fractional vegetation cover f c information is estimated from NDVI-based models and regression tree algorithms Surface temperatures T s are analyzed for different LULC categories to evaluate surface thermal forcing and surface energy balance for the regions Three geographically distinct urban areas---Seattle Tampa Bay and Las Vegas in the United States---serve as the focus of this study The effects of land surface heterogeneity and associated spatial and temporal changes on surface heat fluxes are calculated using satellite and ground meteorological data to evaluate possible anthropogenic influences Changes in land surface properties are shown to influence surface energy and moisture budgets because of the removal of vegetation cover the introduction of non-transpiring surfaces and reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces Fifty years of ground climate observation data and over 20-years of surface LULC information are integrated to assess regional climate condition and LULC changes for the study areas The spatial structure of surface

  5. Evaluating the environmental performance of urban parks in Mediterranean cities: an example from the Barcelona metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    Parés-Franzi, Marc; Saurí-Pujol, David; Domene, Elena

    2006-11-01

    In a context of increasing urban sprawl and water scarcity common to other Mediterranean cities, this article focuses on the urban parks in the Region of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) to examine how these parks are distributed in this region and to assess whether their design and management follow criteria adapted to Mediterranean environmental conditions, especially in what concerns water use. In order to evaluate the environmental performance of these parks, we selected four factors possibly influencing the adoption of park management practices at the local scale: urban density, population size of the municipality, municipal income per capita, and political orientation of the city council. After determining the location and area of urban parks in the region, we correlated these four explanatory factors with several management tasks extracted from two different samples of parks (one of 315 parks and another of 125 parks) and a survey of 86 city councils. Results show that, in general, urban parks were more frequent in large, dense, and left/green municipalities but that environmentally sound practices were more common in small and low-density municipalities. We conclude that changes in certain practices (especially the substitution of high water demanding species) could improve significantly the environmental performance of public spaces in large urban areas with Mediterranean climates. Our observations may be pertinent for other cities interested in the provision of environmental public goods such as parks that necessitate water for irrigation.

  6. Association of the occurrence of Brazilian spotted fever and Atlantic rain forest fragmentation in the São Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scinachi, Claudia A; Takeda, Gabriela A C G; Mucci, Luís Filipe; Pinter, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. In the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) it is transmitted by Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. In this region, annual lethality of the disease can reach 80% and spatial occurrence depends on environmental factors and more particularly on the presence and interaction of domestic and wild carnivores as well as the presence and characteristics of the remnant Atlantic Rain Forest patches. This study analyzed the association between forest fragmentation and its influence on the risk of occurrence of the disease in the human population. Domestic dogs tested for R. rickettsii antibodies in nine different areas under the influence of different patterns of Rain Forest fragmented landscapes and human occupancy. Landscape metrics were obtained by analyzing satellite images and high-resolution orthophotos. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine among the different landscape variables the one that could best explain the data variance, and the results were tested against canine seroprevalence in order to address disease occurrence risk levels. From 270 canine samples, the seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 37%. PCA showed an inverse correlation between functionally connected large forest patches and the canine seroprevalence for R. rickettsii (p=0.030; Spearman's R=-0.683), while there was a positive correlation between forest border effect and canine seroprevalence (p=0.037; Spearman's R=- 0.909). The further attributed disease occurrence risk level supported the real spatial prevalence of the disease reported for the last eight years (p=0.023; Spearman's R=0.63). The results suggest an important relation of deforestation and fragmentation with the occurrence of BSF in the SPMR.

  7. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae) of Serra da Cantareira, Greater São Paulo Metropolitan region, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moschin, José Carlos; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Sei, Iole Arumi; Galati, Eunice A B

    2013-03-01

    Human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been recorded in Serra da Cantareira, in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Region, where two conservation units are situated, the Parque Estadual da Cantareira and the Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. The present study aimed to identify the sandfly fauna and some of its ecological aspects in these two parks and their surrounding area to investigate Leishmania sp. vectors. The captures were undertaken monthly from January to December 2009, from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m., with automatic light traps installed in forests and peridomicile areas and with modified black/white Shannon traps in the peridomicile. A total of 12 species and 5,436 sandflies were captured: with automatic light traps (141), Shannon traps (5,219) and attempting to bite the researchers while they were conducting the collection in Shannon traps (76). Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei were the most abundant species. Pi. fischeri predominated in all three kinds of captures (49%, 88.8% and 65.8%, respectively). Mg. migonei was the second most prevalent in Shannon traps (10.0%) and attempting to bite the researchers (22.4%). Pi. fischeri females were significantly more attracted to black and those of Mg. migonei to white Shannon traps. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the numbers of Pi. fischeri and the mean of minimum relative humidity values on the fifteen days prior to capture, while there was a negative and significant correlation between the relative humidity on the capture day and the two most abundant species. The anthropophilia and high frequencies of Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei suggest that both species may be transmitting ACL agents in this region.

  8. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2016-01-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern. PMID:27594931

  9. Remote sensing of land use changes in US metropolitan regions: Techniques of analysis and opportunities for application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A graphic description is given of the Census Cities ERTS experiment in urban change detection using remote sensors. The relationship or model between land use data from sensors and socio-demographic data from the census is partly demonstrated. The example suggests how knowledge of land use changes acquired by sensors can be used to make estimates of population, and other attributes. The feasibility of nationwide mapping of land use, and land use changes, by direct computer classification of ERTS-1 multispectral digital data is also demonstrated. Potential applications in state and regional planning are many, and some are named. But the longer-range gains are likely to be improved understanding by legislators, managers and voters as to what it is that makes the country tick. One of the specific tasks could be the allocation of revenues to be shared.

  10. Interactions between urban vegetation and surface urban heat islands: a case study in the Boston metropolitan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melaas, Eli K.; Wang, Jonathan A.; Miller, David L.; Friedl, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    Many studies have used thermal data from remote sensing to characterize how land use and surface properties modify the climate of cities. However, relatively few studies have examined the impact of elevated temperature on ecophysiological processes in urban areas. In this paper, we use time series of Landsat data to characterize and quantify how geographic variation in Boston’s surface urban heat island (SUHI) affects the growing season of vegetation in and around the city, and explore how the quality and character of vegetation patches in Boston affect local heat island intensity. Results from this analysis show strong coupling between Boston’s SUHI and vegetation phenology at the scale of both individual landscape units and for the region as a whole, with significant detectable signatures in both surface temperature and growing season length extending 15 km from Boston’s urban core. On average, land surface temperatures were about 7 °C warmer and the growing season was 18-22 days longer in Boston relative to adjacent rural areas. Within Boston’s urban core, patterns of temperature and timing of phenology in areas with higher vegetation amounts (e.g., parks) were similar to those in adjacent rural areas, suggesting that vegetation patches provide an important ecosystem service that offsets the urban heat island at local scales. Local relationships between phenology and temperature were affected by the intensity of urban land use surrounding vegetation patches and possibly by the presence of exotic tree species that are common in urban areas. Results from this analysis show how species composition, land cover configuration, and vegetation patch sizes jointly influence the nature and magnitude of coupling between vegetation phenology and SUHIs, and demonstrate that urban vegetation provides a significant ecosystem service in cities by decreasing the local intensity of SUHIs.

  11. Green and cool roofs to mitigate urban heat island effects in the Chicago metropolitan area: evaluation with a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Conry, P.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Hellmann, J. J.; Chen, F.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of urban heat islands (UHIs) have a substantial bearing on the sustainability of cities and environs. This paper examines the efficacy of green and cool roofs as potential UHI mitigation strategies to make cities more resilient against UHI. We have employed the urbanized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (uWRF) model at high (1 km) resolution with physically-based rooftop parameterization schemes (conventional, green and cool), a first-time application to the Chicago metropolitan area. We simulated a hot summer period (16-18 August 2013) and assessed (i) UHI reductions for different urban landuse with green/cool roofs, (ii) the interaction of lake breeze and UHI, and (iii) diurnal boundary layer dynamics. The performance of uWRF was evaluated using sensible heat flux and air temperature measurements from an urban mini-field campaign. The simulated roof surface energy balance captured the energy distribution with respective rooftop algorithms. Results showed that daytime roof temperature reduced and varied linearly with increasing green roof fractions, from less than 1 °C for the case of 25% green roof to ˜3 °C during peak daytime for 100% green roof. Diurnal transitions from land to lake breeze and vice versa had a substantial impact on the daytime cycle of roof surface UHI, which had a 3-4 hour lag in comparison to 2 m UHI. Green and cool roofs reduced horizontal and vertical wind speeds and affected lower atmosphere dynamics, including reduced vertical mixing, lower boundary layer depth, and weaker convective rolls. The lowered wind speeds and vertical mixing during daytime led to stagnation of air near the surface, potentially causing air quality issues. The selection of green and cool roofs for UHI mitigation should therefore carefully consider the competing feedbacks. The new results for regional land-lake circulations and boundary layer dynamics from this study may be extended to other urbanized areas, particularly to coastal

  12. Testing and Contrasting Road Safety Education, Deterrence, and Social Capital Theories: A Sociological Approach to the Understanding of Male Drink-Driving in Chile’s Metropolitan Region

    PubMed Central

    Nazif, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Three theories offer different explanations to the understanding of male drink-driving. In order to test road safety education, deterrence, and social capital theories, logistic regression analysis was applied to predict respondents’ statements of having or not having engaged in actual drink-driving (DD). Variable for road safety education theory was whether a driver had graduated from a professional driving school or not. Deterrence theory was operationalized with a variable of whether a driver had been issued a traffic ticket or not. Social capital theory was operationalized with two variables, having children or not and having religion identification or not. Since both variables ‘years of formal education’ and ‘years of driving experience’ have been reported to be correlated to alcohol consumption and DD respectively, these were introduced as controls. In order to assess the significance of each variable statistically, Wald tests were applied in seven models. Results indicate on the one hand that road safety education variable is not statistically significant; and on the other, deterrence theory variable and social capital theory variable ‘having children’ were both statistically significant at the level of .01. Findings are discussed in reference to Chile’s context. Data were taken from the “Road Users Attitudes and Behaviors towards Traffic Safety” survey from the National Commission of Road Safety of the Government of Chile (2005). The sample size was reported to be 2,118 (N of male drivers was 396). This survey was representative of Chile’s Metropolitan Region road users' population. PMID:22105406

  13. Photochemical smog modeling for assessment of potential impacts of different management strategies on air quality of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Zhang, Baoning

    2004-10-01

    A photochemical smog model system, the Variable-Grid Urban Airshed Model/Systems Applications International Mesoscale Model (UAM-V/SAIMM), was used to investigate photochemical pollution in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). The model system was first applied to simulate a historical photochemical smog episode of two days (January 13-14, 1997) using the 1997 anthropogenic emission database available at the Pollution Control Department and an estimated biogenic emission. The output 1-hr ozone (O3) for BMR, however, did not meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency suggested performance criteria. The simulated minimum and maximum O3 values in the domain were much higher than the observations. Multiple model runs with different precursor emission reduction scenarios showed that the best model performance with the simulated 1-hr O3 meeting all the criteria was obtained when the volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission from mobile source reduced by 50% and carbon monoxide by 20% from the original database. Various combinations of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in Bangkok and surrounding provinces were simulated to assess the contribution of different sources to O3 pollution in the city. O3 formation in Bangkok was found to be more VOC-sensitive than NOx-sensitive. To attain the Thailand ambient air quality standard for 1-hr O3 of 100 ppb, VOC emission in BMR should be reduced by 50-60%. Management strategies considered in the scenario study consist of Stage I, Stage II vapor control, replacement of two-stroke by four-stroke motorcycles, 100% compressed natural gas bus, 100% natural gas-fired power plants, and replacement of methyltertiarybutylether by ethanol as an additive for gasoline.

  14. Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and PM 2.5: A case study of benzo(a)pyrene in California metropolitan regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobscheid, Agnes B.; McKone, Thomas E.; Vallero, Daniel A.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter (PM) are co-pollutants emitted as by-products of combustion processes. Convincing evidence exists for PAHs as a primary toxic component of fine PM (PM 2.5). Because PM 2.5 is listed by the US EPA as a "Criteria Pollutant", it is monitored regularly at sites nationwide. In contrast, very limited data is available on measured ambient air concentrations of PAHs. However, between 1999 and 2001, ambient air concentrations of PM 2.5 and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are available for California locations. We use multivariate linear regression models (MLRMs) to predict ambient air levels of BaP in four air basins based on reported PM 2.5 concentrations and spatial, temporal and meteorological variables as variates. We obtain an R2 ranging from 0.57 to 0.72 among these basins. Significant variables ( p<0.05) include the average daily PM 2.5 concentration, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity, and the coastal distance as well as season, and holiday or weekend. Combining the data from all sites and using only these variables to estimate ambient BaP levels, we obtain an R2 of 0.55. These R2-values, combined with analysis of the residual error and cross validation using the PRESS-statistic, demonstrate the potential of our method to estimate reported outdoor air PAH exposure levels in metropolitan regions. These MLRMs provide a first step towards relating outdoor ambient PM 2.5 and PAH concentrations for epidemiological studies when PAH measurements are unavailable, or limited in spatial coverage, based on publicly available meteorological and PM 2.5 data.

  15. Prevalence of pneumococcal bacteremia among children <36 months of age presenting with moderate fever to pediatric emergency rooms of the Metropolitan Region (Santiago), Chile.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Rosanna M; Muñoz, Alma E; Levine, Myron M

    2006-01-01

    Blood culture collection from outpatients < age 36 months with high fever (>40 degrees C, rectal) became a standard of ambulatory care in Emergency Rooms (ERs) of the government Children's Hospitals in Chile's Metropolitan Region (MR) in 1999; thereafter, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence doubled over preceding years' estimates limited to hospitalizations. We studied IPD among children with moderate (>39 degrees C but <40 degrees C, rectal) rather than high fever visiting Pediatric ERs. Recruitment ensued Monday to Friday, 1-5 PM, September 1, 2002 through August 31, 2003. Age <36 months; rectal temperature >39 degrees but <40 degrees C; outpatient management; parental consent for hemoculture were inclusion criteria. Thirteen-thousand five hundred seventy-seven children < age 36 months with moderate and 3,214 children with high fever sought ER care. Of 1,134 moderate fever children seen in ERs during the enrollment, parents of 837 consented (73.8%). During these days and hours, 714 children < age 36 months presented with high fever and 651 (91.2%) had a "routine" blood culture. Pneumococcemia was detected among 0.7% with moderate and 1.2% with high fever (6/837 vs 8/651, p > 0.05). Extrapolating these rates to all ER outpatients < age 36 months with moderate and high fever, we estimate the true burden as 95 and 39 cases, respectively. The burden of pediatric IPD in the MR is currently underestimated because bacteremias among ER outpatients with moderate fever are not detected. If blood cultures were systematically collected from outpatients with moderate fever, recorded pediatric IPD burden would rise >2-fold. However, economic and logistical constraints preclude such a practice.

  16. Epidemiology of bee stings in Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected from the database of the Injury Notification Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results A total of 459 bee sting cases were retrospectively analyzed. The average annual incidence was 19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases were distributed in all months of the year, with higher prevalence in September and February. Most victims were men aged between 20 and 29 years. The highest incidence of cases was recorded in urban areas. Victims were stung mainly on the head and torso and received medical assistance predominantly 1 to 3 hours after being stung. The most frequent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and itching. Most cases were classified as mild, and three deaths were reported. Conclusions The high incidence of envenomations provoked by bees in Campina Grande suggests that it may be an important risk area for accidents. Since several medical records lacked information, clinical-epidemiological profile of bee sting cases in the studied region could not be accurately determined. The current study provides relevant data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to improve their skills in recording clinical-epidemiological information as well as in treating bee sting victims. PMID:24694193

  17. Colleges and Universities in the New York Metropolitan Area: Rapid Growth in Employment and Wages. Regional Report. Summary 09-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcum, Emily

    2009-01-01

    When people think of New York, Wall Street and Broadway theaters come to mind most often but in fact the New York area is also a major center for higher education. Indeed, the New York metropolitan area is home to more than 240 private colleges and universities employing about 97,000 workers and attracting students and faculty from around the…

  18. Demodex phylloides infection in swine reared in a peri-urban family farm located on the outskirts of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bersano, Josete Garcia; Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Duarte, Fernanda Calvo; Del Fava, Claudia; de Oliveira, Sueli Moda; Filha, Elizabeth Spósito; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; de Castro Nassar, Alessandra Figueiredo; de Vasconcellos Bilynskyj, Maria Cristina; Ogata, Renato Akio; Sampaio, Paulo Henrique Selbmann; Genovez, Margareth Élide

    2016-10-30

    This paper reports the occurrence of porcine demodicosis caused by the mite Demodex phylloides in hogs reared in a peri-urban family farm located in Francisco Morato, a municipality of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, capital city of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In a parcel of forty Landrace - Large White cross hogs, approximately four months old, four animals presented severe skin lesions in the form of small nodules over their entire body, especially in the periocular region, snout, lower abdomen and flanks. Two hogs had to be euthanized for animal welfare reasons, which enabled post-mortem examination. Skin scrapings revealed eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults of D. phylloides. Purulent subcutaneous nodules with intense parasitic folliculitis and intense perifollicular inflammatory reaction were present. Enterobacteria and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from the skin pustules. Necropsy revealed milk spotted liver, enteritis and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes. Protozoa (Eimeria spp. and Balantidium sp.), helminth eggs (Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis and strongyles) and Brachyspira spp. were found in faeces. Staphylococcus spp. and enterobacteria were isolated from internal organs. All remaining hogs were treated with ivermectin at a daily oral dose of 0.45g/kg of feed, during seven days. Fifteen days after treatment, remission of symptoms was observed in the surviving animals with demodicosis; absence of mites was confirmed by skin scraping examinations. The hogs were reared under poor environmental, nutritional and sanitary conditions, resulting in multimorbidity and immunosuppression. Severe clinical porcine demodicosis was triggered when the animals were castrated. Family pig farmers had been suffering economic losses due to the stunted growth of the herd. In addition to that, the lesions found on the skin and in the internal organs would result in condemnation of meat and viscera for human consumption. As part of a Public

  19. Study of the chemical composition of particulate matter from the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan region, Brazil, by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, Vinícius Lionel; Monteiro, Isabela Luizi Gonçalves; Rocha, Rafael Christian Chávez; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Gioda, Adriana

    2013-08-01

    Air quality in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro was evaluated by analysis of particulate matter (PM) in industrial (Santa Cruz) and rural (Seropédica) areas. Total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in filters over 24 h were quantified and their chemical composition determined. TSP exceeded Brazilian guidelines (80 μg m- 3) in Santa Cruz, while PM2.5 levels exceeded the World Health Organization guidelines (10 μg m- 3) in both locations. Filters were extracted with water and/or HNO3, and the concentrations of 20 elements, mostly metals, were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Water soluble inorganic anions were determined by ion chromatography (IC). To estimate the proportion of these elements extracted, a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1648a, Urban Dust) was subjected to the same extraction process. Concordant results were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP OES for most elements. Some elements could not be quantified by both techniques; the most appropriate technique was chosen in each case. The urban dust was also analyzed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) method, which employs a combination of hydrochloric and nitric acids for the extraction, but higher extraction efficiency was obtained when only nitric acid was employed. The US EPA method gave better results only for Sb. In the PM samples, the elements found in the highest average concentrations by ICP were Zn and Al (3-6 μg m- 3). The anions found in the highest average concentrations were SO42 - in PM2.5 (2-4 μg m- 3) and Cl- in TSP (2-6 μg m- 3). Principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with enrichment factors (EF) indicated industrial sources in PM2.5. Analysis of TSP suggested both anthropogenic and natural sources. In conclusion, this work contributes data on air quality, as well as a method for the analysis of PM samples by ICP-MS.

  20. Spatial variations in US poverty: beyond metropolitan and non-metropolitan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Kleit, Rachel Garshick; Cover, Jane; Fowler, Christopher S

    2012-01-01

    Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise. Given the number and concentration of poor people living in mixed-rural and rural counties in metropolitan regions, researchers and policy-makers need to pay more nuanced attention to the opportunities and constraints such individuals face. A cross-classification of the Office of Management and Budget’s metro system with a nuanced RUDC scheme is the most effective for revealing the geographical complexities of poverty within metropolitan areas.

  1. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  2. Policing Metropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor; And Others

    This study concerns police services delivery in small-to-medium sized metropolitan areas. It addresses three broad issues: the producers of police services, agency cooperation and service delivery, and agency size and service delivery. Each issue is treated in a separate chapter and includes a discussion of several related questions. The 80…

  3. Metropolitan area of Chicago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The metropolitan area of Chicago is encompassed in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package (EREP) S190-B photograph taken on September 18, 1973 from the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. The surrounding major cities of Aurora and Joliet, Illinois; Hammond, Gary and East Chicago, Indiana, are easily delineated.

  4. Metropolitan Approaches to Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before the May 1974 public hearings of the New York City Commission on Human Rights by the Director for the Center for National Policy Review, Catholic University Law School, notes that one barrier to the liberation of black people from a legally-sanctioned caste system is the racially segregated structure of metropolitan areas…

  5. [Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondini, Lenise; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Médici; Venâncio, Sonia Isoyama; de Azevedo Aguiar, Jeanice; Stefanini, Maria Lúcia Rosa

    2007-08-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3.54; CI: 2.16-5.80), high consumption of junk food (PR = 2.12; CI: 1.30-3.45), more than 4 hours a day watching TV (PR = 2.08; CI: 1.03-4.20), and daily household per capita availability of vegetal oil (around 3 tablespoons) (PR = 1.52; CI: 1.01-2.31). The family environment has a strong influence on overweight in children entering first grade in public schools. Prevention of childhood overweight should preferably target the parents and other caregivers.

  6. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in the city of Campina Grande, in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Teresa Nascimento; Santana, José Valfrido; Bragagnoli, Gérson; Marinho, Alexandre Magno da Nóbrega; Malagueño, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear need to perform epidemiological studies to find the true prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica around the world. The evaluation of this prevalence has been hindered by the existence of two different species which are morphologically identical, but genetically different, namely E. histolytica, which causes amebiasis, and E. dispar, which is non-pathogenic. In Brazil, the E. dispar has been detected in communities in the Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) regions with poor sanitation. However, individuals infected with E. histolytica have been identified in other regions. There is an absence of reports on the prevalence of these parasites in the state of Paraíba, which also has areas with poor sanitary conditions where a high prevalence of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex has been detected in children from urban slums. The present study evaluated the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar in 1,195 asymptomatic children between two and 10 years of age, living in a sprawling urban slum in Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba, in Northeastern Brazil. These children were examined and their feces samples were analyzed microscopically. A total of 553 children tested positive for the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex, and 456 of the positive samples were tested with the E. histolytica II® ELISA kit. All 456 samples were negative for the presence of the adhesin E. histolytica specific antigen. The evidence suggests that in this community E. histolytica is absent and E. dispar is the dominant species.

  7. The Geographic Scale of Metropolitan Racial Segregation

    PubMed Central

    REARDON, SEAN F.; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.; O’SULLIVAN, DAVID; LEE, BARRETT A.; FIREBAUGH, GLENN; FARRELL, CHAD R.; BISCHOFF, KENDRA

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional “aspatial” segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales. PMID:18939658

  8. The Principal in Metropolitan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A., Ed.; Reller, Theodore L., Ed.

    This collection of articles is designed to help metropolitan school principals meet the challenges of their positions. It is especially concerned with how principals can contribute to effective education for students of markedly heterogenous backgrounds. The authors deal with such issues as the principalship and metropolitan administration, the…

  9. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Roberto Damian Pacheco; Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite; de Castro, Rosane Silvestre; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Viral conjunctivitis is a common, highly contagious disease that is often caused by an adenovirus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis by analyzing data from a prospective clinical study of 122 consecutively enrolled patients who were treated at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) after a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis between November 2011 and June 2012. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate all cases of clinically diagnosed infectious conjunctivitis and based on the laboratory findings, the prevalence of adenoviral infections was determined. The incidence of subepithelial corneal infiltrates was also investigated. RESULTS: Of the 122 patients with acute infectious conjunctivitis included, 72 had positive polymerase chain reaction results for adenoviruses and 17 patients developed subepithelial corneal infiltrates (13.93%). CONCLUSIONS: The polymerase chain reaction revealed that the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis was 59% in all patients who presented with a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis from November 2011 to June 2012. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in the study population was similar to its prevalence in other regions of the world. PMID:26602522

  10. Thermal bioclimate in idealized urban street canyons in Campinas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu-Harbich, Loyde V.; Labaki, Lucila C.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Among several urban design parameters, the height-to-width ratio (H/W) and orientation are important parameters strongly affecting thermal conditions in cities. This paper quantifies changes in thermal comfort due to typical urban canyon configurations in Campinas, Brazil, and presents urban guidelines concerning H/W ratios and green spaces to adapt urban climate change. The study focuses on thermal comfort issues of humans in urban areas and performs evaluation in terms of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), based on long-term data. Meteorological data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation over a 7-year period (2003-2010) were used. A 3D street canyon model was designed with RayMan Pro software to simulate the influence of urban configuration on urban thermal climate. The following configurations and setups were used. The model canyon was 500 m in length, with widths 9, 21, and 44 m. Its height varied in steps of 2.5 m, from 5 to 40 m. The canyon could be rotated in steps of 15°. The results show that urban design parameters such as width, height, and orientation modify thermal conditions within street canyons. A northeast-southwest orientation can reduce PET during daytime more than other scenarios. Forestry management and green areas are recommended to promote shade on pedestrian areas and on façades, and to improve bioclimate thermal stress, in particular for H/W ratio less than 0.5. The method and results can be applied by architects and urban planners interested in developing responsive guidelines for urban climate issues.

  11. The metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R; Gondo, C T

    1984-08-01

    This discussion of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil focuses on: administrative divisions; diversity and population growth; households, fertility, and mortality; migration; ethnicity, race, and religion; housing; transport; labor and income; and consumption. Currently, the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, or Greater Sao Paula, is considered the 2nd largest urban agglomeration in Latin America after Mexico City. An estimated 9.5 million people live within the 583 square mile area of the central city. Another 5 million people live in 1 of the 36 other municipalities included in the metropolitan area which includes all 37 municipalities. Central city refers to the municipalities of Sao Paulo and Osasco. The city of Sao Paulo refers only to the municipality of Sao Paulo. The metropolitan area contains 3110 square miles in total and is still the smallest of the 11 administrative regions that comprise the State of Sao Paulo. The population, urban infrastructure, and economic activities are unevenly spread among the 37 municipalities. Greater Sao Paulo's population grew an average of 4.5 year during the 1970, down slightly from a peak of 5.9 year in the 1950s. The central city has a current growth rate of 3.7, a year, with the increase concentrated mainly in the southern and eastern districts that are removed from the city center and where land prices are still relatively low. Mortality plays a minor role in the population trends of Sao Paulo. Fertility is now slowly becoming the dominant factors in its natural increase. The average number of children a woman will bear is 3.3 in the metropolitan area and 3 in the city, low compared with the Brazilian national average of 4.2 children. According to a 1978 survey, 60% of the women use some form of birth control. The most common methods are oral contraceptives 27%, and sterilization, 15%. Despite declining fertility, the birthrate of the metropolitan area increased from 26 in 1970 to 30 in 1980 because of the changes

  12. Demographic Perspectives on Metropolitan School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    School segregation is part of the cause and part of the effect of the metropolitan racial crisis. Metropolitan area school desegregation is a necessary element of any concerted attack on the complex of metropolitan racial problems. School desegregation is not, however, sufficient by itself. The author of this paper discusses metropolitan school…

  13. [Traffic accidents: a qualitative approach from Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Marcos S; Oliveira, Patrícia C P

    2002-01-01

    This article takes an interdisciplinary qualitative approach to the problem of traffic accidents in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The authors begin by analyzing the "municipalization" (i.e., decentralization to the municipal level) of transport and traffic management in Campinas based on social representations by members of the local government's technical staff. Data demonstrate a significant drop in traffic accident mortality in Campinas in the last ten years. The findings illustrate how new transport and traffic policies had several positive effects. Special attention is given to the objectives, strategies, and obstacles dealt with by local government in the "municipalization" of traffic. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for specific public policies to revitalize urban mass transportation, including special traffic safety educational programs.

  14. Influence of local and regional sources on the observed spatial and temporal variability of size resolved atmospheric aerosol mass concentrations and water-soluble species in the Athens metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Ochsenkuhn, Klaus M.; Lymperopoulou, Theopisti; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Razos, Panayiotis; Ochsenkuhn-Petropoulou, Maria

    2014-11-01

    The variability of common aerosol species in large Metropolitan urban areas is a major air quality issue with strong health impacts of large populations. PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter samples were obtained at three sites characteristic of industrial, urban traffic and sub-urban residential areas in the Athens basin. Samples were analysed for anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+) using ion chromatography. The spatial and temporal variability for the particulate matter (PM) concentration mass and water-soluble ionic species concentrations for the investigated sites were studied. Mean PM fine concentration levels were 20% higher at the industrial and the central urban areas compared to those in the suburban area (24.2 μg/m3). The mean values for the coarse fraction at those two sites were two to three times higher compared to those at the suburban site (12.4 μg/m3). Comparable concentration levels of most species were observed in all areas, while SO42- and NO3- differ at a significant level. Furthermore, the average size distributions of the mass and individual ions at the suburban site (NCSR Demokritos) showed a bimodal size distribution. SO42- and NH4+ have their main peak in the fine fraction while NO3- showed equal distribution on the fine and coarse mode.. Good correlation was found for SO42- and NO3- with Ca2+ and Na+ with Cl- for the coarse fraction in the industrial area. NH4+ was closely correlated with SO42- in the fine particles and in all areas. For the urban site the best correlations in coarse particulates were reported between Na+/Mg2+-Cl-, Ca2+/Mg2+-SO42-, explained by neutralization of acidic aerosol by soil dust and sea salt in the coarse fraction. Moreover, time weighted concentrations roses at the industrial and urban sites, showed no significant directional dependence, indicating either uniform generation of mainly the coarse species within the metropolitan area or major influence of the regional background for

  15. The Relative Roles of RONO2 and HNO3 as Sinks of NOX in the Denver Metropolitan Region and Colorado's Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of HNO3, total RONO2, NOX, and other relevant species, acquired during the DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPE field campaigns in the Northern Front Range of Colorado during July-August 2014, are used to assess our understanding of the relative roles of RONO2 and HNO3 formation as sinks of NOX. Although HNO3 production was dominant in the region, RONO2 production was often of order 1/3 of the NOX sink. As NOX emissions decrease, our results indicate RONO2­ chemistry will be increasingly important to descriptions of the chemistry in the region.

  16. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in.

  17. PREVALENCE OF Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar IN THE CITY OF CAMPINA GRANDE, IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Teresa Nascimento; Santana, José Valfrido; Bragagnoli, Gérson; Marinho, Alexandre Magno da Nóbrega; Malagueño, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear need to perform epidemiological studies to find the true prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica around the world. The evaluation of this prevalence has been hindered by the existence of two different species which are morphologically identical, but genetically different, namely E. histolytica, which causes amebiasis, and E. dispar, which is non-pathogenic. In Brazil, the E. dispar has been detected in communities in the Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) regions with poor sanitation. However, individuals infected with E. histolytica have been identified in other regions. There is an absence of reports on the prevalence of these parasites in the state of Paraíba, which also has areas with poor sanitary conditions where a high prevalence of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex has been detected in children from urban slums. The present study evaluated the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar in 1,195 asymptomatic children between two and 10 years of age, living in a sprawling urban slum in Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba, in Northeastern Brazil. These children were examined and their feces samples were analyzed microscopically. A total of 553 children tested positive for the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex, and 456 of the positive samples were tested with the E. histolytica II® ELISA kit. All 456 samples were negative for the presence of the adhesin E. histolytica specific antigen. The evidence suggests that in this community E. histolytica is absent and E. dispar is the dominant species. PMID:25229229

  18. Declining Black Access to College in Metropolitan Atlanta. Working Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Faith

    Examination of college enrollment in Atlanta, Georgia, showed the starkest contrasts between White gains and Black declines of any of the five metropolitan regions studied by the University of Chicago's Metropolitan Opportunity Project: while there were no declines in enrollment for White or Hispanic students, there were substantial declines for…

  19. Energy and the Transformation of a Metropolitan Landscape: Contrasting Contemporary and Future Settlement Geographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Donald J.

    Because of the rising real cost of energy, geographic patterns that have dominated the contemporary metropolitan landscape are in a state of change. A conceptual model of the contemporary and future metropolitan landscape is presented to stimulate thought about the changes which may evolve in the spatial organization of urban regions as the real…

  20. FALLS OF THE OHIO METROPOLITAN COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS LEADERSHIP ORIENTATION PROGRAM. DRAFT REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisville Univ., KY.

    IN SPRING 1967 THE FALLS OF THE OHIO METROPOLITAN COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS SPONSORED A 12-SESSION LEADERSHIP ORIENTATION PROGRAM TO PROVIDE CITIZENS OF THE LOUISVILLE STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA WITH BETTER KNOWLEDGE OF THE AREA, ITS REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, THE RAMIFICATIONS OF URBANIZATION, AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENTAL BODIES. A LETTER…

  1. Community-University Research Partnerships for Workers' and Environmental Health in Campinas Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Maria Ines; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Filho, Heleno Rodrigues Correa

    2011-01-01

    Three partnerships between the University of Campinas, community, and public health care services are discussed in this article. A theoretical framework underpins the critical reviews of their accomplishments following criteria proposed by scholars of community-university partnerships and community-based participatory research. The article…

  2. Do Latino and non-Latino grocery stores differ in the availability and affordability of healthy food items in a low-income, metropolitan region?

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Jennifer A; Madanat, Hala N; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare non-ethnically based supermarkets and Latino grocery stores (tiendas) in a lower-income region with regard to the availability, quality and cost of several healthy v. unhealthy food items. Design A cross-sectional study conducted by three independent observers to audit twenty-five grocery stores identified as the main source of groceries for 80% of Latino families enrolled in a childhood obesity study. Stores were classified as supermarkets and tiendas on the basis of key characteristics. Setting South San Diego County. Subjects Ten tiendas and fifteen supermarkets. Results Tiendas were smaller than supermarkets (five v. twelve aisles, P=0·003). Availability of fresh produce did not differ by store type; quality differed for one fruit item. Price per unit (pound or piece) was lower in tiendas for most fresh produce. The cost of meeting the US Department of Agriculture’s recommended weekly servings of produce based on an 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)/d diet was $US 3·00 lower in tiendas compared with supermarkets (P<0·001). The cost of 1 gallon of skimmed milk was significantly higher in tiendas ($US 3·29 v. $US 2·69; P=0·005) and lean (7% fat) ground beef was available in only one tienda (10 %) compared with ten (67 %) supermarkets (P=0·01). Conclusions Barriers remain in the ability to purchase healthier dairy and meat options in tiendas; the same is not true for produce. These results highlight the potential that tiendas have in improving access to quality, fresh produce within lower-income communities. However, efforts are needed to increase the access and affordability of healthy dairy and meat products. PMID:21733278

  3. Managing multihazards risk in metropolitan USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Comfort, Louise K.; Shanis, Donald S.

    2003-07-01

    This proposal outlines an action plan for risk management in the Delaware Valley Metropolitan Region. This plan is consistent with the goals for strengthening homeland security announced by President Bush, and is designed to complement efforts currently under development by Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency and Department of Health. This plan proposes the formation of a Delaware Valley Risk Management Consortium, representing the critical disciplines and organizations related to risk assessment and management. This group would have membership from academic institutions, government agencies, industry, and nonprofit organizations. This Consortium would develop a systemic scope of work with the appropriate recommendations for technology acquisition, development and integration with risk management policies and procedures. This scope of work would include the development of two related information systems for the Delaware Valley Region. The first would be a comprehensive 'health monitoring' system to assess the continuity of operations, which would use integrated remote sensing and imaging, information gathering, communication, computation, and, information processing and management over wide-area networks covering the entire metropolitan area. The second would use real-time information from the health monitoring system to support interactive communication, search and information exchange needed to coordinate action among the relevant agencies to mitigate risk, respond to hazards and manage its resources efficiently and effectively.

  4. Metropolitan population growth in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, K E

    1977-01-01

    A study or urban population growth in Arab countries has 3 objectives: 1) examination at the micro level of recent demographic trends in selected metropolitan areas of the Arab world and their relationship to changes in the total and urban populations in the respective countries; 2) estimation of net migration by sex and broad age groups for each metropolitan area; and 3) analysis of the pattern of variation in the metropolitan growth rates and their components, migration and natural increase. The study covers the cities proper or urban agglomerations, which includes the suburbs, whose population exceeded 100,000 in the most recent census. Altogether, the study covers 49 metropolitan areas from 9 Arab countries--Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt; Sudan; Syria; Iraq; and Kuwait. Analysis revealed that metropolitan growth rates do follow geographic patterns. In countries with an oil-based economy, metropolitan growth rates are high; in countries with unexploited resources they are slightly below the 1st group; and countries which have pressure on land have low metropolitan growth rates. Population size of the metropolitan area appears to be an important factor associated with variations in metropolitan growth rates and net migration rates. Natural increase emerges as the predominant factor in metropolitan growth, but the differentials in the growth rates are more clearly associated with variations in net migration rates. As all the possibilities of analysis of relationships of metropolitan growth have not been exhausted, it is proposed to examine additional variables as possible factors associated with the speed of metropolitan growth.

  5. Higher Education, The Health Care Industry, and Metropolitan Regional Economic Development: What Can "Eds & Meds" Do for the Economic Fortunes of a Metro Area's Residents? Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper No. 08-140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Erickcek, George

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of expansions in higher educational institutions and the medical service industry on the economic development of a metropolitan area. This examination pulls together previous research and provides some new empirical evidence. We provide quantitative evidence of the magnitude of economic effects of higher education…

  6. Sensitivity of the forecast skill to the combination of physical parameterizations in the WRF/Chem model: A study in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Junior, R. S.; Rocha, R. P.; Andrade, M. F.

    2007-05-01

    The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) is the region of the atmosphere that suffers the direct influence of surface processes and the evolution of their characteristics during the day is of great importance for the pollutants dispersion. The aim of the present work is to analyze the most efficient combination of PBL, cumulus convection and cloud microphysics parameterizations for the forecast of the vertical profile of wind speed over Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) that presents serious problems of atmospheric pollution. The model used was the WRF/Chem that was integrated for 48 h forecasts during one week of observational experiment that take place in the MRSP during October-November of 2006. The model domain has 72 x 48 grid points, with 18 km of resolution, centered in the MRSP. Considering a mixed-physics ensemble approach the forecasts used a combination of the parameterizations: (a) PBL the schemes of Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and Yonsei University Scheme (YSU); (b) cumulus convections schemes of Grell-Devenyi ensemble (GDE) and Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ); (c) cloud microphysics schemes of Purdue Lin (MPL) and NCEP 5-class (MPN). The combinations tested were the following: MYJ-BMJ-MPL, MYJ-BMJ-MPN, MYJ-GDE-MPL, MYJ-GDE-MPN, YSU-BMJ-MPL, YSU-BMJ-MPN, YSU-GDE-MPL, YSU-GDE-MPN, i.e., a set of 8 previsions for day. The model initial and boundary conditions was obtained of the AVN-NCEP model. Besides this data set, the MRSP observed soundings were used to verify the WRF results. The statistical analysis considered the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, mean error between forecasts and observed wind profiles. The results showed that the most suitable combination is the YSU-GDE-MPL. This can be associated to the GDE cumulus convection scheme, which takes into consideration the entrainment process in the clouds, and also the MPL scheme that considers a larger number of classes of water phase, including the ice and mixed phases. For PBL the YSU

  7. Positioning the Undervalued Metropolitan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herbert E.

    1993-01-01

    It is noted that "undervalued metropolitan universities," which generally have open enrollment, low tuition, and a large proportion of nontraditional students, often also have a diffuse and unclear public image. A model positioning concept for these institutions, used by Wright State University (Ohio) is proposed and described. (MSE)

  8. [City-laboratory: Campinas and yellow fever at the dawn of the Republican era].

    PubMed

    Martins, Valter

    2015-03-20

    In the late nineteenth century, there were yellow fever epidemics in Campinas. Considered a seaside disease, the fever startled lay people and physicians. The scientific debate about the etiology of the disease left the domain of magazines and medical correspondence to orient political and sanitary actions. In order to combat the disease, the city began to resemble a laboratory and experienced its "era of sanitation and demolition," with victories over the ailment and inconvenience to the public. The State Sanitary Commission led by Emilio Ribas, aware of Finlay's Culicidae theory, rehearsed in Campinas what would happen with Oswaldo Cruz and Pereira Passos in Rio de Janeiro. The novelty of combating mosquitoes coexisted with age-old practices dear to miasmatic theory, such as disinfection.

  9. [City-laboratory: Campinas and yellow fever at the dawn of the Republican era].

    PubMed

    Martins, Valter

    2015-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, there were yellow fever epidemics in Campinas. Considered a seaside disease, the fever startled lay people and physicians. The scientific debate about the etiology of the disease left the domain of magazines and medical correspondence to orient political and sanitary actions. In order to combat the disease, the city began to resemble a laboratory and experienced its "era of sanitation and demolition," with victories over the ailment and inconvenience to the public. The State Sanitary Commission led by Emilio Ribas, aware of Finlay's Culicidae theory, rehearsed in Campinas what would happen with Oswaldo Cruz and Pereira Passos in Rio de Janeiro. The novelty of combating mosquitoes coexisted with age-old practices dear to miasmatic theory, such as disinfection.

  10. [Care to the elderly in Campinas-SP: qualitative study of managers and politicians].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Déborah Cristina; Silva, Eliete Maria

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify, describe and analyze the practices carried out in the health of the elderly in the city of Campinas-SP, in the perspective of the health government representatives of the elderly, based on the National Policies. This is a qualitative study with thematic content analysis, from the perspective of individuals who assume strategic roles in the conduct of policy directed to the elderly in the county. Five central themes emerged from their comments: time and places; access conditions; population demands; human resources; health promotion and prevention of diseases and disorders; management. Health practices for the elderly health in Campinas-SP are in development, need to be evaluated, extended and systematized in both, the structural issues of human resources, finance and management, and in direct assistance to the elderly.

  11. Wild birds as pets in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil: an ethnozoological approach.

    PubMed

    Licarião, Morgana R; Bezerra, Dandara M M; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2013-03-01

    Birds are one of the animals most widely used by humans and are highly valued as pets. The present work reports the use of wild birds as pets in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State (PB), Brazil. The owners' choice and perceptions of the species ecology was assessed as well. The methodology employed included unstructured and semi-structured interviews, guided tours and direct observations. A total of 26 bird species distributed among ten families and four orders were identified. The most frequently encountered order was Passeriformes (76.9%), with a predominance of the family Emberizidae (34.6%). The specimens kept as pets were principally obtained in public markets or between the breeders themselves. The popularity of birds as pets, compounded by the inefficiency of official controls over the commerce of wild animals has stimulated the illegal capture and breeding of wild birds in Campina Grande.

  12. Ensino e divulgação de astronomia no Planetário de Campinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Projeto desenvolvido em 1981 por professores da Unicamp, sob a coordenação do Prof. Dr. Carlos Alfredo Argüello propunha a instalação de um Planetário em Campinas. Convênio firmado em 1982 entre a Unicamp, a Prefeitura de Campinas, a Funcamp e a Academia de Ciências do Estado de São Paulo, possibilitou a aquisição de um planetário Zeiss ZKP2, através do MEC, e em 28 de outubro de 1987 foi inaugurado o Planetário de Campinas. Desde então várias atividades de ensino e divulgação da Astronomia foram desenvolvidas regularmente. A verificação dos registros das atividades realizadas mostra um alto índice de atendimento, considerada a capacidade das instalações (sala de projeção para 60 pessoas, auditório com 45 poltronas e hall de exposições). As atividades dirigidas ao público, estudantes e professores, atenderam cerca de 400.000 participantes nos quase 16 anos de sua existência. Além de sessões públicas e escolares, com duração de 1 hora, são oferecidas às escolas vários outros tipos de atividades, com duração de 2,5 horas. Abordam diversos temas e são dirigidas a diferentes níveis de escolaridade. Cursos para o público e para professores, palestras, exposições e eventos especiais completam o quadro de atividades regulares. Mesmo enfrentando quase sempre dificuldades financeiras e administrativas verifica-se que o Planetário de Campinas realizou um trabalho quantitativamente e qualitativamente satisfatório, prestando bom serviços à comunidade de Campinas e de outras cidades de São Paulo e outros Estados. Isso é também atestado pela grande procura de reservas para suas atividades.

  13. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  14. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  15. Metropolitan Areas as Redistributors of Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Curtis C.; McHugh, Kevin E.

    This paper reports on a demographic study that focuses on the patterns of migration to and from specific metropolitan areas which contribute to nonmetropolitan growth and decline. For background, the paper examines some general properties of the United States migration system. Then the concept of metropolitan areas as redistributors of population…

  16. Where Is the Metropolitan U.S.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, Kimberly A.

    1987-01-01

    A Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) may be comprised of one or more counties, can cross state lines, and must contain a city or urbanized area of 50,000 or more people. The population of the whole county (or counties) is included in the MSA even if part of the county is rural. A Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) must have over…

  17. Schools, Housing, Jobs, Transportation: Interlocking Metropolitan Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, William G.

    In this paper the interrelationships among income, health, education, employment and crime in the nation's metropolitan areas are explored in the context of recent and current trends in housing, transportation and urban growth policy. The central role of inner city schools in these phenomena is assessed. Alternative metropolitan strategies for…

  18. Vaccination against influenza in the elderly: data from FIBRA, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-12-01

    The vaccine against influenza is the main preventative intervention in public health for this disease. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of influenza vaccination in senior citizens according to indicators for their functional capacity, frailty, social support and involvement and state of health. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Campinas in 2008-2009 (FIBRA network, Unicamp center) with a probability sampling of the elderly population(≥ 65 years old).The dependent variable was immunization against influenza in the twelve months prior to the research. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression analysis. Of the six hundred and seventy-nine senior citizens involved, 74.4% stated they had been vaccinated during the previous year. The prevalence of the vaccination was significantly higher among men and lower among those with a higher level of education. Slow gait speed is positively associated with immunization, as are most of the social involvement indicators. This can contribute towards improving immunization adherence against seasonal influenza and should be widely acknowledged in order to broaden immunization coverage in Campinas.

  19. Middle-term Metropolitan Water Availability Index Assessment Based on Synergistic Potentials of Multi-sensor Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of recent drought and water pollution episodes results in an acute need to project future water availability to assist water managers in water utility infrastructure management within many metropolitan regions. Separate drought and water quality indices previously deve...

  20. The Geography of Metropolitan Carbon Footprints

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Southworth, Frank; Sarzynski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The world s metropolitan carbon footprints have distinct geographies that are not well understood or recognized in debates about climate change, partly because data on greenhouse gas emissions is so inadequate. This article describes the results of the most comprehensive assessment of carbon footprints for major American metropolitan areasavailable to date, focusing on residential and transportation carbon emissions for the largest 100 metropolitan areas in the United States. These findings are put into the context of effortsacross the country and the globe to characterize carbon impacts and policy linkages.

  1. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  2. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  3. Difficult airway equipment: a survey of standards across metropolitan Perth.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, N; Flett, T; Hunt, V; Ramgolam, A; Reynolds, W; Hartley, K; Hegarty, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-09-01

    The importance of appropriate equipment to manage the difficult airway has been highlighted by the publication of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) guidelines in 2012. We set out to audit compliance with these guidelines in all public and private sites providing general anaesthesia in metropolitan Perth. Public and private health care websites identified 39 sites of which 37 were studied. Institutional and ethics approval was obtained. A tick-box design audit tool, based on the ANZCA guidelines, was used to collect information regarding the dedicated difficult airway container (DDAC) at each site. As recommended in the guidelines, only equipment within the DDAC was considered. Further data about each site, including the number of theatre suites, satellite anaesthetic areas, use of capnography and categories of patients treated (adult, obstetric and paediatric) were collected. An adult DDAC was found at 92% of all sites, but none of the sites had all the essential equipment listed in the ANZCA guidelines. There was limited provision of adult difficult airway equipment within private sites compared to public, and less provision of paediatric difficult airway equipment across all sites treating paediatric patients in metropolitan Perth. Capnography was available in 76% of post anaesthesia care units and used regularly in 27%. Adherence to the ANZCA guidelines regarding the DDAC could be improved. Standardised equipment across a metropolitan region would be of value in the management of the difficult airway.

  4. Prediction of Metropolitan Readiness Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The efficiency of several visual and auditory predictors of the Metropolitan Readiness Test was examined utilizing 106 grade 1 subjects considered by their teachers to show learning difficulties. (Author/JC)

  5. [Insomnia symptoms, daytime naps and physical leisure activities in the elderly: FIBRA Study Campinas].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Natália Tonon; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Coelim, Maria Filomena

    2014-04-01

    The practice of physical activities contributes to reducing the risk of chronic diseases and improves sleep patterns in the elderly. This research aimed to investigate the association between insomnia symptoms and daytime nap and the participation in physical leisure activities in elderly community residents. Data from the Studies Network of the Fragility in Brazilian Elderly (Campinas site), were used. Information from 689 elderly was analyzed, regarding sociodemographic characterization, physical leisure activity, occurrence of daytime napping and its duration, symptoms of insomnia and use of sleep medication. A significant association was found between the practice of walking and the daytime nap of short duration. Studies indicate that a short nap can benefit the quality of sleep and health of the elderly. Therefore, promoting the practice of walking can be a nursing intervention that favors the sleep patterns of the elderly.

  6. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  7. Acid aerosols in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, Thomas; Zelenka, Michael P.; Lawrence, Philip M.; Houston, Robert M.; Burton, Robert

    This article presents data on ambient concentrations of selected acidic aerosols at four existing monitoring sites in the Pittsburgh PA metropolitan area. The data were collected by staff of the Allegheny County Health Department, Division of Air Quality during the summer and fall of 1993. The sampling protocol was focused on obtaining 24 h-average ammonia, ammonium, acidic sulfates, and particle strong acids data on a 2 to 3 day cycle. The data were obtained using Harvard University School of Public Health's "Short-HEADS" annular denuder sampling train. The Pittsburgh area is of interest because it is downwind of a major regional source of sulfur and nitrogen emissions from coal-burning power plants: the Ohio River Valley. The data presented here indicate that ground-level concentrations of acidic aerosols in Pittsburgh are highly correlated spatially and that many pollutants are higher on days when ground-level wind direction vectors indicate that wind is coming from the southwest rather than from the Pittsburgh source area itself. The monitoring site that is most upwind of the Pittsburgh source area - South Fayette - has particle strong acid levels about twice those of sites closer in to the Pittsburgh central business district.

  8. Increased tornado hazard in large metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The tornado climate was compared between large metropolitan areas and neighbouring non-metro cities using modern tornado reports in the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) archives. Twenty large metro areas in the higher-risk region of the U.S. were used to boost sample sizes hence robustness of results. Observational biases were minimised by using the most densely populated zips. The analysis found 50% greater tornado frequency and a thicker-tailed severity distribution in metro areas compared to the non-metro cities. These differences are significant at the 1% level. Regarding tornado frequency, the primary question is whether the raised occurrence rates in metro areas are due to observation biases or real differences in tornado climate. Past studies found no relative biases at the population densities used here, whereas there are two potential urban drivers of tornadogenesis. First, the urban heat island raises the storm severity above and downwind of main urban areas, as recorded in precipitation and lightning datasets. Second, the increased surface roughness over metro areas raises low-level shear which in turn has been found to be favourable for tornadogenesis. Modification of convective storms over large metro areas is the more plausible explanation of raised tornado frequency. The drivers of a thicker-tailed tornado severity distribution in metro areas are less certain. Potential causes include: increased debris-loading in metro tornadoes; modification of storms' lower boundary layer by increased surface roughness in metro areas; the reduced density of damage indicators in non-metro cities.

  9. Meteorological and Chemical Urban Scale Modelling for Shanghai Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Amstrup, Bjarne; Yang, Xiaohua; Baklanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious problem in megacities and major industrial agglomerations of China. Therefore, air quality information is important for public. In particular, the Shanghai metropolitan area is well known as megacity having severe air pollution episodes. The Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) is applied for on-line integrated meteorology and atmospheric composition forecasting for the Shanghai region of China. The model setup includes the urban Building Effects Parameterization module, describing different types of urban districts with its own morphological and aerodynamical characteristics. The model is running in downscaling chain from regional-to-urban scales for selected periods in summer and winter having both elevated pollution levels as well as unfavorable meteorological conditions. For these periods, the effects of urbanization are analyzed for spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric and chemical/aerosols patterns. The formation and development of meteorological (air and surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, boundary layer height) and chemical/aerosol patterns (concentration and deposition) due to influence of the metropolitan area is evaluated. The impact of Shanghai region on regional-to-urban scales as well as relationship between air pollution and meteorology are estimated.

  10. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from RIAO/OPTILAS 2007 (Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21 26 October 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, Niklaus; Frejlich, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the 6th Ibero-American Conference on Optics and the 9th Latin-American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications (RIAO/OPTILAS'07) that was held in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21-26 October 2007. The RIAO/OPTILAS conferences are held every three years in Latino-American and Iberian countries and focus on senior and young researchers as well as students working in all areas of optics, mainly in these countries, but warmly welcoming participants from all over the world. The RIAO/OPTILAS'07 conference followed the one held in Venezuela in 2004 and precedes the next one already arranged to be held in Peru in 2010. The most active countries in the regions such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, Colombia and Venezuela have registered a large number of participants but other countries in the regions such as Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Portugal and Uruguay have also sent a representative number of participants. About 7% of the registered participants came from Europe, the USA and the Middle East. It was very stimulating to realize that about 44% of the accepted registered participants were students. An international committee was in charge of selecting the best student posters and ten students were awarded with prizes offered by organizations (SPIE, Wiley & Sons) and individuals. There were 7 plenary invited talks given by high quality researchers from Argentina, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico and Ukraine and 12 invited contributions from Brazil, Finland, Italy, Spain, UK and Uruguay. The Book of Abstracts recorded 471 communications divided into 15 different topics with 160 oral communications in three parallel sessions and 311 posters in two special sessions. We are particularly grateful to SPIE, OSA and ICTP who have provided us with important financial support mainly devoted to supporting the participation of students in this conference. We also acknowledge financial and organizational support from Brazilian federal

  11. A comparison of metropolitan and non-metropolitan employment characteristics: Indications of the size of non-metropolitan mobile communication services user classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The similarities and differences between areas inside and outside U.S. metropolitan areas were evaluated in terms of their commercial/industrial and government employment characteristics. The comparison focuses on the levels, shares, and composition of employment in the commercial/industrial and government sectors that represent potential classes of land mobile communications users. The major findings of the analysis are as follows: (1) non-metropolitan commercial/industrial user classes of land mobile communication services exist in significant numbers; (2) the compositions of non-metropolitan and metropolitan commercial/industrial user classes of land mobile communication services closely resemble each other; (3) non-metropolitan areas have significant levels of the government user classes that represent potential markets for land mobile communication services; and (4) non-metropolitan local governments have a significantly larger proportion of their employment in the primary user classes of private land mobile radio service than do metropolitan local governments.

  12. Magnitude M w in metropolitan France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Michel; Denieul, Marylin; Sèbe, Olivier; Delouis, Bertrand; Cansi, Yves; Schlupp, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    The recent seismicity catalogue of metropolitan France Sismicité Instrumentale de l'Hexagone (SI-Hex) covers the period 1962-2009. It is the outcome of a multipartner project conducted between 2010 and 2013. In this catalogue, moment magnitudes (M w) are mainly determined from short-period velocimetric records, the same records as those used by the Laboratoire de Détection Géophysique (LDG) for issuing local magnitudes (M L) since 1962. Two distinct procedures are used, whether M L-LDG is larger or smaller than 4. For M L-LDG >4, M w is computed by fitting the coda-wave amplitude on the raw records. Station corrections and regional properties of coda-wave attenuation are taken into account in the computations. For M L-LDG ≤4, M w is converted from M L-LDG through linear regression rules. In the smallest magnitude range M L-LDG <3.1, special attention is paid to the non-unity slope of the relation between the local magnitudes and M w. All M w determined during the SI-Hex project is calibrated according to reference M w of recent events. As for some small events, no M L-LDG has been determined; local magnitudes issued by other French networks or LDG duration magnitude (M D) are first converted into M L-LDG before applying the conversion rules. This paper shows how the different sources of information and the different magnitude ranges are combined in order to determine an unbiased set of M w for the whole 38,027 events of the catalogue.

  13. 36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, DECEMBER 1909. Aperture card 6611-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. History of the negotiations of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Alper, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    This work chronicles events leading to a recommendation that an agency be created by compact among Maryland, Virginia and the District of Columbia to provide a regional rail-transportation system. The body of text describes the process through which framers of the compact finally brought the recommendation to fruition. Many issues arose during the course of negotiations, but each was resolved satisfactorily, leading to a successful political instrument that has enabled the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority to design and construct a rapid-rail transit system for the metropolitan area.

  15. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in surface water supply of Campinas, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neto, Romeu Cantusio; dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Sato, Maria Ines Zanoli; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2010-01-01

    Surface water contaminated by domestic sewage discharges is a potential source of pathogens, including protozoa. During 2005-2006, the source water (Atibaia River) of the Surface Water Treatment Plant (WTP) of Campinas city, São Paulo, Brazil was sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Calcium carbonate flocculation (CCF) and membrane filtration (MF) concentration techniques, with and without purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) were evaluated. The cysts and oocysts were detected by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and confirmed by differential interference contrast (DIC). Membrane filtration method generally produced higher recovery efficiency. Giardia spp. was detected in 87.5% of the water samples analyzed with densities ranging from 2.5 to 120 cysts per L. Cryptosporidium spp were detected in 62.5% and the concentrations ranged from 15 to 60 oocysts per L. Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations detected in this study were elevated and are associated with discharge of untreated sewage in Atibaia River. Measures should be taken to protect surface water from sources of contamination.

  16. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  18. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  19. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  1. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  2. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  3. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  4. Space-time variations of human capital assets across U.S. metropolitan areas, 1980 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Scott, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the changing structure of human capital in U.S. metropolitan regions from 1980 to 2000. Data are drawn from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Intensive empirical investigation leads to three main conclusions. First, forms of human capital in the United States are becoming more oriented to labor tasks that call for cognitive-cultural skills. Second, cognitive-cultural skills are accumulating most intensively in large metropolitan areas. Third, physical or practical forms of human capital are increasingly being relegated to smaller metropolitan areas. That said, important residues of human capital, focused on physical or practical tasks, remain a durable element of the economies of large metropolitan areas. I offer a brief theoretical explanation of these results.

  5. The Metropolitan Experience in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Robert L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents comments concerning Lawrence A. Cremin's, "American Education: The Metropolitan Experience, 1876-1980." Robert Church characterizes this volume as providing further evidence for distrusting mass schooling. Michael B. Katz notes that the work provides insight into Cremin's political stance while Harold Silver discusses its…

  6. Metropolitan Reform: Propositions Derived From Two Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor

    1972-01-01

    One purpose of this essay is to attempt to isolate the theoretical sturcture implicit in the traditional metropolitan reform movement so that empirical research can be organized to examine the warrantability of the propositions contained therein; a second is to pose an alternative theoretical structure derived from work of political economists.…

  7. Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area photographed from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Detroit River separates Detroit from Windsor, Ontario, Canada. The largest body of water is Lake Erie. The smaller body of water is Lake St. Clair. This photograph was taken with the Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B five-inch Earth terrain camera.

  8. Gender Inequality in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, David A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Data from General Social Surveys and Census Bureau sources, 1964-94, indicate that nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas are similar in married women's labor force participation and gender differences in earnings. Nonmetro areas have higher occupational sex segregation and slightly less egalitarian gender attitudes. Gender stratification has…

  9. Business Conditions in Michigan Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Paul J.

    The study culminating in this report analyzed business conditions in eleven Michigan metropolitan areas during a ten-year period from the late 60s to the late 70s. Focus is on the need for an overview of the effects of cyclical swings, but it does not try to identify the causes of variation in performance. Short-run business conditions are…

  10. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  11. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  12. Dermatology relevance to graduates from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas Medical School*

    PubMed Central

    Lugão, Ariel Falbel; de Caldas, Tânia Alencar; de Castro, Eneida Lazzarini; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Some research indicates that physicians do not dominate the expected dermatological content for the proper exercise of the profession. This fact compromises their diagnostic and therapeutic performance, generating unnecessary costs. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of Dermatology and the knowledge acquired in the specialty during the undergraduate course in clinical practice of graduates at the State University of Campinas Medical School (FCM/UNICAMP). METHOD A questionnaire with 22 closed questions and two open ones was electronically sent to physicians who had graduated more than 10 years ago and others for less than 10 years. In the first group, physicians were trained by the same curriculum and in the second group there were subjects trained by the old and the new curriculum. RESULTS Of the 126 respondents, 83% had completed a specialization course. Among all, 82% did not study dermatology after graduation. The majority considered that Dermatology has high relevance in clinical practice, regardless of the group. There was a statistically significant difference between non-dermatologist doctors graduated for more than 10 years and those graduated for less than 10 years regarding confidence about lesion diagnosis, diagnostic investigation and treatment of skin diseases. Physicians who have graduated for a longer time feel more insecure in relation to patients with dermatoses. Concerning contributions offered by graduation program completion they prioritized outpatient care, ability to diagnose, knowledge of pathology, research and knowledge of lesions. CONCLUSION This study has shown that Dermatology is relevant in medical practice and more recent graduates from the FCM/UNICAMP feel less insecure when treating a patient with dermatoses. PMID:26560207

  13. A summary of urban runoff studies in the Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, S.R.; Mustard, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area has been the subject of urban-runoff studies for several years. The first studies, started in about 1968, usually were concerned only with the quantity of urban runoff. In 1974, studies were begun that included both quantity and quality of urban runoff. In 1979, Denver was selected as one of the cities to be included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. The Denver study was called the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program and was a cooperative study between the Denver Regional Council of Governments and the U.S. Geological Survey. This report presents the major conclusions of the pre-Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program studies and a summary of the various elements of the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program. The report summarizes and references urban-runoff studies in the Denver metropolitan area and is a reference guide for planners and other persons interested in urban runoff. (USGS)

  14. Urban growth, land use change, and metropolitan restructuring: The case of Greater Seattle, 1960-1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanilov, Kiril

    This research investigates several key questions related to metropolitan growth by examining the evolution of land use development patterns in the suburban area of Seattle over a thirty-year period, from 1960 to 1990. The following basic research questions are addressed: What are the patterns of land development in the suburbs of Seattle? How have they changed over the past few decades? To what extent are these growth patterns related to existing locational characteristics? A series of sequential land use maps is generated to trace suburban growth patterns on a metropolitan-wide scale with a high level of spatial resolution. The use of remote sensing techniques and GIS software provides detailed visuals of land use changes in the region which are plotted in ten year increments. This graphic documentation is used to piece together a systematic description of the history of metropolitan growth and structural transformations in the spatial composition of the region. The findings are compared to an existing body of knowledge on the subject describing major processes, patterns, and phenomena of suburbanization and models of metropolitan spatial structure. Sufficient evidence has been found for the existence of processes such as sequential growth waves and multinucleation. Yet most of the existing models of metropolitan form are found to be incongruous with the highly complex and dynamic pattern of suburban land use composition. The research further explores the role of several locational determinants of land use distribution and their relative impact in longitudinal terms. It is concluded that locational variances in topography, accessibility, availability of developable land, and existing land use composition are closely related with the character of future land use development patterns. The study indicates that in order to be successful in directing growth and achieving a more efficient regional structure, planners should take into account the complex character of the

  15. Variation of the anthropic vulnerability in Ribeirão das Pedras watershed in Campinas/SP - Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damame, Desirée; Longo, Regina; Ribeiro, Admilson; Fengler, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    The human actions has caused over the years profound changes in environmental quality in urban ecosystems suffering losses in the quality of air, soil , water and vegetation also the quality of life of the population that inhabit these areas . The study area is characterized by being a highly urbanized watershed, with about 43 % of its area covered by buildings, houses , and commercial and industrial establishments . Called the Ribeirão das Pedras Basin, located in Campinas / SP - Brazil and is bounded by coordinates 22˚47'10 '' and 22˚52'20 '' S , and 47˚ 07'15 '' and 46˚ 02 ' 15' ' . Has an average temperature of 22.4 ° C and average annual rainfall of 1424.5 mm . It has an area of about 42 km² . This is located two universities and a large mall. It also demands a strong agriculture , which occupies about 30 % of the area . It has also been part of two major forest reserves of the municipality, the Forest Santa Geneva and the Forest of Quilombo , both added to other small fragments overlying only about 6% of the total basin area . Avalição to environmental quality , the analysis of the vulnerability of urban watershed becomes an important environmental management tool. The vulnerability can be defined by susceptibility to changes of environment in its initial state , a current tax status by human intervention , and is almost always associated with risk , and the intensity at which such projects in one place, person or structure. In this context , this study aimed to assess environmental vulnerability in an urban watershed coming under increasing human pressures , especially in recent years . For this analysis were prepared soil graphics, slope , elevation and land use and land cover for the years 2009 and 2014 , generating with these , comparative anthropic vulnerability maps of the past five years. Crafting vulnerability maps is a sensitivity in order to enable appropriate management of biotic systems. With the results can be seen that the variation of

  16. Metropolitan Orlando area computerized signal system

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, F.R. ); Allen, T.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Florida's Orlando metropolitan area, which has a population measuring 1 million, is among the fastest growing areas in the nation. The city's weather and popular attractions draw 9 to 10 million tourists annually, half of them arriving in their own cars. Add to this the 1.1 million automobiles already on the streets, and the traffic problems become a nightmare. The Orlando metropolitan area has approximately 550 operational traffic signals, with an increasing number of new signals added each year to control the city's expanding growth. A central, computerized signal system has been conceived as one of the solutions necessary to cope with this tremendous traffic growth. The system is flexible, expandable, and capable of meeting future technical challenges. This article describes the steps that led to the feasibility study, design, and implementation of the Orlando area computerized signal system.

  17. Flood Preparedness Planning: Metropolitan Phoenix Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    were to illustrate preparedness planning concepts for non- flash flood metropolitan areas and to advance the state-of-the-art in the analysis procedures...rivers and washes, in particular those of a flash flood nature, are not addressed herein. Specifically, the study is bounded by: the Salt River from...from flash floods in small tributary streams and washes below the reservoirs, low flow releases, and developmental disturbances. Salt cedars and

  18. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  19. Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1985-02-01

    Brazil's capital city, Rio de Janeiro, has been called Latin America's slum capital, and is slowly losing its political position to Brasilia and its cultural and economic leadership to Sao Paolo. Rio's metropolitan area includes 14 municipalities and had a population of 9.64 million in 1984, making it Latin America's 4th largest and the world's 14th largest metropolitan area. The 452-square mile central city contains 5.35 million people. Projections predict that Rio will be the world's 9th largest city in the year 2000, with a population of 13.3 million. Rio encompasses sharp social and economic contrasts; population density varies from 30,686 to 124 people per square mile and per capita municipal budgets range from $100 to $12.50. Like most metropolitan areas, Rio's suburbs show its greatest growth. The peripheral municipalities which held only 24% of the population in 1940, now have about 45%. Low land prices and government housing attact poor families to these areas which tend to be economically sluggish. Rio's fertility rate (2.8%) is the lowest in Brazil (4.2%) and life expectancy is somewhat higher than the national average. Low fertility and declining migration result in small households and increasing age structure. 2.2 million households, with 3.8 persons on an average, and 1.3 million households, with 3.6 persons, inhabited the metropolitan area and its municipality, respectively. Less of Rio's population are black (10%) or of mixed descent (39%) than in the rest of Brazil; the population is 97% Brazilian-born. Most metropolitan homes are owner occupied, but Rio also has many highly visible slums. Rio has an 84% literacy rate; 5% of the population have university degrees. The area's geography requires massive daily movement by nearly 60% of the population, and several municpalities function largely as commuter towns. Service jobs (especially for women) account for 27% of all jobs with manufacturing and tourism next in importance. Median monthly income

  20. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  1. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Chlorinated-Solvent Sites on Metropolitan Groundwater Resources

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, Mark L.; Narter, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated-solvent compounds are among the most common groundwater contaminants in the U.S.A. The majority of the many sites contaminated by chlorinated-solvent compounds are located in metropolitan areas, and most such areas have one or more chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites. Thus, contamination of groundwater by chlorinated-solvent compounds may pose a potential risk to the sustainability of potable water supplies for many metropolitan areas. The impact of chlorinated-solvent sites on metropolitan water resources was assessed for Tucson, AZ, by comparing the aggregate volume of extracted groundwater for all pump-and-treat systems associated with contaminated sites in the region to the total regional groundwater withdrawal. The analysis revealed that the aggregate volume of groundwater withdrawn for the pump-and-treat systems operating in Tucson, all of which are located at chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites, was 20% of the total groundwater withdrawal in the city for the study period. The treated groundwater was used primarily for direct delivery to local water supply systems or for reinjection as part of the pump-and-treat system. The volume of the treated groundwater used for potable water represented approximately 13% of the total potable water supply sourced from groundwater, and approximately 6% of the total potable water supply. This case study illustrates the significant impact chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites can have on groundwater resources and regional potable-water supplies. PMID:24116872

  3. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix G. Planning Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    head or more of dairy cattle c. 2500 swine over 55 pounds d. 10,000 head of sheep e. 55,000 turkeys f. 100,000 laying hens or broilers g. 30,000 laying...hens or broilers with liquid manure handling systems h. 5000 ducks i. combinations of animals per schedule 317-20 IM 2. Fish production facilities. a...previously stabilized by the equivalent of anaerobic digestion . 2. Lhere public access is not positively controlled, pathogen re- duction beyond that

  4. Rescaling Vocational Education: Workforce Development in a Metropolitan Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles a vocational charter school located in Atlanta as an institutional model for customized industry training in the high-tech production firms located nearby. Social partnerships with business and industry, parents and educators, and elected officials will be illuminated, exhibiting new forms of neoliberalism that reconstitute…

  5. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Apendix C. Water Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Inland Empire Paper Paper Mill Kaiser (Mead) Aluminum Products Kaiser (So. Mead) Coke Production Kaiser (Trentwood) Aluminum Fabrication Nalleys Potato ...Peak Metallic Arts Plating C 0.18 0.24 Nalley’s Potato Chip Prod. C 2.43 3.94 Seven-Up Bottling Soft Drink Bottling C 2.01 3.10 Spokane Industrial...Employees, 16 hrs/day, 5 days/wk. Type of Industry and Product: Potato Chips Water Use - Million Gallons Source Average Mo. Peak Mo. Total Annual City 2.43

  6. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix A. Surface Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Plain Delineation and , 410.2-1 to 410.2-68 307 "Inventory of Water Quality Data and Identification of Data Gaps 307-1 to 307-104 A detailed index for...absence of a gage between the Hangman CieeK and Little Spokane confluence does not pose a serious data gap since Hangman Creek is gaged near the...a significa.t data gap for two reasons. The Little Spokane gage at Dartford, USGS number 12-4310-00, is 10.8 miles upstream from the confluence and

  7. Changing International Constructs: How Metropolitan Universities Must Engage Globally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Mitch; Zimpher, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of American metropolitan universities has never before been so relevant, both to the future of institutions themselves and to the United States. The success of the mission requires that we develop a deep understanding of the impact of both urbanization and de-urbanization, as well as the challenges metropolitan universities face with…

  8. University and Local Government in Metropolitan Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffite, Nicolas Baya

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the role of universities in the sustainable management of metropolitan areas, drawing on the outputs from a workshop that brought together academics, professionals and politicians responsible for the urban environmental management of the metropolitan areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Urban…

  9. Enterprising Starships: Metropolitan Universities Face the New Millenium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Beth

    1996-01-01

    Edited excerpts from three sessions of a conference on metropolitan universities present perspectives on what cities will look like in the new millennium, and on leadership and service responsibilities of metropolitan universities. Also, excerpts from these and other papers are presented on the following themes: diversity, mission, facing hard…

  10. Metropolitan Universities: An Emerging Model in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Daniel M., Ed.; Bell, David A., Ed.

    This volume contains 29 readings reprinted from the journal "Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum," selected to demonstrate the unique mission and characteristics of metropolitan universities and to recognize the special challenges they face in addressing the nation's major urban issues. The papers include: "What Is a Metropolitan…

  11. Telecommunications for Metropolitan Areas: Opportunities for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report intended for officials responsible for solving metropolitan problems identifies ways that telecommunications could improve the delivery of public services to metropolitan communities during the 1980's. Areas included in this study are delivery of public services to the home, operation of mobile public services, personal security…

  12. 31. RECORD PLAN, METROPOLITAN SEWER, GENERAL PLAN OF PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RECORD PLAN, METROPOLITAN SEWER, GENERAL PLAN OF PUMPING STATION GROUNDS, DEER ISLAND. METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE COMMISSION, JUNE 1896. Photocopy of image of aperture card 4977-1. Aperture cards and original drawings at Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Archives, Building 39, Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, MA - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements...

  14. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements...

  15. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements...

  16. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  17. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  18. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements...

  19. 23 CFR 450.314 - Metropolitan planning agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan planning agreements. 450.314 Section 450.314 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  20. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  1. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements...

  2. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  3. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  4. 23 CFR 450.314 - Metropolitan planning agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan planning agreements. 450.314 Section 450.314 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  5. No Easy Answers: Persistent Poverty in the Metropolitan Washington Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joan Paddock

    This paper examines the extent and nature of poverty in Metropolitan Washington, D.C., how it compares to poverty in other similar metropolitan areas, and what can be done to reduce the numbers of persons suffering from persistent poverty in Washington. According to 1970 and 1980 U.S. Census Bureau data, poverty in the Washington, D.C.,…

  6. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  7. The Economic Impact of Higher Education on the Kansas City Metropolitan Area 1988-1989. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education, MO.

    A study was formally requested by the Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education Institutional Research Directors' Group in the spring of 1990, to examine the economic impact of higher education on the Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, metropolitan area. An economic impact model was used which includes the four major components of direct…

  8. Census of Population and Housing: 1970. General Demographic Trends for Metropolitan Areas, 1960 to 1970. United States Summary. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This publication is one of a series of 1970 census reports concerned mainly with population and housing trends in metropolitan areas from 1960 to 1970. The analytical text discusses changes in population growth and distribution and housing in the nation as a whole and by regions. Following the detailed tables are included definitions,…

  9. Spatial distribution of dengue incidence and socio-environmental conditions in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007.

    PubMed

    Costa, José Vilton; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of dengue risk and its association with socio-environmental conditions. This was an ecological study of the counts of autochthonous dengue cases in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in the year 2007, aggregated according to 47 coverage areas of municipal health centers. Spatial models for mapping diseases were constructed with Bayesian hierarchical models, based on Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA). The analyses were stratified according to two age groups, 0 to 14 years and above 14 years. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of dengue risk is not associated with socio-environmental conditions in the 0 to 14 year age group. In the age group older than 14 years, the relative risk of dengue increases significantly as the level of socio-environmental deprivation increases. Mapping of socio-environmental deprivation and dengue cases proved to be a useful tool for data analysis in dengue surveillance systems.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  11. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  12. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  15. Envisioning a metropolitan foodshed: potential environmental consequences of increasing food-crop production around Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, E. E.; Martin, P. A.; Schuble, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Nationwide, cities are increasingly developing policies aimed at greater sustainability, particularly focusing on reducing environmental impact. Such policies commonly emphasize more efficiently using energy to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the city. However, most plans ignore the food system as a factor in regional energy use and GHG emissions. Yet, the food system in the United States accounts for ~20% of per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Local, sustainable food production is cited as one strategy for mitigating GHG emissions of large metropolitan areas. “Sustainable” for regional agriculture is often identified as small-scale, diversified food crop production using best practices management. Localized food production (termed “foodshed”) using sustainable agriculture could mitigate climate change in multiple ways: (1) energy and therefore CO2-intensive portions of the conventional food system might be replaced by local, lower-input food production resulting in carbon offsets; (2) increased regional carbon storage might result from well-managed food crop production vs. commodity crop production; and (3) averted N2O emissions might result from closing nutrient cycles on agricultural lands following changes in management practices. The broader implications for environmental impact of widespread conversion to sustainable food crop agriculture, however, remain largely unknown. We examine the Chicago metropolitan region to quantify the impact of increased local food production on regional energy efficiency and GHG emissions. Geospatial analysis is used to quantify the resource potential for establishing a Chicago metropolitan foodshed. A regional foodshed is defined by minimizing cost through transportation mode (road, rail, or water) and maximizing the production potential of different soil types. Simple biogeochemical modeling is used to predict changes in N2O emissions and nutrient flows following changes in land management practices

  16. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  17. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from major metropolitan cities in India.

    PubMed

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Someya, Masayuki; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. Contamination patterns were different in human milk found in our previous study in Chennai, a metropolitan city in southern India, indicating region specific exposure routes and variable sources. In comparison with previous data, levels of DDTs and HCHs generally declined with time, implying the effect of various bans and restrictions on their usage. No association between concentrations of OCs and demographic characteristics such as parity and age of mothers was observed which might be due to narrow range of mother's age. Estimated daily intake shows that some infants are exposed to OCs to a greater extent, particularly HCHs than the guideline standard.

  18. View of Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is seen in this Skyalb 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in earth orbit. Also in the picture are Scottsdale, Paradise Valley, Tempe, Mesa, Laveen, Komatke, Salt River Indian Reseravation, and part of the Gila River Indian Reservation. Features which can be detected from the photograph include: cultural patterns defined by commercial, industrial, agricultural and residential areas; transportation networks consisting of major corridors, primary, secondary, and feeder streets; major urban developments on the area such as airports, Squaw Peak CIty Park, Turf Paradise Race Track and the State Fair grounds.

  19. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  20. Metropolitan Road Traffic Simulation on FPGAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp J. L.; Mortveit, H. S.; Hansson, A. A.; Gokhale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates that road traffic simulation of entire metropolitan areas is possible with reconfigurable supercomputing that combines 64-bit microprocessors and FPGAs in a high bandwidth, low latency interconnect. Previously, traffic simulation on FPGAs was limited to very short road segments or required a very large number of FPGAs. Our data streaming approach overcomes scaling issues associated with direct implementations and still allows for high-level parallelism by dividing the data sets between hardware and software across the reconfigurable supercomputer. Using one FPGA on the Cray XD1 supercomputer, we are able to achieve a 34.4 x speed up over the AMD microprocessor. System integration issues must be optimized to exploit this speedup in the overall simulation.

  1. Metropolitan governance, residential segregation, and mortality among African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, K D; Kunitz, S J; Sell, R R; Mukamel, D B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that the degree to which local government is metropolitanized is associated with mortality rates for African Americans and with residential segregation, which has itself previously been shown to be positively associated with mortality among African Americans. METHODS: One hundred fourteen US standard metropolitan statistical areas were examined. The primary dependent variable was the age-adjusted, race- and sex-specific all-cause mortality rate, averaged for 1990 and 1991. The 2 primary independent variables were residential segregation, as measured by the index of dissimilarity, and metropolitanization of government, as measured by the central city's elasticity score. RESULTS: Mortality rates for male and female African Americans were lower in metropolitan statistical areas with more metropolitanized local governments and lower levels of residential segregation. Mortality for male and female Whites was not associated in either direction with residential segregation. White male mortality showed no association with level of metropolitanization, but lower White female mortality rates were associated with less metropolitanization. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the need for further research into whether policy changes in areas not traditionally thought of as "health policy" areas can improve the health of urban minorities. PMID:9518976

  2. Metropolitan Fragmentation and Health Disparities: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Malo André; Kaplan, George A; Ranjit, Nalini; Mujahid, Mahasin S

    2012-01-01

    Context This article explores the relationship between metropolitan fragmentation, as defined by the total number of governmental units within a metropolitan statistical area (local municipalities, special service districts, and school districts), and racial disparities in mortality among blacks and whites in the 1990s. The presence of numerous governmental jurisdictions in large metropolitan areas in the United States can shape the geography of opportunity, with adverse consequences for health. Methods We conducted a regression analysis using U.S. Census of Government data and Compressed Mortality File data for the country's largest 171 metropolitan statistical areas. Findings We found a link between increased metropolitan area fragmentation and greater racial differences in mortality between blacks and whites for both children and working-age adults. Although increasing fragmentation is associated with a higher mortality rate for blacks, it is not associated with a higher mortality rate for whites. These findings suggest that research is needed to understand how governance can positively or negatively influence a population's health and create conditions that generate or exacerbate health disparities. Conclusions We need to understand the extent to which metropolitan fragmentation contributes to racial segregation, whether racism contributes to both, and the role of poverty and antipoverty policies in reducing or exacerbating the consequences of metropolitan fragmentation. The exact pathways by which metropolitan fragmentation contributes to differences between blacks’ and whites’ mortality rates are unknown. Uncovering how institutions influence the social, economic, and environmental conditions, which in turn contribute to the current racial and ethnic health disparities in the largest metropolitan areas, is key. Understanding these “upstream” determinants of a population's health and the disparities in health between subgroups in the overall population

  3. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  4. Modeling and predicting urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area based on cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yaolong; Zhao, Junsan; Murayama, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    The period of high economic growth in Japan which began in the latter half of the 1950s led to a massive migration of population from rural regions to the Tokyo metropolitan area. This phenomenon brought about rapid urban growth and urban structure changes in this area. Purpose of this study is to establish a constrained CA (Cellular Automata) model with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to simulate urban growth pattern in the Tokyo metropolitan area towards predicting urban form and landscape for the near future. Urban land-use is classified into multi-categories for interpreting the effect of interaction among land-use categories in the spatial process of urban growth. Driving factors of urban growth pattern, such as land condition, railway network, land-use zoning, random perturbation, and neighborhood interaction and so forth, are explored and integrated into this model. These driving factors are calibrated based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), spatial statistics, logistic regression, and "trial and error" approach. The simulation is assessed at both macro and micro classification levels in three ways: visual approach; fractal dimension; and spatial metrics. Results indicate that this model provides an effective prototype to simulate and predict urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  5. Coronary heart disease prevalence and occupational structure in U.S. metropolitan areas: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Nagy, Christine; Peterson, Tina

    2013-05-01

    This research explored the link between coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and metropolitan-area level occupational structure among 137 metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA) in the United States. Using data from the 2006-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2007 County Business Patterns, logistic mixed models were developed to estimate CHD prevalence between MMSAs controlling for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and various types of occupational structure. Results showed that CHD prevalence was lower in MMSAs where their economy was dominated by 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' and higher in MMSAs dominated by 'manufacturing', 'transportation and warehousing', and 'mining'. MMSA-level effects on CHD were found in 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' having lower risk and 'mining' having higher risk of CHD. Although these effects prevailed in many MMSAs, some MMSAs did not fit into these effects. Additional analysis indicated a possible link between metropolitan population loss and higher CHD prevalence especially in the coal mining region of the Appalachian Mountains.

  6. Planning for New Primary Airports in the United States: A Survey of Metropolitan Planning Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NewMyer, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Airport congestion at primary airports in major metropolitan areas was analyzed in a report prepared by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in 1990. Taking the top twenty-three most congested airports from this study, a questionnaire was prepared and sent to the metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) for twenty of the twenty-three metropolitan areas represented in the TRB study, The questionnaire focused on the role of the MPOs in planning for new primary airports in the United States, including questions about the status of the most recent MPO airport system plan, whether or not the latest plan recommends a new primary airport, and whether or not any other entities in the MPO areas are recommending new primary airports. The results indicated that 44.4 percent of the eighteen respondent MPOs have airport system plans that are five years old or older. Also, only two of the respondent MPOs have recommended a new primary airport in their latest regional airport system plan and only one of these two is a common recommendation in the Federal Aviation Administration's National Plan of Integrated Airport System.

  7. Planning for New Primary Airports in the United States: A Survey of Metropolitan Planning Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NewMeyer, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Airport congestion at primary airports in major metropolitan areas was analyzed in a report prepared by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in 1990. Taking the top twenty-three most congested airports from this study, a questionnaire was prepared and sent to the metropolitan planning organizations (MPOS) for twenty of the twenty-three metropolitan areas represented in the TRB study. The questionnaire focused on the role of the MPOs in planning for new primary airports in the United States, including questions about the status of the most recent MPO airport system plan, whether or not the latest plan recommends a new primary airport, and whether or not any other entities in the MPO areas are recommending new primary airports. The results indicated that 44.4 percent of the eighteen respondent MPOs have airport system plans that are five years old or older. Also, only two of the respondent MPOs have recommended a new primary airport in their latest regional airport system plan and only one of these two is a common recommendation in the Federal Aviation Administration's National Plan of Integrated Airport System.

  8. Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Coles, J.F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A.H.; May, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate

  9. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  10. Statistical investigations into indicator bacteria concentrations in Houston metropolitan watersheds.

    PubMed

    Desai, Anuradha M; Rifai, Hanadi; Helfer, Emil; Moreno, Norma; Stein, Ron

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial pollution in the Houston metropolitan area (Texas) watersheds was studied using statistical methods to determine the Escherichia coli levels and causes of their spatial and temporal variability. Houston bayous generally exhibit elevated E. coli concentrations. The more urban watersheds had higher concentration ranges and geometric means and had more spatial variation with higher overall ranges at downstream monitoring stations. They also were less sensitive to temperature variations and more strongly influenced by rainfall events. The median flow in the more urban bayous is predominantly wastewater. Frequent rainfall in the region, combined with relatively long travel times in the bayous, results in elevated bacterial levels in the bayous. Multiple regression models using water quality parameters were more representative on the segment level and not at the watershed level and may not be useful for predictions that rely on conventional water quality measures, particularly in urban watersheds, such as those studied here. Cluster analysis for the segments resulted in two distinct clusters differentiated by their developed land-use, population density, domestic animal density, and grassy land-use.

  11. Metropolitan land cover inventory using multiseasonal Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Hill, R.N.; Henry, C.C.; Lake, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project (PNLRIDP), planners from State, regional, and local agencies in Oregon are working with scientists from the EROS Data Center (USGS), Ames Research Center (NASA), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) to obtain practical training and experience in the analysis of remotely sensed data collected from air and spacecraft. A 4,000 km2 area centered on metropolitan Portland was chosen as the demonstration site, and a four-date Landsat temporal overlay was created which contained January, April, July, and October data collected in 1973. Digital multispectral analysis of single dates and two-date combinations revealed that the spring-summer and summer-fall combinations were the most satisfactory for land cover inventory. Residential, commercial and industrial, improved open space, water, forested, and agriculture land cover categories were obtained consistently in the majority of classification iterations. Census tract and traffic zone boundaries were digitized and registered with the Landsat data to facilitate integration of the land cover information with socioeconomic and environmental data already available to Oregon planners.

  12. Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan.

    PubMed

    Viwatpanich, Kanvee

    2015-03-01

    The combination between quantitative and qualitative research, "Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan" aimed to study causes of homelessness, patterns of living, problems, health status, social and health needs. Purposive sampling of 60 older homeless people could be divided into two groups; temporary and permanent homeless. Causes of homelessness were health problems, money problems, family background, emotional management, cultural sensitivities, limitation of extended family, financial management, political control, and domestic violence. Their living problems included:financial insecurity, police suppression, social and medical services, attacks from the young generations, sexual harassment, stealing, and social hierarchy of homelessness. 63.3% reported having hearing problems and a peptic ulcer before becoming homeless. These evolved into musculo-skeletal problems, accident-injuries, and skin diseases. 95% performed ADL/IADLs independently, 78.3% were depressed, 5% diagnosed with severe stress depression. 70% rated themselves happier than the rest ofthe population, and 75% were identified as having normal cognition. 58.3% had a good relationship with a religious network, 55% still had some contacts with theirfamily members. More than 90% indicated that they were satisfied, could sustainin a life on the street, were happy with theirfreedom, liked being close to green areas, learned about human life,fulfilled the dhamma, and felt close to the king.

  13. Metropolitan area network support at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    DeMar, Phil; Andrews, Chuck; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; Colon, Orlando; Fry, Steve; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Lamore, Donna; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed.

  14. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  15. 40 CFR 52.1871 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regions. The Ohio plan was evaluated on the basis of the following classifications: Air quality control... Section 52.1871 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Cincinnati Interstate I II III III I Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate I III III III I Metropolitan...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1871 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regions. The Ohio plan was evaluated on the basis of the following classifications: Air quality control... Section 52.1871 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Cincinnati Interstate I II III III I Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate I III III III I Metropolitan...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1871 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regions. The Ohio plan was evaluated on the basis of the following classifications: Air quality control... Section 52.1871 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Cincinnati Interstate I II III III I Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate I III III III I Metropolitan...

  18. [Mental health and interdisciplinary work: the experience in "Candido Ferreira", in Campinas, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Marcos de Souza; Delamuta, Leny Aparecida

    2011-08-01

    This article analyses the process on the psychiatric reform, with a focus on the interdisciplinary work developed by the health professionals from the health service "Dr. Candido Ferreira"in Campinas, Brazil. This is a philanthropic institution which contributes significantly to public mental health network in this city. Even though the service is integrated to the Unified Heath System (SUS), it presents a financial, administrative and managerial independence, which allows implementing some therapeutic experiences and managerial innovations. More specifically, this article focuses on the process of decision making by the interdisciplinary team, involving diagnosis and therapeutic process. Other themes, related to the organization of the service in the process of dehospitalization, are considered, such as the transfer of patients into residences outside the institution, the maintenance of these units, the management of the workshops in the institution which allows a financial income for the patient, and the beginning of the institution as a three years residence in Psychiatry. The methodological approach of the research is essentially qualitative, drawing from interviews and participant observation, related the professionals from this service.

  19. Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons’ Perception of the Concentration of Cardiovascular Operations in Seoul Metropolitan Area’s Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyo Seon; Lee, Kun Sei; Chee, Hyun Keun; Ahn, Hye Mi; Sim, Sung Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concentration of cardiovascular surgical procedures in a metropolitan area and investigate the perception of specialists regarding governmental policies to resolve this imbalance. Methods From March to May 2015, surveys were distributed to members of the Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Association. The final pool of research subjects consisted of 75 respondents. Subjects were queried regarding the concentration of cardiovascular operations in metropolitan areas, alternatives to the imbalance, and governmental policies to resolve the inequalities. Results Survey participants responded that South Korea needs governmental policies to alleviate the concentration of cardiovascular surgery patients in large metropolitan hospitals. Participants agreed that the freedom to choose medical institutions and improved accessibility to metropolitan hospitals due to advanced transportation systems were some of the causes for the concentration. A majority (98.7%) of respondents thought establishing thoracic and cardiovascular surgery centers in provinces was an appropriate solution to alleviate the concentration. Thoracic and cardiovascular surgery specialists were ranked as the number one group on which to focus development. Conclusion Developing and carrying out policies to establish thoracic and cardiovascular surgery centers in provinces will alleviate the regional imbalance in available heart surgery services and an overall improvement in cardiovascular disease treatment in South Korea. PMID:28035298

  20. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  1. Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices.

  2. Metropolitan Influences on Migration into Poor and Nonpoor Neighborhoods*

    PubMed Central

    South, Scott J.; Pais, Jeremy; Crowder, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and three decennial U.S. censuses are used to examine the influence of metropolitan-area characteristics on black and white households' propensity to move into poor versus nonpoor neighborhoods. We find that a nontrivial portion of the variance in the odds of moving to a poor rather to a nonpoor neighborhood exists between metropolitan areas. Net of established individual-level predictors of inter-neighborhood migration, black and white households are more likely to move to a poor or extremely poor tract rather than to a nonpoor tract in metropolitan areas containing many poor neighborhoods and a paucity of recently-built housing in nonpoor areas. Blacks are especially likely to move to a poor tract in metropolitan areas characterized by high levels of racial residential segregation and in which poor tracts have a sizeable concentration of blacks. White households are more likely to move to a poor than to a nonpoor tract in metropolitan areas that have comparatively few African Americans. PMID:21625368

  3. Prenatal screening for markers of hepatitis B in aboriginal mothers resident in non-metropolitan Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Bucens, M R; Holman, C D; Ott, A K; Wells, J I

    Of 1947 Aboriginal women who resided in non-metropolitan regions of Western Australia and gave birth during January 1983 to February 1985, 42% of women were screened prenatally for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The proportions of Aboriginal women who were screened varied from 17% in the southern divisions to 72% in the Kimberley region. The screening programme identified 29 Aboriginal women with a positive result of the test. On this basis, the estimated prevalence of HBsAg among non-metropolitan Aboriginal women was 3.6% (95% confidence interval, 2.5%-5.1%). According to the geographical location of the mother's residence, the observed prevalence of HBsAg varied from 0 in the southern divisions to around 4%-5% in the central and eastern divisions.

  4. Plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, André Luiz Barros de O.; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Yukitaka Pessinati Ohashi, Augusto; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Aparecida Creste Dias de Souza, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supply should be taken into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to attain high yield and to increase longevity of plants. In this context it is necessary to investigate responses of different varieties to water supply. The aim of this work was to evaluate the plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil in the 1st cane ratoon cycle. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars in the 1st cane ratoon cycle, from January (after the harvest of cane plant cycle) to October (harvest the 1st cane ratoon cycle). The plant spacing was 1.5 m between rows. Each cultivar was planted in an area of 0.4 hectares. The irrigation was done by a subsuperficial drip system with one drip line in each plant row installed at 0.25 m deep. During the 1st cane ratoon cycle the parameters were analysed on the 33rd, 123rd, 185th and 277th day. The analysed parameters were: plant yield (m), leaf area index (LAI) and yield (tons per hectare). According to the results from the second sampling (123rd day) the varieties IACSP95-5000 and IACSP94-2101 showed higher plant height when compared to the other varieties. However, from the third sampling (185th day) on the IACSP95-5000 variety grew considerably taller than the other varieties. The varieties SP79-1011and IACSP94-2101 presented lower values of LAI throughout the crop cycle when compared to other varieties. But on the

  5. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays.

  6. Immigration and foreign people in six Italian metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Golini, A; Strozza, S

    1998-01-01

    "The study deals with size, main features (citizenship, sex and age) and legal status (settled and semi-settled legal migrants, illegal or irregular migrants) of [the] foreign population in six Italian metropolitan areas (Rome, Milan, Turin, Naples, Bologna and Palermo). Available data and their reliability are first analysed. The six metropolitan provinces reveal a very high concentration of foreign population, Rome and Milan in particular. The general picture is that of an increasing concentration of foreign residents in the capital city, but at the same time of the growing scattering in the metropolitan municipalities. Estimates for illegal or irregular migrants, obtained by applying the shares of illegality [emerging] from sample surveys to the regular stock, suggest that the percentage of illegal and irregular immigrants is particularly high in the provinces of Rome and Naples and is mainly connected with flows from Eastern Europe and North Africa." (EXCERPT)

  7. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  8. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  9. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality...

  10. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  11. 23 CFR 450.306 - Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consideration and implementation of projects, strategies, and services that will address the following factors: (1) Support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area, especially by enabling global... metropolitan transportation plan, TIP, a project or strategy, or the certification of a...

  12. 75 FR 61369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District..., 2006, the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) adopted the ``Ozone...

  13. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  14. Issues of scale, location and geologic terrain related to Salt Lake City and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.; Godfrey, A.E.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of expanding metropolitan regions require consideration of earth science issues related to issues involving scale, space (location), geologic terrain and physiographic units, and information transfer. This paper explores these matters with examples from the Salt Lake City, Utah area and Mid-Atlantic region of Baltimore-Washington that include water supply and natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and sinkholes.) Information transfer methods using physiographic units at national, regional, local and site scales serve to communicate relevant geologic constraint and natural resource information.

  15. 24 CFR 570.510 - Transferring projects from urban counties to metropolitan cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... counties to metropolitan cities. 570.510 Section 570.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... GRANTS Grant Administration § 570.510 Transferring projects from urban counties to metropolitan cities... county to a new metropolitan city, provided: the city was an included unit of general local government...

  16. 75 FR 39052 - 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... BUDGET 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Correction In... Statistical Areas and New England City and Town Areas, in the last line of paragraph (a), ``75'' should read... column, in paragraph (f), in the first and second lines, ``Metropolitan and Metropolitan Statistical...

  17. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of major aquifers in highly densely populated areas is a major concern for stakeholders involved in the use and protection of groundwater resources. Sustainable groundwater withdrawal and management, and the identification of trends in groundwater contamination require a careful hydrochemical baseline characterization. This characterization is fundamental to investigate the presence and evolutionary trend of contaminants. In fact, it allows recovering and understanding: the spatial-temporal trend of contamination; the relative age of the contamination episodes; the reasons for anomalous behavior of some compounds during migration to and in the groundwater; the associations with which some contaminants can be found; the different behaviors in phreatic and semi-confined and confined aquifers. To attain such a characterization for the Milan metropolitan area (about 2,500 km2, ca 4.000.000 inhabitants, Lombardy, Italy), we carried out three main activities. (1) Collection of complete and reliable datasets concerning the geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical (over 60,000 chemical analysis since 2003 to 2013) characteristics of the area and of the involved aquifers. This activity was very demanding because the available data are provided by different authorities (Lombardy Region, Provinces, Lombardy Environmental Agency - ARPA Lombardia, public own companies in charge of water system managements) in raw format and with different database standard, which required a large effort of manual verification and harmonization. (2) Completion of a hydrochemical characterization of the metropolitan area aquifers by classical statistical and multivariate statistical analyses, in order to define a baseline both for some major physical chemical characteristics and for the most relevant contaminants. (3) Development of a three dimensional hydrogeological model for the metropolitan area starting from the above listed datasets and existing models. This model will

  18. Private School Choice in the Chicago Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of private school choice in the Chicago metropolitan area are examined. Particular attention is given to the effects of race and ethnicity. Results include non-Hispanic White, Blacks, and Hispanics having a higher demand for private schools where there are higher concentrations of Blacks. Non-Hispanic Whites also have a higher…

  19. Resettlement Case Study: Impacted East Coast Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    The resettlement experiences of a Vietnamese refugee family in an East Coast metropolitan area with a large refugee influx is studied. The report is in the form of a journal written by a family member, but is actually a composite of real experiences based on information gathered from interviews with individuals knowledgeable about refugee…

  20. 2010 Library of the Year: Columbus Metropolitan Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article features Columbus Metropolitan Library (CML), winner of the Gale/"Library Journal" Library of the Year Award 2010. CML, comprised of an operations center and 21 branches, serves the 847,376 people who inhabit a large portion of Franklin County in central Ohio. It is an independent library with its own taxing district. CML…

  1. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  2. Metropolitan Housing Opportunities for Poor and Working Class Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Margery Austin; Page, Douglas B.

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory analysis of suburban housing opportunities for working class minorities, using data for the nation as a whole and for five metropolitan areas. Chapter 1 is an introduction and summary of the paper. Chapter 2, "Dimensions of the Problem," covers the following topics: (1) household incomes and…

  3. Project Wingspread. Education for Metropolitan Living: High School Curriculum Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Lloyd J.

    The curriculum overview, intended for secondary teachers, describes the general objectives, methodology, and units of the Wingspread project. Goals of the project are to prepare individuals to function in a complex society; to promote academic and social development through personal and direct involvement with problems in a metropolitan society;…

  4. [Migration and employment in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1986-04-01

    The relationship between rural-urban migration and employment in Costa Rica is explored. "The main purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions in which immigrants are absorbed in the labour market." The data are from the Survey on Migration and Employment in Metropolitan Areas carried out by the Ministry of Planning and Political Economics in 1982. (summary in ENG)

  5. 23 CFR 450.314 - Metropolitan planning agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... among the State department of transportation, State air quality agency, affected local agencies, and the... describing their respective roles and responsibilities for air quality related transportation planning. (d... Metropolitan planning agreements. (a) The MPO, the State(s), and the public transportation operator(s)...

  6. 23 CFR 450.314 - Metropolitan planning agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... among the State department of transportation, State air quality agency, affected local agencies, and the... describing their respective roles and responsibilities for air quality related transportation planning. (d... Metropolitan planning agreements. (a) The MPO, the State(s), and the public transportation operator(s)...

  7. 23 CFR 450.314 - Metropolitan planning agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... among the State department of transportation, State air quality agency, affected local agencies, and the... describing their respective roles and responsibilities for air quality related transportation planning. (d... Metropolitan planning agreements. (a) The MPO, the State(s), and the public transportation operator(s)...

  8. Disparities in Salaries: Metropolitan versus Nonmetropolitan Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Louis C.; Simpson, Lynn A.; Waller, Lee Rusty

    2009-01-01

    This article explores disparities in faculty salaries between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan Texas community colleges. The analysis reveals a significant difference in faculty salaries for the 2000 and 2005 academic years respectively. The study found no significant difference in the rate of change in faculty salaries from 2000 to 2005.…

  9. OXYGEN TRANSFER STUDIES AT THE MADISON METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies at the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District facilities were conducted over a 3-year period to obtain long-term data on the performance of fine pore aeration equipment in municipal wastewater. The studies were conducted on several basins in the East Plant containi...

  10. Metropolitan College: Building Community Value through Education-Business Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggert, Steven C.; Ash, Daniel; Boyle, Mike A.; Kinney, John; Howarth, David A.; Rudy-Parkins, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Metropolitan College is a distinctive and innovative business-education partnership that provides educational opportunities to many Kentucky residents who would otherwise be unable to attend college. The program also provides significant, tangible benefits to the business and education partners, as well as to the local and statewide community.…

  11. Rich News: Metropolitan Dailies and the Urban Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Mary Jo

    The migration of people from cities to suburbs, new patterns of advertising, a less homogeneous and unified readership, and increasing competition from other media have produced tremendous pressures on daily newspapers. In responding to these pressures, metropolitan dailies are turning from "hard" to "soft" news, away from their poorer urban…

  12. The Changing Metropolitan Designation Process and Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Randolph, Randy; Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) released new county-based designations of Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs), replacing Metropolitan Statistical Area designations that were last revised in 1990. In this article, the new designations are briefly described, and counties that have changed classifications are identified.…

  13. Law and Order in the Metropolitan Area: Issues and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Matthew, Jr.

    One of the major objectives of the University Urban Interface Program (UUIP) at the University of Pittsburgh was to develop some long-range goals for the city of Pittsburgh to improve the community. This document is specifically concerned with law and order in the metropolitan area with regard to reforms needed in the machinery. If people were to…

  14. Ethnic Settlement in a Metropolitan Area: A Typology of Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agocs, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of changing ethnic residential distributions from 1940-1970 to identify recently evolved forms of ethnic settlement in the Detroit (Michigan) metropolitan area. Identifies and classifies contemporary types of ethnic communities to expand the knowledge of ethnic settlement. (MK)

  15. Metropolitan Planning Project, 1977-78. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnoff, Steven M.

    This document provides a description of the Metropolitan Planning Project (MPP), its objectives, strategies, and an evaluation of its implementation in the Boston area. In order to encourage the voluntary elimination, reduction, and prevention of minority group isolation in elementary and secondary schools in Boston, the project focuses on two…

  16. Core IV Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul; And Others

    This core curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting a 13-unit vocational agriculture course geared toward high school students living in metropolitan areas. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: employment in agricultural occupations, supervised occupational experience, leadership in…

  17. Present Direction of Court Decisions Regarding Metropolitan Area Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1972-01-01

    Examines, from a practical viewpoint, the problems and issues related to metropolitanizing public schools by judicial decree. Reviews the significant relevant cases and extracts the controlling principles from them. Applies those principles in an effort to answer some fundamental practical questions. (Author)

  18. Metropolitan Life Foundation Educational Awards for Institutional Self-Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Life Foundation.

    Results of Metropolitan Life Foundation's Educational Awards for Institutional Self-Study program are provided. The objective of the program was to help four-year colleges and universities conduct studies on key problems and opportunities. Of the 546 institutions that submitted proposals, 28 were awarded grants totalling $227,600. The purpose and…

  19. Education, Job Openings, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide metro, state, and national policy makers with a better sense of the specific problems facing metropolitan labor markets. First, the analysis examines trends in the demand for educated labor and how a gap between education supply and demand is related to unemployment. Next, it attempts to distinguish between cyclical and…

  20. Is There a Global Role for Metropolitan City Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the potential for linking large metropolitan public libraries to international interlibrary loan networks. Issues involved in international networking, including funding, standards, network connectivity, and protectionism, are discussed. Examples of libraries capable of participating and brief descriptions of their collections are given.…

  1. Environmental conditions, political economy, and rates of injection drug use in large US metropolitan areas 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Eric T; Friedman, Samuel R; Brady, Joanne E; Pouget, Enrique R; Tempalski, Barbara; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-15

    City-specific studies have suggested the quality of the local environment and economic circumstances are associated with greater risk of injection drug use (IDU). No studies have assessed the relation among the quality of the local environment, economic circumstances, and IDU over time across US metropolitan areas. Annual numbers of IDUs in the 88 largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) were estimated by extrapolating, adjusting, and allocating existing estimates using various data sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relation among the quality of the local environment, metropolitan political economy, and IDU prevalence using lagged models taking into account potential confounders. MSAs with a worse local environment (measured as a one standard deviation difference) had a greater risk of IDU (relative risk [RR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.06); similarly, a one-percentage point worsening of the political economy for an MSA was associated with greater risk of IDU (RR=1.04-1.10). Final models stratified by region indicated heterogeneity of effect by region whereby the quality of the local environment was associated with IDU strongest in the South (RR=1.12, CI: 1.05, 1.12) followed by the West (RR=1.04, CI: 1.01, 1.07) and Midwest (RR=1.03, CI: 1.00, 1.06), and the metropolitan political economy was associated with IDU in the West (RR=1.03-1.09) and Northeast (RR=1.04-1.12). Our results underscore the importance of sociopolitical factors as determinants of IDU in MSAs. Structural solutions targeted at improving environmental conditions and economic circumstances should be considered as drug use interventions.

  2. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  3. Prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome in metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, William C; Jones, James F; Maloney, Elizabeth; Heim, Christine; Hoaglin, David C; Boneva, Roumiana S; Morrissey, Marjorie; Devlin, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness with no known cause or effective therapy. Population-based epidemiologic data on CFS prevalence are critical to put CFS in a realistic context for public health officials and others responsible for allocating resources. Methods Based on a random-digit dialing survey we ascertained CFS cases and controls to estimate the prevalence of CFS in metropolitan, urban, and rural populations of Georgia. This report focuses on the 5,623 of 19,381 respondents ages 18 to 59 years old. Fatigued (2,438), randomly selected unwell not fatigued (1,429) and randomly selected well (1,756) respondents completed telephone questionnaires concerning fatigue, other symptoms, and medical history. Subsets of those identified by interview as having CFS-like illness (292), chronic unwellness which was not CFS-like (268 – randomly selected), and well subjects (223, matched to those with CFS-like illness on sex, race, and age) completed a clinical evaluation. Results We estimated that 2.54% of persons 18 to 59 years of age suffered from CFS. There were no significant differences in prevalence of CFS between metropolitan, urban or rural populations or between white and black residents of the three regions. However, there were significant differences in female-to-male ratios of prevalence across the strata (metropolitan female: male 11.2 : 1, urban 1.7 : 1, rural 0.8 : 1). Conclusion We estimated that 2.54% of the Georgia population suffers from CFS, which is 6- to 10-fold higher than previous population-based estimates in other geographic areas. These differences may reflect broader screening criteria and differences in the application of the case definition. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that CFS prevalence may be higher in Georgia than other areas where it has been measured. Although the study did not identify differences in overall prevalence between metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia populations, it did

  4. Federal Outlays in Fiscal 1978: A Comparison of Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas. Rural Development Research Report No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendler, Charles I.; Reid, J. Norman

    The study described the patterns of government outlay to U.S. metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas for 86% of the $499 billion of federal outlays and loan guarantees made in fiscal 1978 to individual counties in the 50 states. Between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas there were considerable variations in outlays to programs in seven…

  5. What's Different Away from the Rat Race?: Issues for VET in Non-Metropolitan Australia. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena

    A review of research literature relating to vocational education and training (VET) in non-metropolitan Australia identified issues which differentially impact metropolitan and non-metropolitan Australia and research needs. Findings indicated non-metropolitan Australia is diverse in terms of population density, educational experiences of the…

  6. Evolving Groundwater Rights and Management in Metropolitan Los Angeles: Implications for Water Supply and Stormwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porse, E.; Pincetl, S.; Glickfeld, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater supports many aspects of human life. In cities, groundwater can provide a cost-effective source of water for drinking and industrial uses, while groundwater basins provide storage. The role of groundwater in a city's water supply tends to change over time. In the Los Angeles metropolitan area, groundwater is critical. Over decades, users in the region's many basins allocated annual pumping rights to groundwater among users through adjudications. These rights were determined through collective processes over decades, which contributed to the complex array of public and private organizations involved in water management. The rights also continue to evolve. We analyzed changes in the distribution of groundwater rights over time for adjudicated basins in Southern Los Angeles County. Results indicate that groundwater rights are increasingly: 1) controlled or regulated by public institutions and municipalities, and 2) consolidated among larger users. Yet, both the percentage of total supplies provided by groundwater, as well as the distribution of groundwater rights, varies widely among cities and communities throughout Los Angeles. As metropolitan Los Angeles faces reduced water imports and emphasizes local water reliance, access to pumping rights and storage capacity in groundwater basins will become even more vital. We discuss implications of our results for future urban water management.

  7. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to urbanization in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Kashuba, R.; May, J.T.; Waite, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated in nine metropolitan areas (Boston, MA; Raleigh, NC; Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Milwaukee–Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas–Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. Several invertebrate metrics showed strong, linear responses to urbanization when forest or shrublands were developed. Responses were difficult to discern in areas where urbanization was occurring on agricultural lands because invertebrate assemblages were already severely degraded. There was no evidence that assemblages showed any initial resistance to urbanization. Ordination scores, EPT taxa richness, and the average tolerance of organisms were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition at a site. Richness metrics were better indicators than abundance metrics, and qualitative samples were as good as quantitative samples. A common set of landscape variables (population density, housing density, developed landcover, impervious surface, and roads) were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses in all non-agricultural areas. The instream environmental variables (hydrology, water chemistry, habitat, and temperature) that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses were influenced by environmental setting (e.g., dominant ecoregion) and varied widely among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical regression models were developed that predicted invertebrate responses using only two landcover variables—basinscale landcover (percentage of basin area in developed land) and regional-scale landcover (antecedent agricultural land).

  8. Urban irrigation effects on WRF-UCM summertime forecast skill over the Los Angeles metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-10-01

    In the current study, we explicitly address the impacts of urban irrigation on the local hydrological cycle by integrating a previously developed irrigation scheme within the coupled framework of the Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Canopy Models (WRF-UCM) over the semiarid Los Angeles metropolitan area. We focus on the impacts of irrigation on the urban water cycle and atmospheric feedback. Our results demonstrate a significant sensitivity of WRF-UCM simulated surface turbulent fluxes to the incorporation of urban irrigation. Introducing anthropogenic moisture, vegetated pixels show a shift in the energy partitioning toward elevated latent heat fluxes. The cooling effects of irrigation on daily peak air temperatures are evident over all three urban types, with the largest influence over low-intensity residential areas (average cooling of 1.64°C). The evaluation of model performance via comparison against CIMIS (California Irrigation Management Information System) evapotranspiration (ET) estimates indicates that WRF-UCM, after adding irrigation, performs reasonably during the course of the month of July, tracking day-to-day variability of ET with notable consistency. In the nonirrigated case, CIMIS-based ET fluctuations are significantly underestimated by the model. Our analysis shows the importance of accurate representation of urban irrigation in modeling studies, especially over water-scarce regions such as the Los Angeles metropolitan area. We also illustrate that the impacts of irrigation on simulated energy and water cycles are more critical for longer-term simulations due to the interactions between irrigation and soil moisture fluctuations.

  9. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; VETORATTO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malasseziayeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective crosssectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease. PMID:26422149

  10. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands

  11. Metropolitan Seismic Observation Network (MeSO-net) in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.; Sakai, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Urabe, T.; Takano, K.; Sasaki, S.; Kato, A.; Sekine, S.; Obara, K.; Tanada, T.; Hirata, N.

    2007-12-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes damaged mega- thrust earthquakes. The Dai-Dai-Toku Project revealed the geometry of the upper surface of PSP, and estimated a rupture process and a ground motion of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. However, these results are not sufficient for the assessment of the entire picture of the seismic hazards beneath the metropolitan Tokyo area including those due to an intra-slab M7+ earthquake. So, we have started a new project, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Metropolitan Tokyo area. Proving the more detailed geometry and physical properties (e.g. velocities, densities, attenuation) of PSP is very important to attain this issue. The core item of this project is the dense seismic array observation in metropolitan area, which is called the MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network). The MeSO-net consists of 400 stations including those in Hakone, a Data Center at ERI (Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo), and a Sub-Center at NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention), at which the data are backuped and integrated with the Hi-net data. In order to obtain the high resolution images of a velocity and Q structure, it is requested to construct a seismic network with a spacing of 2-5 km. The total number of seismic stations of the MeSO-net will be about 400. The MeSO-net is to be deployed in 4 years and will provide useful datasets. Since the metropolitan area is surrounded with cultural noises, seismographs are installed at the bottom of the 20-m-deep borehole. Seismographs, data of which are digitized at the bottom of observation well, are three- component acceleration type with the maximum measurable acceleration of ±2G (dynamic range of 135 dB or more). The seismic data with a sampling rate of 200 Hz are telemetered to the Data Center using UDP/IP protocol. We adopt an autonomous cooperative seismic

  12. Occurrence and potential sources of pyrethroid insecticides in stream sediments from seven U.S. metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn; Hladik, Michelle; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A nationally consistent approach was used to assess the occurrence and potential sources of pyrethroid insecticides in stream bed sediments from seven metropolitan areas across the United States. One or more pyrethroids were detected in almost half of the samples, with bifenthrin detected the most frequently (41%) and in each metropolitan area. Cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, and resmethrin were detected much less frequently. Pyrethroid concentrations and Hyalella azteca mortality in 28-d tests were lower than in most urban stream studies. Log-transformed total pyrethroid toxic units (TUs) were significantly correlated with survival and bifenthrin was likely responsible for the majority of the observed toxicity. Sampling sites spanned a wide range of urbanization and log-transformed total pyrethroid concentrations were significantly correlated with urban land use. Dallas/Fort Worth had the highest pyrethroid detection frequency (89%), the greatest number of pyrethroids (4), and some of the highest concentrations. Salt Lake City had a similar percentage of detections but only bifenthrin was detected and at lower concentrations. The variation in pyrethroid concentrations among metropolitan areas suggests regional differences in pyrethroid use and transport processes. This study shows that pyrethroids commonly occur in urban stream sediments and may be contributing to sediment toxicity across the country.

  13. High resolution of anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of 12 heavy metals in the three biggest metropolitan areas, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H.; Zhu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. An integrated inventory of anthropogenic emissions of twelve HMs (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) in the three biggest metropolitan areas, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region and Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, are developed for 1980-2012 by combining with detailed activity data and inter-annual dynamic emission factors which are determined by S-shaped curves on account of technology progress, economic development, and emission control. The results indicate total emissions of twelve HMs in the three metropolitan regions have increased from 5448.8 tons in 1980 to 19054.9 tons in 2012, with an annual average growth rate of about 4.0%. Due to significant difference in industrial structures and energy consumption compositions, remarkable distinctions can be observed with respect to source contributions of total HM emissions from above three metropolitan areas. Specifically, the ferrous metal smelting sector, coal combustion by industrial boilers and coal combustion by power plants are found to be the primary source of total HM emissions in the BTH region (about 34.2%), YRD region (about 28.2%) and PRD region (about 24.3%), respectively. Furthermore, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2012 at a high spatial resolution of 9 km × 9 km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). The peak of HM emissions are mainly distributed over the grid cells of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Baoding in the BTH region; Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo in the YRD region; Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan in the PYD region, respectively. Additionally, monthly emission profiles are established in order to further identify

  14. Pharmacogenomics in diverse practice settings: implementation beyond major metropolitan areas

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Elizabeth H; Trinidad, Susan Brown; Morales, Chelsea T; Howlett, Kevin; Burke, Wylie; Woodahl, Erica L

    2015-01-01

    Aim The limited formal study of the clinical feasibility of implementing pharmacogenomic tests has thus far focused on providers at large medical centers in urban areas. Our research focuses on small metropolitan, rural and tribal practice settings. Materials & methods We interviewed 17 healthcare providers in western Montana regarding pharmacogenomic testing. Results Participants were optimistic about the potential of pharmacogenomic tests, but noted unique barriers in small and rural settings including cost, adherence, patient acceptability and testing timeframe. Participants in tribal settings identified heightened sensitivity to genetics and need for community leadership approval as additional considerations. Conclusion Implementation differences in small metropolitan, rural and tribal communities may affect pharmacogenomic test adoption and utilization, potentially impacting many patients. PMID:25712186

  15. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  16. Epidemic Process over the Commute Network in a Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival. PMID:24905831

  17. Principal faults in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Summary -- This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, documents and refines the locations of principal faults mapped in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area in previous studies. Numerous subsurface faults have been documented beneath the Houston metropolitan area at depths of 3,200 to 13,000 feet. Some of these subsurface faults have affected shallower sediments, offset the present land surface (which has resulted in substantial, costly damage), and produced recognizable fault scarps. Evidence from previous studies indicates that these faults are natural geologic features with histories of movement spanning tens of thousands to millions of years. Present-day scarps reflect only the most recent displacements of faults that were active long before the present land surface of the area was formed. The precision of previously mapped fault locations was enhanced by overlaying mapped faults on a digital elevation model (DEM) of Harris County derived using light detection and ranging (Lidar). Lidar is a high-precision, laser-based system that enables collection of high-resolution topographic data. Previously mapped faults were adjusted to coincide with surface features that clearly indicate faults, which were made visible by the high-resolution topography depicted on the Lidar-derived DEM. Results of a previous study, supported by this study, indicate that faults in the southeastern part of the metropolitan area primarily occur in well-defined groups of high fault density. Faults in northern and western parts of the metropolitan area tend to occur either individually or in pairs with little tendency to cluster in high-density groups.

  18. Epidemic process over the commute network in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival.

  19. Fatigue factors affecting metropolitan bus drivers: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Herbert; Dingsdag, Donald; Stenson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan bus drivers daily face work in a stressful and draining work environment, exposing them to the serious risk of driver fatigue. However, there has been a dearth of information exploring the unique antecedents and effects of such fatigue. To date, much of the research into metropolitan bus drivers has been under the umbrella of large heavy vehicle driving studies, which include a disproportionally large population of long-haul drivers, who are likely to face a significantly different set of fatigue factors [1]. The present study aimed to investigate which work and environmental factors may cause fatigue in metropolitan bus drivers by seeking drivers' own perspectives on the issues. To this end, focus groups were held at five bus depots in Sydney and Newcastle, with an effort made to include a stratified sample of drivers at each. Each of the groups were invited to nominate what factors they felt were most salient, with a number of common factors emerging across the depots. Key themes identified were: support from management; ticketing and related issues; interaction with passengers; cabin ergonomics; tight route schedules; turn-around and shift irregularity; extended shift cycles; interactions with other road users; and extended commute times.

  20. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  1. BoulSat Project: Low-Cost Wireless Metropolitan Network Implementation in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catusian, Samuele S.; Longobardi, Federico; Panicucci, Francesco; Bartalesi, Raphael P.; Demi, Libertario; Cuomo, Antonio D.; Orlandi, Silvano

    The BoulSat Project involves the realization of a bidirectional VSAT (satellite connection system) and the study of "poor" a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) to extend the Internet connectivity to the public institutions in the town area. Low-cost or waste materials have been used to build components where possible, thus to make possible for the local technicians with no specific and theoretical skills to build their network components by hand. This pilot scheme has been applied in Boulsa, in the Sahel region at the north of Burkina Faso. Besides the Boulsa case study, the whole work analyses a typical situation, due to the wide range of problems which have been handled, of remote communities in the South of the World. The aim is to characterize a standard of intervention, suitable for Developing Countries, to set up low-cost wireless telecommunication infrastructures.

  2. Urban effects on low-level clouds around the Tokyo metropolitan area on clear summer days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tadao; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-03-01

    The frequency distribution of low-level clouds was estimated around the Tokyo metropolitan area on summer days without regional-scale cloud cover using NOAA satellite images from 1200 to 1500 LST during an 11-year period. The urban area is determined by the NDVI obtained by the same satellite. The low-level cloud frequency is higher over this large urban area than over rural areas in the early afternoon, especially over the radially extending urban areas along major highways or railways from the metropolis. We can conclude that the frequency of the low-level clouds is enhanced over the urban area, since the cloud frequency is negatively well correlated with the NDVI and their peaks fit well within a shift of about 2 km. The frequency of low-level clouds, however, is quite low in the coastal zone, even in the urban area, because of sea breezes.

  3. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff from nine sites in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Johnnie W.

    1981-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data were collected April through September 1980, from nine urbanrunoff sites in the Denver metropolitan area, and are presented in this report. The sites consist of two single-family residential areas, two multi-family residential areas, one commercial area (shopping center), one mixed commercial and multi-family residential area, one native area (open space), and two detention ponds. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, water-quality (common constituents, nutrients, coliform bacteria, solids, and trace elements) and basin-area data are necessary to use the U.S. Geological Survey 's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model, Version II. The urban storm-runoff data may be used to characterize runoff pollution loading for various land-use types in Denver and other semi-arid regions. (USGS)

  4. Fitting the Incidence Data from the City of Campinas, Brazil, Based on Dengue Transmission Modellings Considering Time-Dependent Entomological Parameters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Mo; Boldrini, José Luiz; Fassoni, Artur César; Freitas, Luiz Fernando Souza; Gomez, Miller Ceron; de Lima, Karla Katerine Barboza; Andrade, Valmir Roberto; Freitas, André Ricardo Ribas

    2016-01-01

    Four time-dependent dengue transmission models are considered in order to fit the incidence data from the City of Campinas, Brazil, recorded from October 1st 1995 to September 30th 2012. The entomological parameters are allowed to depend on temperature and precipitation, while the carrying capacity and the hatching of eggs depend only on precipitation. The whole period of incidence of dengue is split into four periods, due to the fact that the model is formulated considering the circulation of only one serotype. Dengue transmission parameters from human to mosquito and mosquito to human are fitted for each one of the periods. The time varying partial and overall effective reproduction numbers are obtained to explain the incidence of dengue provided by the models.

  5. [Spatial analysis of counting data with excess zeros applied to the study of dengue incidence in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, José Vilton; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda; Donalísio, Maria Rita

    2016-08-08

    Dengue incidence occurs predominantly within city limits. Identifying spatial distribution of the disease at the local level helps formulate strategies to control and prevent the disease. Spatial analysis of counting data for small areas commonly violates the assumptions of traditional Poisson models due to the excessive amount of zeros. This study compared the performance of four counting models used in mapping diseases: Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial. The methods were compared in a simulation study. The models analyzed in the simulation were applied to a spatial ecological study of dengue data aggregated by census tracts in the city of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007. Spatial analysis was conducted with Bayesian hierarchical models. The zero-inflated Poisson model showed the best performance for estimating relative risk of dengue incidence in the census tracts.

  6. Public Perception of the Concentration of Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Surgery to Metropolitan Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kun Sei; Jeong, Hyo Seon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Oh, Gyung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigates the perception of the general public regarding the concentration to metropolitan, hospitals of cardiac and cerebrovascular surgeries, and the perceived public need for government policies to resolve this issue. Methods A total of 800 participants were recruited for our telephone interview survey. Quota sampling was performed, adjusting for age and sex, to select by various geographic regions. Sampling with random digit dialing was performed; we called the randomly generated telephone numbers and made three attempts for non-responders before moving on to a different telephone number. Results Our sample population was 818 participants, 401 men (49.0%) and 417 women (51.0%). Our data showed that 85.5% of participants thought that cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients are concentrated in large hospitals in Seoul. The principle reason for regional patients to want to receive surgery at major hospitals in Seoul was because of poor medical standards associated with regional hospitals (87.7%). We found that a vast majority of participants (97.5%) felt that government policies are needed to even out the clustering of cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients, and that this clustering may be alleviated if policies that can specifically enhance the quality and the capacity of regional hospitals to carry out surgeries are adopted (98.3%). Conclusion Government policy making must reflect public desiderata, and we suggest that these public health needs may be partially resolved through government-designated cardiac and neurosurgery specialist hospitals in regional areas. PMID:28035297

  7. 77 FR 63781 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Quality Management Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  8. 77 FR 47581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  9. 75 FR 18143 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  10. 23 CFR 450.306 - Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and... competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency; (2) Increase the safety of the transportation system for...

  11. 23 CFR 450.306 - Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and... competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency; (2) Increase the safety of the transportation system for...

  12. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Mattia; Filipponi, Federico; D’Alessandro, Antonello; Screti, Alessia; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Solimini, Angelo; della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy), which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site) were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with “small green islands” corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are likely higher

  13. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  14. Real-time earthquake shake, damage, and loss mapping for Istanbul metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zülfikar, A. Can; Fercan, N. Özge Zülfikar; Tunç, Süleyman; Erdik, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The past devastating earthquakes in densely populated urban centers, such as the 1994 Northridge; 1995 Kobe; 1999 series of Kocaeli, Düzce, and Athens; and 2011 Van-Erciş events, showed that substantial social and economic losses can be expected. Previous studies indicate that inadequate emergency response can increase the number of casualties by a maximum factor of 10, which suggests the need for research on rapid earthquake shaking damage and loss estimation. The reduction in casualties in urban areas immediately following an earthquake can be improved if the location and severity of damages can be rapidly assessed by information from rapid response systems. In this context, a research project (TUBITAK-109M734) titled "Real-time Information of Earthquake Shaking, Damage, and Losses for Target Cities of Thessaloniki and Istanbul" was conducted during 2011-2014 to establish the rapid estimation of ground motion shaking and related earthquake damages and casualties for the target cities. In the present study, application to Istanbul metropolitan area is presented. In order to fulfill this objective, earthquake hazard and risk assessment methodology known as Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine, which was developed for the Euro-Mediterranean region within the Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology EC-FP6 project, was used. The current application to the Istanbul metropolitan area provides real-time ground motion information obtained by strong motion stations distributed throughout the densely populated areas of the city. According to this ground motion information, building damage estimation is computed by using grid-based building inventory, and the related loss is then estimated. Through this application, the rapidly estimated information enables public and private emergency management authorities to take action and allocate and prioritize resources to minimize the casualties in urban areas during immediate post-earthquake periods. Moreover, it

  15. Dynamic metropolitan landscapes: Residential development and vegetation change in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jantz, Patrick Arthur

    Residential development is now a major contributor to land surface change in the U.S. From 1990 - 2000, over thirteen million housing units were added to the nation's housing stock which stood at 102.3 million in 1990. Another 15.8 million housing units were added from 2000 - 2010. Of particular concern is the ongoing increase in low-density residential development because of its large resource footprint and biodiversity impacts. In this dissertation I pose three broad questions 1) What were the trends in residential development in the U.S. from 1990 - 2000? 2) What were the trends in rural conversion to low-density residential use from 1990 - 2000 in the Mid-Atlantic and the Pacific Northwest and what social and environmental factors help explain these trends? 3) What were the effects of rural conversion to residential use on vegetation productivity in the Mid-Atlantic and the Pacific Northwest from 2000 - 2010? To answer these questions I created a database derived from U.S. Census blocks that allows for interdecadal comparison of recent housing density change in support of spatial demographic research. In a series of GIS based analyses I used the database to map changes in metropolitan housing density distributions in the Mid-Atlantic and western Washington regions and used a satellite derived index of vegetation productivity to assess the impacts of housing growth on vegetation carbon uptake. Results indicate that residential housing growth is more dynamic than previously thought and established approaches for mapping housing density tend to underestimate the local intensity of residential change. In the Mid-Atlantic and western Washington, low-density residential development is affecting large fractions of rural landscapes in metropolitan areas. The strongest correlates of low-density conversion of rural landscapes were population growth and extent of protected lands, suggesting future directions for modeling the drivers of rural conversion. Residential

  16. Metropolitan migration and labor market changes by industry.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, M M

    1984-07-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to analyze gross [U.S.] metropolitan migration of persons employed in selected...industries. An empirically testable model was developed for migration, employment change, and earnings change and implemented using data from the Social Security Administration's ten percent Continuous Work History Sample. The results showed that a significant percentage of the migration flows can be explained by the variables in the model.... Differences in cyclic and structural economic variables are noted in terms of their importance across the specified industries. The public policy implications of these results are identified."

  17. VNTR polymorphism in the Buenos Aires, Argentina, metropolitan population.

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Corach, D

    1997-12-01

    VNTR loci provide a wealth of information for human genetic research, ranging from gene mapping to paternity testing and forensic identification. In this study we report the construction, validation, and analysis of the first local genetic database for VNTR markers for Argentina. A sample of the metropolitan population of Buenos Aires was typed by means of six VNTR systems. Allele frequencies and expected heterozygosity were calculated. The sample set was further tested for departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and power of exclusion. Allele frequency distributions are compatible with previously reported data on Caucasian populations, and no departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected.

  18. Ryan White CARE Act and Eligible Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Title I of the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act provides emergency assistance to eligible metropolitan areas (EMAs) to provide a continuum of care and services to people living with HIV disease. This article presents the results of a 2000-2001 survey of the 51 Title I Planning Councils. EMAs are serving significant numbers of females, with black and Hispanic persons constituting a majority of people served in 33 EMAs. Among the difficult to serve are substance abusers, people with chronic mental illness, multi-diagnosed people, the homeless, black males who have sex with males, and Hispanic persons. PMID:12500476

  19. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  20. Three-dimensional behaviour of photochemical pollutants covering the Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Itsushi; Wakamatsu, Shinji; Suzuki, Makoto; Ogawa, Yasushi

    The spatial distribution and transport process of photochemical pollutants covering the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan were investigated from 31 July to 2 August 1979. In the experiment, the vertical profiles of pollutants were observed using four instrumented aircraft. This paper mainly considers the transport process of the polluted air mass using three-dimensional trajectory analysis in which the wind field was determined by objective analysis techniques from pilot-balloon observation data. In the Tokyo Metropolitan Area the sea-land breeze circulation is an important factor in photochemical oxidant formation inland when the geostrophic wind is weak. The night-time radiation inversion which persists into the early morning prevents the dispersion of primary pollutants emitted from the big coastal industrial zones around Tokyo Bay. These pollutants are then advected by the land breeze to the Sagami Bay area which acts as storage tank. Conversion of such pollutants results in a high O 3 air mass inland with the penetration of the sea breeze. The sea breeze layer is thermally stable and inhibits vertical mixing of NO x. On the other hand, at the front of the sea breeze zone, a highly turbulent area transports the NO x to 1000-1500 m above mean sea level. Polluted air masses, with O 3 concentration exceeding 100 ppb, were observed at 500-1000 m on both 31 July and 1 August 1979. The maximum O 3 concentration on the 2nd day exceeded that on the 1st day. These high O 3 air masses contained aged pollutant and were entrained into the mixing layer as the depth of the mixing layer increased. This accelerated the formation rate of secondary pollutants. These early morning, high O 3 concentrations, and the storage capacity of the Sagami Bay area, are important factors in the time scale of air pollution phenomena in this region.

  1. [Regional development planning and migration: the fourth comprehensive national development plan].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, K

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, the National Land Agency of Japan published the Development Plan for the National Capital Region and the outline of the 4th Comprehensive National Development Plan. Ever since the 1st Comprehensive National Development Plan in 1962, basic objectives of the plans have been well-balanced development of national land, adjustment of regional disparities, and dissolution of overcongestion and depopulation. Japan experienced rapid urbanization in the period from the war reconstruction of the 1940s through the high economic growth of the 1950s and 1960s. Particularly, during the high economic growth of the 1960s, the concentration of population and industry was extremely notable in the 3 metropolitan regions centering around Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. There are indications of increases in excess migration to metropolitan regions once again, but this is due to increases of migration only to the Tokyo Metropolitan Regions. No such indications are seen for the Nagoya and Osaka Metropolitan Regions. Tokyo Metropolitan Regions are changing more and more, as a important international center of banking and information in the world; on the other hand, Osaka is lessening its sphere of influence. Particularly, from the 1980s, the concentration of population and nucleus functional institutions is extremely notable in the Tokyo Metropolitan Regions. The main objective of this paper is to analyze Tokyo New Industrial Cities, and other depopulated areas, through the distribution of population and the location of industry.

  2. Modeling large Mexican urban metropolitan areas by a Vicsek Szalay approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcio, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi

    2011-08-01

    A modified Vicsek-Szalay model is introduced. From this, experiments are performed in order to simulate the spatial morphology of the largest metropolitan area of México: a set of clusters formed by the Valle de México metropolitan area (VMMA), Puebla metropolitan area (PMA) and Toluca metropolitan area (TMA). This case is presented in detail and here is called the Central México metropolitan area (CMMA). To verify the effectiveness of our approach we study two other cases; the set of clusters formed by the Monterrey zone (MZ, formed by the Monterrey metropolitan area and the Saltillo City metropolitan area) and the Chihuahua zone (ChZ, formed by the Chihuahua metropolitan area, Delicias City and Cuauthemoc City ), with acceptable results. Besides we compute three different fractal measures for all our areas of interest (AOI). In this paper, we focus on the global feature of these fractal measures in the description of urban geography and obtained local information which normally comes from inner city structures and small scale human decisions. Finally, we verified that the Zipf law is fulfilled by our simulated urban morphologies, so we know that our model follows it. As is normal for actual city size distributions, the CMMA case is presented in detail. We intend to pave the way in the understanding of population spatial distribution in a geographical space.

  3. Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

  4. Information through Cooperative Action Library Services in Metropolitan Washington. Annual Report, 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Marilyn, Ed.

    The Librarians Technical Committee of the Metropolitan Washington D.C. Council of Governments (COG) is responsible for developing cooperative programs among libraries in the Washington metropolitan area (including parts of Maryland and Virginia), among libraries of all types, and between libraries and other agencies. The committee facilitates use…

  5. City-Suburban Desegregation. Parent and Student Perspectives in Metropolitan Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Arenson, Jennifer; Jackson, Tara; Bohrer, Christine; Gavin, Dawn; Kalejs, Emily

    This report explores the continued and intense interest in the nation's largest transfer of inner-city students to suburban high schools, that of the Boston (Massachusetts) metropolitan area. The Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunities (METCO) was established by black educators and parents in 1963 to offer students the opportunity to…

  6. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  7. State of Metropolitan America: On the Front Lines of Demographic Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookings Institution, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report marks the inaugural edition of a regular summary report in Brookings' "State of Metropolitan America" series. It focuses on the major demographic forces transforming the nation and large metropolitan areas in the 2000s. In this sense, it previews what people will learn from the results of the 2010 census, as well as supplements those…

  8. Metropolitan Growth and Economic Opportunity for the Poor: If You're Poor Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Bey, John A.

    This paper focuses on why metropolitan areas vary in their capacity to translate generally high employment rates into economic opportunity for the disadvantaged. Data come from the Urban Institute's Urban Underclass Database, which includes poverty and employment data for 1980 and 1990 for the 100 largest metropolitan areas down to the Census…

  9. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time System Management Information Program § 511.313 Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement. (a... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information...

  10. Taking the Metropolitan University to a Rural Community: The Role of a Needs Assessment Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Shamima

    1999-01-01

    When metropolitan universities refer to serving the entire metropolitan area, they often refer to rural fringes as well as concentrated urban populations. Working with rural communities requires somewhat different approaches to planning programs and understanding needs. Survey research helps the campus understand the perceptions and realities of…

  11. 76 FR 34576 - Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area; OMB Approval of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 1 and 93 RIN 2120-AI17 Washington, DC Metropolitan... certain information collection. The rule titled ``Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules... Operations Airspace and AIM, 800 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone (202)...

  12. Challenging Boundaries, Changing Fate? Metropolitan Inequality and the Legacy of "Milliken"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Finnigan, Kara S.; Diem, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background: This article examines the contemporary implications of the "Milliken v. Bradley" (1974) decision for educational inequality between school districts in U.S. metropolitan areas. We focus upon four metropolitan areas that were highly segregated in the 1970s but which met different fates in court: We first examine Detroit and…

  13. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    PubMed Central

    Klas, Regina; Lacerda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male), with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15); all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%), school difficulties (39.6%), and midlevel hearing problems (32%). Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%). The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3%) to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%), as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%). A significant relationship (p = 0.0000) between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens. PMID:25992085

  14. Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

  15. Investigation of norovirus occurrence in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heetae; Kim, Misoon; Lee, Jung Eun; Lim, Miyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Ju-Mi; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Kim, Jongmin; Ko, GwangPyo

    2011-05-01

    Groundwater is an important source of drinking and household water worldwide. Hence, the quality of groundwater is very important for preventing waterborne disease outbreaks and should be properly monitored. This study investigated the prevalence of waterborne viruses and fecal indicators in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. A total of 116 samples of groundwater were taken using NanoCeram filters during both summer (June to August) and fall-winter seasons (October to December) in 2008. Among 71 sampling sites, 28 (48.3%) and 18 (35.3%) were positive for norovirus (NoV) from the summer and fall-winter season, respectively. The identified genotypes of NoV include GI-1, 4, 8, 9 and GII-4, 10, 11 (or 17), 13, 15 (or 16). None of fecal indicators was significantly correlated with NoV in groundwater. Among the tested fecal indicators, somatic coliphage (95.3%) showed an excellent true-negative rate of NoV occurrence. The combination of chemical, microbial and viral indicators increased the positive predictive value (50-100%). This study demonstrated a high prevalence of NoV in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul areas and characterized the positive and negative predictive values of a fecal indicator for predicting NoV prevalence.

  16. How Can Improvements Be Made to the United States Metrorail System (With a Focus on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Metrorail System) to Enhance Safety for Its Riders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Understanding of the United States Metrorail System ................................................... 5 New York City Transit...Metropolitan Area Transit System. However, this research studied the largest (New York City ) and the smallest (Greater Cleveland Regional Transit...York City Transit This system is the largest of the 14 United States Metrorail Systems, based on annual ridership in 2014. This system opened in 1904

  17. Partnering with State Government to Transform a Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, John D.; Lukens, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An engaged metropolitan university can play a critical role in transforming its region by using its resources for the solution of problems and the improvement of the citizens' lives and livelihoods. California State University, Fresno has impacted its region through university-led collaborations and partnerships such as the Fresno Regional Jobs…

  18. Transitioning to a low-carbon climate-smart metropolitan America

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Southworth, Frank; Sarzynski, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the climate challenge requires the leadership of metropolitan America. With two-thirds of the U.S. population and nearly three-quarters of the nation s economic activity residing in the nation s 100 largest metropolitan areas, urban centers account for much of the nation s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, metropolitan America is the traditional locus of technological, entrepreneurial, and policy innovations. Its access to capital and a highly trained workforce have enabled metropolitan areas to play a pivotal role in expanding U.S. business opportunities while solving environmental challenges. With supportive federal policies, metropolitan areas can provide the low-carbon climate-smart leadership that is required to meet the nation s targets and timetables necessary to avoid dangerous levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases.

  19. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  20. [Social, individual and programmatic vulnerability among the elderly in the community: data from the FIBRA Study conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Natália Oliveira; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2012-08-01

    Sociocultural and economic conditions interact with biological processes throughout the course of life determining vulnerability or resilience in old age. The scope of this study was to investigate relationships between social vulnerability (gender, age and income); individual vulnerability (comorbidities, signs and symptoms, functional ability, perceived social support and perceived health), and programmatic vulnerability (indices of dependence on the public health system, social vulnerability and access to health services) in a sample of individuals aged 65 and more. 688 elderly people were interviewed in a single data gathering session in their homes in 88 selected urban census sectors in Campinas. 470 of the interviewees were women, with more comorbidities and more signals and symptoms, though more socially engaged in AADL and IADL than men. Mean age was 72.28 ± 5.41; mean family income = 4.72 ± 5.28 minimum wages. The variables with most explanatory power over the joint variation of the data were access and use of health services, levels of social vulnerability and dependence on public healthcare services, and family income. Social conditions as well as family income coexist with individual vulnerability in old age.

  1. Evaluation of Data on Live Birth Certificates from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC) in Campinas, São Paulo, 2009☆

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Guilherme Paiva; Chiquetto, Letícia; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo; Bazan, Ivan Gilberto M.; Daolio, Luísa Dias; Lemos, Jéssica J. Rocha; Carniel, Emília de Faria

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the completeness and reliability of the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc) data. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the reliability and completeness of Sinasc's data was performed using a sample of Live Birth Certificate (LBC) from 2009, related to births from Campinas, Southeast Brazil. For data analysis, hospitals were grouped according to category of service (Unified National Health System, private or both), 600 LBCs were randomly selected and the data were collected in LBC-copies through mothers and newborns' hospital records and by telephone interviews. The completeness of LBCs was evaluated, calculating the percentage of blank fields, and the LBCs agreement comparing the originals with the copies was evaluated by Kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results: The percentage of completeness of LBCs ranged from 99.8%-100%. For the most items, the agreement was excellent. However, the agreement was acceptable for marital status, maternal education and newborn infants' race/color, low for prenatal visits and presence of birth defects, and very low for the number of deceased children. Conclusion: The results showed that the municipality Sinasc is reliable for most of the studied variables. Investments in training of the professionals are suggested in an attempt to improve system capacity to support planning and implementation of health activities for the benefit of maternal and child population. PMID:25479847

  2. A medical geography of perinatal mortality in Metropolitan Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Rip, M R; Keen, C S; Kibel, M A

    1986-09-27

    An infant's weight at birth as well as its socio-economic environment are recognized as constituting two of the major risk factors associated with perinatal mortality. Spatial analyses of birth weight, socio-economic status and perinatal mortality in Metropolitan Cape Town for the year 1982 are presented in an attempt to assess the relationship between these variables at the suburb (or community) level. Variations in perinatal mortality for each suburb were found to be highly correlated with variations in the distribution of low birth weights. Overall, it would appear that the geography of the interrelationship between low birth weight and perinatal mortality tends, in part, to mirror long-standing gradients in socio-economic status--particularly for those coloured communities which show high perinatal death rates. To what extent these variations are associated with available antenatal and infant health care services can only be postulated. Points for possible community intervention are suggested.

  3. Swine trichinellosis in slaughterhouses of the metropolitan area of Toluca.

    PubMed

    Monroy, H; Flores-Trujillo, M; Benitez, E; Arriaga, C

    2001-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis infections in abattoirs of the metropolitan area of Toluca where pigs from commercial farms as well as backyard pigs are slaughtered, 539 swine diaphragm tissue samples were collected and examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. Serum samples from the same animals were analyzed by ELISA using somatic and excretory/secretory antigens, and by Western blot analysis. T. spiralis muscle larvae were not found by trichinoscopy or artificial digestion. However, specific antibodies were detected by ELISA and confirmed by Western blotting in 12.4% of the serum samples examined. Analysis of risk factors showed no association of seropositive results with sex. However, significant higher risk was observed in swine seven to 12 months old and in backyard pigs, compared with pigs from commercial farms.

  4. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed. PMID:22478407

  5. Aerosol Optical Thickness Variability in the New York Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liepert, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    In July 2003 this field study was performed as part of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Summer Program "Institute for Climate and Planets". The spatial variability of aerosol spectral optical thickness (AOT) in the New York Metropolitan area was measured with a hand held sun photometer "Microtops II". Measurements were taken on board of a cruise ship around Manhattan, and several transects from North to South and East to West within New York City including on top of the Empire State Building. These data are compared to other available ground observations of urban aerosols and to satellite data from MODIS. Consequences of the spatial variability of the effect of urban aerosols on climate will be discussed.

  6. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  7. Skinner boxes for psychotics: operant conditioning at Metropolitan State Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named "Studies in Behavior Therapy," was renamed "Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory" in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed.

  8. Analysis of fatal train-pedestrian collisions in metropolitan Chicago 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Savage, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes spatial and temporal data on fatal train-pedestrian collisions in the Chicago metropolitan area between 2004 and 2012. In comparing different municipalities within the region, the density of grade crossings and stations is found to increase the frequency of unintentional deaths. However, unintentional deaths do not increase with train volume suggesting that pedestrians may exercise more care around busier lines. The distribution of apparent intentional deaths is less strongly related to the density of crossings and stations suggesting that those intending self-harm will seek out a point of access. Apparent intentional deaths are more prevalent on lines with frequent passenger trains, and in municipalities with higher incomes and lower population densities. While most of the apparent intentional deaths (about 70%) are not associated with any copycat activities, the dataset contains possible clusters of intentional deaths that are proximate in both time and space. There was also a highly publicized suicide that led to a 95% increase in apparent intentional deaths throughout the region in the 18 weeks following the incident.

  9. Seismic hazard in the Istanbul metropolitan area: A preliminary re-evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, E.; Gulkan, Polat; Ozturk, N.Y.; Celebi, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, two destructive earthquakes (M7.4 Kocaeli and M7.2 Duzce) occurred in the north west of Turkey and resulted in major stress-drops on the western segment of the North Anatolian Fault system where it continues under the Marmara Sea. These undersea fault segments were recently explored using bathymetric and reflection surveys. These recent findings helped to reshape the seismotectonic environment of the Marmara basin, which is a perplexing tectonic domain. Based on collected new information, seismic hazard of the Marmara region, particularly Istanbul Metropolitan Area and its vicinity, were re-examined using a probabilistic approach. Two seismic source and alternate recurrence models combined with various indigenous and foreign attenuation relationships were adapted within a logic tree formulation to quantify and project the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. The hazard maps show the peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral acceleration at 1.0 s. These acceleration levels were computed for 2 and 10 % probabilities of transcendence in 50 years.

  10. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  11. Spatial patterns of land use changes across a Mediterranean metropolitan landscape: implications for biodiversity management.

    PubMed

    Başnou, Corina; Álvarez, Enrique; Bagaria, Guillem; Guardiola, Moisès; Isern, Rosó; Vicente, Paloma; Pino, Joan

    2013-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) is an acknowledged cause of the current biodiversity crisis, but the link between LUCC and biodiversity conservation remains largely unknown at the regional scale, especially due to the traditional lack of consistent biodiversity data. We provide a methodological approach for assessing this link through defining a set of major pressures on biodiversity from LUCC and evaluating their extent, distribution, and association with a set of physical factors. The study was performed in the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona (MRB, NE of Spain) between 1956 and 2000. We generated a LUCC map for the time period, which was reclassified into a set of pressures on biodiversity (forestation, deforestation, crop abandonment, and urbanization). We then explored the association of these pressures with a set of physical factors using redundancy analysis (RDA). Pressures encompassed 38.8% of the MRB area. Urbanization and forestation were the dominating pressures, followed by crop abandonment and deforestation. RDA showed a significant distribution gradient of these pressures in relation to the studied physical factors: while forestation and deforestation are concentrated in remote mountain areas, urbanization mainly occurs in lowlands and especially on the coast, and close to previous urban centers and roads. Unchanged areas are concentrated in rainy and relatively remote mountain areas. Results also showed a dramatic loss of open habitats and of the traditional land use gradient, both featuring Mediterranean landscapes and extremely important for their biodiversity conservation. Implications of these results for biodiversity management are finally discussed.

  12. Local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Many cities around the world are located in mountainous areas. Understanding local circulations in mountainous urban areas is important for improving local weather and air quality prediction as well as understanding thermally forced mesoscale flow dynamics. In this study, we examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model. Ulaanbaatar lies in an east-west-oriented valley between the northern base of Mt. Bogd Khan and the southern base of branches of the Khentiin Nuruu mountain range. Idealized summertime fair-weather conditions with no synoptic winds are considered. In the daytime, mountain upslope winds, up-valley winds, and urban breeze circulation form and interact with each other. Mountain upslope winds precede up-valley winds. It is found that the transition of upslope winds to downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan occurs and the downslope winds in the afternoon strengthen due to urban breezes. In the nighttime, mountain downslope winds and down-valley winds are prominent and strong channeling flows form over the city. The sensitivities of local circulations to urban fraction, atmospheric stability, and soil water content are examined. As urban fraction increases, daytime up-valley winds over the city and daytime downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan strengthen. Daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city strengthen with increasing atmospheric stability. As soil water content decreases, daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city weaken. The daytime urban atmospheric boundary-layer height is found to be sensitive to atmospheric stability and soil water content. This study is a first attempt to examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar metropolitan area and demonstrates that the city alters mountain slope winds and up-/down-valley winds.

  13. Employment income of immigrants in metropolitan areas of Canada, 1980.

    PubMed

    Verma, R B; Basavarajappa, K G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the economic achievements of immigrant groups and compares them with those of the Canadian-born population. Employment income in this study is income for members of the labor force who worked 40 weeks or more, full time, during 1980. The information is from the 1981 Census. The 15 birthplace groups considered in this study are classified into 2 major groups: those from traditional sources and those from non-traditional or new sources. Traditional sources are the US, UK, and Europe. The new sources are Africa, Asia, South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. More than 1/2 of the immigrants from traditional sources arrived before 1960, whereas more than 1/2 of immigrants from new sources arrived after 1970. The analysis is only for those areas called Census Metropolitan Areas. Results of analysis show that 1) immigrant men and women in metropolitan areas earned 1.9% and 5.9% respectively less than their Canadian-born counterparts; 2) when differences in age and educational attainment were considered, incomes of immigrant men and women were about 7.5% below those of their Canadian-born counterparts; 3) the new immigrant groups earned far less than those of the Canadian-born counterparts; 4) traditional-source immigrants' incomes were equal to or slightly higher than Canadians'; and 5) as length of residence increases, most immigrant groups improve their relative economic position and achieve incomes comparable to Canadians'. The authors discuss the economic adaptation of immigrants in the light of various models: assimilation, Marxist class conflict, ethnic stratification and segmentation, structural pluralism, and structural change. No theory can be applied to the economic adaptation of all types of immigrants. Finally, refugees and sponsored relatives, who are not admitted on the basis of education and occupational need, are likely to have more difficulties than independent immigrants.

  14. Interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D. F.; Heflin, M. B.; Peltzer, G.; Crampe, F.; Webb, F. H.

    2005-05-01

    We use global positioning system (GPS) geodesy and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry to distinguish between interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles. We establish a relationship between horizontal and vertical seasonal oscillations of the Santa Ana aquifer, use this relationship to infer cumulative horizontal anthropogenic motions from cumulative vertical motions caused by water and oil resource management, and estimate horizontal interseismic velocities corrected for anthropogenic effects. Vertical anthropogenic rates from 1992 to 1999 are slower than 3 mm/yr in the Santa Ana and San Gabriel aquifers and faster than 5 mm/yr in the Chino aquifer and in many oil fields. Inferred horizontal anthropogenic velocities are faster than 1 mm/yr at 18 of 46 GPS sites. Northern metropolitan Los Angeles is contracting, with the 25 km south of the San Gabriel mountains shortening at 4.5 ±1 mm/yr (95% confidence limits). The thrust fault in an elastic edge dislocation model of the observed strain is creeping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath and north of a position 6 ±2 km deep and 8 ±8 km north of downtown Los Angeles. The model fault is near the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills thrust but south of the Sante Fe Springs segment of the thrust. Disagreement between the 6 km locking depth in the model and the 15 km seismogenic depth inferred from earthquakes suggests that the elastic continuum model may be unsatisfactory; models with different stiffnesses of sedimentary basin and crystalline basement must be investigated.

  15. Interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Heflin, Michael B.; Peltzer, Gilles; Crampé, FréDeric; Webb, Frank H.

    2005-04-01

    We use global positioning system (GPS) geodesy and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry to distinguish between interseismic strain accumulation and anthropogenic motion in metropolitan Los Angeles. We establish a relationship between horizontal and vertical seasonal oscillations of the Santa Ana aquifer, use this relationship to infer cumulative horizontal anthropogenic motions from cumulative vertical motions caused by water and oil resource management, and estimate horizontal interseismic velocities corrected for anthropogenic effects. Vertical anthropogenic rates from 1992 to 1999 are slower than 3 mm yr-1 in the Santa Ana and San Gabriel aquifers and faster than 5 mm yr-1 in the Chino aquifer and in many oil fields. Inferred horizontal anthropogenic velocities are faster than 1 mm yr-1 at 18 of 46 GPS sites. Northern metropolitan Los Angeles is contracting, with the 25 km south of the San Gabriel Mountains shortening at 4.5 ± 1 mm yr-1 (95% confidence limits). The thrust fault in an elastic edge dislocation model of the observed strain is creeping at 9 ± 2 mm yr-1 beneath and north of a position 6 ± 2 km deep and 8 ± 8 km north of downtown Los Angeles. The model fault is near the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills thrust but south of the Sante Fe Springs segment of the thrust. Disagreement between the 6 km locking depth in the model and the 15 km seismogenic depth inferred from earthquakes suggests that the elastic continuum model may be unsatisfactory; models with different stiffnesses of sedimentary basin and crystalline basement must be investigated.

  16. Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ricardo Alexandre de; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which does not depend on individual characteristics, traditionally reported as being associated with smoking.

  17. Development of the Metropolitan Water Availability Index (MWAI) and short-term assessment with multi-scale remote sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Goodrich, James A; Daranpob, Ammarin

    2010-06-01

    Global climate change will influence environmental conditions including temperature, surface radiation, soil moisture, and sea level, and it will also significantly impact regional-scale hydrologic processes such as evapotranspiration (ET), precipitation, runoff, and snowmelt. The quantity and quality of water available for drinking and other domestic usage is also likely to be affected by changes in these processes. Consequently, it is necessary to assess and reflect upon the challenges ahead for water infrastructure and the general public in metropolitan regions. One approach to the problem is to use index-based assessment, forecasting and planning. The drought indices previously developed were not developed for domestic water supplies, and thus are insufficient for the purpose of such an assessment. This paper aims to propose and develop a "Metropolitan Water Availability Index (MWAI)" to assess the status of both the quantity and quality of available potable water sources diverted from the hydrologic cycle in a metropolitan region. In this approach, the accessible water may be expressed as volume per month or week (i.e., m(3)/month or m(3)/week) relative to a prescribed historical record, and such a trend analysis may result in final MWAI values ranging from -1 to +1 for regional water management decision making. The MWAI computation uses data and information from both historical point measurements and spatial remote-sensing based monitoring. Variables such as precipitation, river discharge, and water quality changes at drinking water plant intakes at specific locations are past "point" measurements in MWAI calculations. On the other hand, remote sensing provides information on both spatial and temporal distributions of key variables. Examples of remote-sensing images and sensor network technologies are in-situ sensor networks, ground-based radar, air-borne aircraft, and even space-borne satellites. A case study in Tampa Bay, Florida is described to demonstrate

  18. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  19. The Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Respiratory Disease: Maryland/DC Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushiva, A.; Strong, S. B.; Babin, S. M.; Paxton, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ground level ozone, or tropospheric ozone, forms smog and becomes directly harmful to humans by exacerbating respiratory conditions, primarily asthma (Knowlton et al. 2004). As climate change progresses, increased ozone concentrations emerge as a major public health concern (Gardiner et al. 2011). Increasing ground level ozone concentrations have been directly correlated with rising temperatures (Patz et al. 2005). The projected increase in ozone concentration caused by climate induced temperature change is 1-2 ppb in 2020 and 2-7 ppb in 2050, with associated temperature increases of 1-2 degrees Fahrenheit and 2-5.5 degrees Fahrenheit, respectively (UCS, 2011). Those with existing respiratory conditions, children and the elderly, and those who spend a significant amount of time outdoors are the most sensitive to ground level ozone pollution (Schlink et al. 2006). In Maryland, there would be approximately 68,894 occurrences of acute respiratory symptoms associated with a 2 ppb climate penalty in 2020, and the total costs for health impacts associated with this would be approximately $133,398,027 (UCS, 2011). In their 2011 "State of the Air" report, the American Lung Association rated the Washington/Baltimore/Northern Virginia region as one of the 25 most ozone polluted regions nationwide (ALA, 2011). We examine asthma hospital admissions data for the Maryland/DC metropolitan region between 2005 and 2010 and identify possible correlations with the reported ozone measurements provided by the EPA (CASTNET). We examine trends between the archived temperatures from NCEP reanalysis data, the EPA ozone data, and reported asthma cases. We utilize these trends to investigate the future impact of changes in ozone concentration based on the IPCC AR4 and SRES emissions scenarios and attempt to quantify the financial burden of its implications. Visualizations from this data can serve as important educational and planning tools for decision makers in the Maryland, DC, and

  20. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air... Reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. ] (1) Rule 1144, ``Vanishing Oils and...

  1. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  2. FINE PORE DIFFUSER SYSTEM EVALUATION FOR THE GREEN BAY METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District retrofitted two quadrants of their activated sludge aeration system with ceramic and membrane fine pore diffusers to provide savings in energy usage compared to the sparged turbine aerators originally installed. Because significant di...

  3. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  4. South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) Systems Thinking

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  5. MINET in K.C.: A Report on the Kansas City Libraries Metropolitan Online Bibliographic Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Byrd, Gary D.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes use statistics for the first year of search activity for the Kansas City Libraries Metropolitan Information Network (MINET). Included are databases searched, types of participating libraries, patron status, search systems used, charges, nonpaid searches, and referrals. (SW)

  6. 78 FR 40146 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety Institute AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement...

  7. 75 FR 18068 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule.... * * * * * (c) * * * (362) * * * (i) * * * (C) Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule... Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 452, ``Can Coating,'' Rule 454, ``Degreasing...

  8. 77 FR 63743 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These...

  9. Set of Comparable Carbon Footprints for Highway Travel in Metropolitan America

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Sonnenberg, Anthon

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a set of carbon dioxide emissions estimates for highway travel by automobile, truck, bus and other public transit vehicle movements within the nation s 100 largest metropolitan areas, in calendar year 2005. Considerable variability is found to exist across metropolitan areas when these greenhouse gas emissions are measured on a per capita and a per gross metropolitan product (GMP) basis. Least square regression modeling shows a relationship between emissions per capita and per GMP with truck traffic share, transit share, employment density, population dispersion within the metro area, and GMP per capita. As a result many of the nation s largest metropolitan areas tend to have lower CO2 emissions per capita and per GMP than smaller and more recently developed metro areas.

  10. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  11. EPA to Sign Memorandum of Understanding with Atlanta Metropolitan State College

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - On Wednesday, April 22, 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will enter into agreement with Atlanta Metropolitan State College (AMSC) to promote environmental sustainability. The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) will provi

  12. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the...

  13. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  14. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section 81.79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Tulsa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeastern Oklahoma...

  15. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the...

  16. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section 81.79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Tulsa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeastern Oklahoma...

  17. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section 81.79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Tulsa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeastern Oklahoma...

  18. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  19. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section 81.79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Tulsa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeastern Oklahoma...

  20. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the...