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Sample records for campion silene latifolia

  1. Isolation of early genes expressed in reproductive organs of the dioecious white campion (Silene latifolia) by subtraction cloning using an asexual mutant.

    PubMed

    Barbacar, N; Hinnisdaels, S; Farbos, I; Monéger, F; Lardon, A; Delichère, C; Mouras, A; Negrutiu, I

    1997-10-01

    The dioecious white campion (Silene latifolia) has been chosen as a working model for sexual development. In this species, sexual dimorphism is achieved through two distinct developmental blocks: inhibition of carpel development in male flowers, and early arrest of anther differentiation in female flowers. The combined advantages of the dioecious system and the availability of a sexual mutant lacking both male and female reproductive organs have been exploited in a molecular subtraction approach using male and asexual flower buds. This resulted in the cloning of 22 cDNA clones expressed in stamens at distinct stages of development. Fourteen of these clones corresponded to genes whose expression was detected in pre-meiotic stamens, a stage of development for which very little information is presently available. Furthermore, the absence of similarities with database sequences for ten clones suggests that they represent novel genes. Functional analysis of each clone will enable their positioning within the reproductive organ developmental pathway(s). In parallel, these clones are being exploited as developmental markers of early differentiation within the flower. PMID:9375394

  2. A White Campion (Silene latifolia) floral expressed sequence tag (EST) library: annotation, EST-SSR characterization, transferability, and utility for comparative mapping

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Maria Domenica; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Marais, Gabriel AB; Widmer, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Background Expressed sequence tag (EST) databases represent a valuable resource for the identification of genes in organisms with uncharacterized genomes and for development of molecular markers. One class of markers derived from EST sequences are simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, also known as EST-SSRs. These are useful in plant genetic and evolutionary studies because they are located in transcribed genes and a putative function can often be inferred from homology searches. Another important feature of EST-SSR markers is their expected high level of transferability to related species that makes them very promising for comparative mapping. In the present study we constructed a normalized EST library from floral tissue of Silene latifolia with the aim to identify expressed genes and to develop polymorphic molecular markers. Results We obtained a total of 3662 high quality sequences from a normalized Silene cDNA library. These represent 3105 unigenes, with 73% of unigenes matching genes in other species. We found 255 sequences containing one or more SSR motifs. More than 60% of these SSRs were trinucleotides. A total of 30 microsatellite loci were identified from 106 ESTs having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design. The inheritance of these loci was tested via segregation analyses and their usefulness for linkage mapping was assessed in an interspecific cross. Tests for crossamplification of the EST-SSR loci in other Silene species established their applicability to related species. Conclusion The newly characterized genes and gene-derived markers from our Silene EST library represent a valuable genetic resource for future studies on Silene latifolia and related species. The polymorphism and transferability of EST-SSR markers facilitate comparative linkage mapping and analyses of genetic diversity in the genus Silene. PMID:19467153

  3. Identification of white campion (Silene latifolia) guaiacol O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of veratrole, a key volatile for pollinator attraction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Silene latifolia and its pollinator, the noctuid moth Hadena bicruris, represent an open nursery pollination system wherein floral volatiles, especially veratrole (1, 2-dimethoxybenzene), lilac aldehydes, and phenylacetaldehyde are of key importance for floral signaling. Despite the important role of floral scent in ensuring reproductive success in S. latifolia, the molecular basis of scent biosynthesis in this species has not yet been investigated. Results We isolated two full-length cDNAs from S. latifolia that show similarity to rose orcinol O-methyltransferase. Biochemical analysis showed that both S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase1 (SlGOMT1) &S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase2 (SlGOMT2) encode proteins that catalyze the methylation of guaiacol to form veratrole. A large Km value difference between SlGOMT1 (~10 μM) and SlGOMT2 (~501 μM) resulted that SlGOMT1 is 31-fold more catalytically efficient than SlGOMT2. qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that the SlGOMT genes are specifically expressed in flowers and male S. latifolia flowers had 3- to 4-folds higher level of GOMT gene transcripts than female flower tissues. Two related cDNAs, S. dioica O-methyltransferase1 (SdOMT1) and S. dioica O-methyltransferase2 (SdOMT2), were also obtained from the sister species Silene dioica, but the proteins they encode did not methylate guaiacol, consistent with the lack of veratrole emission in the flowers of this species. Our evolutionary analysis uncovered that SlGOMT1 and SlGOMT2 genes evolved under positive selection, whereas SdOMT1 and SdOMT2 genes show no evidence for selection. Conclusions Altogether, we report the identification and functional characterization of the gene, SlGOMT1 that efficiently catalyzes veratrole formation, whereas another copy of this gene with only one amino acid difference, SlGOMT2 was found to be less efficient for veratrole synthesis in S. latifolia. PMID:22937972

  4. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  5. Strong accumulation of chloroplast DNA in the Y chromosomes of Rumex acetosa and Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Steflova, P; Hobza, R; Vyskot, B; Kejnovsky, E

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences are often found in plant nuclear genomes, but patterns of their chromosomal distribution are not fully understood. The distribution of cpDNA on the sex chromosomes can only be studied in dioecious plant species possessing heteromorphic sex chromosomes. We reconstructed the whole chloroplast genome of Rumex acetosa (sorrel, XY1Y2 system) from next generation sequencing data. We systematically mapped the chromosomal localization of various regions of cpDNA in R. acetosa and in Silene latifolia (white campion, XY system) using fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found that cpDNA was accumulated on the Y chromosomes of both studied species. In R. acetosa, the entire Y chromosome gathered all parts of cpDNA equally. On the contrary, in S. latifolia, the majority of the cpDNA, corresponding to the single copy regions, was localized in the centromere of the Y chromosome, while the inverted repeat region was present also in other loci. We found a stronger accumulation of cpDNA on the more degenerated Y1 and Y2 chromosomes of R. acetosa than in evolutionary younger S. latifolia Y chromosome. Our data stressed the prominent role of the Y chromosome centromere in cpDNA accumulation.

  6. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by the flavone aglycone isovitexin causes aberrant petal and leaf morphology in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wagner, A M; van Brederode, J

    1996-05-01

    The morphological mutant "isovitexin" in Silene latifolia (the white campion) has small and up-curled petals and leaves. In this mutant the aglycone isovitexin is the only flavone present in the vacuole. In the present study it is shown that isovitexin has a strong toxic effect on mitochondria that is to a large extent abolished by glycosylation. This effect can be used to explain the aberrant morphology. Isovitexin acts at the level of the ubiquinone pool; cytochrome c - cytochrome aa3 oxidase activity was unaffected, and with either reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or succinate as a respiratory substrate, effects on respiration were found in Silene leaves-, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber- and sweet potato (Ipomoea batata L.) tuber mitochondria. Since in sweet potato electron transport via the cyanide insensitive pathway was also inhibited, with the ubiquinone pool as the only component (besides the dehydrogenases) shared by these two pathways, the site of inhibition must be at this level.

  7. Herbivory Increases Fruit Set in Silene latifolia: A Consequence of Induced Pollinator-Attracting Floral Volatiles?

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Salvatore; Fineschi, Silvia; Litto, Maria; Scopece, Giovanni; Trunschke, Judith; Schiestl, Florian P

    2015-07-01

    Although the effect of herbivory on plant reproduction has been investigated in some detail, little is known about how herbivores affect floral signalling. Here, we investigated the effect of foliar herbivory by the African Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) on floral signalling and fruit set in the White Campion (Silene latifolia). We found no effects of herbivory on floral traits involved in visual signalling (flower number, corolla diameter, calyx length, petal length) or in amount of nectar produced. However, Spodoptera-infested plants emitted higher amounts of the two floral volatiles, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and β-ocimene, than control plants. Open pollinated, infested plants also were found to produce more fruits than control plants, but only with nocturnal pollinators. Experimental addition of the two induced floral volatiles to non-infested Silene flowers also led to the production of more fruits with nocturnal pollination. This suggests that higher fruit production in herbivore-infested plants was caused by increased nocturnal pollinator attraction, mediated by the induced floral emission of these two volatiles. Our results show that the effects of herbivory on plant reproductive success are not necessarily detrimental, as plants can compensate herbivory with increased investment in pollinator attraction.

  8. Identification of a novel retrotransposon with sex chromosome-specific distribution in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Kralova, Tereza; Cegan, Radim; Kubat, Zdenek; Vrana, Jan; Vyskot, Boris; Vogel, Ivan; Kejnovsky, Eduard; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant species with chromosomal sex determination. Although the evolution of sex chromosomes in S. latifolia has been the subject of numerous studies, a global view of X chromosome structure in this species is still missing. Here, we combine X chromosome microdissection and BAC library screening to isolate new X chromosome-linked sequences. Out of 8 identified BAC clones, only BAC 86M14 showed an X-preferential signal after FISH experiments. Further analysis revealed the existence of the Athila retroelement which is enriched in the X chromosome and nearly absent in the Y chromosome. Based on previous data, the Athila retroelement belongs to the CL3 group of most repetitive sequences in the S. latifolia genome. Structural, transcriptomics and phylogenetic analyses revealed that Athila CL3 represents an old clade in the Athila lineage. We propose a mechanism responsible for Athila CL3 distribution in the S. latifolia genome. PMID:24751661

  9. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Niklaus; Tavares, Raquel; Widmer, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia) displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism. PMID:26448481

  10. Glacial Refugia in Pathogens: European Genetic Structure of Anther Smut Pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica

    PubMed Central

    Vercken, Elodie; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E.; Jonot, Odile; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization

  11. Glacial refugia in pathogens: European genetic structure of anther smut pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica.

    PubMed

    Vercken, Elodie; Fontaine, Michael C; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E; Jonot, Odile; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization

  12. Dioecious Silene latifolia plants show sexual dimorphism in the vegetative stage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior to this study, no differences in gene expression between male and female dioecious plants in the vegetative state had been detected. Among dioecious plants displaying sexual dimorphism, Silene latifolia is one of the most studied species. Although many sexually dimorphic traits have been described in S. latifolia, all of them are quantitative, and they usually become apparent only after the initiation of flowering. Results We present RT-PCR-based evidence that in S. latifolia, sexual dimorphism in gene expression is present long before the initiation of flowering. We describe three ESTs that show sex-specific (two male specific and one female specific) transcription at the rosette stage before the first flowering season. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study provides the first molecular evidence of early pre-flowering sexual dimorphism in angiosperms. PMID:20854681

  13. Veratrole biosynthesis in white campion.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tariq A; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-05-01

    White campion (Silene latifolia) is a dioecious plant that emits 1,2-dimethoxybenzene (veratrole), a potent pollinator attractant to the nocturnal moth Hadena bicruris. Little is known about veratrole biosynthesis, although methylation of 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), another volatile emitted from white campion flowers, has been proposed. Here, we explore the biosynthetic route to veratrole. Feeding white campion flowers with [(13)C9]l-phenylalanine increased guaiacol and veratrole emission, and a significant portion of these volatile molecules contained the stable isotope. When white campion flowers were treated with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, guaiacol and veratrole levels were reduced by 50% and 63%, respectively. Feeding with benzoic acid (BA) or salicylic acid (SA) increased veratrole emission 2-fold, while [(2)H5]BA and [(2)H6]SA feeding indicated that the benzene ring of both guaiacol and veratrole is derived from BA via SA. We further report guaiacol O-methyltransferase (GOMT) activity in the flowers of white campion. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity, and the peptide sequence matched that encoded by a recently identified complementary DNA (SlGOMT1) from a white campion flower expressed sequence tag database. Screening of a small population of North American white campion plants for floral volatile emission revealed that not all plants emitted veratrole or possessed GOMT activity, and SlGOMT1 expression was only observed in veratrole emitters. Collectively these data suggest that veratrole is derived by the methylation of guaiacol, which itself originates from phenylalanine via BA and SA, and therefore implies a novel branch point of the general phenylpropanoid pathway.

  14. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea).

    PubMed

    Del Valle, José C; Buide, Ma L; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  15. Size Does Matter: Staging of Silene latifolia Floral Buds for Transcriptome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Su San; Perlin, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S. latifolia, we examined the floral buds from plants grown and infected under growth chamber conditions, using the disserting microscope to determine the stage of floral buds based on the morphology. We compiled the information and determined the size of floral buds that correspond to the desired stages of development for tissue collection, for the purpose of RNA-sequencing. This offers a practical approach for researchers who require a large number of floral buds/tissue categorized by stages of development, ascertaining whether infected/uninfected buds are at comparable stages of development and whether this also holds true for male vs. female buds. We also document our experience in infecting the plants and some of the unusual morphologies we observed after infection. PMID:26378529

  16. Expansion of the Pseudo-autosomal Region and Ongoing Recombination Suppression in the Silene latifolia Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Qiu, Suo; Forrest, Alan; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used codominant genic markers in genetic mapping of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, together with comparative mapping of S. latifolia sex-linked genes in S. vulgaris (a related hermaphrodite species without sex chromosomes). We mapped 29 S. latifolia fully sex-linked genes (including 21 newly discovered from transcriptome sequencing), plus 6 genes in a recombining pseudo-autosomal region (PAR) whose genetic map length is ∼25 cM in both male and female meiosis, suggesting that the PAR may contain many genes. Our comparative mapping shows that most fully sex-linked genes in S. latifolia are located on a single S. vulgaris linkage group and were probably inherited from a single autosome of an ancestor. However, unexpectedly, our maps suggest that the S. latifolia PAR region expanded through translocation events. Some genes in these regions still recombine in S. latifolia, but some genes from both addition events are now fully sex-linked. Recombination suppression is therefore still ongoing in S. latifolia, and multiple recombination suppression events have occurred in a timescale of few million years, much shorter than the timescale of formation of the most recent evolutionary strata of mammal and bird sex chromosomes. PMID:23733786

  17. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea)

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, José C.; Buide, Ma L.; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  18. Genome Size, Quantitative Genetics and the Genomic Basis for Flower Size Evolution in Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    MEAGHER, THOMAS R.; GILLIES, AMANDA C. M.; COSTICH, DENISE E.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The overall goal of this paper is to construct an overview of the genetic basis for flower size evolution in Silene latifolia. It aims to examine the relationship between the molecular bases for flower size and the underlying assumption of quantitative genetics theory that quantitative variation is ultimately due to the impact of a number of structural genes. • Scope Previous work is reviewed on the quantitative genetics and potential for response to selection on flower size, and the relationship between flower size and nuclear DNA content in S. latifolia. These earlier findings provide a framework within which to consider more recent analyses of a joint quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flower size and DNA content in this species. • Key Results Flower size is a character that fits the classical quantitative genetics model of inheritance very nicely. However, an earlier finding that flower size is correlated with nuclear DNA content suggested that quantitative aspects of genome composition rather than allelic substitution at structural loci might play a major role in the evolution of flower size. The present results reported here show that QTL for flower size are correlated with QTL for DNA content, further corroborating an earlier result and providing additional support for the conclusion that localized variations in DNA content underlie evolutionary changes in flower size. • Conclusions The search image for QTL should be broadened to include overall aspects of genome regulation. As we prepare to enter the much-heralded post-genomic era, we also need to revisit our overall models of the relationship between genotype and phenotype to encompass aspects of genome structure and composition beyond structural genes. PMID:15596472

  19. Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a > 100 kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:22681719

  20. Determinants of Genetic Structure in a Nonequilibrium Metapopulation of the Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Peter D.; Taylor, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic differentiation will be influenced by the demographic history of populations, opportunities for migration among neighboring demes and founder effects associated with repeated extinction and recolonization. In natural populations, these factors are expected to interact with each other and their magnitudes will vary depending on the spatial distribution and age structure of local demes. Although each of these effects has been individually identified as important in structuring genetic variance, their relative magnitude is seldom estimated in nature. We conducted a population genetic analysis in a metapopulation of the angiosperm, Silene latifolia, from which we had more than 20 years of data on the spatial distribution, demographic history, and extinction and colonization of demes. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to disentangle which features of the populations contributed to among population variation in allele frequencies, including the magnitude and direction of their effects. We show that population age, long-term size and degree of connectivity all combine to affect the distribution of genetic variance; small, recently-founded, isolated populations contributed most to increase FST in the metapopulation. However, the effects of population size and population age are best understood as being modulated through the effects of connectivity to other extant populations, i.e. FST diminishes as populations age, but at a rate that depends how isolated the population is. These spatial and temporal correlates of population structure give insight into how migration, founder effect and within-deme genetic drift have combined to enhance and restrict genetic divergence in a natural metapopulation. PMID:25198341

  1. Patterns of cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium in Silene latifolia: genomic heterogeneity and temporal stability

    PubMed Central

    Fields, P D; McCauley, D E; McAssey, E V; Taylor, D R

    2014-01-01

    Non-random association of alleles in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, or cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD), is both an important component of a number of evolutionary processes and a statistical indicator of others. The evolutionary significance of cyto-nuclear LD will depend on both its magnitude and how stable those associations are through time. Here, we use a longitudinal population genetic data set to explore the magnitude and temporal dynamics of cyto-nuclear disequilibria through time. We genotyped 135 and 170 individuals from 16 and 17 patches of the plant species Silene latifolia in Southwestern VA, sampled in 1993 and 2008, respectively. Individuals were genotyped at 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mitochondrial gene, atp1. Normalized LD (D′) between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci varied considerably depending on which nuclear locus was considered (ranging from 0.005–0.632). Four of the 14 cyto-nuclear associations showed a statistically significant shift over approximately seven generations. However, the overall magnitude of this disequilibrium was largely stable over time. The observed origin and stability of cyto-nuclear LD is most likely caused by the slow admixture between anciently diverged lineages within the species' newly invaded range, and the local spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics that are known to structure genetic variation in this system. PMID:24002238

  2. Selection on floral characters in natural Spanish populations of Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wright, J W; Meagher, T R

    2004-03-01

    In insect-pollinated plants, floral characters are expected to play an important role in paternal and maternal reproductive success. Bateman's principle states that male reproductive success increases with more mating opportunities, while female reproductive success is limited by the amount of resources available to produce progeny, thus there should be greater selection on male floral characters than on female. In the case of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, floral characters are likely to be influenced by its association within its native European range with moths of the genus Hadena, which serve as both pollinators and seed predators. The present study addresses relationships between male and female reproductive success, spatial location and floral characters (corolla, calyx and claw) over a 2-year period in two Spanish populations of S. latifolia in the presence of Hadena moths. A maximum likelihood paternity analysis using genetic variation at six allozyme markers showed heterogeneity in male reproductive success. There was much less variation in female reproductive success. When this analysis was extended to include interplant distance as a causal factor underlying variation in male success, we found that successful pollination tended to be limited to nearby females, in accordance with exponential decay of pollen dispersal with increasing distance. When the paternity analysis included floral characters as a causal factor underlying variation in male success, our data showed little evidence for directional selection, but there was stabilizing selection in one of the two years for calyx diameter. Selection on female characters varied widely between sites and years, in most of the site/year combinations there was little selection on female floral characters; however, in one site/year there was evidence for selection on all three floral characters. We conclude that pollinators visit flowers that are close together, and that while floral characters are

  3. Nursery pollination by a moth in Silene latifolia: the role of odours in eliciting antennal and behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Dötterl, S; Jürgens, A; Seifert, K; Laube, T; Weissbecker, B; Schütz, S

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1970s it has been known that the nursery pollinator Hadena bicruris is attracted to the flowers of its most important host plant, Silene latifolia, by their scent. Here we identified important compounds for attraction of this noctuid moth. Gas chromatographic and electroantennographic methods were used to detect compounds eliciting signals in the antennae of the moth. Electrophysiologically active compounds were tested in wind-tunnel bioassays to foraging naïve moths, and the attractivity of these compounds was compared with that to the natural scent of whole S. latifolia flowers. The antennae of moths detected substances of several classes. Phenylacetaldehyde elicited the strongest signals in the antennae, but lilac aldehydes were the most attractive compounds in wind-tunnel bioassays and attracted 90% of the moths tested, as did the scent of single flowers. Our results show that the most common and abundant floral scent compounds in S. latifolia, lilac aldehydes, attracted most of the moths tested, indicating a specific adaptation of H. bicruris to its host plant. PMID:16441752

  4. Rapid de novo evolution of X chromosome dosage compensation in Silene latifolia, a plant with young sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Muyle, Aline; Zemp, Niklaus; Deschamps, Clothilde; Mousset, Sylvain; Widmer, Alex; Marais, Gabriel A B

    2012-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S. latifolia XY chromosomes have gradually stopped recombining and the Y chromosome is undergoing degeneration as in animal sex chromosomes. However, this work has been limited by the paucity of sex-linked genes available. Here, we used 35 Gb of RNA-seq data from multiple males (XY) and females (XX) of an S. latifolia inbred line to detect sex-linked SNPs and identified more than 1,700 sex-linked contigs (with X-linked and Y-linked alleles). Analyses using known sex-linked and autosomal genes, together with simulations indicate that these newly identified sex-linked contigs are reliable. Using read numbers, we then estimated expression levels of X-linked and Y-linked alleles in males and found an overall trend of reduced expression of Y-linked alleles, consistent with a widespread ongoing degeneration of the S. latifolia Y chromosome. By comparing expression intensities of X-linked alleles in males and females, we found that X-linked allele expression increases as Y-linked allele expression decreases in males, which makes expression of sex-linked contigs similar in both sexes. This phenomenon is known as dosage compensation and has so far only been observed in evolutionary old animal sex chromosome systems. Our results suggest that dosage compensation has evolved in plants and that it can quickly evolve de novo after the origin of sex chromosomes.

  5. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map. PMID:26742857

  6. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  7. Veratrole Biosynthesis in White Campion1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Tariq A.; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-01-01

    White campion (Silene latifolia) is a dioecious plant that emits 1,2-dimethoxybenzene (veratrole), a potent pollinator attractant to the nocturnal moth Hadena bicruris. Little is known about veratrole biosynthesis, although methylation of 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), another volatile emitted from white campion flowers, has been proposed. Here, we explore the biosynthetic route to veratrole. Feeding white campion flowers with [13C9]l-phenylalanine increased guaiacol and veratrole emission, and a significant portion of these volatile molecules contained the stable isotope. When white campion flowers were treated with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, guaiacol and veratrole levels were reduced by 50% and 63%, respectively. Feeding with benzoic acid (BA) or salicylic acid (SA) increased veratrole emission 2-fold, while [2H5]BA and [2H6]SA feeding indicated that the benzene ring of both guaiacol and veratrole is derived from BA via SA. We further report guaiacol O-methyltransferase (GOMT) activity in the flowers of white campion. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity, and the peptide sequence matched that encoded by a recently identified complementary DNA (SlGOMT1) from a white campion flower expressed sequence tag database. Screening of a small population of North American white campion plants for floral volatile emission revealed that not all plants emitted veratrole or possessed GOMT activity, and SlGOMT1 expression was only observed in veratrole emitters. Collectively these data suggest that veratrole is derived by the methylation of guaiacol, which itself originates from phenylalanine via BA and SA, and therefore implies a novel branch point of the general phenylpropanoid pathway. PMID:23547102

  8. Evolutionary Strata on the X Chromosomes of the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia: Evidence From New Sex-Linked Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Forrest, Alan; Kamau, Esther; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Despite its recent evolutionary origin, the sex chromosome system of the plant Silene latifolia shows signs of progressive suppression of recombination having created evolutionary strata of different X–Y divergence on sex chromosomes. However, even after 8 years of effort, this result is based on analyses of five sex-linked gene sequences, and the maximum divergence (and thus the age of this plant's sex chromosome system) has remained uncertain. More genes are therefore needed. Here, by segregation analysis of intron size variants (ISVS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identify three new Y-linked genes, one being duplicated on the Y chromosome, and test for evolutionary strata. All the new genes have homologs on the X and Y chromosomes. Synonymous divergence estimated between the X and Y homolog pairs is within the range of those already reported. Genetic mapping of the new X-linked loci shows that the map is the same in all three families that have been studied so far and that X–Y divergence increases with genetic distance from the pseudoautosomal region. We can now conclude that the divergence value is saturated, confirming the cessation of X–Y recombination in the evolution of the sex chromosomes at ∼10–20 MYA. PMID:17287532

  9. X Linkage of AP3A, a Homolog of the Y-Linked MADS-Box Gene AP3Y in Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Rebecca H.; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The duplication of autosomal genes onto the Y chromosome may be an important element in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.A previous cytological study reported on a putative example of such a duplication event in a dioecious tribe of Silene (Caryophyllaceae): it was inferred that the Y-linked MADS-box gene AP3Y originated from a duplication of the reportedly autosomal orthologAP3A. However, a recent study, also using cytological methods, indicated that AP3A is X-linked in Silenelatifolia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we hybridized S. latifolia and S. dioicato investigate whether the pattern of X linkage is consistent among distinct populations, occurs in both species, and is robust to genetic methods. We found inheritance patterns indicative of X linkage of AP3A in widely distributed populations of both species. Conclusions/Significance X linkage ofAP3A and Y linkage of AP3Yin both species indicates that the genes' ancestral progenitor resided on the autosomes that gave rise to the sex chromosomesand that neither gene has moved between chromosomes since species divergence.Consequently, our results do not support the contention that inter-chromosomal gene transfer occurred in the evolution of SlAP3Y from SlAP3A. PMID:21533056

  10. Ultrastructural analysis of the behavior of the dimorphic fungus Microbotryum violaceum in fungus-induced anthers of female Silene latifolia flowers.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2005-12-01

    The development of male organs is induced in female flowers of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia by infection with the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. Stamens in a healthy female flower grow only to stage 6, whereas those in an infected female flower develop to the mature stage (stage 12), at which the stamens are filled with fungal teliospores instead of pollen grains. To investigate these host-parasite interactions, young floral buds and fungus-induced anthers of infected female flowers were examined by electron microscopy following fixation by a high-pressure freezing method. Using this approach, we found that parasitic hyphae of this fungus contain several extracellular vesicles and have a consistent appearance up to stage 8. At that stage, parasitic hyphae are observed adjacent to dying sporogenous cells in the infected female anther. At stage 9, an increased number of dead and dying sporogenous cells is observed, among which the sporogenous hyphae of the fungus develop and form initial teliospores. Several types of electron-dense material are present in proximity to some fungi at this stage. The initial teliospores contain two types of vacuoles, and the fungus cell wall contains abundant carbohydrate, as revealed by silver protein staining. The sporogenous cell is probably sensitive to infection by the fungus, resulting in disruption. In addition, the fungus accelerates cell death in the anther and utilizes constituents of the dead host cell to form the mature teliospore. PMID:16333578

  11. Rapid Degeneration of Noncoding DNA Regions Surrounding SlAP3X/Y After Recombination Suppression in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kotaro; Nishiyama, Rie; Shibata, Fukashi; Kazama, Yusuke; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes. Previous studies of sex chromosome–linked genes have suggested a gradual divergence between the X-linked and the Y-linked genes in proportion to the distance from the pseudoautosomal region. However, such a comparison has yet to be made for the noncoding regions. To better characterize the nonrecombining region of the X and Y chromosomes, we sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing the sex chromosome–linked paralogs SlAP3X and SlAP3Y, including 115 kb and 73 kb of sequences, respectively, flanking these genes. The synonymous nucleotide divergence between SlAP3X and SlAP3Y indicated that recombination stopped approximately 3.4 million years ago. Sequence homology analysis revealed the presence of six long terminal repeat retrotransposon-like elements. Using the nucleotide divergence calculated between left and right long terminal repeat sequences, insertion dates were estimated to be 0.083–1.6 million years ago, implying that all elements detected were inserted after recombination stopped. A reciprocal sequence homology search facilitated the identification of four homologous noncoding DNA regions between the X and Y chromosomes, spanning 6.7% and 10.6% of the X chromosome–derived and Y chromosome–derived sequences, respectively, investigated. Genomic Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the noncoding DNA flanking SlAP3X/Y has homology to many regions throughout the genome, regardless of whether they were homologous between the X and Y chromosomes. This finding suggests that most noncoding DNA regions rapidly lose their counterparts because of the introduction of transposable elements and indels (insertion–deletions) after recombination has stopped. PMID:24122056

  12. The large-X effect in plants: increased species divergence and reduced gene flow on the Silene X-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2016-06-01

    The disproportionately large involvement of the X-chromosome in the isolation of closely related species (the large-X effect) has been reported for many animals, where X-linked genes are mostly hemizygous in the heterogametic sex. The expression of deleterious recessive mutations is thought to drive the frequent involvement of the X-chromosome in hybrid sterility, as well as to reduce interspecific gene flow for X-linked genes. Here, we evaluate the role of the X-chromosome in the speciation of two closely related plant species - the white and red campions (Silene latifolia and S. dioica) - that hybridize widely across Europe. The two species evolved separate sexes and sex chromosomes relatively recently (~10(7)  years), and unlike most animal species, most X-linked genes have intact Y-linked homologs. We demonstrate that the X-linked genes show a very small and insignificant amount of interspecific gene flow, while gene flow involving autosomal loci is significant and sufficient to homogenize the gene pools of the two species. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the large-X effect in Silene and comprise the first report of this effect in plants. Nonhemizygosity of many X-linked genes in Silene males indicates that exposure of recessive mutations to selection may not be essential for the occurrence of the large-X effect. Several possible causes of the large-X effect in Silene are discussed.

  13. Differences in style length confer prezygotic isolation between two dioecious species of Silene in sympatry

    PubMed Central

    Nista, Phil; Brothers, Amanda N; Delph, Lynda F

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental signature of reinforcement is elevated prezygotic reproductive isolation between related species in sympatry relative to allopatry. However, this alone is inadequate evidence for reinforcement, as traits conferring reproductive isolation can occur as a by-product of other forces. We conducted crosses between Silene latifolia and S. diclinis, two closely related dioecious flowering plant species. Crosses with S. latifolia mothers from sympatry exhibited lower seed set than mothers from five allopatric populations when S. diclinis was the father. However, two other allopatric populations also exhibited low seed set. A significant interaction between style length and sire species revealed that seed set declined as style length increased when interspecific, but not intraspecific, fathers where used. Moreover, by varying the distance pollen tubes had to traverse, we found interspecific pollen placement close to the ovary resulted in seed set in both long- and short-styled S. latifolia mothers. Our results reveal that the long styles of S. latifolia in sympatry with S. diclinis contribute to the prevention of hybrid formation. We argue that forces other than reinforcing selection are likely to be responsible for the differences in style length seen in sympatry. PMID:26257882

  14. Carbon starvation increases endoglycosidase activities and production of "unconjugated N-glycans" in Silene alba cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Lhernould, S; Karamanos, Y; Priem, B; Morvan, H

    1994-01-01

    We previously reported the occurrence of oligomannosides and xylomannosides corresponding to unconjugated N-glycans (UNGs) in the medium of a white campion (Silene alba) cell suspension. Attention has been focused on these oligosaccharides since it was shown that they confer biological activities in plants. In an attempt to elucidate the origin of these oligosaccharides, we studied two endoglycosidase activities, putative enzymes involved in their formation. The previously described peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase activity and the endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity described in this paper were both quantified in white campion cells during the culture cycle with variable initial concentrations of sucrose. The lower the sucrose supply, the higher the two activities. Furthermore, endoglycosidase activities were greatly enhanced after the disappearance of sugar from the medium. The production of UNGs in the culture medium rose correlatively. These data strongly suggest that the production of UNGs in our white campion cell-suspension system is due to the increase of these endoglycosidase activities, which reach their highest levels of activity during conditions of carbon starvation. PMID:7991689

  15. 'Junk' DNA and long-term phenotypic evolution in Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Thomas R; Costich, Denise E

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content variation over orders of magnitude across species has been attributed to 'junk' repetitive DNA with limited adaptive significance. By contrast, our previous work on Silene latifolia showed that DNA content is negatively correlated with flower size, a character of clear adaptive relevance. The present paper explores this relationship in a broader phylogenetic context to investigate the long-term evolutionary impacts of DNA content variation. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and phenotype variation was determined for four closely related species of Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae). In addition to a consistent sexual dimorphism in DNA content across all of the species, we found DNA content variation among populations within, as well as among, species. We also found a general trend towards a negative correlation between DNA content and flower and leaf size over all four species, within males and females as well as overall. These results indicate that repetitive DNA may play a role in long-term phenotypic evolution. PMID:15801614

  16. Identification of internal reference genes for gene expression normalization between the two sexes in dioecious white Campion.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have reference genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified reference genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 reference genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These reference genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of internal reference genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable reference genes in a wide diversity of species.

  17. Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P.; Karrenberg, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Specialization in plant–insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of α-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds α-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

  18. Photosynthesis and Photorespiration in Typha latifolia1

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, S. J.; Fullem, Louise W.

    1970-01-01

    Photosynthetic rates of Typha latifolia, the broad-leaved cattail, are the equivalent of rates reported in tropical grasses and other plants which assimilate carbon by the phosphopyruvate carboxylase reaction, but photosynthesis in T. latifolia proceeds by a typical Calvin cycle. Glycolate oxidase, the photorespiratory enzyme, is present in high concentration in this species, but only minor quantities of the assimilated carbon pass through the photorespiratory pathway. However, continued operation of the pathway is apparently essential in the maintenance of assimilatory capacity. Glycolate oxidase function is not closely coupled to stomatal operation in T. latifolia. PMID:16657378

  19. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Silene armeria.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    Twelve triterpenoid saponins, including seven compounds (i.e., armerosides A-G) hitherto unknown, were isolated from whole plants of Silene armeria. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. From a biosynthetic perspective, C-23 oxidation of the sapogenin appears to be a key factor in the glycosylation pathway. PMID:27460531

  20. Silene latifolia temporal patterns of volatile induction and suppression after floral interaction by the nursery pollinator, Hadena bicruris (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Plant VOC emission can be induced or suppressed after herbivory, oviposition, or pollination, which may influence other trophic levels. Sometimes, a single insect species has multiple roles when interacting with a plant, e.g. as pollinator and herbivore. 2. Two experiments tested whether 14 selec...

  1. SUSPENSION CULTURE AND PLANT REGENERATION OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is the first reported attempt to generate a growth curve from Typha latifolia L. (broadleaf cattail) callus cells in suspension culture. Several media and hormone combinations were tested for their capacity to induce callus cell formation from T. latifolia leaf section...

  2. Origin and evolution of North American polyploid Silene (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Popp, Magnus; Oxelman, Bengt

    2007-03-01

    Nuclear DNA sequences from introns of the low-copy nuclear gene family encoding the second largest subunit of RNA polymerases and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, combined with the psbE-petL spacer and the rps16 intron from the chloroplast genome were used to infer origins and phylogenetic relationships of North American polyploid Silene species and their closest relatives. Although the vast majority of North American Silene species are polyploid, which contrasts to the diploid condition dominating in other parts of the world, the phylogenetic analyses rejected a single origin of the North American polyploids. One lineage consists of tetraploid Silene menziesii and its diploid allies. A second lineage, Physolychnis s.l., consists of Arctic, European, Asian, and South American taxa in addition to the majority of the North American polyploids. The hexaploid S. hookeri is derived from an allopolyploidization between these two lineages. The tetraploid S. nivea does not belong to any of these lineages, but is closely related to the European diploid S. baccifera. The poor resolution within Physolychnis s.l. may be attributed to rapid radiation, recombination among homoeologues, homoplasy, or any combination of these factors. No extant diploid donors could be identified in Physolychnis s.l. PMID:21636405

  3. [Examples of the keeping of drugs during the XVIth, XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries: silenes and drawers].

    PubMed

    Fievet, B

    1998-01-01

    Silenes are wooden boxes with colourful paintings for the keeping of drugs and can be found nowadays in three collections in France: Hotel-Dieu in Troyes (Aube), a pharmacy in Bauge (Maine-et-Loire) and St-Roch museum in Issoudun (Indre). Drawers can be related to silenes but they are more ordinary and less attractive.

  4. Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Paola S; Flamini, Guido; Fico, Gelsomina

    2014-01-01

    Three flavonoids were isolated from the leaf MeOH extracts of Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson collected from Italian Alps: rutin (1) and kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (2) from P. latifolia, and kaempferol 3-β-O-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2) gentiobioside (3) from P. vulgaris. The structures were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR data, including those derived from 2D NMR, as well as on HPLC-MS results. This article is the first to report on P. vulgaris tissue flavonoids after Harborne's study in 1968 and the first work ever on these compounds from P. latifolia.

  5. SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in

  6. "Initial investigation into computer scoring of candidate essays for personnel selection": Correction to Campion et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Initial Investigation Into Computer Scoring of Candidate Essays for Personnel Selection" by Michael C. Campion, Michael A. Campion, Emily D. Campion and Matthew H. Reider (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Apr 14, 2016, np). In the article the affiliations for Emily D. Campion and Matthew H. Reider were originally incorrect. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-18130-001.) Emerging advancements including the exponentially growing availability of computer-collected data and increasingly sophisticated statistical software have led to a "Big Data Movement" wherein organizations have begun attempting to use large-scale data analysis to improve their effectiveness. Yet, little is known regarding how organizations can leverage these advancements to develop more effective personnel selection procedures, especially when the data are unstructured (text-based). Drawing on literature on natural language processing, we critically examine the possibility of leveraging advances in text mining and predictive modeling computer software programs as a surrogate for human raters in a selection context. We explain how to "train" a computer program to emulate a human rater when scoring accomplishment records. We then examine the reliability of the computer's scores, provide preliminary evidence of their construct validity, demonstrate that this practice does not produce scores that disadvantage minority groups, illustrate the positive financial impact of adopting this practice in an organization (N ∼ 46,000 candidates), and discuss implementation issues. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of using computer scoring to address the adverse impact-validity dilemma. We suggest that it may provide a cost-effective means of using predictors that have comparable validity but have previously been too expensive for large-scale screening. (Psyc

  7. Characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Eike; Hlaváčková, Iva; Svoen, Mildrid Elvik; Alsos, Inger Greve; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Fifty candidate microsatellite markers, generated using 454 shotgun sequencing, were tested for the widespread arctic/alpine herb Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae). Methods and Results: Fourteen out of 50 markers resulted in polymorphic products with profiles that enabled interpretation. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to six, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.06 to 0.68. Analysis of F0 and F1 samples proved that one allele was always inherited maternally. Four multiplex mixes have been developed. Conclusions: Microsatellite markers for this species will be a valuable tool to study detailed small-scale genetic patterns in an arctic/alpine herb and to relate them to demographic parameters. PMID:26421249

  8. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers from Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Liu, Yiman; Ding, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae), a perennial aquatic plant widespread in Eastern Asia. The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using the fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats method. These markers revealed two to 14 alleles, with an average of 5.6 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.071 to 0.690 and from 0.174 to 0.812, respectively. These markers will be useful for studying of gene flow and evaluating the genetic diversity of the Zizania latifolia population. PMID:21564779

  9. Removal and accumulation of As, Cd and Cr by Typha latifolia.

    PubMed

    Leura-Vicencio, Adriana; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Loredo-Portales, René; Alfaro-De la Torre, Ma Catalina; García-De la Cruz, Ramón Fernando

    2013-06-01

    The removal from the solution and the accumulation of As, Cd and Cr by Typha latifolia was studied. Small plants of T. latifolia, collected from a non-contaminated site, were exposed to individual concentrations of As, Cd and Cr for 10 days. The ability of T. latifolia for the removal of toxic elements ranged from 23% to 54% for As, 43%-55% for Cd and 28%-73% for Cr. The accumulation of toxic elements in T. latifolia occurred mainly in the roots. The results suggest that T. latifolia can be considered as an interesting alternative for treating aquatic effluents polluted with toxic trace elements.

  10. Makomotindoline from Makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Yamashita, Kimiko; Morita, Akio; Hirai, Hirofumi; Nagai, Kaoru; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Omura, Satoshi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2012-07-01

    Makomotindoline (1) was isolated from Makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta. The structure was determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data and synthesis. Makomotindoline (1), its l-Glc isomer (2) and its aglycon (3) were synthesized and their effects on rat glioma cells showed adverse effects on the cell growth. PMID:22672800

  11. Introgressive Hybridization between Anciently Diverged Lineages of Silene (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Anna; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Oxelman, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has played a major role during the evolution of angiosperms, mediating both gene flow between already distinct species and the formation of new species. Newly formed hybrids between distantly related taxa are often sterile. For this reason, interspecific crosses resulting in fertile hybrids have rarely been described to take place after more than a few million years after divergence. We describe here the traces of a reproductively successful hybrid between two ancestral species of Silene, diverged for about six million years prior to hybridization. No extant hybrids between the two parental lineages are currently known, but introgression of the RNA polymerase gene NRPA2 provides clear evidence of a temporary and fertile hybrid. Parsimony reconciliation between gene trees and the species tree, as well as consideration of clade ages, help exclude gene paralogy and lineage sorting as alternative hypotheses. This may represent one of the most extreme cases of divergence between species prior to introgressive hybridization discovered yet, notably at a homoploid level. Although species boundaries are generally believed to be stable after millions of years of divergence, we believe that this finding may indicate that gene flow between distantly related species is merely largely undetected at present. PMID:23861793

  12. Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

    2011-01-01

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear–cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear–cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

  13. Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 February 2015 - 31 March 2015.

    PubMed

    Arthofer, Wolfgang; Bertini, Laura; Caruso, Carla; Cicconardi, Francesco; Delph, Lynda F; Fields, Peter D; Ikeda, Minoru; Minegishi, Yuki; Proietti, Silvia; Ritthammer, Heike; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M; Wachter, Gregor A; Wagner, Herbert C; Weingartner, Laura A

    2015-07-01

    This article documents the public availability of (i) raw transcriptome sequence data, assembled contigs and BLAST hits of the Antarctic plant Colobanthus quitensis grown in two different climatic conditions, (ii) the draft genome sequence data (raw reads, assembled contigs and unassembled reads) and RAD-tag read data of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, (iii) transcriptome resources from four white campion (Silene latifolia) individuals from two morphologically divergent populations and (iv) nuclear DNA markers from 454 sequencing of reduced representation libraries (RRL) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) PCR products of four species of ants in the genus Tetramorium. PMID:26095006

  14. Gibberellins and stem growth as related to photoperiod Silene armeria L

    SciTech Connect

    Talon, M.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Stem growth and flowering in the long-day plant Silene armeria L. are induced by exposure to a minimum of 3 to 6 long days (LD). Stem growth continues in subsequent short days (SD), albeit at a reduced rate. The growth retardant tetcyclacis inhibited stem elongation induced by LD, but had no effect on flowering. This indicates that photoperiodic control of stem growth in Silene is mediated by gibberellins (GA). The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of photoperiod on the levels and distribution of endogenous GAs in Silene and to determine the nature of the photoperiodic after-effect on stem growth in this plant. The GAs identified in extracts from Silene by full-scan combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry are members of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway. All of these GAs were present in plants under SD as well as under LD conditions. The GA{sub 53} level was highest in plants in SD, and decreased in plants transferred to LD conditions. By contrast, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} initially increased in plants transferred to LD, and then declined. Likewise, when Silene plants were returned from LD to SD, there was an increase in GA{sub 53}, and a decrease in GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} which ultimately reached levels similar to those found in plants kept in SD. Thus, measurements of GA levels in whole shoots of Silene as well as in individual parts of the plant suggest that the photoperiod modulates GA metabolism mainly through the rate of conversion of GA{sub 53}. As a result of LD induction, GA{sub 1} accumulates at its highest level in shoot tips which, in turn, results in stem elongation. In addition, LD also appear to increase the sensitivity of the tissue to GA, and this effect is presumably responsible for the photoperiodic after-effect on stem elongation in Silene.

  15. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy–gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy–gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy–gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy–gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious

  16. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-04-10

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy-gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy-gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy-gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy-gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious-gynomonoecious sexual

  17. Antiulcer activity of extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of genera Lychnis and Silene of the Caryophyllaceae family.

    PubMed

    Krylova, S G; Zueva, E P; Zibareva, L N; Amosova, E N; Razina, T G

    2014-12-01

    We studied antiulcer activity of the extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of the Caryophyllaceae family: Lychnis chalcedonica L., Silene viridiflora L.Sp.Pl., and Silene frivaldszkyana Hampe. Experiments on the model of neurogenic and aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis showed unidirectional and pronounced gastroprotective effects of S. viridiflora and L. chalcedonica extracts comparable to the efficacy of famotidine. In these models, a course of intragastric treatment with the extracts reduced ulcerative lesions of all types. PMID:25432278

  18. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  19. De novo transcriptome assembly and polymorphism detection in the flowering plant Silene vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Sloan, Daniel B; Keller, Stephen R; Berardi, Andrea E; Sanderson, Brian J; Karpovich, John F; Taylor, Douglas R

    2012-03-01

    Members of the angiosperm genus Silene are widely used in studies of ecology and evolution, but available genomic and population genetic resources within Silene remain limited. Deep transcriptome (i.e. expressed sequence tag or EST) sequencing has proven to be a rapid and cost-effective means to characterize gene content and identify polymorphic markers in non-model organisms. In this study, we report the results of 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing of a polyA-selected and normalized cDNA library from Silene vulgaris. The library was generated from a single pool of transcripts, combining RNA from leaf, root and floral tissue from three genetically divergent European subpopulations of S. vulgaris. A single full-plate 454 run produced 959,520 reads totalling 363.6 Mb of sequence data with an average read length of 379.0 bp after quality trimming and removal of custom library adaptors. We assembled 832,251 (86.7%) of these reads into 40,964 contigs, which have a total length of 25.4 Mb and can be organized into 18,178 graph-based clusters or 'isogroups'. Assembled sequences were annotated based on homology to genes in multiple public databases. Analysis of sequence variants identified 13,432 putative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1320 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that are candidates for microsatellite analysis. Estimates of nucleotide diversity from 1577 contigs were used to generate genome-wide distributions that revealed several outliers with high diversity. All of these resources are publicly available through NCBI and/or our website (http://silenegenomics.biology.virginia.edu) and should provide valuable genomic and population genetic tools for the Silene research community. PMID:21999839

  20. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.

  1. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  2. Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplasmic [correction of cytoplamic] diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites.

    PubMed

    Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P

    2013-08-01

    Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics.

  3. Rock cliffs hazard analysis based on remote geostructural surveys: The Campione del Garda case study (Lake Garda, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, A. M.; Migliazza, M.; Roncella, R.; Segalini, A.

    2011-02-01

    The town of Campione del Garda (located on the west coast of Lake Garda) and its access road have been historically subject to rockfall phenomena with risk for public security in several areas of the coast. This paper presents a study devoted to the determination of risk for coastal cliffs and the design of mitigation measures. Our study was based on statistical rockfall analysis performed with a commercial code and on stability analysis of rock slopes based on the key block method. Hazard from block kinematics and rock-slope failure are coupled by applying the Rockfall Hazard Assessment Procedure (RHAP). Because of the huge dimensions of the slope, its morphology and the geostructural survey were particularly complicated and demanding. For these reasons, noncontact measurement methods, based on aerial photogrammetry by helicopter, were adopted. A special software program, developed by the authors, was applied for discontinuity identification and for their orientation measurements. The potentially of aerial photogrammetic survey in rock mechanic application and its improvement in the rock mass knowledge is analysed in the article.

  4. New flavonolignan glycosides from the aerial parts of Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Su; Baek, Nam-In; Baek, Yoon-Su; Chung, Dae-Kyun; Song, Myoung-Chong; Bang, Myun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Two new flavonolignan glycosides, tricin-4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7''-O-β-D-glucopyranose (4) and tricin-4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7''-O-β-D-glucopyranose (5) were isolated from the roots of Zizania latifolia, together with tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (1), tricin-4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (2), and tricin-4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic techniques, including HR-ESI/MS, 1D-NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT), 2D-NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, gHMBC), and IR spectroscopy. PMID:25830790

  5. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  6. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  7. Endogenous gibberellins and stem growth as related to photoperiod in Silene armeria L

    SciTech Connect

    Talon, M.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1989-04-01

    The early 13-hydroxylation gibberellin (GA) pathway operates in the long-day plant Silene armeria grown under both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions. Thus, induction of stem growth must be related to quantitative changes in GA pattern. Using GC-SIM-MS and GAs labeled with stable isotopes as internal standards, the levels of GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} were measured in shoots and various organs of plants grown under different photoperiods. Exposure to 8 LD decreased the levels of GA{sub 53} and GA{sub 19}, and increased the levels of GA{sub 20} and particularly of GA{sub 1}; the latter GA accumulated to very high levels in expanding leaves and tips. When plants were exposed to LD, followed by SD, GA levels decreased, and the relative increases in stem length were correlated with the level of GA{sub 1} at the time the plants were returned to SD. These observations suggest that GA{sub 53}-oxidase, and probable also GA{sub 19}-oxidase, are under photoperiodic control. Furthermore, GA{sub 1} appears to be active per se in Silene in causing stem growth, since its level was always correlated with the degree of stem elongation.

  8. Demographic change and microhabitat variability in a grassland endemic, Silene douglasii var. oraria (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Kephart, S; Paladino, C

    1997-02-01

    Variable spatial and temporal environments are known to affect the population dynamics of plants, but studies of local scale variability and its relationship to demographic change within a population remain limited. Using mapped plants, we examined the population dynamics of a coastal grassland endemic, Silene douglasii var. oraria, in two habitats over 10 yr. We hypothesized that ecological differences between rocky and grassy habitats might influence demographic parameters, including adult survival, growth, and density. Soil pH, soil moisture. and other abiotic variables differed little between habitats, but microsite differences in light, soil depth. and vegetation height were related to variation in Silene density and plant circumference. We also found significantly higher population densities, lower adult mortality, and more juvenile recruitment in rocky areas. Finite rates of population growth varied across years and habitats (lambda = 0.82-1.12). with different patterns evident in the two habitats. In both, observed population sizes in 1992 were similar to matrix projections using 1982-1985 data. Populations declined in size in some years despite high adult survivorship and variable recruitment. More intensive study of seedlings is needed, including experimental evaluation of the role of light and competition. However, the habitat-specific differences we observed imply that ecological studies and conservation plans developed for rare plants should consider the effect of local scale variability on demography.

  9. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis. Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea. Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  10. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002.

    PubMed

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue.

  11. Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2012-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-Δ4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells.

  12. Antipyretic and antinociceptive effects of Nauclea latifolia root decoction and possible mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Bum, Elisabeth Ngo; Talla, Emmanuel; Dimo, Théophile; Weiss, Norbert; Sidiki, Neteydji; Dawe, Amadou; Okomolo Moto, Fleur Clarisse; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré; Waard, Michel De

    2011-01-01

    Context Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiacea) is a small tree, found in tropical areas in Africa. It is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria, epilepsy, anxiety, pain, fever etc. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction on the peripheral and central nervous systems and its possible mechanisms of action. Materials and methods The analgesic investigation was carried out against acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain, hot-plate and tail immersion tests. The antipyretic activity was studied in Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Rota-rod test and bicuculline-induced hyperactivity were used for the assessment of locomotor activity. Results Nauclea latifolia induced hypothermia and had antipyretic effects in mice. The plant decoction produced significant antinociceptive activity in all analgesia animal models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by the decoction in the formalin test was reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, Nω-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester or glibenclamide. In contrast, theophylline did not reverse this effect. Nauclea latifolia (antinociceptive doses) did not exhibit significant effect on motor coordination of the mice in rota-rod performance. Nauclea latifolia protected mice against bicuculline-induced behavioural excitation. Discussion and conclusion Overall, these results demonstrate that the central and peripheral effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction might partially or wholly be due to the stimulation of peripheric opioid receptors through the action of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-ATP-sensitive K+ (NO/cGMP/ATP)-channel pathway and/or facilitation of the GABAergic transmission. PMID:20822326

  13. Arsenate tolerance in Silene paradoxa does not rely on phytochelatin-dependent sequestration.

    PubMed

    Arnetoli, Miluscia; Vooijs, Riet; ten Bookum, Wilma; Galardi, Francesca; Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Schat, Henk; Verkleij, Jos A C

    2008-04-01

    Arsenate tolerance, As accumulation and As-induced phytochelatin accumulation were compared in populations of Silene paradoxa, one from a mine site enriched in As, Cu and Zn, the other from an uncontaminated site. The mine population was significantly more arsenate-tolerant. Arsenate uptake and root-to-shoot transport were slightly but significantly higher in the non-mine plants. The difference in uptake was quantitatively insufficient to explain the difference in tolerance between the populations. As accumulation in the roots was similar in both populations, but the mine plants accumulated much less phytochelatins than the non-mine plants. The mean phytochelatin chain length, however, was higher in the mine population, possibly due to a constitutively lower cellular glutathione level. It is argued that the mine plants must possess an arsenic detoxification mechanism other than arsenate reduction and subsequent phytochelatin-based sequestration. This alternative mechanism might explain at least some part of the superior tolerance in the mine plants.

  14. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Elizabeth K S; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2015-06-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation.

  15. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  16. A host plant genome (Zizania latifolia) after a century-long endophyte infection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longbiao; Qiu, Jie; Han, Zujing; Ye, Zihong; Chen, Chao; Liu, Chuanjun; Xin, Xiufang; Ye, Chu-Yu; Wang, Ying-Ying; Xie, Hongqing; Wang, Yu; Bao, Jiandong; Tang, She; Xu, Jie; Gui, Yijie; Fu, Fei; Wang, Weidi; Zhang, Xingchen; Zhu, Qianhua; Guang, Xuanmin; Wang, Chongzhi; Cui, Haifeng; Cai, Daguang; Ge, Song; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Qian, Qian; He, Sheng Yang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-08-01

    Despite the importance of host-microbe interactions in natural ecosystems, agriculture and medicine, the impact of long-term (especially decades or longer) microbial colonization on the dynamics of host genomes is not well understood. The vegetable crop 'Jiaobai' with enlarged edible stems was domesticated from wild Zizania latifolia (Oryzeae) approximately 2000 years ago as a result of persistent infection by a fungal endophyte, Ustilago esculenta. Asexual propagation via infected rhizomes is the only means of Jiaobai production, and the Z. latifolia-endophyte complex has been maintained continuously for two centuries. Here, genomic analysis revealed that cultivated Z. latifolia has a significantly smaller repertoire of immune receptors compared with wild Z. latifolia. There are widespread gene losses/mutations and expression changes in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in Jiaobai. These results show that continuous long-standing endophyte association can have a major effect on the evolution of the structural and transcriptomic components of the host genome.

  17. A host plant genome (Zizania latifolia) after a century-long endophyte infection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longbiao; Qiu, Jie; Han, Zujing; Ye, Zihong; Chen, Chao; Liu, Chuanjun; Xin, Xiufang; Ye, Chu-Yu; Wang, Ying-Ying; Xie, Hongqing; Wang, Yu; Bao, Jiandong; Tang, She; Xu, Jie; Gui, Yijie; Fu, Fei; Wang, Weidi; Zhang, Xingchen; Zhu, Qianhua; Guang, Xuanmin; Wang, Chongzhi; Cui, Haifeng; Cai, Daguang; Ge, Song; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Qian, Qian; He, Sheng Yang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-08-01

    Despite the importance of host-microbe interactions in natural ecosystems, agriculture and medicine, the impact of long-term (especially decades or longer) microbial colonization on the dynamics of host genomes is not well understood. The vegetable crop 'Jiaobai' with enlarged edible stems was domesticated from wild Zizania latifolia (Oryzeae) approximately 2000 years ago as a result of persistent infection by a fungal endophyte, Ustilago esculenta. Asexual propagation via infected rhizomes is the only means of Jiaobai production, and the Z. latifolia-endophyte complex has been maintained continuously for two centuries. Here, genomic analysis revealed that cultivated Z. latifolia has a significantly smaller repertoire of immune receptors compared with wild Z. latifolia. There are widespread gene losses/mutations and expression changes in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in Jiaobai. These results show that continuous long-standing endophyte association can have a major effect on the evolution of the structural and transcriptomic components of the host genome. PMID:26072920

  18. Short term uptake and transport process for metformin in roots of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia.

    PubMed

    Cui, H; Hense, B A; Müller, J; Schröder, P

    2015-09-01

    Metformin (MET) as an emerging contaminant has been detected in surface water and wastewater in numerous countries, due to insufficient retention in classical waste water treatment plants. In order to characterize the uptake of the compound during phytotreatment of waste water, a short term Pitman chamber experiment was carried out to assess the characteristics of MET uptake and transport by roots. Three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mmol L(-)(1)) were applied to cattail (Typha latifolia) and reed (Phragmites australis) roots which were used to investigate the uptake mechanism because they are frequently utilized in phytoremediation. In addition, quinidine was used as an inhibitor to assess the role of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in the uptake of MET by T. latifolia. The transport process of MET is different from carbamazepine (CBZ) and caffeine (CFN). In both T. latifolia and P. australis, the uptake processes were independent of initial concentrations. Quinidine, a known inhibitor of organic cation transporters, can significantly affect MET uptake by T. latifolia roots with inhibition ratios of 70-74%. Uptake into the root could be characterized by a linear model with R(2) values in the range of 0.881-0.999. Overall, the present study provides evidence that MET is taken up by plant roots and has the potential for subsequent translocation. OCTs could be one of the important pathways for MET uptake into the plant.

  19. Distribution and population structure of the anther smut Microbotryum silenes-acaulis parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant.

    PubMed

    Bueker, Britta; Eberlein, Chris; Gladieux, Pierre; Schaefer, Angela; Snirc, Alodie; Bennett, Dominic J; Begerow, Dominik; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-02-01

    Cold-adapted organisms with current arctic-alpine distributions have persisted during the last glaciation in multiple ice-free refugia, leaving footprints in their population structure that contrast with temperate plants and animals. However, pathogens that live within hosts having arctic-alpine distributions have been little studied. Here, we therefore investigated the geographical range and population structure of a fungus parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant. A total of 1437 herbarium specimens of the plant Silene acaulis were examined, and the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum silenes-acaulis was present throughout the host's geographical range. There was significantly greater incidence of anther smut disease in more northern latitudes and where the host locations were less dense, indicating a major influence of environmental factors and/or host demographic structure on the pathogen distribution. Genetic analyses with seven microsatellite markers on recent collections of 195 M. silenes-acaulis individuals revealed three main genetic clusters, in North America, northern Europe and southern Europe, likely corresponding to differentiation in distinct refugia during the last glaciation. The lower genetic diversity in northern Europe indicates postglacial recolonization northwards from southern refugia. This study combining herbarium surveys and population genetics thus uniquely reveals the effects of climate and environmental factors on a plant pathogen species with an arctic-alpine distribution. PMID:26671732

  20. Distribution and population structure of the anther smut Microbotryum silenes-acaulis parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant.

    PubMed

    Bueker, Britta; Eberlein, Chris; Gladieux, Pierre; Schaefer, Angela; Snirc, Alodie; Bennett, Dominic J; Begerow, Dominik; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-02-01

    Cold-adapted organisms with current arctic-alpine distributions have persisted during the last glaciation in multiple ice-free refugia, leaving footprints in their population structure that contrast with temperate plants and animals. However, pathogens that live within hosts having arctic-alpine distributions have been little studied. Here, we therefore investigated the geographical range and population structure of a fungus parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant. A total of 1437 herbarium specimens of the plant Silene acaulis were examined, and the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum silenes-acaulis was present throughout the host's geographical range. There was significantly greater incidence of anther smut disease in more northern latitudes and where the host locations were less dense, indicating a major influence of environmental factors and/or host demographic structure on the pathogen distribution. Genetic analyses with seven microsatellite markers on recent collections of 195 M. silenes-acaulis individuals revealed three main genetic clusters, in North America, northern Europe and southern Europe, likely corresponding to differentiation in distinct refugia during the last glaciation. The lower genetic diversity in northern Europe indicates postglacial recolonization northwards from southern refugia. This study combining herbarium surveys and population genetics thus uniquely reveals the effects of climate and environmental factors on a plant pathogen species with an arctic-alpine distribution.

  1. Modification of polysaccharides from callus culture of Silene vulgaris (M.) G. using carbohydrases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gunter, E A; Popeyko, O V; Ovodov, Yu S

    2007-09-01

    Polysaccharides (pectin and intracellular and extracellular arabinogalactans) were isolated from campion callus culture cultivated on medium with varied concentrations of pectinase and beta-galactosidase. A decrease in contents of arabinose residues in pectin and arabinogalactans and of galactose residues in arabinogalactans was associated with an increase in the activities of alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase and beta-galactosidase upon addition of pectinase into the medium. Pectinase destroyed the high-molecular-weight (more than 300 kD) fraction of pectin and decreased the content of galacturonic acid residues. alpha-L-Arabinofuranosidase transformed arabinogalactan into galactan, and galactan was destroyed under the influence of galactosidase. The contents of arabinogalactan and/or galactan in the cells were decreased, and it was released into the culture medium. Pectin samples with low contents of arabinose and galactose in the side chains and galactan samples were obtained from the callus grown on the medium with beta-galactosidase. Cultivation of the plant cells on medium containing carbohydrases resulted in modification of pectin and arabinogalactan of the cell walls.

  2. Comparative high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and development of SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Silene is widely used as a model system for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions in plants, but advances in using the genus as a model system are impeded by the lack of available resources for studying its genome. Massively parallel sequencing cDNA has recently developed into an efficient method for characterizing the transcriptomes of non-model organisms, generating massive amounts of data that enable the study of multiple species in a comparative framework. The sequences generated provide an excellent resource for identifying expressed genes, characterizing functional variation and developing molecular markers, thereby laying the foundations for future studies on gene sequence and gene expression divergence. Here, we report the results of a comparative transcriptome sequencing study of eight individuals representing four Silene and one Dianthus species as outgroup. All sequences and annotations have been deposited in a newly developed and publicly available database called SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database. Results A total of 1,041,122 EST reads were generated in two runs on a Roche GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing platform. EST reads were analyzed separately for all eight individuals sequenced and were assembled into contigs using TGICL. These were annotated with results from BLASTX searches and Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized. Unassembled reads were kept as singletons and together with the contigs contributed to the unigenes characterized in each individual. The high quality of unigenes is evidenced by the proportion (49%) that have significant hits in similarity searches with the A. thaliana proteome. The SiESTa database is accessible at http://www.siesta.ethz.ch. Conclusion The sequence collections established in the present study provide an important genomic resource for four Silene and one Dianthus species and will help to further develop Silene as a

  3. Cell-wall polysaccharide composition and glycanase activity of Silene vulgaris callus transformed with rolB and rolC genes.

    PubMed

    Günter, Elena A; Shkryl, Yury N; Popeyko, Oxana V; Veremeichik, Galina N; Bulgakov, Victor P

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol genes on the composition of cell-wall polysaccharides and glycanase activity in the campion callus. The expression of the rolC gene reduces the yield of campion pectin, while the expression of the rolB or rolC gene inhibits the volumetric production of both pectin and intracellular arabinogalactan. The rol genes are involved in regulating the activity of glycanases and esterases, thereby contributing to the modification of polysaccharide structures, their molecular weight (Mw) and the degree of pectin methyl esterification (DE). The increase in pectin arabinose residue appears to be connected to a decrease in intracellular and extracellular α-l-arabinofuranosidase activity in transgenic campion calluses. In transgenic calluses expressing the rolB and rolC genes, the increase in pectin galactose residue is likely due to a decrease in β-galactosidase activity. The decrease in the Mw of pectin and its d-galacturonic acid content appears to be connected to an increase in extracellular polygalacturonase activity. Finally, the increase in pectinesterase activity causes a decrease in the DE of pectin. Thus, the expression of rolB and rolC genes in campion callus has a considerable effect on pectin's sugar composition, DE and Mw, while it appears to have an insignificant influence on intracellular and extracellular arabinogalactans.

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic components of growth and reproduction in Typha latifolia: experimental studies in three contrasting marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The magnitude and causes of intraspecific variation in biomass production and allocation, and morphology for Typha latifolia L. from three marshes which can be distinguished by their successional maturity were investigated. The first stage of investigation was to determine the environmental characteristics of the three marshes and the characteristics of the T. latifolia populations. Second, in situ studies of /sup 14/C fixation and allocation were used to determine the phenotypic variation in biomass production and allocation. Third, populations were sampled for genotypic variation in biomass allocation patterns by comparing growth in controlled garden experiments. Fourth, the growth of different biotypes was compared by transplantation into natural stands of T. latifolia. And fifth, the intraspecific variations were considered in terms of their consequences for the persistence of T. latifolia in habitats over successional time.

  5. Night life on the beach: selfing to avoid pollinator competition between two sympatric Silene species

    PubMed Central

    Buide, Mª Luisa; del Valle, José Carlos; Pissatto, Mônica; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Evolution of autonomous selfing may be advantageous because it allows for reproductive assurance. In co-flowering plants competing for pollinators, the least common and/or attractive could suffer pollen limitations. Silene niceensis and S. ramosissima are taxonomically related species sharing the same habitat, although S. ramosissima is less abundant and has a more restricted distribution. They also have the same a priori nocturnal pollinator syndrome, and show an overlapping flowering phenology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a selfing strategy in S. ramosissima allows it to avoid pollinator competition and/or interspecific pollen transfer with S. niceensis, which would thus enable both species to reach high levels of fruit and seed set. Methods The breeding system, petal colour, flower life span and degree of overlap between male and female phases, floral visitor abundance and visitation rates were analysed in two sympatric populations of S. niceensis and S. ramosissima in southern Spain. Key Results Autonomous selfing in S. ramosissima produced very high fruit and seed set, which was also similar to open-pollinated plants. Silene niceensis showed minimum levels of autonomous selfing, and pollen/ovule ratios were within the range expected for the breeding system. In contrast to S. niceensis, flower life span was much shorter in S. ramosissima, and male and female organs completely overlapped in space and time. Upper surface petals of both species showed differing brightness, chroma and hue. Flowers of S. niceensis were actively visited by moths, hawkmoths and syrphids, whereas those of S. ramosissima were almost never visited. Conclusions The findings show that different breeding strategies exist between the sympatric co-flowering S. niceensis and S. ramosissima, the former specializing in crepuscular–nocturnal pollination and the latter mainly based on autonomous selfing. These two strategies allow both species to share

  6. Neuroprotection of Ilex latifolia and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives against excitotoxic and hypoxic damage of cultured rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Hong Kyu; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, SeungHwan; Yoo, Jae Kuk; Seong, Yeon Hee

    2012-06-01

    Ilex latifolia (Aquifoliaceae), one of the primary components of "Ku-ding-cha", has been used in Chinese folk medicine to treat headaches and various inflammatory diseases. A previous study demonstrated that the ethanol extract of I. latifolia could protect against ischemic apoptotic brain damage in rats. The present study investigated the protective activity of I. latifolia against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity using cultured rat cortical neurons in order to explain a possible mechanism related to its inhibitory effect on ischemic brain damage and identified potentially active compounds from it. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to 500 μM glutamate for 12 h triggered neuronal cell death. I. latifolia (10-100 μg/mL) inhibited glutamate-induced neuronal death, elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the increase of a pro-apoptotic protein, BAX, and the decrease of an anti-apoptotic protein, BcL-2. Hypoxia-induced neuronal cell death was also inhibited by I. latifolia. 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid (diCQA), 3,5-diCQA, and 3,5-diCQA methyl ester isolated from I. latifolia also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i), generation of ROS, the change of apoptosis-related proteins, and neuronal cell death; and hypoxia-induced neuronal cell death. These results suggest that I. latifolia and its active compounds prevented glutamate-induced neuronal cell damage by inhibiting increase of [Ca(2+)](i), generation of ROS, and resultantly apoptotic pathway. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of I. latifolia on ischemia-induced brain damage might be associated with the anti-excitatory and anti-oxidative actions and could be attributable to these active compounds, CQAs.

  7. Silene patula (Siphonomorpha, Caryophyllaceae) in North Africa: a test of colonisation routes using chloroplast markers.

    PubMed

    Naciri, Yamama; Cavat, Fanny; Jeanmonod, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Based on morphological characters, the North African Silene patula has been divided into two subspecies, ssp. patula found North of Kabylies and Atlas Mountains, and ssp. amurensis found south of these regions. In order to test the hypothesis that S. patula could have derived from S. italica through the Sicilian Channel during the Messinian, we sequenced three chloroplast loci, trnH-psbA, trnS-trnG and rpl12-rps20. Fifteen haplotypes were found on 211 herbarium specimens, associated with a huge differentiation within species. The hypothesis that S. patula had independently evolved as two different subspecies North and South of the mountains is refuted and a morphological adaptation to different pollinators is suggested to explain the differences between the two taxa. The Kabylies-Numidie-Kroumirie gathers a large proportion of haplotypes, which points to this region as a probable refugium or place of origin from which spatial expansions have subsequently occurred towards Morocco and the Aurès Mountains.

  8. Disentangling the causes of intrainflorescence variation in floral traits and fecundity in the hermaphrodite Silene acutifolia.

    PubMed

    Buide, M Luisa

    2008-04-01

    Inflorescence architecture directly determines variations in floral traits and fecundity. Disentangling these patterns of variation is crucial to understanding intraplant variation, which sometimes is directly attributed to competition for resources with developing fruits. The dichasial cymes of Silene acutifolia were experimentally manipulated in the field to analyze whether the declines in petal size, ovule number, fruit set, and seed/ovule ratio along the inflorescence are constrained by ontogenetic development or are phenotypically plastic in response to environmental changes. At the same time, the level of pollen deficit was measured on different positions of the dichasia. The results showed clearly that all measured variables were more influenced by architecture than by resource competition with developing fruits; the removal of central (basal) and primary lateral flowers in the dichasia did not increase either the measures of floral characters or fecundity. On the other hand, although most of the decline in fecundity was due to architectural effects, there was also a pollen limitation, dependent to some degree on inflorescence position, which was probably due to lower pollen availability in the population when secondary flowers are in the female phase.

  9. Glutathione depletion due to copper-induced phytochelatin synthesis causes oxidative stress in Silene cucubalus

    SciTech Connect

    Ric De Vos, C.H.; Vonk, M.J.; Vooijs, R.; Schat, H. )

    1992-03-01

    The relation between loss of glutathione due to metal-induced phytochelatin synthesis and oxidative stress was studied in the roots of copper-sensitive and tolerant Silene cucubalus (L.) Wib., resistant to 1 and 40 micromolar Cu, respectively. The amount of nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds other then glutathione was taken as a measure of phytochelatins. At a supply of 20 micromolar Cu, which is toxic for sensitive plants only, phytochelatin synthesis and loss of total glutathione were observed only in sensitive plants within 6 h of exposure. When the plants were exposed to a range of copper concentrations for 3 d, a marked production of phytochelatins in sensitive plants was already observed at 0.5 micromolar Cu, whereas the production in tolerant plants was negligible at 40 micromolar or lower. The highest production in tolerant plants was only 40% of that in sensitive plants. In both varieties, the synthesis of phytochelatins was coupled to a loss of glutathione. Copper at toxic concentrations caused oxidative stress, as was evidenced by both the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and a shift in the glutathione redox couple to a more oxidized state. Depletion of glutathione by pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine significantly increased the oxidative damage by copper. At a comparably low glutathione level, cadmium had no effect on either lipid peroxidation or the glutathione redox couple in buthionine sulfoximine-treated plants. These results indicate that copper may specifically cause oxidative stress by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione due to phytochelatin synthesis.

  10. Marginal Likelihood Estimate Comparisons to Obtain Optimal Species Delimitations in Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Zeynep; Marcussen, Thomas; Ertekin, Alaattin Selcuk; Oxelman, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Coalescent-based inference of phylogenetic relationships among species takes into account gene tree incongruence due to incomplete lineage sorting, but for such methods to make sense species have to be correctly delimited. Because alternative assignments of individuals to species result in different parametric models, model selection methods can be applied to optimise model of species classification. In a Bayesian framework, Bayes factors (BF), based on marginal likelihood estimates, can be used to test a range of possible classifications for the group under study. Here, we explore BF and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to discriminate between different species classifications in the flowering plant lineage Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae). We estimated marginal likelihoods for different species classification models via the Path Sampling (PS), Stepping Stone sampling (SS), and Harmonic Mean Estimator (HME) methods implemented in BEAST. To select among alternative species classification models a posterior simulation-based analog of the AIC through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM) was also performed. The results are compared to outcomes from the software BP&P. Our results agree with another recent study that marginal likelihood estimates from PS and SS methods are useful for comparing different species classifications, and strongly support the recognition of the newly described species S. ertekinii. PMID:25216034

  11. Phytochemical constituents from the florets of tiger grass Thysanolaena latifolia from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sabina; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Lee, Dae-Young; Jeong, Rak-Hun; Song, Myoung-Chong; Cho, Somi Kim; Lee, Dong-Sun; Baek, Nam-In

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the florets of Thysanolaena latifolia leads to the isolation of a new compound 6″-O-acetylorientin-2″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), named amrisoside and other 34 known compounds. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from the interpretation of spectroscopic data including NMR, MS, and IR. This is the first report of phytochemical constituents from the monotypic genus Thysanolaena.

  12. Volvalerine A, an unprecedented N-containing sesquiterpenoid dimer derivative from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. PMID:26779941

  13. Efficiency of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Menka; Tripathi, B D

    2015-02-01

    A cost-effective and promising technology has been demonstrated for the removal of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days. With the help of P. australis and T. latifolia grown alone and in combination batch experiments were designed to assess the removal of heavy metals from the wastewater collected from 5 sampling stations. The results revealed that P. australis performed better than T. latifolia for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn removal, while mixing of the plant species further enhanced the removal of Cu to 78.0±1.2%, Cd to 60.0±1.2%, Cr to 68.1±0.4%, Ni to 73.8±0.6%, Fe to 80.1±0.3%, Pb to 61.0±1.2% and Zn to 61.0±1.2% for wastewater samples from Raj Ghat. Negative correlation coefficients of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations in wastewater with the retention time revealed that there was an increase in the heavy metal removal rate with retention time. P. australis showed higher accumulative capacities for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe than T. latifolia. P. australis and T. latifolia grown in combination can be used for the removal of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn from the urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days.

  14. High Pb concentration stress on Typha latifolia growth and Pb removal in microcosm wetlands.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianqiu; Chen, Fengzhen; Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Chaohua

    2015-01-01

    When constructed wetlands are used to treat high-Pb wastewater, Pb may become a stress to wetland plants, which subsequently reduces treatment performance and the other ecosystem services. To facilitate the design and operation of constructed wetlands for treatment of Pb-rich wastewater, we investigated the irreversible inhibitory level of Pb for Typha latifolia through experiments in microcosm wetlands. Seven horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands were built with rectangular plastic tanks and packed with marble chips and sand. All wetlands were transplanted with nine stems of Typha latifolia each. The wetlands were batch operated in a greenhouse with artificial wastewater (10 L each) for 12 days. Influent to the seven wetlands had different concentrations of Pb: 0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 500 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that leaf chlorophyll relative content, relative growth rate, photosynthetic characteristics, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and content of malondialdehyde were not affected when initial Pb concentration was at 100 mg/L and below. But when initial Pb concentration was above 100 mg/L, all of them were seriously affected. We conclude that high Pb concentrations wastewater could inhibit the growth of Typha latifolia and decrease the removal rate of wetlands.

  15. Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia Essential Oils from Spain: Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Compositions of true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oils, cultivated and extracted in the Southeast of Spain, were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection, obtaining both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (37-54 %), linalyl acetate (21-36 %) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1-3 %) were the most abundant components for L. angustifolia. Linalool (35-51 %), eucalyptol (26-32 %), camphor (10-18 %), α-pinene (1-2 %), α-terpineol (1-2 %) and α-bisabolene (1-2 %) were the most abundant components for L. latifolia. The characterization was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, in which the determined main molecules were (-)-linalool, (-)-linalyl acetate and (+)-camphor. (S)-(-)-camphene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (1R, 9S)-(-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene and (1R, 4R, 6R, 10S)-(-)-caryophyllene oxide were found in this study as the predominant enantiomers in Spanish L. angustifolia. The characterised essential oils were tested for their antioxidant activity against free radicals ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, chelating, and reducing power. Inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed indicating a possible anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool, camphor, p-cymene and limonene. These results can be the starting point for a future study of the potential use of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients for several skin diseases. PMID:26441063

  16. Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia Essential Oils from Spain: Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Compositions of true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oils, cultivated and extracted in the Southeast of Spain, were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection, obtaining both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (37-54 %), linalyl acetate (21-36 %) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1-3 %) were the most abundant components for L. angustifolia. Linalool (35-51 %), eucalyptol (26-32 %), camphor (10-18 %), α-pinene (1-2 %), α-terpineol (1-2 %) and α-bisabolene (1-2 %) were the most abundant components for L. latifolia. The characterization was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, in which the determined main molecules were (-)-linalool, (-)-linalyl acetate and (+)-camphor. (S)-(-)-camphene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (1R, 9S)-(-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene and (1R, 4R, 6R, 10S)-(-)-caryophyllene oxide were found in this study as the predominant enantiomers in Spanish L. angustifolia. The characterised essential oils were tested for their antioxidant activity against free radicals ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, chelating, and reducing power. Inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed indicating a possible anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool, camphor, p-cymene and limonene. These results can be the starting point for a future study of the potential use of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients for several skin diseases.

  17. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production.

  18. Comparative Mapping of the Wild Perennial Glycine latifolia and Soybean (G. max) Reveals Extensive Chromosome Rearrangements in the Genus Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S.; Brown, Patrick J.; Hartman, Glen L.; Lambert, Kris N.; Domier, Leslie L.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production. PMID

  19. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production. PMID

  20. Investigating past range dynamics for a weed of cultivation, Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sebasky, Megan E; Keller, Stephen R; Taylor, Douglas R

    2016-07-01

    Since the last glacial maximum (LGM), many plant and animal taxa have expanded their ranges by migration from glacial refugia. Weeds of cultivation may have followed this trend or spread globally following the expansion of agriculture or ruderal habitats associated with human-mediated disturbance. We tested whether the range expansion of the weed Silene vulgaris across Europe fit the classical model of postglacial expansion from southern refugia, or followed known routes of the expansion of human agricultural practices. We used species distribution modeling to predict spatial patterns of postglacial expansion and contrasted these with the patterns of human agricultural expansion. A population genetic analysis using microsatellite loci was then used to test which scenario was better supported by spatial patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Genetic diversity was highest in southern Europe and declined with increasing latitude. Locations of ancestral demes from genetic cluster analysis were consistent with areas of predicted refugia. Species distribution models showed the most suitable habitat in the LGM on the southern coasts of Europe. These results support the typical postglacial northward colonization from southern refugia while refuting the east-to-west agricultural spread as the main mode of expansion for S. vulgaris. We know that S. vulgaris has recently colonized many regions (including North America and other continents) through human-mediated dispersal, but there is no evidence for a direct link between the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and current patterns of genetic diversity of S. vulgaris in Europe. Therefore, the history of range expansion of S. vulgaris likely began with postglacial expansion after the LGM, followed by more recent global dispersal by humans. PMID:27547314

  1. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M L; Del Valle, José C; Whittall, Justen B

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  2. Conservation of species in dynamic landscapes: divergent fates of Silene tatarica populations in riparian habitats.

    PubMed

    Jäkäläniemi, Anne; Tuomi, Juha; Siikamäki, Pirkko

    2006-06-01

    In transient environments, where local extinctions occur as a result of destruction or deterioration of the local habitat, the long-term persistence of a species requires successful colonizations at new, suitable sites. This kind of habitat tracking should be associated with the asynchronous dynamics of local populations, and it can be especially important for the conservation of rare plant species in riparian habitats. We determined spatiotemporal variation in the demography of the perennial Silene tatarica (L.) Pers. in 15 populations (1998-2003) located in periodically disturbed riparian habitats. The habitats differed according to their morphology (flat shores, slopes) and the amount of bare ground (open, intermediate, closed) along a successional gradient. We used elasticity and life-table response analyses and stochastic simulations to study the variation in population demography. Finite population growth rate was higher in intermediate habitats than in open and closed habitats. In stochastic simulations population size increased in most cases, but four populations were projected to become extinct within 12-70 years. The viability of local populations depended most on the survival and growth of juvenile individuals and on the fecundity of large fertile individuals. On a regional scale, the persistence of this species will require a viable network of local populations as protection against local extinctions caused by natural disturbances and succession. Accordingly, the long-term persistence of riparian species may depend on habitat changes; thus, their conservation requires maintenance of natural disturbance dynamics. Along regulated rivers, management activities such as the creation of open habitats for new colonization should be implemented. Similarly, these activities can be rather general requirements for the conservation of endangered species dependent on transient habitats along successional gradients.

  3. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M. L.; del Valle, José C.; Whittall, Justen B.

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  4. Distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Inamori, Ryuhei; Gui, Ping; Xu, Kai-qin; Kong, Hai-nan; Matsumura, Masatoshi; Inamori, Yuhei

    2005-01-01

    A molecular biology method, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in which the pre-treatment was improved in allusion to the media of the constructed wetlands (CW), e.g. the soil and the grit, was used to investigate the vertical distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) quantity and the relation with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands under three different loadings in summer from May to September. Results showed that the quantity of the AOB decreased in the Typha latifolia CW with the increase of vertical depth. However, the AOB quantity was 2-4 times the quantity of the control in the root area. Additionally, ORP in the rhizosphere was found to be higher than other areas, which showed that Typha latifolia CW was in an aerobic state in summer when using simulated non-point sewage at the rural area of Taihu Lake in China and small town combined sewage.

  5. Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

    2013-04-01

    The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

  6. Ilex latifolia Prevents Amyloid β Protein (25-35)-Induced Memory Impairment by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Tau Phosphorylation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yoo, Jae Kuk; Seong, Yeon Hee

    2015-12-01

    Ilex latifolia Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae), a Chinese bitter tea called "kudingcha," has been widely consumed as a health beverage and found to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ischemic activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of an ethanol extract of I. latifolia against amyloid β protein (Aβ)-induced memory impairment in mice and neurotoxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons. Memory impairment in mice was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of 15 nmol Aβ (25-35) and measured by the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. Chronic administration of I. latifolia (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly prevented Aβ (25-35)-induced memory loss. I. latifolia also prevented the decrease of glutathione concentrations, increased lipid peroxidation, expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and changes in apoptosis-associated proteins in the memory-impaired mouse brain. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to 10 μM Aβ (25-35) for 36 h induced neuronal apoptotic death. The neuronal cell death, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, generation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of proapoptotic proteins caused by Aβ (25-35) in the cultured neurons were inhibited by treatment with I. latifolia (1-50 μg/mL). These results suggest that I. latifolia may have a possible therapeutic role in managing cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanism might involve the antiapoptotic effects mediated by antioxidant activity and inhibition of p-tau formation.

  7. Life-history differentiation and the maintenance of monoecy and dioecy in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae).

    PubMed

    Dorken, Marcel E; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2003-09-01

    The existence of monoecious and dioecious populations within plant species is rare. This limits opportunities to investigate the ecological mechanisms responsible for the evolution and maintenance of these contrasting sexual systems. In Sagittaria latifolia, an aquatic flowering plant, monoecious and dioecious populations exist in close geographic proximity but occupy distinct wetland habitats differing in the relative importance of disturbance and competition, respectively. Life-history theory predicts contrasting evolutionary responses to these environmental conditions. We propose that the maintenance of monoecy and dioecy in S. latifolia is governed by ecological selection of divergent life-history strategies in contrasting habitats. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by comparing components of growth and reproduction between monoecious and dioecious populations under four conditions: natural populations, a uniform glasshouse environment, a common garden in which monoecious and dioecious populations and their F1 progeny were compared, and a transplant experiment using shaded and unshaded plots in a freshwater marsh. Plants from dioecious populations were larger in size and produced heavier corms in comparison with monoecious populations. Monoecious populations flowered earlier and produced more flowers, clonal ramets, and corms than dioecious populations. The life-history differences between the sexual systems were shown to have a quantitative genetic basis, with F1 progeny generally exhibiting intermediate trait values. Survival was highest for each sexual system in field plots that most closely resembled the habitats in which monoecious (unshaded) and dioecious (shaded) populations grow. These results demonstrate that monoecious and dioecious populations exhibit contrasting patterns of investment in traits involved with growth and reproduction. Selection for divergent life histories between monoecious and dioecious populations of S. latifolia appears to be the

  8. Aqueous pesticide mitigation efficiency of Typha latifolia (L.), Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw., and Sparganium americanum Nutt.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew T; Tyler, Heather L; Locke, Martin A

    2013-08-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is necessary to help meet the increased demand for a safe and secure food supply for the United States, as well as the global community. Even with proper application and careful management, the possibility of pesticide leaching and detachment in runoff still exists following certain storm events. Several different management practices have been designed to reduce the impacts of pesticides on aquatic receiving systems. Many such practices focus on the use of vegetation to slow runoff and allow for sorption of the various contaminants. Three common drainage ditch macrophytes, Leersia oryzoides (cutgrass), Typha latifolia (cattail), and Sparganium americanum (bur-reed) were assessed for their ability to reduce effluent loads of atrazine, diazinon, and permethrin in simulated agricultural runoff water in 379L individual mesocosms. Of the three macrophytes examined, L. oryzoides was the most effective at mitigating atrazine, and permethrin. L. oryzoides and T. latifolia significantly reduced overall atrazine loads (45±7%, p=0.0073 and 35±8%, p=0.0421, respectively) when compared to unvegetated controls (13±20%). No significant differences in overall diazinon load retention were noted between plant species. Each plant species significantly decreased the initial load (after 6h) of trans-permethrin, while both L. oryzoides and T. latifolia significantly reduced the overall trans-permethrin loads (88±5%, p=0.0022 and 88±5%, p=0.0020, respectively) when compared to unvegetated controls (68±8%). Reversible adsorption of atrazine and diazinon to plants, noted during the flushing events, was greater than that observed in either cis- or trans-permethrin. These results demonstrate the ability of native ditch vegetation to mitigate pesticides associated with agricultural runoff. Likewise, they provide farmers and action agencies with supportive data for selection of vegetation in drainage ditches used as management practices.

  9. Nowhere to invade: Rumex crispus and Typha latifolia projected to disappear under future climate scenarios.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonglin; Feng, Zhaodong; Yang, Jianjun; Zheng, Jianghua; Zhang, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Future climate change has been predicted to affect the potential distribution of plant species. However, only few studies have addressed how invasive species may respond to future climate change despite the known effects of plant species invasion on nutrient cycles, ecosystem functions, and agricultural yields. In this study, we predicted the potential distributions of two invasive species, Rumex crispus and Typha latifolia, under current and future (2050) climatic conditions. Future climate scenarios considered in our study include A1B, A2, A2A, B1, and B2A. We found that these two species will lose their habitat under the A1B, A2, A2A, and B1 scenarios. Their distributions will be maintained under future climatic conditions related to B2A scenarios, but the total area will be less than 10% of that under the current climatic condition. We also investigated variations of the most influential climatic variables that are likely to cause habitat loss of the two species. Our results demonstrate that rising mean annual temperature, variations of the coldest quarter, and precipitation of the coldest quarter are the main factors contributing to habitat loss of R. crispus. For T. latifolia, the main factors are rising mean annual temperature, variations in temperature of the coldest quarter, mean annual precipitation, and precipitation of the coldest quarter. These results demonstrate that the warmer and wetter climatic conditions of the coldest season (or month) will be mainly responsible for habitat loss of R. crispus and T. latifolia in the future. We also discuss uncertainties related to our study (and similar studies) and suggest that particular attention should be directed toward the manner in which invasive species cope with rapid climate changes because evolutionary change can be rapid for species that invade new areas.

  10. Extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription in rice caused by introgression from Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenlan; Wang, Yongming; Shen, Ye; Guo, Wanli; Hao, Shui; Liu, Bao

    2004-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that insertion of foreign DNA into mammalian genome can profoundly alter the patterns of DNA methylation and transcription of the host genome. Introgression of alien DNA into plant genomes through sexual crossing and genetic engineering are commonly used in breeding, but it is not known if plant genomes have similar responses to alien DNA introgression as those of animals. Two stable rice lines with introgression from wild rice, Zizania latifolia, were analyzed for patterns of cytosine DNA methylation and transcription of a set of selected sequences, including cellular genes and transposable element (TE)-related DNA segments. In 21 of the 30 studied sequences, marked changes in DNA methylation and/or transcription were observed compared with those of the rice parent. In all analyzed sequences, the absence of Zizania homologues in the introgression lines was confirmed. No change in DNA methylation and expression patterns was detected in randomly selected individuals of the rice parent nor in two sibling lines without introgressed Zizania DNA. The changed methylation patterns in both introgression lines were stably maintained in all five randomly sampled individuals of a given line, as well as in selfed progenies of the lines. Changed patterns in methylation and expression were also found in an independently produced asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia that involves a different rice genotype but also contains a small amount of Z. latifolia DNA integrated into the rice genome. Thus, we have demonstrated that alien DNA introgression into a plant genome can induce extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription of both cellular genes and TE-related DNA segments in a genotype-independent manner. PMID:15316290

  11. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Mbaebie, BO; Edeoga, HO; Afolayan, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:23569880

  12. Nowhere to Invade: Rumex crispus and Typha latifolia Projected to Disappear under Future Climate Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhonglin; Feng, Zhaodong; Yang, Jianjun; Zheng, Jianghua; Zhang, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Future climate change has been predicted to affect the potential distribution of plant species. However, only few studies have addressed how invasive species may respond to future climate change despite the known effects of plant species invasion on nutrient cycles, ecosystem functions, and agricultural yields. In this study, we predicted the potential distributions of two invasive species, Rumex crispus and Typha latifolia, under current and future (2050) climatic conditions. Future climate scenarios considered in our study include A1B, A2, A2A, B1, and B2A. We found that these two species will lose their habitat under the A1B, A2, A2A, and B1 scenarios. Their distributions will be maintained under future climatic conditions related to B2A scenarios, but the total area will be less than 10% of that under the current climatic condition. We also investigated variations of the most influential climatic variables that are likely to cause habitat loss of the two species. Our results demonstrate that rising mean annual temperature, variations of the coldest quarter, and precipitation of the coldest quarter are the main factors contributing to habitat loss of R. crispus. For T. latifolia, the main factors are rising mean annual temperature, variations in temperature of the coldest quarter, mean annual precipitation, and precipitation of the coldest quarter. These results demonstrate that the warmer and wetter climatic conditions of the coldest season (or month) will be mainly responsible for habitat loss of R. crispus and T. latifolia in the future. We also discuss uncertainties related to our study (and similar studies) and suggest that particular attention should be directed toward the manner in which invasive species cope with rapid climate changes because evolutionary change can be rapid for species that invade new areas. PMID:23923020

  13. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    PubMed

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil.

  14. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Lectin Extracted from Fruiting Bodies of the Korean Cauliflower Medicinal Mushroom, Sparassis latifolia (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Hyun; Wu, Yuanzheng; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel lectin from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Sparassis latifolia. The antibacterial activity of the purified lectin against Escherichia coli and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the antifungal activity against Candida and Fusarium species were determined. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and the tryptophan blue shift assay indicated that the lectin interacts with microbial surfaces. This suggests the potential of the lectin isolated from S. latifolia, a valuable source of bioactive constituents, as a therapeutic in pharmaceutical agent. PMID:27481295

  15. An Efficient In Vitro Plantlet Regeneration from Shoot Tip Cultures of Curculigo latifolia, a Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Nahid; Psyquay Abdullah, Nur Ashikin; Saleh, Ghizan; Lee Abdullah, Thohirah

    2014-01-01

    A procedure was developed for in vitro propagation of Curculigo latifolia through shoot tip culture. Direct regeneration and indirect scalp induction of Curculigo latifolia were obtained from shoot tip grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of thidiazuron and indole-3-butyric acid. Maximum response for direct regeneration in terms of percentage of explants producing shoot, shoot number, and shoot length was obtained on MS medium supplemented with combination of thidiazuron (0.5 mg L−1) and indole-3-butyric acid (0.25 mg L−1) after both 10 and 14 weeks of cultures. Indole-3-butyric acid in combination with thidiazuron exhibited a synergistic effect on shoot regeneration. The shoot tips were able to induce maximum scalp from basal end of explants on the medium with 2 mg L−1 thidiazuron. Cultures showed that shoot number, shoot length, and scalp size increased significantly after 14 weeks of culture. Transferring of the shoots onto the MS medium devoid of growth regulators resulted in the highest percentage of root induction and longer roots, while medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L−1 IBA produced more numbers of roots. PMID:24723799

  16. Nauclea latifolia: biological activity and alkaloid phytochemistry of a West African tree.

    PubMed

    Boucherle, Benjamin; Haudecoeur, Romain; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; De Waard, Michel; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Robins, Richard J; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2016-09-25

    Covering up to 2016Nauclea latifolia (syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius, Rubiaceae), commonly called the African pincushion tree, is a plant widely used in folk medicine in different regions of Africa for treating a variety of illnesses, including malaria, epilepsy and pain. N. latifolia has not only drawn the interest of traditional healers but also of phytochemists, who have identified a range of bioactive indole alkaloids in its tissue. More recently, following up on the traditional use of extracts in pain management, a bio-guided purification from the roots of the tree led to the identification of the active ingredient as tramadol, available as a synthetic analgesic since the 1970s. The discovery of this compound as a natural phytochemical was highlighted worldwide. This review focuses on the correlation between extracted compounds and pharmacological activities, paying special attention to infectious diseases and neurologically-related disorders. A critical analysis of the data reported so far on the natural origin of tramadol and its proposed biosynthesis is also presented. PMID:27346294

  17. An efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration from shoot tip cultures of Curculigo latifolia, a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Nahid; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Saleh, Ghizan; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee

    2014-01-01

    A procedure was developed for in vitro propagation of Curculigo latifolia through shoot tip culture. Direct regeneration and indirect scalp induction of Curculigo latifolia were obtained from shoot tip grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of thidiazuron and indole-3-butyric acid. Maximum response for direct regeneration in terms of percentage of explants producing shoot, shoot number, and shoot length was obtained on MS medium supplemented with combination of thidiazuron (0.5 mg L(-1)) and indole-3-butyric acid (0.25 mg L(-1)) after both 10 and 14 weeks of cultures. Indole-3-butyric acid in combination with thidiazuron exhibited a synergistic effect on shoot regeneration. The shoot tips were able to induce maximum scalp from basal end of explants on the medium with 2 mg L(-1) thidiazuron. Cultures showed that shoot number, shoot length, and scalp size increased significantly after 14 weeks of culture. Transferring of the shoots onto the MS medium devoid of growth regulators resulted in the highest percentage of root induction and longer roots, while medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L(-1) IBA produced more numbers of roots. PMID:24723799

  18. Radical scavenging capacity of methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. extract: anthocyanin and phenolic acids composition of fruits.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Erol; Erkan, Naciye

    2013-01-01

    Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and IC(50) values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g FW of fruits. PMID:23364751

  19. Nauclea latifolia: biological activity and alkaloid phytochemistry of a West African tree.

    PubMed

    Boucherle, Benjamin; Haudecoeur, Romain; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; De Waard, Michel; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Robins, Richard J; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2016-09-25

    Covering up to 2016Nauclea latifolia (syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius, Rubiaceae), commonly called the African pincushion tree, is a plant widely used in folk medicine in different regions of Africa for treating a variety of illnesses, including malaria, epilepsy and pain. N. latifolia has not only drawn the interest of traditional healers but also of phytochemists, who have identified a range of bioactive indole alkaloids in its tissue. More recently, following up on the traditional use of extracts in pain management, a bio-guided purification from the roots of the tree led to the identification of the active ingredient as tramadol, available as a synthetic analgesic since the 1970s. The discovery of this compound as a natural phytochemical was highlighted worldwide. This review focuses on the correlation between extracted compounds and pharmacological activities, paying special attention to infectious diseases and neurologically-related disorders. A critical analysis of the data reported so far on the natural origin of tramadol and its proposed biosynthesis is also presented.

  20. A mechanistic study of the addition of alcohol to a five-membered ring silene via a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Der

    2016-03-21

    The mechanism for the photochemical rearrangement of a cyclic divinyldisilane (1-Si) in its first excited state ((1)π → (1)π*) is determined using the CAS/6-311G(d) and MP2-CAS/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. The photoproduct, a cyclic silene, reacts with various alcohols to yield a mixture of cis- and trans- adducts. The two reaction pathways are denoted as the cis- addition path (path A) and the trans-addition path (path B). These model studies demonstrate that conical intersections play a crucial role in the photo-rearrangements of cyclic divinyldisilanes. The theoretical evidence also demonstrates that the addition of alcohol to a cyclic divinyldisilane follows the reaction path: cyclic divinyldisilane → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct (cyclic silene) → local intermediate (with alcohol) → transition state → cis- or trans-adduct. The theoretical studies demonstrate that the steric effects as well as the concentrations of CH3OH must have a dominant role in determining the yields of the final adducts by stereochemistry. The same mechanism for the carbon derivative (1-C) is also considered in this work. However, the theoretical results indicate that 1-C does not undergo a methanol addition reaction via the photochemical reaction pathway, since its energy of conical intersection (S1/S0-CI-C) is more than that of its FC (FC-C). The reason for these phenomena could be that the atomic radius of carbon is much smaller than that of silicon (77 and 117 pm, respectively). As a result, the conformation for 1-C is more sterically congested than that for 1-Si, along the 1,3-silyl-migration pathway. PMID:26928893

  1. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, a perennial wild relative of soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistan...

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA (TYPHACEAE) AND THE IMPACT OF POLLUTANTS EXAMINED WITH TANDEM-REPETITIVE DNA PROBES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci was examined in the common cattail, Typha latifolia (Typhaceae), using three synthetic DNA probes composed of tandemly repeated "core" sequences (GACA, GATA, and GCAC). The principal objectives of this investigation w...

  3. In Vitro Study on the Antioxidant Potentials of the Leaves and Fruits of Nauclea latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Ayeleso, Ademola O.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Brooks, Nicole L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the in vitro antioxidant potentials of the leaves and fruits of Nauclea latifolia, a straggling shrub or small tree, native to tropical Africa and Asia. Hot water extracts of the leaves and fruits of Nauclea latifolia were assessed for their total polyphenolic, flavanol, and flavonol contents as well as 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The aqueous extract of the leaves was found to contain higher level of total polyphenols (11.63 ± 0.023 mg GAE/g), flavanol (1.45 ± 0.10 mg CE/g), and flavonol (2.22 ± 0.37 mg QE/g) than the extract of the fruits with values of 1.75 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g (total polyphenol), 0.15 ± 0.01 mg CE/g (flavanol), and 1.00 ± 0.13 mg QE/g (flavonol). Similarly, the aqueous extract of the leaves also exhibited higher DPPH (IC50 20.64 mg/mL), FRAP (86.10 ± 3.46 μmol AAE/g), TEAC (94.83 ± 3.57 μmol TE/g), and ORAC (196.55 ± 0.073 μmol TE/g) than the extract of the fruits with DPPH (IC50 120.33 mg/mL), FRAP (12.23 ± 0.40 μmol AAE/g), TEAC (12.48 ± 0.21 μmol TE/g), and ORAC (58.88 ± 0.073 μmol TE/g). The present study showed that Nauclea latifolia has strong antioxidant potentials with the leaves demonstrating higher in vitro antioxidant activities than the fruits. PMID:25013856

  4. Effects of Ilex latifolia and Camellia sinensis on cholesterol and circulating immune complexes in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xian-Yang; Li, Na-Na; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is one of the risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Ilex latifolia or green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the levels of plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and circulating immune complexes in Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. We demonstrated that daily administration by gavage of I. latifolia or C. sinensis at doses of 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg body weight for 30 days resulted in a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol levels and circulating immune complexes and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet compared with levels in the high-cholesterol diet control group. C. sinensis was more effective than I. latifolia. I. latifolia and C. sinensis could be used as food supplements to protect against the development of hypercholesterolaemia.

  5. Ultrastructural morphologic description of the wild rice species Oryza latifolia (Poaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Montiel, Mayra; Espinoza, Ana M

    2003-06-01

    The wild rice species Oryza latifolia is endemic to Tropical America, allotetraploid and has a CCDD genome type. It belongs to the officinalis group of the genus Oryza. This species is widely distributed throughout the lowlands of Costa Rica and it is found on different life zones, having great morphologic diversity. The purpose of this research is to perform a morphologic description of O. latifolia samples of three Costa Rican localities (Carara, Liberia and Cañas) and to see if the phenotypic diversity of the species is reflected at the ultra-structure level. Structures such as the leaf blade, ligule, auricles and spikelet were analyzed. Leaf blade morphology of the specimens from the three localities is characterized by the presence of diamond-shaped stomata with papillae, zipper-like rows of silica cells; a variety of evenly distributed epicuticular wax papillae and bulky prickle trichomes. The central vein of the leaf blade from the Cañas populations is glabrous, while those from Carara and Liberia have abundant papillae. There are also differences among the borders of the leaf blade between these locations. Cañas and Liberia present alternating large and small prickle trichomes ca. 81 and 150 microns, while Carara exhibits even sized prickle trichomes of ca. 93 microns. Auricles from Cañas are rectangular and present long trichomes along the surface ca. 1.5 mm, while those of Liberia and Carara wrap the culm and exhibit trichomes only in the borders. The ligule from the plants of Carara has an acute distal tip, while that of Cañas and Liberia is blunt. The Liberia spikelet has large lignified spines while Cañas and Carara show flexible trichomes. PMID:15162727

  6. Ultrastructural morphologic description of the wild rice species Oryza latifolia (Poaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Montiel, Mayra; Espinoza, Ana M

    2003-06-01

    The wild rice species Oryza latifolia is endemic to Tropical America, allotetraploid and has a CCDD genome type. It belongs to the officinalis group of the genus Oryza. This species is widely distributed throughout the lowlands of Costa Rica and it is found on different life zones, having great morphologic diversity. The purpose of this research is to perform a morphologic description of O. latifolia samples of three Costa Rican localities (Carara, Liberia and Cañas) and to see if the phenotypic diversity of the species is reflected at the ultra-structure level. Structures such as the leaf blade, ligule, auricles and spikelet were analyzed. Leaf blade morphology of the specimens from the three localities is characterized by the presence of diamond-shaped stomata with papillae, zipper-like rows of silica cells; a variety of evenly distributed epicuticular wax papillae and bulky prickle trichomes. The central vein of the leaf blade from the Cañas populations is glabrous, while those from Carara and Liberia have abundant papillae. There are also differences among the borders of the leaf blade between these locations. Cañas and Liberia present alternating large and small prickle trichomes ca. 81 and 150 microns, while Carara exhibits even sized prickle trichomes of ca. 93 microns. Auricles from Cañas are rectangular and present long trichomes along the surface ca. 1.5 mm, while those of Liberia and Carara wrap the culm and exhibit trichomes only in the borders. The ligule from the plants of Carara has an acute distal tip, while that of Cañas and Liberia is blunt. The Liberia spikelet has large lignified spines while Cañas and Carara show flexible trichomes.

  7. Wetland treatment (HSSP) of wastewater from a milk-processing unit using Bambusa vulgaris, Typha latifolia and Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Shalini; Inarkar, Mangesh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted in soil-less horizontal sub-surface flow wetland (HSSF) embedded with graded gravels using Golden bamboo, Bambusa vulgaris (a non-wetland species), Typha latifolia and Cyperus rotundus (wetland species) for the treatment of wastewater from a milk processing unit. The wastewater was treated with a dilution ratio of 3:1. Removal efficiencies of BOD and COD were studied at one, two and three days hydraulic retention time (HRT). At one day HRT, the removal efficiency (%) of these parameters was lower in comparison to when the wastewater was subjected to two and three days HRT. The increase in removal efficiency with increase in HRT was marginal when it was increased from 2 days to 3 days. The percentage removal of COD and BOD at two days retention time followed the order: Golden bamboo (93, 88) > Cyperus rotundus (91, 90) > Typha latifolia (85, 87).

  8. Effects of the duration of cold stratification on early life stages of the Mediterranean alpine plant Silene ciliata.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, A; Escudero, A; Lara-Romero, C; Iriondo, J M

    2015-03-01

    Cold stratification provided by snow cover is essential to break seed dormancy in many alpine plant species. The forecast reduction in snow precipitation and snow cover duration in most temperate mountains as a result of global warming could threaten alpine plant populations, especially those at the edge of their species distribution, by altering the dynamics of early life stages. We simulated some effects of a reduction in the snow cover period by manipulating the duration of cold stratification in seeds of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean alpine specialist. Seeds from three populations distributed along an altitudinal gradient were exposed to different periods of cold stratification (2, 4 and 6 months) in the laboratory and then moved to common garden conditions in a greenhouse. The duration of the cold stratification treatment and population origin significantly affected seed emergence percentage, emergence rate and seedling size, but not the number of seedling leaves. The 6-month and 4-month cold stratification treatments produced higher emergence percentages and faster emergence rates than seeds without cold stratification treatment. No significant cold stratification duration x seed population origin interactions were found, thus differential sensitivity to cold stratification along elevation is not supported.

  9. Neutron Activation and Thermoluminescent Detector Responses to a Bare Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; McMahan, Kimberly L.; Lee, Yi-kang; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Authier, Nicolas; Piot, Jerome; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 11, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  10. A glacial survivor of the alpine Mediterranean region: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights into Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Iriondo, José María; García-Fernández, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae) is a species with a highly disjunct distribution which inhabits the alpine mountains of the Mediterranean Basin. We investigated the phylogeny and phylogeography of the species to (a) clarify the long-suggested division of S. ciliata into two subspecies, (b) evaluate its phylogenetic origin and (c) assess whether the species’ diversification patterns were affected by the Mediterranean relief. For this purpose, we collected DNA from 25 populations of the species that inhabit the mountains of Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece and studied the plastid regions rbcL, rps16 and trnL. Major intraspecific variation was supported by all analyses, while the possibility of the existence of more varieties or subspecies was not favoured. Plastid DNA (cpDNA) evidence was in accordance with the division of S. ciliata into the two subspecies, one spreading west (Iberian Peninsula and Central Massif) and the other east of the Alps region (Italian and Balkan Peninsula). This study proposes that the species’ geographically disconnected distribution has probably derived from vicariance processes and from the Alps acting as a barrier to the species’ dispersal. The monophyletic origin of the species is highly supported. cpDNA patterns were shown independent of the chromosome evolution in the populations and could have resulted from a combination of geographic factors providing links and barriers, climatic adversities and evolutionary processes that took place during Quaternary glaciations. PMID:26312184

  11. In vitro anti-Herpes simplex virus activity of crude extract of the roots of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nauclea latifolia Smith, a shrub belonging to the family Rubiaceae is a very popular medicinal plant in Cameroon and neighboring countries where it is used to treat jaundice, yellow fever, rheumatism, abdominal pains, hepatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, as well as diabetes. The ethno-medicinal use against yellow fever, jaundice and diarrhea prompted us to investigate on the antiviral activity of the root bark of N. latifolia. In this study, HSV-2 was chosen as a viral model because of its strong impact on HIV transmission and acquisition. Methods The crude extract under study was prepared by maceration of air-dried and powdered roots barks of N. latifolia in CH2Cl2/MeOH (50:50) mixture for 48 hours, then it was subjected to filtration and evaporation under vacuum. A phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-qMS). The anti-HSV-2 activity was assayed in vitro by plaque reduction and virus yield assays and the major mechanism of action was investigated by virucidal and time of addition assays. Data values were compared using the Extra sum of squares F test of program GraphPad PRISM 4. Results The main components detected in the extract belong to the class of indole alkaloids characteristic of Nauclea genus. Strictosamide, vincosamide and pumiloside were tentatively identified together with quinovic acid glycoside. N. latifolia crude extract inhibited both acyclovir sensitive and acyclovir resistant HSV-2 strains, with IC50 values of 5.38 μg/ml for the former and 7.17 μg/ml for the latter. The extract was found to be most active when added post-infection, with IC50 of 3.63 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of this work partly justify the empirical use of N. latifolia in traditional medicine for the treatment of viral diseases. This extract could be a promising rough material for the development of a new and more effective

  12. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Masse, Veronique; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available that

  13. Uptake and metabolism of diclofenac in Typha latifolia--how plants cope with human pharmaceutical pollution.

    PubMed

    Bartha, Bernadett; Huber, Christian; Schröder, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The fate of pharmaceuticals in our environment is a very important issue for environmental and health research. Although these substances have been detected in environmental compartments in low concentration until now, they will pose considerable environmental risk to ecosystems, animals and human due to their biological activity. Alternative plant based removal technologies that make use of some potential wetland species like Phragmites or Typha within traditional wastewater treatment plants have to be established to cope with this "new generation" of pollutants. We investigated uptake and translocation of diclofenac (1mgl(-1)) in the macrophyte Typha latifolia L. during one week exposure in greenhouse experiments. Detoxification products and involved key enzymatic processes were identified. We also examined the oxidative stress induced by the treatment and the defense capacity of the plants. Rapid uptake and effective metabolism were observed, where glycoside and glutathione conjugates represent dominant metabolites. Up to seven-fold induction of glycosyltransferase activity was observed in roots, but not in shoots. Glutathione S-transferase activity was also induced, but to a lower extent. The activity changes of defense enzymes points to oxidative stress in the plants. Our results show that human pharmaceuticals can be metabolized by plants similar to xenobiotics, but that similarities to human metabolism are limited.

  14. Mineralization of surfactants by microbiota of aquatic plants. [Lemna minor, Typha latifolia

    SciTech Connect

    Federle, T.W.; Schwab, B.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) by the microbiota associated with duckweed (Lemna minor) and the roots of cattail (Typha latifolia) was investigated. Plants were obtained from a pristine pond and a pond receiving wastewater from a rural laundromat. Cattail roots and duckweed plants were incubated in vessels containing sterile water amended with ({sup 14}C)LAS, ({sup 14}C)LAE, or {sup 14}C-labeled mixed amino acids (MAA). Evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was determined over time. The microbiota of cattail roots from both ponds mineralized LAS, LAE, and MAA without lag periods, and the rates and extents of mineralization were not significantly affected by the source of the plants. Mineralization of LAS and LAE was more rapid in the rhizosphere than in nearby root-free sediments, which exhibited differences as a function of pond. The microbiota of duckweed readily mineralized LAE and MAA but not LAS. The rate and extent of mineralization were not affected by the source of the duckweed.

  15. Effects of soil moisture regimes on photosynthesis and growth in cattail ( Typha latifolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuwen; Pezeshki, S. Reza; Goodwin, Shirlean

    2004-03-01

    Both waterlogging and water deficiency are major environmental factors affecting plant growth and functioning in many wetland and floodplain ecosystems across North America. Wetland plants possess various characteristics that enable them to survive and function in the intermittently flooded wetland environments, while their sensitivity to drought has received less attention. The present study quantified the photosynthetic and growth responses of cattail ( Typha latifolia), an important species of freshwater wetlands, to a wide range of soil moisture regimes. In addition, changes in the efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus following initiation of the treatments were investigated. Under greenhouse conditions, seedlings were subjected to four soil moisture regimes: (1) drained (control), (2) continuous flooding, (3) periodic flooding, and (4) periodic drought. Results indicated that dark fluorescence yield was increased in response to periodic drought, while it showed decreases under continuous flooding. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were enhanced by continuous flooding and periodic flooding. In contrast, these parameters exhibited reduction under periodic drought. In addition, leaf chlorophyll content was adversely affected by periodic drought. Recovery of net photosynthesis was noted, along with enhanced height growth, in both continuously and periodically flooded plants. Meanwhile, continuous flooding enhanced biomass production while periodic drought led to biomass reduction. Periodic drought also contributed to substantial reduction in root growth compared with shoot growth. Therefore, the combined photosynthetic performance and growth responses of cattail are likely to contribute to the ability of this species to thrive in flooded condition but be susceptive to periodic drought.

  16. Phytoremediation of wastewater with Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Anning, Alexander K; Korsah, Percy E; Addo-Fordjour, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation is thought to be the most sustainable wastewater treatment option for developing countries. However, its application is often limited by unavailability of suitable candidate species. In the present study, the potentials of Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia for remediation of heavy metal contaminated wastewater with a constructed wetland system were evaluated. The wetland consisted of three treatment lines each planted with sufficient and equal number of a species. Duplicate plant and water samples were collected bi-monthly and analyzed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer over a six month period. Bioaccumulation rates generally increased over time and varied among plants for these metals, with Fe (456-1549 mg kg1 roots; 20-183 mg kg(-1) shoot) being the most sequestered and Pb (1.2-7.6 mg kg(-1) roots; 1.55-3.95 mg kg(-1) shoot) the least. Translocation factors differed among the species but generally remained stable over time. L flava showed potential for hyperaccumulating Hg. Removal efficiencies varied for the studied metals (approximately 20-77 %) and were generally related to metal uptake by the plants. These results demonstrate the suitability of the species for phytoremediation, and the usefulness of the technique as an option for improving irrigation water quality in Ghana. PMID:23488171

  17. In Vitro Anticancer Activities of Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kawthar A E; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Saxena, Ajit K

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative potential of extracts from four Indian medicinal plants, namely Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna. Their cytotoxicity was tested in nine human cancer cell lines, including cancers of lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), breast (T47D and MCF-7), colon (HCT-16 and Colo-205) and leukemia (THP-1, HL-60 and K562) by using SRB and MTT assays. The findings showed that the selected plant extracts inhibited the cell proliferation of nine human cancer cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts inhibited cell viability of leukemia HL-60 and K562 cells by blocking G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, A. catechu extract at 100 μg/mL induced G2/M arrest in K562 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis displayed the appearance of a smear pattern of cell necrosis upon agarose gel electrophoresis after incubation of HL-60 cells with these extracts for 24 h.

  18. Extensive de Novo genomic variation in rice induced by introgression from wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Ming; Dong, Zhen-Ying; Zhang, Zhong-Juan; Lin, Xiu-Yun; Shen, Ye; Zhou, Daowei; Liu, Bao

    2005-08-01

    To study the possible impact of alien introgression on a recipient plant genome, we examined >6000 unbiased genomic loci of three stable rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from intergeneric hybridization between rice (cv. Matsumae) and a wild relative (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) followed by successive selfing. Results from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that, whereas the introgressed Zizania DNA comprised <0.1% of the genome content in the RILs, extensive and genome-wide de novo variations occurred in up to 30% of the analyzed loci for all three lines studied. The AFLP-detected changes were validated by DNA gel-blot hybridization and/or sequence analysis of genomic loci corresponding to a subset of the differentiating AFLP fragments. A BLAST analysis revealed that the genomic variations occurred in diverse sequences, including protein-coding genes, transposable elements, and sequences of unknown functions. Pairwise sequence comparison of selected loci between a RIL and its rice parent showed that the variations represented either base substitutions or small insertion/deletions. Genome variations were detected in all 12 rice chromosomes, although their distribution was uneven both among and within chromosomes. Taken together, our results imply that even cryptic alien introgression can be highly mutagenic to a recipient plant genome. PMID:15937131

  19. Phytoremediation of wastewater with Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Anning, Alexander K; Korsah, Percy E; Addo-Fordjour, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation is thought to be the most sustainable wastewater treatment option for developing countries. However, its application is often limited by unavailability of suitable candidate species. In the present study, the potentials of Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia for remediation of heavy metal contaminated wastewater with a constructed wetland system were evaluated. The wetland consisted of three treatment lines each planted with sufficient and equal number of a species. Duplicate plant and water samples were collected bi-monthly and analyzed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer over a six month period. Bioaccumulation rates generally increased over time and varied among plants for these metals, with Fe (456-1549 mg kg1 roots; 20-183 mg kg(-1) shoot) being the most sequestered and Pb (1.2-7.6 mg kg(-1) roots; 1.55-3.95 mg kg(-1) shoot) the least. Translocation factors differed among the species but generally remained stable over time. L flava showed potential for hyperaccumulating Hg. Removal efficiencies varied for the studied metals (approximately 20-77 %) and were generally related to metal uptake by the plants. These results demonstrate the suitability of the species for phytoremediation, and the usefulness of the technique as an option for improving irrigation water quality in Ghana.

  20. Uptake, translocation and possible biodegradation of the antidiabetic agent metformin by hydroponically grown Typha latifolia.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hao; Schröder, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The increasing load of pharmaceutical compounds has raised concerns about their potential residues in aquatic environments and ecotoxicity. Metformin (MET), a widely prescribed antidiabetic II medicine, has been detected in high concentration in sewage and in wastewater treatment effluents. An uptake and translocation study was carried out to assess the ultimate fate of MET in phytoremediation. MET was removed from media by Typha latifolia, and the removal processes followed first order kinetics. After 28 days, the removal efficiencies were in a range of 74.0±4.1-81.1±3.3%. In roots, MET concentration was increasing during the first two weeks of the experiment but thereafter decreasing. In contrast, MET concentration was continuously increasing in rhizomes and leaves. Bioaccumulation of MET in roots was much higher than in leaves and rhizomes. As degradation product of metformin in the plant, methylbiguanide (MBG) was detected whereas guanylurea was undetectable. Moreover, MBG concentration in roots was increasing with exposure time. An enzymatic degradation experiment showed the degradation rate followed the order of MET

  1. Synchrotron study of metal localization in Typha latifolia L. root sections

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yu; Jones, Keith W.; Feng, Huan; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Meiyan; Liu, Chang -Jun; Tappero, Ryan V.

    2015-09-15

    Understanding mechanisms that control plant root metal assimilation in soil is critical to the sustainable management of metal-contaminated land. With the assistance of the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technique, this study investigated possible mechanisms that control the localization of Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in the root tissues of Typha latifolia L. collected from a contaminated wetland. Metal localizations especially in the case of Fe and Pb in the dermal tissue and the vascular bundles were different. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the dermal tissue into iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue and regular dermal tissue based on the spatial distribution of Pb and Fe. Factor analysis showed that Cu and Zn were closely correlated to each other in the dermal tissues. The association of Cu, Zn and Mn with Fe was strong in both regular dermal tissue and iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue, while significant (p < 0.05) correlation of Fe with Pb was only observed in tissues enriched with iron plaque. In the vascular bundles, Zn, Mn and Cu showed strong association, suggesting that the localization of these three elements was controlled by a similar mechanism. Iron plaque in the peripheral dermal tissues acted as a barrier for Pb and a buffer for Zn, Cu and Mn. Furthermore, the Casparian strip regulated the transportation of metals from dermal tissues to the vascular bundles. The results suggested that the mechanisms controlling metal localization in root tissues varied with both tissue types and metals.

  2. Synchrotron study of metal localization in Typha latifolia L. root sections.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Feng, Huan; Gallagher, Frank J; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Meiyin; Liu, Chang Jun; Jones, Keith W; Tappero, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Understanding mechanisms that control plant root metal assimilation in soil is critical to the sustainable management of metal-contaminated land. With the assistance of the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technique, this study investigated possible mechanisms that control the localization of Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in the root tissues of Typha latifolia L. collected from a contaminated wetland. Metal localizations especially in the case of Fe and Pb in the dermal tissue and the vascular bundles were different. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the dermal tissue into iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue and regular dermal tissue based on the spatial distribution of Pb and Fe. Factor analysis showed that Cu and Zn were closely correlated to each other in the dermal tissues. The association of Cu, Zn and Mn with Fe was strong in both regular dermal tissue and iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue, while significant (p < 0.05) correlation of Fe with Pb was only observed in tissues enriched with iron plaque. In the vascular bundles, Zn, Mn and Cu showed strong association, suggesting that the localization of these three elements was controlled by a similar mechanism. Iron plaque in the peripheral dermal tissues acted as a barrier for Pb and a buffer for Zn, Cu and Mn. The Casparian strip regulated the transportation of metals from dermal tissues to the vascular bundles. The results suggested that the mechanisms controlling metal localization in root tissues varied with both tissue types and metals.

  3. In Vitro Anticancer Activities of Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kawthar A E; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Saxena, Ajit K

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative potential of extracts from four Indian medicinal plants, namely Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna. Their cytotoxicity was tested in nine human cancer cell lines, including cancers of lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), breast (T47D and MCF-7), colon (HCT-16 and Colo-205) and leukemia (THP-1, HL-60 and K562) by using SRB and MTT assays. The findings showed that the selected plant extracts inhibited the cell proliferation of nine human cancer cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts inhibited cell viability of leukemia HL-60 and K562 cells by blocking G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, A. catechu extract at 100 μg/mL induced G2/M arrest in K562 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis displayed the appearance of a smear pattern of cell necrosis upon agarose gel electrophoresis after incubation of HL-60 cells with these extracts for 24 h. PMID:26434854

  4. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishak, Nur Akmal; Ismail, Maznah; Hamid, Muhajir; Ahmad, Zalinah; Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah

    2013-01-01

    Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD) and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats. PMID:23762147

  5. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact. PMID:26647652

  6. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact.

  7. Expression of heavy metal tolerance in pollen and implications for gametophytic selection. [The plants used were clones of Silene dioica and Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in both sporophytic and microgametophytic phases of the angiosperm life cycle. Thus, selection in one phase could modify gene frequency in both phases. An attempt was made to investigate microgametophytic selection in response to toxic concentrations of heavy metals and the effect of this selection upon the resultant sporophyte generation. The plants used were clones of a zinc-tolerant Silene dioica, closely related nontolerant S. alba, and copper tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Mimulus guttatus. First, the expression of metal tolerance in pollen was established by in vitro pollen germination and tube growth, and was found to be associated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Second, to test the extent to which the parallel expression of metal tolerance was determined by the gametophytic genotype, tolerant but segregating clones were grown with and without added metals. Finally, selection was applied during pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization. In Silene, neither the tolerance of the pollen nor the metal content of the styles affected pollen tube growth rate. In Mimulus, pollen from the nontolerant source grew faster, but the metal content of the floral tissue had no significant effect on pollen tube growth rate, and only slightly reduced the fertilization ability of pollen from the nontolerant clone.

  8. Regulation of photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity by ⁶⁰Co γ-irradiation in Zizania latifolia plants.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Shi, Min; Huang, Jian-Zhong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Dan; Guo, De-Ping

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the photosynthetic performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in response to γ-irradiation of an aquatic plant Zizania latifolia. The Z. latifolia seedlings at 6-leaf stage were exposed to 25, 50 and 100 Gy of γ rays from a (60)Co source. The growth parameters, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant contents were examined at 1-5 weeks post-irradiation (WPI). The results showed that plant height, leaf number and tiller (branch close to ground) number were significantly suppressed by 50 and 100 Gy irradiation at 5, 3-5 and 4-5 WPI, respectively, but they were not significantly different from control by 25 Gy irradiation. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents were also found to be significantly decreased by irradiation. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) generally declined in a dose-dependent manner. As for the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching (qP) were observed to be significantly decreased compared to the control at 3 WPI, while non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) significantly increased by 100 Gy. γ-irradiation induced substantial increase in MDA content, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, reduced ascorbate (AsA) content and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting a protective mechanism of Z. latifolia plant against oxidative stress when exposed to γ-irradiation. PMID:24355402

  9. Synchrotron study of metal localization in Typha latifolia L. root sections

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Yu; Jones, Keith W.; Feng, Huan; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Meiyan; Liu, Chang -Jun; Tappero, Ryan V.

    2015-09-15

    Understanding mechanisms that control plant root metal assimilation in soil is critical to the sustainable management of metal-contaminated land. With the assistance of the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technique, this study investigated possible mechanisms that control the localization of Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in the root tissues of Typha latifolia L. collected from a contaminated wetland. Metal localizations especially in the case of Fe and Pb in the dermal tissue and the vascular bundles were different. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the dermal tissue into iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue and regular dermal tissue based on the spatial distribution ofmore » Pb and Fe. Factor analysis showed that Cu and Zn were closely correlated to each other in the dermal tissues. The association of Cu, Zn and Mn with Fe was strong in both regular dermal tissue and iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue, while significant (p < 0.05) correlation of Fe with Pb was only observed in tissues enriched with iron plaque. In the vascular bundles, Zn, Mn and Cu showed strong association, suggesting that the localization of these three elements was controlled by a similar mechanism. Iron plaque in the peripheral dermal tissues acted as a barrier for Pb and a buffer for Zn, Cu and Mn. Furthermore, the Casparian strip regulated the transportation of metals from dermal tissues to the vascular bundles. The results suggested that the mechanisms controlling metal localization in root tissues varied with both tissue types and metals.« less

  10. Extensive Microsatellite Variation in Rice Induced by Introgression from Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Hongyan; Dong, Yuzhu; Wang, Yongming; Liu, Wei; Miao, Gaojian; Lin, Xiuyun; Wang, Daqing; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that interspecific hybridization may induce genomic instability in the resultant hybrids. However, few studies have been performed on the genomic analysis of homoploid hybrids and introgression lines. We have reported previously that by introgressive hybridization, a set of introgression lines between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) was successfully generated, and which have led to the release of several cultivars. Methodology Using 96 microsatellite markers located in the nuclear and organelle genomes of rice, we investigated microsatellite stability in three typical introgression lines. Expression of a set of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and microsatellite-containing genes was also analyzed. Results/Conclusions Compared with the recipient rice cultivar (Matsumae), 55 of the 96 microsatellite loci revealed variation in one or more of the introgression lines, and 58.2% of the altered alleles were shared by at least two lines, indicating that most of the alterations had occurred in the early stages of introgression before their further differentiation. 73.9% of the non-shared variations were detected only in one introgression line, i.e. RZ2. Sequence alignment showed that the variations included substitutions and indels that occurred both within the repeat tracts and in the flanking regions. Interestingly, expression of a set of MMR genes altered dramatically in the introgression lines relative to their rice parent, suggesting participation of the MMR system in the generation of microsatellite variants. Some of the altered microsatellite loci are concordant with changed expression of the genes harboring them, suggesting their possible cis-regulatory roles in controlling gene expression. Because these genes bear meaningful homology to known-functional proteins, we conclude that the introgression-induced extensive variation of microsatellites may have contributed to the novel phenotypes in the

  11. Phytophagous mite populations on Tahiti lime, Citrus latifolia, under induced drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Quiros-Gonzalez, M

    2000-01-01

    In the north-western region of Venezuela, Phyllocoptruta oleivora, Tetranychus mexicanus and Brevipalpus phoenicis are common plant-feeding mites on leaves, fruits and branches of Tahiti lime, Citrus latifolia. The population dynamics of these herbivores are affected by many factors, such as weekly treatments with wettable sulphur, particularly during the wet season, maintenance pruning of plants, irrigation with microsprinklers, induction of water stress by withholding irrigation and biotic and abiotic environmental factors. During October 1994-January 1995, 31 trees in a commercial orchard were sampled weekly in order to describe population fluctuations of plant-feeding mites (mean number of mites per leaf or fruit), before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) a period of 6 weeks of drought stress (no irrigation). The population density of P. oleivora increased progressively during the last 3 weeks of the irrigation period and reached a maximum of 24 mites per fruit. In contrast, the populations of the other two species, T. mexicanus and B. phoenicis, remained at the same low density as before the withholding-irrigation period. After 6 weeks without irrigation, only T. mexicanus increased, to a high mean value of 11 mites per leaf. The withholding-irrigation practice appears to affect the population size of P. oleivora towards the end of this period and that of T. mexicanus at the beginning of the re-establishment of the water supply. The highest proportion of trees (32%) was infested by T. mexicanus after the withholding-irrigation period, when irrigation was resumed, whereas the highest levels of infestation of trees by P. oleivora and B. phoenicis were 16 and 10%, respectively, during the last week of the water-stress period. Although factors affecting the dynamics of the mites in the orchard are likely to be complex, irrigation management apparently plays an important role. PMID:11354617

  12. Plant-derived juvenile hormone III analogues and other sesquiterpenes from the stem bark of Cananga latifolia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hye Seong; Jeong, Eun Ju; Khiev, Piseth; Chin, Young-Won; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH III) is a larval metamorphosis-regulating hormone present in most insect species. JH III was first isolated from the plant, Cyperus iria L., but the presence of JH III has not been reported in other plant species. In the present study, proof of the existence of JH III and its analogues from Cananga latifolia was established. From an aqueous MeOH extract of C. latifolia stem bark, six compounds were isolated along with nine known compounds. These were identified by using spectroscopic analyses as: (2E,6E,10R)-11-butoxy-10-hydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoic acid methyl ester, (2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-10-oxododeca-2,6-dienoic acid methyl ester, (2E)-3-methyl-5-[(1S,2R,6R)-1,2,6-trimethyl-3-oxocyclohexyl]-pent-2-enoic acid methyl ester, 1β-hydroxy-3-oxo-4β, 5α,7α-H-eudesmane 11-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, 4-epi-aubergenone 11-O-2',3'-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside and 4-epi-aubergenone 11-O-2',4'-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside. Three of the previously known compounds, (2E,6E,10R)-10-hydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6,11-trienoaic acid methyl ester, (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-dihydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoic acid and (2E,6S)-3-methyl-6-hydroxy-6-[(2R,5R)-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-hex-2-enoaic acid methyl ester have now been found in a plant species. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis of the chemical constituents of C. latifolia showed that several were predominant in the sub-fractions of a C. latifolia stem bark extract.

  13. Caffeoylquinic acid derived free radicals identified during antioxidant reactions of bitter tea (Ilex latifolia and Ilex kudincha).

    PubMed

    Pirker, Katharina Franziska; Goodman, Bernard Albert

    2010-12-01

    In order to provide some insight into the chemical basis for the antioxidant behaviour of bitter tea, the Chinese medicinal beverage derived from leaves of Ilex kudincha or Ilex latifolia, free radicals generated during the oxidation of aqueous extracts of dried leaves have been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. With both beverages, the major components in the EPR spectra after accelerated autoxidation under alkaline conditions or oxidation with the superoxide anion radical were comparable to those derived from reactions of caffeoylquinic acids. Thus these reaction products have sufficient stability for biological activity, and the present results suggest that such molecules contribute appreciably to the antioxidant chemistry of these beverages.

  14. Plant-derived juvenile hormone III analogues and other sesquiterpenes from the stem bark of Cananga latifolia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hye Seong; Jeong, Eun Ju; Khiev, Piseth; Chin, Young-Won; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH III) is a larval metamorphosis-regulating hormone present in most insect species. JH III was first isolated from the plant, Cyperus iria L., but the presence of JH III has not been reported in other plant species. In the present study, proof of the existence of JH III and its analogues from Cananga latifolia was established. From an aqueous MeOH extract of C. latifolia stem bark, six compounds were isolated along with nine known compounds. These were identified by using spectroscopic analyses as: (2E,6E,10R)-11-butoxy-10-hydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoic acid methyl ester, (2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-10-oxododeca-2,6-dienoic acid methyl ester, (2E)-3-methyl-5-[(1S,2R,6R)-1,2,6-trimethyl-3-oxocyclohexyl]-pent-2-enoic acid methyl ester, 1β-hydroxy-3-oxo-4β, 5α,7α-H-eudesmane 11-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, 4-epi-aubergenone 11-O-2',3'-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside and 4-epi-aubergenone 11-O-2',4'-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside. Three of the previously known compounds, (2E,6E,10R)-10-hydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6,11-trienoaic acid methyl ester, (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-dihydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoic acid and (2E,6S)-3-methyl-6-hydroxy-6-[(2R,5R)-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-hex-2-enoaic acid methyl ester have now been found in a plant species. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis of the chemical constituents of C. latifolia showed that several were predominant in the sub-fractions of a C. latifolia stem bark extract. PMID:23859262

  15. Anti-Microbial Evaluation of a Herbal Dental Remedy Stem Bark of Nuclea latifolia-Family Rubiaceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Falodun; Igwe, A.; Osahon, Obasuyi

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Nuclea latifolia used as a dentrifice by the local populace. The crude powdered sample was evaluated for the chemical and antimicrobial effects. The methanolic and chloroform extracts were subjected to different organisms of clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus varidans, Staphylococcus aerues, Penicillum nonatum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were also obtained. The results of the study revealed significant antibacterial effect of the extracts. The study thus justifies the ethno medicinal use of the plant as a dental remedy.

  16. Cr(VI) removal from wastewater using low cost sorbent materials: roots of Typha latifolia and ashes.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Díaz, C; Colín-Cruz, A; Ureña-Nuñez, F; Romero-Romo, M; Palomar-Pardavé, M

    2004-08-01

    This work presents conditions for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal from aqueous solution using different sorbent materials, namely: pyrolytic ashes of an industrial sludge from wastewater treatment and roots of Typha latifolia. The sorbent materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, before and after the contact with the chromium-containing aqueous media. An overall Cr(VI) concentration reduction of 45% was achieved using the roots of Typha latifolia whereas in the case of pyrolytic ashes a 60% removal was observed. The percentage removal was found to depend on the initial Cr(VI) concentration in aqueous solution, pH and temperature. The Cr(VI) uptake process was maximum at pH 2 and a temperature of 40 degrees C for both sorbents. These materials showed a Cr(VI) adsorption capacity that was adequately described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was demonstrated that the use of waste materials for the treatment of Cr(VI)-containing wastewater is an effective and economical alternative method.

  17. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-06-17

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  18. Investigation on the biotrophic interaction of Ustilago esculenta on Zizania latifolia found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jose, Robinson C; Goyari, Sailendra; Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Handique, Pratap J; Talukdar, Narayan C

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago esculenta is a uniquely flavored biotrophic smut fungus that forms a smut gall on the top internodal region of Zizania latifolia, a perennial wild rice found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The smut gall is an edible vegetable locally called "kambong" in Manipur, India. The life cycle of the fungus was studied in vitro and its biotrophism was observed during different stages of the plant growth starting from the bud stage to decaying stage using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The size of the smut gall and the number of internodes below the apical smut gall varied significantly (P < 0.05). Examination of various parts of infected plants using culture methods, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction revealed that Ustilago esculenta colonized Zizania latifolia in a non-systemic manner. Spores and fragmented hyphae of U. esculenta were present in the rhizome of infected plant throughout the year, but shoot interiors were without any fungal structures from April until September. The smut region of infected plants in early September to December were heavily sporulated with fragmented hyphae, while the nodal regions of infected plants had no spores and fragmented hyphae. Hyphae and spores were also absent in the internodes and membranes aboveground up to smut region of infected plants but were present in the old rhizomes. PMID:27334294

  19. Tricin derivatives as anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic constituents from the aerial part of Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Su; Baek, Yoon-Su; Eun, Cheong-Su; Yu, Mi-Hee; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Dae-Kyun; Bang, Myun-Ho; Yang, Seun-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Methanol extract of Zizania latifolia was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O. From the EtOAc layers, a new flavonolignan along with a known flavone and three known flavonolignans, tricin (1), salcolin A (2), salcolin B (3), and salcolin C (4), were isolated through repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography. The chemical structure of the new flavonolignan was determined to be tricin-4'-O-[erythro-β-guaiacyl-(7″-O-methyl)-glyceryl] ether and was named salcolin D (5) based on physicochemical and spectroscopic data, including FT-NMR and ESI-MS. All compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Compounds 2-5, tricin derivatives, all exhibited higher anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy activities than tricin. In particular, salcolin D (5) was shown to have the strongest inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells as well as β-hexosaminidase release in IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. These results suggest that the presence of tricin derivatives conveys allergy and inflammation treatment ability to Z. latifolia. PMID:25559019

  20. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:27322226

  1. A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C.; Yanchuk, A.D.

    1996-03-01

    We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Analytical Modelling of Canopy Interception Loss from a Juvenile Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; Lishman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the central interior of British Columbia (BC), Canada, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB) has severely affected the majority of pine species in the region, especially lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson). The loss of mature lodgepole pine stands, including those lost to salvage logging, has resulted in an increase in the number of juvenile pine stands in the interior of BC through planting and natural regrowth. With this change from mature forests to juvenile forests at such a large spatial scale, the water balance of impacted areas may be altered, although the magnitude of such change is uncertain. Previous studies of rainfall partitioning by lodgepole pine and lodgepole pine dominated canopies have focused on mature stands. Thus, rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured and canopy interception loss was derived during the growing season of 2010 in a juvenile lodgepole pine dominated stand located approximately 60 km NNW of Kamloops, BC at 51°12'49" N 120°23'43" W, 1290 m above mean sea level. Scaling up from measurements for nine trees, throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception loss accounted for 87.7, 1.8 and 10.5 percent of the 252.9 mm of rain that fell over 38 events during the study period, respectively. The reformulated versions of the Gash and Liu analytical interception loss models estimated cumulative canopy interception loss at 24.7 and 24.6 mm, respectively, compared with the observed 26.5 mm; an underestimate of 1.8 and 1.9 mm or 6.8 and 7.2% of the observed value, respectively. Our results suggest that canopy interception loss is reduced in juvenile stands compared to their mature counterparts and that this reduction is due to the decreased storage capacity offered by these younger canopies. Evaporation during rainfall from juvenile canopies is still appreciable and may be a consequence of the increased proportion of the canopy exposed to wind during events.

  3. A preliminary study on population genetic structure and phylogeography of the wild and cultivated Zizania latifolia (Poaceae) based on Adh1a sequences.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Wei; Ke, Wei-Dong; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Wen, Jun; Ge, Song

    2008-04-01

    Recent decades have witnessed growing interests in exploring the population genetics and phylogeography of crop plants and their wild relatives because of their important value as genetic resources. In this study, sequence variation of the nuclear Adh1a gene was used to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic pattern of the wild and cultivated Zizania latifolia Turcz. Sequence data were obtained from 126 individuals representing 21 wild populations in China and 65 varieties of the cultivated Zizania latifolia. Low to medium level nucleotide diversity was found in the wild populations, with northeastern populations being the most variable. We detected significant population subdivision (F (ST) = 0.481) but no significant phylogeogaphical structure, suggesting limited gene flow and dispersal among populations. The current pattern of genetic variation in the wild populations might be explained by a fragmentation of ancient populations due to habitat destruction and degradation during recent decades. The heterogeneous levels and spatial apportionment of genetic diversity among wild populations also suggested a history of gradual colonization of Zizania latifolia populations from the northeast to the south of China. Interestingly, all 65 varieties of the cultivated Zizania latifolia possessed a single identical genotype, implying a single domestication associated with very few initial individuals. PMID:18283426

  4. Root-zone acidity and nitrogen source affects Typha latifolia L. growth and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Brix, Hans; Dyhr-Jensen, Kirsten; Lorenzen, Bent

    2002-12-01

    The NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) uptake kinetics by Typha latifolia L. were studied after prolonged hydroponics growth at constant pH 3.5, 5.0, 6.5 or 7.0 and with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) as the sole N-source. In addition, the effects of pH and N source on H(+) extrusion and adenine nucleotide content were examined. Typha latifolia was able to grow with both N sources at near neutral pH levels, but the plants had higher relative growth rates, higher tissue concentrations of the major nutrients, higher contents of adenine nucleotides, and higher affinity for uptake of inorganic nitrogen when grown on NH(4)(+). Growth almost completely stopped at pH 3.5, irrespective of N source, probably as a consequence of pH effects on plasma membrane integrity and H(+) influx into the root cells. Tissue concentrations of the major nutrients and adenine nucleotides were severely reduced at low pH, and the uptake capacity for inorganic nitrogen was low, and more so for NO(3)(-)-fed than for NH(4)(+)-fed plants. The maximum uptake rate, V(max), was highest for NH(4)(+) at pH 6.5 (30.9 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight) and for NO(3)(-) at pH 5.0 (31.7 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight), and less than 10% of these values at pH 3.5. The affinity for uptake as estimated by the half saturation constant, K((1/2)), was lowest at low pH for NH(4)(+) and at high pH for NO(3)(-). The changes in V(max) and K((1/2)) were thus consistent with the theory of increasing competition between cations and H(+) at low pH and between anions and OH(-) at high pH. C(min) was independent of pH, but slightly higher for NO(3)(-) than for NH(4)(+) (C(min)(NH(4)(+)) approximately 0.8 mmol m(-3); C(min)(NO(3)(-)) approximately 2.8 mmol m(-3)). The growth inhibition at low pH was probably due to a reduced nutrient uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by nutrient stress. Typha latifolia seems to be well adapted to growth in wetland soils where NH(4)(+) is the prevailing nitrogen compound, but very low p

  5. Plants for waste water treatment--effects of heavy metals on the detoxification system of Typha latifolia.

    PubMed

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Schröder, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Upon treatment with Cd and As cattail (Typha latifolia) showed induced catalase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in leaves but strong inhibition in rhizomes. Peroxidase activity in leaves of the same plants was inhibited whereas linear increase was detected after Cd treatment in rhizomes. Glutathione S-transferase measurements resulted in identical effects of the trace elements on the substrates CDNB, DCNB, NBC, NBoC, fluorodifen. When GST was assayed with the model substrate DCNB, a different pattern of activity was observed, with strongly increasing activities at increasing HM concentrations. Consequently, to improve the success rates, future phytoremediation plans need to preselect plant species with high antioxidative enzyme activities and an alert GST pattern capable of detoxifying an array of organic xenobiotics.

  6. The role of sand, marble chips and Typha latifolia in domestic wastewater treatment - a column study on constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kadaverugu, Rakesh; Shingare, Rita P; Raghunathan, Karthik; Juwarkar, Asha A; Thawale, Prashant R; Singh, Sanjeev K

    2016-10-01

    The relative importance of sand, marble chips and wetland plant Typha latifolia is evaluated in constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of domestic wastewater intended for reuse in agriculture. The prototype CWs for the experiments are realized in polyvinyl chloride columns, which are grouped into four treatments, viz. sand (<2 mm) + Typha latifolia (cattail), sand, marble chips (5-20 mm) + cattail and marble chips. The removal percentage of organic and nutritional pollutants from the wastewater is measured at varying hydraulic retention time in the columns. The statistical analysis suggests that the main effects of sand and cattail are found to be significant (p < .05) for the removal of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand from the wastewater. The presence of cattail significantly (p < .01) contributes to the conversion of total nitrogen in wastewater into [Formula: see text] by fostering the growth of favorable microbes for the nitrification. The removal of [Formula: see text] and turbidity from the wastewater is significantly (p < .01) influenced by sand than the presence of cattail. The maximum [Formula: see text] adsorption capacity of the sand is estimated to be 2.5 mg/g. Marble chips have significantly (p < .01) influenced the removal of [Formula: see text]and its maximum removal capacity is estimated to be 9.3 mg/g. The negative correlation between the filter media biofilm and column hydraulic conductivity is also reported for all the treatments. Thus, the findings of this study elucidate the role of low-cost and easily available filter media and it will guide the environmental practitioners in designing cost-effective CWs for wastewater treatment.

  7. Removal of heavy metals from a metaliferous water solution by Typha latifolia plants and sewage sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Manios, T; Stentiford, E I; Millner, P

    2003-11-01

    Typha latifolia plants, commonly known as cattails, were grown in a mixture of mature sewage sludge compost, commercial compost and perlite (2:1:1 by volume). Four Groups (A, B, C and D) were irrigated (once every two weeks) with a solution containing different concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Zn, where in the fifth (group M) tap water was used. At the end of the 10 weeks experimental period substrate and plants were dried, weighed and analysed for heavy metals. The amounts of all three metals removed from the irrigation solution, were substantial. In the roots and leaves/stems of T. latifolia the mean concentration of Zn reached values of 391.7 and 60.8 mg/kg of dry weight (d.w.), respectively. In the substrate of Group D all three metals recorded their highest mean concentrations of 1156.7 mg/kg d.w. for Cu, 296.7 mg/kg d.w. for Ni and 1231.7 mg/kg d.w. for Zn. Linear correlation analyses suggested that there was a linear relationship between the concentration of metals in the solutions and the concentration of metals in the substrates at the end of the experiment. The percentage removal of the metals in the substrate was large, reaching 100% for Cu and Zn in some groups and almost 96% for Ni in group D. The total amount of metals removed by the plants was considerably smaller than that of the substrate, due mainly to the small biomass development. A single factor ANOVA test (5% level) indicated that the build up in the concentration of metals in the roots and the leaves/stems was due to the use of metaliferous water solution and not from the metals pre-existing in the substrate. The contribution of the plants (both roots and leaves/stems) in the removing ability of the system was less than 1%.

  8. The role of sand, marble chips and Typha latifolia in domestic wastewater treatment - a column study on constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kadaverugu, Rakesh; Shingare, Rita P; Raghunathan, Karthik; Juwarkar, Asha A; Thawale, Prashant R; Singh, Sanjeev K

    2016-10-01

    The relative importance of sand, marble chips and wetland plant Typha latifolia is evaluated in constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of domestic wastewater intended for reuse in agriculture. The prototype CWs for the experiments are realized in polyvinyl chloride columns, which are grouped into four treatments, viz. sand (<2 mm) + Typha latifolia (cattail), sand, marble chips (5-20 mm) + cattail and marble chips. The removal percentage of organic and nutritional pollutants from the wastewater is measured at varying hydraulic retention time in the columns. The statistical analysis suggests that the main effects of sand and cattail are found to be significant (p < .05) for the removal of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand from the wastewater. The presence of cattail significantly (p < .01) contributes to the conversion of total nitrogen in wastewater into [Formula: see text] by fostering the growth of favorable microbes for the nitrification. The removal of [Formula: see text] and turbidity from the wastewater is significantly (p < .01) influenced by sand than the presence of cattail. The maximum [Formula: see text] adsorption capacity of the sand is estimated to be 2.5 mg/g. Marble chips have significantly (p < .01) influenced the removal of [Formula: see text]and its maximum removal capacity is estimated to be 9.3 mg/g. The negative correlation between the filter media biofilm and column hydraulic conductivity is also reported for all the treatments. Thus, the findings of this study elucidate the role of low-cost and easily available filter media and it will guide the environmental practitioners in designing cost-effective CWs for wastewater treatment. PMID:26878342

  9. Studies of the active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. III. Isolation of hair-regrowth substances from Polygara senega var. latifolia TORR. et GRAY.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Inaoka, Y; Okada, M; Fukushima, M; Fukazawa, H; Tsuji, K

    1999-11-01

    Four active principles, 1, 2, 3 and 4, were isolated from Polygara senega var. latifolia TORR. et GRAY by a combination of partition and column chromatography on silica gel and octadecyl silica gel (ODS), monitored by a hair-regrowth activity assay. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4 were identified as senegose A, senegin II, senegin III, and senegasaponin b by comparison of their spectral data with those of authentic samples. PMID:10598039

  10. The effect of heavy metals on the total protein concentration of Typha latifolia plants, growing in a substrate containing sewage sludge compost and watered with metaliferus wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manios, T; Stentiford, E I; Millner, P

    2002-09-01

    Typha latifolia plants, commonly known as cattails, were grown in a mixture of sewage sludge compost, commercial compost and perlite. Large 6.5 L pots were used with one well developed plant in each pot, divided in five groups. Four groups were irrigated with a solution containing different concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn for a period of 10 weeks, where the fifth was used as a blank. Changes in the concentration of total protein in the leaves/stems were monitored aiming to study the effect of heavy metals from both the substrate and the wastewater on the plants' development and health. At the end of the experiment in the leaves/stems of Typha latifolia the mean concentration of Ni and Zn reached values of 27.50 and 60.83 mg/kg of d.w. respectively. Similar high concentrations were recorded for all five metals. This, however, did not resulted in an inhibition of the plants development and health in three of the four groups as evidenced by the increasing concentrations of the total protein in the leaves' tissue. Only in the fourth group, where the stronger solution was used, some evidence of inhibition occurred after the 8th week. The presence of NO- as part of the metals' salts (growth factor), the short period of the experiment and the natural tolerance of Typha latifolia in heavy metals toxicity could explain such phenomenon.

  11. The effect of heavy metals on the total protein concentration of Typha latifolia plants, growing in a substrate containing sewage sludge compost and watered with metaliferus wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manios, T; Stentiford, E I; Millner, P

    2002-09-01

    Typha latifolia plants, commonly known as cattails, were grown in a mixture of sewage sludge compost, commercial compost and perlite. Large 6.5 L pots were used with one well developed plant in each pot, divided in five groups. Four groups were irrigated with a solution containing different concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn for a period of 10 weeks, where the fifth was used as a blank. Changes in the concentration of total protein in the leaves/stems were monitored aiming to study the effect of heavy metals from both the substrate and the wastewater on the plants' development and health. At the end of the experiment in the leaves/stems of Typha latifolia the mean concentration of Ni and Zn reached values of 27.50 and 60.83 mg/kg of d.w. respectively. Similar high concentrations were recorded for all five metals. This, however, did not resulted in an inhibition of the plants development and health in three of the four groups as evidenced by the increasing concentrations of the total protein in the leaves' tissue. Only in the fourth group, where the stronger solution was used, some evidence of inhibition occurred after the 8th week. The presence of NO- as part of the metals' salts (growth factor), the short period of the experiment and the natural tolerance of Typha latifolia in heavy metals toxicity could explain such phenomenon. PMID:12369637

  12. Transpositional reactivation of the Dart transposon family in rice lines derived from introgressive hybridization with Zizania latifolia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that interspecific hybridization may induce "genome shock", and lead to genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids and/or backcrossed introgressants. A prominent component involved in the genome shock is reactivation of cryptic transposable elements (TEs) in the hybrid genome, which is often associated with alteration in the elements' epigenetic modifications like cytosine DNA methylation. We have previously reported that introgressants derived from hybridization between Oryza sativa (rice) and Zizania latifolia manifested substantial methylation re-patterning and rampant mobilization of two TEs, a copia retrotransposon Tos17 and a MITE mPing. It was not known however whether other types of TEs had also been transpositionally reactivated in these introgressants, their relevance to alteration in cytosine methylation, and their impact on expression of adjacent cellular genes. Results We document in this study that the Dart TE family was transpositionally reactivated followed by stabilization in all three studied introgressants (RZ1, RZ2 and RZ35) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice (cv. Matsumae) and Z. latifolia, while the TEs remained quiescent in the recipient rice genome. Transposon-display (TD) and sequencing verified the element's mobility and mapped the excisions and re-insertions to the rice chromosomes. Methylation-sensitive Southern blotting showed that the Dart TEs were heavily methylated along their entire length, and moderate alteration in cytosine methylation patterns occurred in the introgressants relative to their rice parental line. Real-time qRT-PCR quantification on the relative transcript abundance of six single-copy genes flanking the newly excised or inserted Dart-related TE copies indicated that whereas marked difference in the expression of all four genes in both tissues (leaf and root) were detected between the introgressants and their rice parental line under both normal

  13. When is it worth being a self-compatible hermaphrodite? Context-dependent effects of self-pollination on female advantage in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiani, Emna; Touzet, Pascal; Billard, Emmanuelle; Dufay, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    In gynodioecious plant species with nuclear-cytoplasmic sex determination, females and hermaphrodites plants can coexist whenever female have higher seed fitness than hermaphrodites. Although the effect of self fertilization on seed fitness in hermaphrodites has been considered theoretically, this effect is far from intuitive, because it can either increase the relative seed fitness of the females (if it leads hermaphrodites to produce inbred, low quality offspring) or decrease it (if it provides reproductive assurance to hermaphrodites). Hence, empirical investigation is needed to document whether relative seed fitness varies with whether pollen is or is not limiting to seed production. In the current study, we measured fruit set and seed production in both females and hermaphrodites and the selfing rate in hermaphrodites in two experimental patches that differed in sex ratios in the gynodioecious plant Silene nutans. We found an impact of plant gender, patch, and their interaction, with females suffering from stronger pollen limitation when locally frequent. In the most pollen-limited situation, the selfing rate of hermaphrodites increased and provided hermaphrodites with a type of reproductive assurance that is not available to females. By integrating both the beneficial (reproductive assurance) and costly effects (through inbreeding depression) of self-pollination, we showed that whether females did or did not exhibit higher seed fitness depended on the degree of pollen limitation on seed production. PMID:26140201

  14. Preliminary Screening of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities and Establishment of an Efficient Callus Induction in Curculigo latifolia Dryand (Lemba)

    PubMed Central

    Farzinebrahimi, Reza; Mat Taha, Rosna; Rashid, Kamaludin A.; Ali Ahmed, Bakrudeen; Danaee, Mahmoud; Rozali, Shahril Efzueni

    2016-01-01

    Leaf, seed, and tuber explants of C. latifolia were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP and IBA, alone or in combinations, to achieve in vitro plant regeneration. Subsequently, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were determined from in vitro and in vivo plant developed. No response was observed from seed culture on MS media with various concentrations of PGRs. The highest percentage of callus was observed on tuber explants (94%) and leaf explants (89%) when cultured on MS media supplemented with IBA in combination with BAP. A maximum of 88% shoots per tuber explant, with a mean number of shoots (8.8 ± 1.0), were obtained on MS medium supplemented with combinations of BAP and IBA (2.5 mg L−1). The best root induction (92%) and mean number (7.6 ± 0.5) from tuber explants were recorded on 2.5 mg L−1 IBA alone supplemented to MS medium. The higher antioxidant content (80%) was observed from in vivo tuber. However, tuber part from the intact plant showed higher inhibition zone in antibacterial activity compared to other in vitro and in vivo tested parts. PMID:27298625

  15. Feasibility of Typha latifolia for high salinity effluent treatment in constructed wetlands for integration in resource management systems.

    PubMed

    Jesus, J M; Calheiros, C S C; Castro, P M L; Borges, M T

    2014-01-01

    High salinity wastewaters have limited treatment options due to the occurrence of salt inhibition in conventional biological treatments. Using recirculating marine aquaculture effluents as a case study, this work explored the use of Constructed Wetlands as a treatment option for nutrient and salt loads reduction. Three different substrates were tested for nutrient adsorption, of which expanded clay performed better. This substrate adsorbed 0.31 mg kg(-1) of NH4(+)-N and 5.60 mg kg(-1) of PO4(3-)-P and 6.9 mg kg(-1) dissolved salts after 7 days of contact. Microcosms with Typha latifolia planted in expanded clay and irrigated with aquaculture wastewater (salinity 2.4%, 7 days hydraulic retention time, for 4 weeks), were able to remove 94% NH(4+)-N (inlet 0.25 +/- 0.13 mg L(-1)), 78% NO2(-)-N (inlet 0.78 +/- 0.62 mg L(-1)), 46% NO3(-)-N (inlet 18.83 +/- 8.93 mg L(-1)) whereas PO4(3-)-P was not detected (inlet 1.41 +/- 0.21 mg L(-1)). Maximum salinity reductions of 52% were observed. Despite some growth inhibition, plants remained viable, with 94% survival rate. Daily treatment dynamics studies revealed rapid PO4(3-)-P adsorption, unbalancing the N:P ratio and possibly affecting plant development. An integrated treatment approach, coupled with biomass valorization, is suggested to provide optimal resource management possibilities.

  16. Shifts in root-associated microbial communities of Typha latifolia growing in naphthenic acids and relationship to plant health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lori A; Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Greer, Charles W; Germida, James J

    2010-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex mixture of organic acid compounds released during the extraction of crude oil from oil sands operations. The accumulation of toxic NAs in tailings pond water (TPW) is of significant environmental concern, and phytoremediation using constructed wetlands is one remediation option being assessed. Since root-associated microorganisms are an important factor during phytoremediation of organic compounds, this study investigated the impact of NAs on the microbial communities associated with the macrophyte Typha latifolia (cattail). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the impact of NAs on microbial communities was niche dependent, with endophytic communities being the most stable and bulk water communities being the least stable. The type of NA used was significant to microbial response, with commercial NAs causing greater adverse changes than TPW NAs. In general, plant beneficial bacteria such as diazotrophs were favoured in cattails grown in TPW NAs, while potentially deleterious bacteria such as denitrifying Dechlorospirillum species increased in commercial NA treatments. These findings suggest that NAs may affect plant health by impacting root-associated microbial communities. A better understanding of these impacts may allow researchers to optimize those microbial communities that support plant health, and thus further optimize wetland treatment systems.

  17. Preliminary Screening of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities and Establishment of an Efficient Callus Induction in Curculigo latifolia Dryand (Lemba).

    PubMed

    Farzinebrahimi, Reza; Mat Taha, Rosna; Rashid, Kamaludin A; Ali Ahmed, Bakrudeen; Danaee, Mahmoud; Rozali, Shahril Efzueni

    2016-01-01

    Leaf, seed, and tuber explants of C. latifolia were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP and IBA, alone or in combinations, to achieve in vitro plant regeneration. Subsequently, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were determined from in vitro and in vivo plant developed. No response was observed from seed culture on MS media with various concentrations of PGRs. The highest percentage of callus was observed on tuber explants (94%) and leaf explants (89%) when cultured on MS media supplemented with IBA in combination with BAP. A maximum of 88% shoots per tuber explant, with a mean number of shoots (8.8 ± 1.0), were obtained on MS medium supplemented with combinations of BAP and IBA (2.5 mg L(-1)). The best root induction (92%) and mean number (7.6 ± 0.5) from tuber explants were recorded on 2.5 mg L(-1) IBA alone supplemented to MS medium. The higher antioxidant content (80%) was observed from in vivo tuber. However, tuber part from the intact plant showed higher inhibition zone in antibacterial activity compared to other in vitro and in vivo tested parts. PMID:27298625

  18. Laser microdissection-based analysis of plant sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris

    2007-01-01

    A recent progress in plant molecular biology has led to enormous available data of DNA sequences, including complete nuclear genomes of Arabidopsis, rice, and poplar. On the other hand, in plant species with more complex genomes, containing widespread repetitive sequences, it is important to establish genomic resources that help us to focus on particular part of genomes. Laser technology enables to handle with specific subcellular structures or even individual chromosomes. Here we present a comprehensive protocol to isolate and characterize DNA sequences derived from the sex chromosomes of white campion (Silene latifolia). This dioecious plant has become the most favorite model to study the structure, function, and evolution of plant sex chromosomes due to a large and distinguishable size of both the X and Y chromosomes. The protocol includes a versatile technique to prepare metaphase chromosomes from either germinating seeds or in vitro cultured hairy roots. Such slides can be used for laser chromosome microdissection, fluorescence in situ-hybridization mapping, and immunostaining. Here we also demonstrate some applications of the laser-dissected chromosome template, especially a modified FAST-FISH technique to paint individual chromosomes, and construction and screening of chromosome-specific DNA libraries.

  19. Evaluation of extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis, Nauclea latifolia and Uvaria afzalii for activity against bacterial isolates from cases of non-gonococcal urethritis.

    PubMed

    Okoli, A S; Iroegbu, C U

    2004-05-01

    Whole root preparations of three Nigerian medicinal plants, Anthocleista djalonensis, Nauclea latifolia and Uvaria afzalii, used traditionally in combination treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were extracted by maceration in ethanol, cold and hot water, respectively. The extracts were tested, by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods, for activity against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus and two of Escherichia coli isolated from cases of STD and or urethritis. Four typed bacterial strains, S aureus ATCC 12600, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 and Escherichia coli ATCC 117755 were included as reference organisms. Ethanolic and cold-water extracts of Anthocliesta djalonensis exhibited activity against 9 and 7, respectively, of the 11 test organisms. They were bacteriostatic at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to the Gram positive strains but bactericidal to the Gram negative strains. Similar crude extracts of Uvaria afzalii showed bactericidal activity restricted to Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) strains. Nauclea latifolia extracts were bacteriostatic to both Gram positive and Gram negative strains. No test strain was susceptible to the hot water extracts of Nauclea latifolia but five and seven strains, were respectively susceptible to similar extracts of Anthocliesta djalonensis and Uvaria afzalii. Of the seven column chromatographic fractions of the ethanolic extract of Uvaria afzalii, F(ua-1) exhibited a bactericidal activity restricted to the Gram negative Escherichia coli strains, which were not susceptible to the crude extract. Fractions, F(ua-2), F(ua-3) and F(ua-4), like the crude extract, were bactericidal against the Gram positive strains only. Thus, partial purification seems to broaden the spectrum of activity and generally improve the potency of Uvaria afzalii. These results apparently justify the use of the three plants in treatment of STD. PMID:15099860

  20. Transpositional activation of mPing in an asymmetric nuclear somatic cell hybrid of rice and Zizania latifolia was accompanied by massive element loss.

    PubMed

    Shan, X H; Ou, X F; Liu, Z L; Dong, Y Z; Lin, X Y; Li, X W; Liu, B

    2009-11-01

    We have reported previously that the most active miniature inverted terminal repeat transposable element (MITE) of rice, mPing, was transpositionally mobilized in several rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an introgressive hybridization between rice and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). To further study the phenomenon of hybridization-induced mPing activity, we undertook the present study to investigate the element's behavior in a highly asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia, which is similar in genomic composition to that of the RILs, though probably contains more introgressed alien chromatins from the donor species than the RILs. We found that mPing, together with its transposase-donor, Pong, underwent rampant transpositional activation in the somatic hybrid (SH6). Because possible effects of protoplast isolation and cell culture can be ruled out, we attribute the transpositional activation of mPing and Pong in SH6 to the process of asymmetric somatic hybridization, namely, one-step introgression of multiple chromatin segments of the donor species Z. latifolia into the recipient rice genome. A salient feature of mPing transposition in the somatic hybrid is that the element's activation was accompanied by massive loss of its original copies, i.e., abortive transpositions, which was not observed in previously reported cases of mPing activity. These data not only corroborated our earlier finding that wide hybridization and introgression may trigger transpositional activation of otherwise quiescent transposable elements, but also suggest that transpositional mobilization of a MITE like mPing can be accompanied by dramatic reduction of its original copy numbers under certain conditions, thus provide novel insights into the dynamics of MITEs in the course of genome evolution. PMID:19711051

  1. Decreased Membrane Integrity in Aging Typha latifolia L.Pollen (Accumulation of Lysolipids and Free Fatty Acids).

    PubMed Central

    Van Bilsen, DGJL.; Hoekstra, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    Aging of cattail (Typha latifolia L.) pollen was studied at 24[deg]C under conditions of 40 and 75% relative humidity (RH). The decline of viability coincides with increased leakage at imbibition; both processes develop much faster at the higher humidity condition. During aging phospholipids are deesterified and free fatty acids (FFAs) and lysophospholipids (LPLs) accumulate, again, much more rapidly at 75% RH than at 40% RH. The fatty acid composition of the remaining phospholipids hardly changes during aging, which suggests limited involvement of lipid peroxidation in the degradation process. Tests with phospholipase A2 revealed that the saturated fatty acids occur at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone of the phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the LPLs is similar to that of the phospholipids from which they were formed, indicating that the deesterification occurs at random. This favors involvement of free radicals instead of phospholipases in the deesterification process. Liposome studies were carried out to characterize components in the lipid fraction that might account for the leakage associated with aging. Entrapped carboxyfluorescein leaked much more from liposomes when they were partly made up from total lipids from aged pollen than from nonaged pollen. The components causing the leakage were found in both the polar and the neutral lipid fractions. Further purification and subsequent interchanging of the FFAs and LPLs between extracts from aged and nonaged pollen revealed that in neutral lipid extracts the FFAs are entirely responsible for the leakage, whereas in the phospholipid fraction the LPLs are largely responsible for the leakage. The leakage from the liposomes is not caused by fusion. We suggest that the observed loss of viability and increased leakage during aging are due to the nonenzymic accumulation of FFAs and LPLs in the pollen membranes. PMID:12231723

  2. Influence of Typha latifolia and fertilization on metal mobility in two different Pb-Zn mine tailings types.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Donna L; Otte, Marinus L

    2004-10-15

    Storing metal-rich mine waste (tailings) under submerged and reduced conditions can prevent the release of metals to the water column, but introduction of wetland plants on these sediments may alter the reducing environment through root oxygen diffusion or organic matter accumulation. Fertilization of these wetlands can enhance plant growth, but also may either strengthen reducing conditions via microbial stimulation, or increase the redox potential (Eh) through increased root radial oxygen loss. This long-term study (2.25 years) investigated the porewater As, Fe, and Zn concentrations of waterlogged Pb-Zn tailings from two Irish mines, Silvermines and Tara mines, with addition of Typha latifolia, fertilizer, or both treatments combined. In both tailings types, the fertilized plants showed significantly increased total biomass production, but the plants grew greater biomass in Tara tailings relative to Silvermines tailings even without fertilization. In Tara mines tailings, the addition of plants increased Eh and mobilized Zn; the addition of fertilizer enhanced reducing conditions and increased porewater concentrations of As and soluble sulfides; and the combination of treatments on these tailings resulted in complex interactions. In Silvermines tailings, there were negligible effects of the treatments. For effective sequestration of metals in these tailings, Silvermines would require only water cover, but Tara mines tailings would require either both treatments or neither because each treatment individually would increase solubility of As or Zn. These results show also the necessity of evaluating treatment effects specific to individual tailings, that long-term studies (years) are crucial for tailings equilibration and valid experimental conclusions, and that passive accumulation of organic matter may take decades.

  3. Analysis of Active Components and Proteomics of Chinese Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) and Indica Rice (Nagina22).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Xia; Zhai, Li-Jie; Yang, Hua; Zhai, Shu-Menghui; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2016-08-01

    The ancient Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) (CWR) has valuable biological and medicinal functions. To assess the advantages lost in modern cultivated rice after domestication, we compared the composition of bioactive compounds and the results of proteomic analysis with those of Indica rice (N22). We used routine methods to determine the protein, total dietary fiber, amino acid, mineral substance, plant secondary metabolites, and amino acid composition of CWR and N22. The protein and mineral contents of CWR were two times that of N22, and the levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium, chromium, iron, and zinc were significantly higher than those of N22 (P < .05). There was ∼7.6 times more dietary fiber in CWR than in N22, but fewer carbohydrates (P < .05). Anthocyanins and chlorophyll were detected in CWR, but were absent from N22. Compared with N22, CWR had 53, 19, and 5.4 times higher (P < .05) levels of saponins, flavonoids, and plant sterols, respectively. The amino acid score of CWR was 66.6, which was significantly higher than N22. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the main seed proteins of CWR were glutelins, including both acid and alkaline subunits, which were approximately twice those of N22. To investigate the differences in protein profiles between CWR and N22, we conducted two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of the total proteins in the seeds of the two rice species. 2-DE gels revealed 19 differentially expressed proteins. Information obtained from peptide mass fingerprinting indicates that glutelin precursor caffeoyl coenzyme A (CoA) O-methyltransferase and putative bithoraxoid-like protein can provide good gene sources for improving rice quality. PMID:27533651

  4. The roles of female and hermaphroditic flowers in the gynodioecious-gynomonoecious Silene littorea: insights into the phenology of sex expression.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, I; Buide, M L; Narbona, E

    2013-11-01

    Some gynodioecious species have intermediate individuals that bear both female and hermaphroditic flowers. This phenomenon is known as a gynodioecious-gynomonoecious sexual system. Gender expression in such species has received little attention in the past, and the phenologies of male and female functions have also yet to be explored. In this study, we examined variations in gender patterns, their effects on female reproductive success and sex expression in depth throughout the flowering period in two populations. The studied populations of Silene littorea contained mostly gynomonoecious plants and the number of pure females was very low. The gynomonoecious plants showed high variability in the total proportion of female flowers. In addition, the proportion of female flowers in each plant varied widely across the flowering season. Although there was a trend towards maleness, our measures of functional gender suggested that most plants transmit their genes via both pollen and ovules. Fruit set and seed set were not significantly different among populations; in contrast, flower production significantly varied between the two populations - and among plants - with consequent variation in total seed production. Conversely, gender and sex expression were similar in both populations. Plants with higher phenotypic femaleness did not have higher fruit set, seed set or total female fecundity. The mating environment fluctuated little across the flowering period, but fluctuations were higher in the population with low flower production. We therefore conclude that the high proportion of gynomonoecious individuals in our studied populations of S. littorea may be advantageous for the species, providing the benefits of both hermaphroditic and female flowers.

  5. Fractionation of stable zinc isotopes in the field-grown zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and the zinc-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ye-Tao; Cloquet, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Carignan, Jean; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-18

    Stable Zn isotope signatures offer a potential tool for tracing Zn uptake and transfer mechanisms within plant-soil systems. Zinc isotopic compositions were determined in the Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens collected at a Zn-contaminated site (Viviez), a serpentine site (Vosges), and a noncontaminated site (Sainte Eulalie) in France. Meanwhile, a Zn-tolerant plant ( Silene vulgaris ) was also collected at Viviez for comparison. While δ(66)Zn was substantially differentiated among N. caerulescens from the three localities, they all exhibited an enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes of 0.40-0.72‰ from soil to root, followed by a depletion in heavy Zn from root to shoot (-0.10 to -0.50‰). The enrichment of heavy Zn in roots is ascribed to the transport systems responsible for Zn absorption into root symplast and root-to-shoot translocation, while the depletion in heavy Zn in shoots is likely to be mediated by a diffusive process and an efficient translocation driven by energy-required transporters (e.g., NcHMA4). The mass balance yielded a bulk Zn isotopic composition between plant and soil (Δ(66)Zn(plant-soil)) of -0.01‰ to 0.63‰ in N. caerulescens , indicative of high- and/or low-affinity transport systems operating in the three ecotypes. In S. vulgaris , however, there was no significant isotope fractionation between whole plant and rhizosphere soil and between root and shoot, suggesting that this species appears to have a particular Zn homeostasis. We confirm that quantifying stable Zn isotopes is useful for understanding Zn accumulation mechanisms in plants. PMID:22891730

  6. Trade-offs between clonal and sexual reproduction in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae) scale up to affect the fitness of entire clones.

    PubMed

    Van Drunen, Wendy E; Dorken, Marcel E

    2012-10-01

    Many plants combine sexual reproduction with vegetative propagation, but how trade-offs between these reproductive modes affect fitness is poorly understood. Although such trade-offs have been demonstrated at the level of individual shoots (ramets), there is little evidence that they scale up to affect genet fitness. For hermaphrodites, reproductive investment is further divided between female and male sexual functions. Female function should generally incur greater carbon costs than male function, which might involve greater nitrogen (N) costs. Using a common garden experiment with diclinous, clonal Sagittaria latifolia we manipulated investment in reproduction through female and male sex functions of 412 plants from monoecious and dioecious populations. We detected a 1:1 trade-off between biomass investment in female function and clonal reproduction. For male function, there was no apparent trade-off between clonal and sexual reproduction in terms of biomass investment. Instead, male function incurred a substantially higher N cost. Our results indicate that: trade-offs between investment in clonal propagation and sexual reproduction occur at the genet level in S. latifolia; and sexual reproduction interferes with clonal expansion, with investment in female function limiting the quantity of clonal propagules produced, and investment in male function limiting the nutrient content of clonal propagules.

  7. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

    PubMed

    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction. PMID:21845434

  8. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Chang -Jun; Jones, Keith W.; Tappero, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a “brownfield” site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May–September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT)more » techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation.« less

  9. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

    PubMed

    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction.

  10. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Changjun; Jones, Keith W; Tappero, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a "brownfield" site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May-September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT) techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation.

  11. Extent and pattern of DNA methylation alteration in rice lines derived from introgressive hybridization of rice and Zizania latifolia Griseb.

    PubMed

    Dong, Z Y; Wang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Shen, Y; Lin, X Y; Ou, X F; Han, F P; Liu, B

    2006-07-01

    We have reported previously that introgression by Zizania latifolia resulted in extensive DNA methylation changes in the recipient rice genome, as detected by a set of pre-selected DNA segments. In this study, using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method, we globally assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation alterations in three typical introgression lines relative to their rice parent at approximately 2,700 unbiased genomic loci each representing a recognition site cleaved by one or both of the isoschizomers, HpaII/MspI. Based on differential digestion by the isoschizomers, it is estimated that 15.9% of CCGG sites are either fully methylated at the internal Cs and/or hemi-methylated at the external Cs in the rice parental cultivar Matsumae. In comparison, a statistically significant increase in the overall level of both methylation types was detected in all three studied introgression lines (19.2, 18.6, 19.6%, respectively). Based on comparisons of MSAP profiles between the isoschizomers within the rice parent and between parent and the introgression lines, four major groups of MSAP banding patterns are recognized, which can be further divided into various subgroups as a result of inheritance of, or variation in, parental methylation patterns. The altered methylation patterns include hyper- and hypomethylation changes, as well as inter-conversion of hemi- to full-methylation, or vice versa, at the relevant CCGG site(s). Most alterations revealed by MSAP in low-copy loci can be validated by DNA gel blot analysis. The changed methylation patterns are uniform among randomly selected individuals for a given introgression line within or among selfed generations. Sequencing on 31 isolated fragments that showed different changing patterns in the introgression line(s) allowed their mapping onto variable regions on one or more of the 12 rice chromosomes. These segments include protein-coding genes, transposon/retrotransposons and

  12. The composition and depth of green roof substrates affect the growth of Silene vulgaris and Lagurus ovatus species and the C and N sequestration under two irrigation conditions.

    PubMed

    Ondoño, S; Martínez-Sánchez, J J; Moreno, J L

    2016-01-15

    Extensive green roofs are used to increase the surface area covered by vegetation in big cities, thereby reducing the urban heat-island effect, promoting CO2 sequestration, and increasing biodiversity and urban-wildlife habitats. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, the deficiency of water necessitates the use in these roofs of overall native plants which are more adapted to drought than other species. However, such endemic plants have been used scarcely in green roofs. For this purpose, we tested two different substrates with two depths (5 and 10 cm), in order to study their suitability with regard to adequate plant development under Mediterranean conditions. A compost-soil-bricks (CSB) (1:1:3; v:v:v) mixture and another made up of compost and bricks (CB) (1:4; v:v) were arranged in two depths (5 and 10 cm), in cultivation tables. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Lagurus ovatus L. seeds were sown in each substrate. These experimental units were subjected, on the one hand, to irrigation at 40% of the registered evapotranspiration values (ET0) and, on the other, to drought conditions, during a nine-month trial. Physichochemical and microbiological substrate characteristics were studied, along with the physiological and nutritional status of the plants. We obtained significantly greater plant coverage in CSB at 10 cm, especially for L. ovatus (80-90%), as well as a better physiological status, especially in S. vulgaris (SPAD values of 50-60), under irrigation, whereas neither species could grow in the absence of water. The carbon and nitrogen fixation by the substrate and the aboveground biomass were also higher in CSB at 10 cm, especially under L. ovatus - in which 1.32 kg C m(-2) and 209 g N m(-2) were fixed throughout the experiment. Besides, the enzymatic and biochemical parameters assayed showed that microbial activity and nutrient cycling, which fulfill a key role for plant development, were higher in CSB. Therefore, irrigation of 40% can

  13. The composition and depth of green roof substrates affect the growth of Silene vulgaris and Lagurus ovatus species and the C and N sequestration under two irrigation conditions.

    PubMed

    Ondoño, S; Martínez-Sánchez, J J; Moreno, J L

    2016-01-15

    Extensive green roofs are used to increase the surface area covered by vegetation in big cities, thereby reducing the urban heat-island effect, promoting CO2 sequestration, and increasing biodiversity and urban-wildlife habitats. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, the deficiency of water necessitates the use in these roofs of overall native plants which are more adapted to drought than other species. However, such endemic plants have been used scarcely in green roofs. For this purpose, we tested two different substrates with two depths (5 and 10 cm), in order to study their suitability with regard to adequate plant development under Mediterranean conditions. A compost-soil-bricks (CSB) (1:1:3; v:v:v) mixture and another made up of compost and bricks (CB) (1:4; v:v) were arranged in two depths (5 and 10 cm), in cultivation tables. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Lagurus ovatus L. seeds were sown in each substrate. These experimental units were subjected, on the one hand, to irrigation at 40% of the registered evapotranspiration values (ET0) and, on the other, to drought conditions, during a nine-month trial. Physichochemical and microbiological substrate characteristics were studied, along with the physiological and nutritional status of the plants. We obtained significantly greater plant coverage in CSB at 10 cm, especially for L. ovatus (80-90%), as well as a better physiological status, especially in S. vulgaris (SPAD values of 50-60), under irrigation, whereas neither species could grow in the absence of water. The carbon and nitrogen fixation by the substrate and the aboveground biomass were also higher in CSB at 10 cm, especially under L. ovatus - in which 1.32 kg C m(-2) and 209 g N m(-2) were fixed throughout the experiment. Besides, the enzymatic and biochemical parameters assayed showed that microbial activity and nutrient cycling, which fulfill a key role for plant development, were higher in CSB. Therefore, irrigation of 40% can

  14. Characterization and cloning of a stearoyl/oleoyl specific fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase from the seeds of Madhuca longifolia (latifolia).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Santosh K; Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Jha, Jyoti K; Mondal, Ashis K; Maiti, Mrinal K; Basu, Asitava; Ghosh, Dolly; Ghosh, Sudhamoy; Sen, Soumitra K

    2007-12-01

    Deposition of oleate, stearate and palmitate at the later stages of seed development in Mahua (Madhuca longifolia (latifolia)), a tropical non-conventional oil seed plant, has been found to be the characteristic feature of the regulatory mechanism that produces the saturated fatty acid rich Mahua seed fat (commonly known as Mowrah fat). Although, the content of palmitate has been observed to be higher than that of stearate at the initial stages of seed development, it goes down when the stearate and oleate contents consistently rise till maturity. The present study was undertaken in order to identify the kind of acyl-ACP thioesterase(s) that drives the characteristic composition of signature fatty acids (oleate 37%, palmitate 25%, stearate 23%, linoleate 12.5%) in its seed oil at maturity. The relative Fat activities in the crude protein extracts of the matured seeds towards three thioester substrates (oleoyl-, stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP) have been found to be present in the following respective ratio 100:31:8. Upon further purification of the crude extract, the search revealed the presence of two partially purified thioesterases: a long-chain oleoyl preferring house-keeping LC-Fat and a novel stearoyl-oleoyl preferring SO-Fat. The characteristic accumulation of oleate and linoleate in the M. latifolia seed fat is believed to be primarily due to the thioesterase activity of the LC-Fat or MlFatA. On the other hand, the SO-Fat showed almost equal substrate specificity towards stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACP, when its activity towards palmitoyl-ACP compared to stearoyl-ACP was only about 12%. An RT-PCR based technique for cloning of a DNA fragment from the mRNA pool of the developing seed followed by nucleotide sequencing resulted in the identification of a FatB type of thioesterase gene (MlFatB). This gene was found to exist as a single copy in the mother plant genome. Ectopic expression of this MlFatB gene product in E. coli strain fadD88 further proved that it induced a

  15. Lodgepole Pine Cambium (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats.): a springtime first peoples' food in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Dilbone, Megan; Turner, Nancy J; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) is a tree species utilized for succulent edible cambium and secondary phloem in the spring by Interior First Peoples of the Pacific Northwest. In this article we present a nutritional analysis of this food based on a pooled sample of 17 trees harvested in the Chilcotin region of British Columbia. We also present enzymatic sugar analysis of raw, dried, and cooked lodgepole pine cambium harvested from the Chilcotin and Okanagan regions in British Columbia. In the discussion we interpret the nutrient values of raw lodgepole pine cambium in comparison to dried and cooked cambium, results from other nutritional studies of pine cambium, and nutrients in some other traditional and nontraditional foods. PMID:23445392

  16. Isolation and characterization of a set of disease resistance-gene analogs (RGAs) from wild rice, Zizania latifolia Griseb. I. Introgression, copy number lability, sequence change, and DNA methylation alteration in several rice-Zizania introgression lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Long, Likun; Lin, Xiuyun; Guo, Wanli; Liu, Bao

    2006-02-01

    Eight resistance-gene analogs (RGAs) were isolated from wild rice, Zizania latifolia Griseb., by degenerate primers designed according to conserved motifs at or around the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) of known NBS-containing plant resistance genes. The 8 RGAs were classified into 6 distinct groups based on their deduced amino acid sequence similarity of 60% or greater. Gel-blot hybridization of each of the RGAs to 4 rice - Z. latifolia intro gression lines indicated an array of changes at either introgressed Zizania RGAs or, more likely, their rice homologs. The changes included dramatic increase in copy number, modification at the primary DNA sequence, and alteration in DNA methylation patterns. PMID:16498465

  17. Phenotypic plasticity of hermaphrodite sex allocation promotes the evolution of separate sexes: an experimental test of the sex-differential plasticity hypothesis using Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae).

    PubMed

    Dorken, Marcel E; Mitchard, Edward T A

    2008-04-01

    Separate sexes can evolve under nuclear inheritance when unisexuals have more than twice the reproductive fitness of hermaphrodites through one sex function (e.g., when females have more than twice the seed fertility of hermaphrodites). Because separate sexes are thought to evolve most commonly via a gynodioecious intermediate (i.e., populations in which females and hermaphrodites cooccur), the conditions under which females can become established in populations of hermaphrodites are of considerable interest. It has been proposed that resource-poor conditions could promote the establishment of females if hermaphrodites are plastic in their sex allocation and allocate fewer resources to seed production under these conditions. If this occurs, the seed fertility of females could exceed the doubling required for the evolution of unisexuality under low-, but not high-resource conditions (the sex-differential plasticity hypothesis). We tested this hypothesis using replicate experimental arrays of the aquatic herb Sagittaria latifolia grown under two fertilizer treatments. The results supported the sex-differential plasticity hypothesis, with females having more than twice the seed fertility of hermaphrodites under low-, but not high-fertilizer conditions. Our findings are consistent with the idea that separate sexes are more likely to evolve under unfavorable conditions.

  18. Up-regulation of an N-terminal truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase enhances production of essential oils and sterols in transgenic Lavandula latifolia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Sales, Ester; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2007-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oil is widely used in the perfume, cosmetic, flavouring and pharmaceutical industries. Thus, modifications of yield and composition of this essential oil by genetic engineering should have important scientific and commercial applications. We generated transgenic spike lavender plants expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana HMG1 cDNA, encoding the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR1S), a key enzyme of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. Transgenic T0 plants accumulated significantly more essential oil constituents as compared to controls (up to 2.1- and 1.8-fold in leaves and flowers, respectively). Enhanced expression of HMGR1S also increased the amount of the end-product sterols, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol (average differences of 1.8- and 1.9-fold, respectively), but did not affect the accumulation of carotenoids or chlorophylls. We also analysed T1 plants derived from self-pollinated seeds of T0 lines that flowered after growing for 2 years in the greenhouse. The increased levels of essential oil and sterols observed in the transgenic T0 plants were maintained in the progeny that inherited the HMG1 transgene. Our results demonstrate that genetic manipulation of the MVA pathway increases essential oil yield in spike lavender, suggesting a contribution for this cytosolic pathway to monoterpene and sesquiterpene biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of the species.

  19. Influence of spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med.) essential oil in the quality, stability and composition of soybean oil during microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nuno; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Asensio-S-Manzanera, M Carmen; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Lipids oxidation is one of the main factors leading to quality losses in foods. Its prevention or delay could be obtained by the addition of antioxidants. In this sense the present work intend to monitor the protective effects of Lavandula latifolia essential oil during soybean oil microwave heating. To achieve the proposed goal quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, specific coefficients of extinction and ΔK), fatty acids profile, tocopherols and tocotrienols composition, antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were evaluated in soybean oil with and without spike lavender essential oils (EO) submitted to different microwave heating exposure times (1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min; 1000 Watt) with a standard domestic microwave equipment. Microwave heating induced severe quality and composition losses, mainly above 3 min of microwave heating, regardless the sample tested. However, spike lavender EO addition counteracts the oxidation comparatively to control oils, by presenting enhanced values in quality parameters. A higher protection in unsaturated fatty acids loss was also observed as well as a higher antioxidant activity and oxidative stability. The microwave heating effects were clearly different in the samples with essential oils addition, allowing discrimination from plain soybean oils by a principal component analysis, being also capable to discriminate the different heating times tested within each sample.

  20. Mobilization of the active MITE transposons mPing and Pong in rice by introgression from wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.).

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhenlan; Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Yongming; Chen, Yu; Lin, Xiuyun; Long, Likun; Han, Fangpu; Dong, Yingshan; Liu, Bao

    2005-04-01

    Hybridization between different species plays an important role in plant genome evolution, as well as is a widely used approach for crop improvement. McClintock has predicted that plant wide hybridization constitutes a "genomic shock" whereby cryptic transposable elements may be activated. However, direct experimental evidence showing a causal relationship between plant wide hybridization and transposon mobilization has not yet been reported. The miniature-Ping (mPing) is a recently isolated active miniature inverted-repeat transposable element transposon from rice, which is mobilized by tissue culture and gamma-ray irradiation. We show herein that mPing, together with its putative transposase-encoding partner, Pong, is mobilized in three homologous recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from hybridization between rice (cultivar Matsumae) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.), harboring introgressed genomic DNA from wild rice. In contrast, both elements remain immobile in two lines sharing the same parentage to the RILs but possessing no introgressed DNA. Thus, we have presented direct evidence that is consistent with McClintock's insight by demonstrating a causal link between wide hybridization and transposon mobilization in rice. In addition, we report an atypical behavior of mPing/Pong mobilization in these lines, i.e., the exclusive absence of footprints after excision. PMID:15647520

  1. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test drugs were administered orally in the dose of 9ml/kg. Group I received vehicle (distilled water), Group II received leaf decoction of Premna obtusifolia Linn, Group III received leaf decoction of Premna latifolia Roxb and Group IV received indomethacin as standard anti-inflammatory drug. Test drugs and indomethacinwere administered one hour prior to the injection of 0.05 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw of rats. Study findings indicate that leaves of both the species of Premna have anti-inflammatory potential, P. latifoliabeing superior to P. obtusifolia. PMID:23284207

  2. SILEN-C3, a Phase 2 Randomized Trial with Faldaprevir plus Pegylated Interferon α-2a and Ribavirin in Treatment-Naive Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O.; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143–2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  3. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Chang -Jun; Jones, Keith W.; Tappero, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a “brownfield” site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May–September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT) techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation.

  4. Role of vegetation (Typha latifolia) on nutrient removal in a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland treating UASB reactor-trickling filter effluent.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; Martins, Weber Luiz Pinto; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to characterize the role of plants in a constructed wetland in the removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The experiments were carried out in a full-scale system in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, with two parallel horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland units (one planted with Typha latifolia and one unplanted) treating the effluent from a system composed of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and a trickling filter (TF). Each wetland unit received a mean flow of approximately 8.5 m³ d⁻¹ (population equivalent around 60 inhabitants each), with a surface hydraulic loading rate 0.12 m³m⁻²d⁻¹. The experiments were conducted from September 2011 to July 2013. Mean effluent concentrations from the wetlands were: (a) planted unit total nitrogen (TN) 22 mg L⁻¹, ammonia-N 19 mg L⁻¹, nitrite-N 0.10 mg L⁻¹, nitrate-N 0.25 mg L⁻¹, P-total 1.31 mg L⁻¹; and (b) unplanted unit TN 24 mg L⁻¹, ammonia-N 20 mg L⁻¹, nitrite-N 0.54 mg mL⁻¹, nitrate-N 0.15 mg L⁻¹, P-total 1.31 mg L⁻¹. The aerial part of the plant contained mean values of 24.1 gN (kg dry matter)⁻¹ and 4.4 gP (kg dry matter)⁻¹, and the plant root zone was composed of 16.5 gN (kg dry matter)⁻¹ and 4.1 gP (kg dry matter)⁻¹. The mean extraction of N by the plant biomass was 726 kgN ha⁻¹y⁻¹, corresponding to 17% of the N load removed. For P, the extraction by the plant biomass was 105 kgP ha⁻¹y⁻¹, corresponding to 9% of the P load removed. These results reinforce the reports that N and P removal due to plant uptake is a minor mechanism in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands operating under similar loading rates, typical for polishing of sanitary effluent. PMID:25860702

  5. Nutrient removal through autumn harvest of Phragmites australis and Thypha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Toet, Sylvia; Bouwman, Meike; Cevaal, Annechien; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy and feasibility of annual harvesting of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia shoots in autumn for nutrient removal was evaluated in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. Aboveground biomass and nutrient dynamics nutrient removal through harvest were studied in parallel ditches with stands of Phragmites or Typha that were mown in October during two successive years. The inflow rate of STP effluent to the ditches was experimentally varied, resulting in pairs of ditches with mean hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 0.3, 0.8, 2.3, and 9.3 days, corresponding to N and P mass loading rates of 122-4190 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 28.3-994 g P m(-2) yr(-1). Nitrogen and P removal efficiency by harvest of Phragmites and Typha shoots in October increased with increasing HRT, despite the opposite HRT effect on N and P standing stocks. This removal through harvest appeared to be useful in treatment wetlands with N and P mass loading rates lower than approximately 120 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 30 g P m(-2) yr(-1), corresponding to a HRT of roughly 9 days in the ditches of this wetland system. At the HRT of 9.3 days, the annual mass input to the ditches was reduced through the harvest by 7.0-11% and 4.5 -9.2% for N and P, respectively. At the higher nutrient mass loading rates, the nutrient removal through harvest was insignificant compared to the mass inputs. The vitality of Phragmites and Typha, measured as maximum aboveground biomass, was not affected by the annual cutting of the shoots in autumn over two years. The Typha stands yielded higher N and P removal efficiencies through shoot harvest than the Phragmites stands, which was largely the result of lower decreases in N and P standing stocks between August and October. This difference in nutrient standing stocks between the two species was caused by a combined effect of greater decreases in nutrient concentrations largely due to higher nutrient retranslocation efficiencies of

  6. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite. PMID:26541636

  7. PNNL Results from 2009 Silene Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2010-06-30

    This document reports the results of testing of the Hanford Personnel Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on October 13, 14, and 15, 2009.

  8. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite. PMID:26541636

  9. Possible mechanisms responsible for absence of a retrotransposon family on a plant Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Kubat, Zdenek; Zluvova, Jitka; Vogel, Ivan; Kovacova, Viera; Cermak, Tomas; Cegan, Radim; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard

    2014-04-01

    Some transposable elements (TEs) show extraordinary variance in abundance along sex chromosomes but the mechanisms responsible for this variance are unknown. Here, we studied Ogre long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in Silene latifolia, a dioecious plant with evolutionarily young heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Ogre elements are ubiquitous in the S. latifolia genome but surprisingly absent on the Y chromosome. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to determine Ogre structure and chromosomal localization. Next generation sequencing (NGS) data were analysed to assess the transcription level and abundance of small RNAs. Methylation of Ogres was determined by bisulphite sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was used to determine mobilization time and selection forces acting on Ogre elements. We characterized three Ogre families ubiquitous in the S. latifolia genome. One family is nearly absent on the Y chromosome despite all the families having similar structures and spreading mechanisms. We showed that Ogre retrotransposons evolved before sex chromosomes appeared but were mobilized after formation of the Y chromosome. Our data suggest that the absence of one Ogre family on the Y chromosome may be caused by 24-nucleotide (24-nt) small RNA-mediated silencing leading to female-specific spreading. Our findings highlight epigenetic silencing mechanisms as potentially crucial factors in sex-specific spreading of some TEs, but other possible mechanisms are also discussed.

  10. The genomics of plant sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2015-07-01

    Around six percent of flowering species are dioecious, with separate female and male individuals. Sex determination is mostly based on genetics, but morphologically distinct sex chromosomes have only evolved in a few species. Of these, heteromorphic sex chromosomes have been most clearly described in the two model species - Silene latifolia and Rumex acetosa. In both species, the sex chromosomes are the largest chromosomes in the genome. They are hence easily distinguished, can be physically separated and analyzed. This review discusses some recent experimental data on selected model dioecious species, with a focus on S. latifolia. Phylogenetic analyses show that dioecy in plants originated independently and repeatedly even within individual genera. A cogent question is whether there is genetic degeneration of the non-recombining part of the plant Y chromosome, as in mammals, and, if so, whether reduced levels of gene expression in the heterogametic sex are equalized by dosage compensation. Current data provide no clear conclusion. We speculate that although some transcriptome analyses indicate the first signs of degeneration, especially in S. latifolia, the evolutionary processes forming plant sex chromosomes in plants may, to some extent, differ from those in animals. PMID:26025526

  11. Rapid Y degeneration and dosage compensation in plant sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Chester, Michael; Ridout, Kate; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2015-01-01

    The nonrecombining regions of animal Y chromosomes are known to undergo genetic degeneration, but previous work has failed to reveal large-scale gene degeneration on plant Y chromosomes. Here, we uncover rapid and extensive degeneration of Y-linked genes in a plant species, Silene latifolia, that evolved sex chromosomes de novo in the last 10 million years. Previous transcriptome-based studies of this species missed unexpressed, degenerate Y-linked genes. To identify sex-linked genes, regardless of their expression, we sequenced male and female genomes of S. latifolia and integrated the genomic contigs with a high-density genetic map. This revealed that 45% of Y-linked genes are not expressed, and 23% are interrupted by premature stop codons. This contrasts with X-linked genes, in which only 1.3% of genes contained stop codons and 4.3% of genes were not expressed in males. Loss of functional Y-linked genes is partly compensated for by gene-specific up-regulation of X-linked genes. Our results demonstrate that the rate of genetic degeneration of Y-linked genes in S. latifolia is as fast as in animals, and that the evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes are similar in the two kingdoms. PMID:26438872

  12. Rapid Y degeneration and dosage compensation in plant sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Chester, Michael; Ridout, Kate; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2015-10-20

    The nonrecombining regions of animal Y chromosomes are known to undergo genetic degeneration, but previous work has failed to reveal large-scale gene degeneration on plant Y chromosomes. Here, we uncover rapid and extensive degeneration of Y-linked genes in a plant species, Silene latifolia, that evolved sex chromosomes de novo in the last 10 million years. Previous transcriptome-based studies of this species missed unexpressed, degenerate Y-linked genes. To identify sex-linked genes, regardless of their expression, we sequenced male and female genomes of S. latifolia and integrated the genomic contigs with a high-density genetic map. This revealed that 45% of Y-linked genes are not expressed, and 23% are interrupted by premature stop codons. This contrasts with X-linked genes, in which only 1.3% of genes contained stop codons and 4.3% of genes were not expressed in males. Loss of functional Y-linked genes is partly compensated for by gene-specific up-regulation of X-linked genes. Our results demonstrate that the rate of genetic degeneration of Y-linked genes in S. latifolia is as fast as in animals, and that the evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes are similar in the two kingdoms.

  13. Possible mechanisms responsible for absence of a retrotransposon family on a plant Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Kubat, Zdenek; Zluvova, Jitka; Vogel, Ivan; Kovacova, Viera; Cermak, Tomas; Cegan, Radim; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard

    2014-04-01

    Some transposable elements (TEs) show extraordinary variance in abundance along sex chromosomes but the mechanisms responsible for this variance are unknown. Here, we studied Ogre long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in Silene latifolia, a dioecious plant with evolutionarily young heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Ogre elements are ubiquitous in the S. latifolia genome but surprisingly absent on the Y chromosome. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to determine Ogre structure and chromosomal localization. Next generation sequencing (NGS) data were analysed to assess the transcription level and abundance of small RNAs. Methylation of Ogres was determined by bisulphite sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was used to determine mobilization time and selection forces acting on Ogre elements. We characterized three Ogre families ubiquitous in the S. latifolia genome. One family is nearly absent on the Y chromosome despite all the families having similar structures and spreading mechanisms. We showed that Ogre retrotransposons evolved before sex chromosomes appeared but were mobilized after formation of the Y chromosome. Our data suggest that the absence of one Ogre family on the Y chromosome may be caused by 24-nucleotide (24-nt) small RNA-mediated silencing leading to female-specific spreading. Our findings highlight epigenetic silencing mechanisms as potentially crucial factors in sex-specific spreading of some TEs, but other possible mechanisms are also discussed. PMID:24456522

  14. The effects of inbreeding, genetic dissimilarity and phenotype on male reproductive success in a dioecious plant

    PubMed Central

    Austerlitz, Frédéric; Gleiser, Gabriela; Teixeira, Sara; Bernasconi, Giorgina

    2012-01-01

    Pollen fate can strongly affect the genetic structure of populations with restricted gene flow and significant inbreeding risk. We established an experimental population of inbred and outbred Silene latifolia plants to evaluate the effects of (i) inbreeding depression, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) relatedness between mates on male fitness under natural pollination. Paternity analysis revealed that outbred males sired significantly more offspring than inbred males. Independently of the effects of inbreeding, male fitness depended on several male traits, including a sexually dimorphic (flower number) and a gametophytic trait (in vitro pollen germination rate). In addition, full-sib matings were less frequent than randomly expected. Thus, inbreeding, phenotype and genetic dissimilarity simultaneously affect male fitness in this animal-pollinated plant. While inbreeding depression might threaten population persistence, the deficiency of effective matings between sibs and the higher fitness of outbred males will reduce its occurrence and counter genetic erosion. PMID:21561968

  15. Improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Joong; Chung, Seockhoon; Ha, Jee Hyun; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) complain of neurocognitive impairment, the effects of antidepressant medications on neurocognitive functions remain unclear. This study compares neurocognitive effects of tianeptine and escitalopram in MDD. Patients with MDD (N = 164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine (37.5 mg/d) or escitalopram (10 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included clinical improvement, subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Continuous Performance Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Raven Progressive Matrices, assessed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, the tianeptine group showed significant improvement in commission errors (P = 0.002), verbal immediate memory (P < 0.0001), Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.0001), delayed memory (P < 0.0001), and reasoning ability (P = 0.0010), whereas the escitalopram group improved in delayed memory and reasoning ability but not in the other measures. Both groups significantly improved in subjective cognitive impairment in memory (P < 0.0001) and concentration (P < 0.0001). Mixed effects model repeated measures analyses revealed that the tianeptine group had a significant improvement in scores of commission errors (F = 6.64, P = 0.011) and verbal immediate memory (F = 4.39, P = 0.038) from baseline to 12 weeks, compared with the escitalopram group, after controlling for age, sex, education years, baseline scores, and changes of depression severity. The treatment of MDD with tianeptine led to more improvements in neurocognitive functions, especially in commission errors and verbal immediate memory, compared with escitalopram, after controlling for changes in depression severity. Both drugs improved subjective cognitive impairment of memory and concentration.

  16. Improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Joong; Chung, Seockhoon; Ha, Jee Hyun; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) complain of neurocognitive impairment, the effects of antidepressant medications on neurocognitive functions remain unclear. This study compares neurocognitive effects of tianeptine and escitalopram in MDD. Patients with MDD (N = 164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine (37.5 mg/d) or escitalopram (10 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included clinical improvement, subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Continuous Performance Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Raven Progressive Matrices, assessed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, the tianeptine group showed significant improvement in commission errors (P = 0.002), verbal immediate memory (P < 0.0001), Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.0001), delayed memory (P < 0.0001), and reasoning ability (P = 0.0010), whereas the escitalopram group improved in delayed memory and reasoning ability but not in the other measures. Both groups significantly improved in subjective cognitive impairment in memory (P < 0.0001) and concentration (P < 0.0001). Mixed effects model repeated measures analyses revealed that the tianeptine group had a significant improvement in scores of commission errors (F = 6.64, P = 0.011) and verbal immediate memory (F = 4.39, P = 0.038) from baseline to 12 weeks, compared with the escitalopram group, after controlling for age, sex, education years, baseline scores, and changes of depression severity. The treatment of MDD with tianeptine led to more improvements in neurocognitive functions, especially in commission errors and verbal immediate memory, compared with escitalopram, after controlling for changes in depression severity. Both drugs improved subjective cognitive impairment of memory and concentration. PMID:24525660

  17. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non

  18. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non

  19. The male-sterility polymorphism of Silene vulgaris: analysis of genetic dat from two populations and comparison with Thymus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, D; Laporte, V

    1998-01-01

    Results are given of genetic studies of male sterility using plants from two natural populations from Sussex, England. Both populations have substantial frequencies of females, approximately 0.25 in population 1 and 0.60 in population 3. As in the few other gynodioecious populations studied in detail, many genetic factors are present. In population 1, there are at least two, and more likely three, different cytoplasmic types, one of which appears to produce male sterility in progeny from any hermaphrodite pollen donor; in other words restorer alleles for this cytoplasm are rare or absent from the population. The other two populations can be carried in hermaphrodites that have the dominant restorers. In population 1, there are also probably three restorer loci with complementary recessive male-sterility alleles, as well as a locus with duplicate action, which cannot produce male sterility unless the plant is also homozygous for the recessive allele at another locus. The results from population 3 are quite similar, though there was no evidence in this population for an unrestored sterility cytoplasm. A similar joint nucleocytoplasmic model with multiple restorers fits data from Thymus vulgaris. PMID:9799278

  20. The ENEA criticality accident dosimetry system: a contribution to the 2002 international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor.

    PubMed

    Gualdrini, G; Bedogni, R; Fantuzzi, E; Mariotti, F

    2004-01-01

    The present paper summarises the activity carried out at the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute for updating the methodologies employed for the evaluation of the neutron and photon dose to the exposed workers in case of a criticality accident, in the framework of the 'International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems' (Silène reactor, IRSN-CEA-Valduc June 2002). The evaluation of the neutron spectra and the neutron dosimetric quantities relies on activation detectors and on unfolding algorithms. Thermoluminescent detectors are employed for the gamma dose measurement. The work is aimed at accurately characterising the measurement system and, at the same time, testing the algorithms. Useful spectral information were included, based on Monte Carlo simulations, to take into account the potential accident scenarios of practical interest. All along this exercise intercomparison a particular attention was devoted to the 'traceability' of all the experimental and computational parameters and therefore, aimed at an easy treatment by the user.

  1. Plant sex chromosomes: molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jamilena, M; Mariotti, B; Manzano, S

    2008-01-01

    Recent molecular and genomic studies carried out in a number of model dioecious plant species, including Asparagus officinalis, Carica papaya, Silene latifolia, Rumex acetosa and Marchantia polymorpha, have shed light on the molecular structure of both homomorphic and heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and also on the gene functions they have maintained since their evolution from a pair of autosomes. The molecular structure of sex chromosomes in species from different plant families represents the evolutionary pathway followed by sex chromosomes during their evolution. The degree of Y chromosome degeneration that accompanies the suppression of recombination between the Xs and Ys differs among species. The primitive Ys of A. officinalis and C. papaya have only diverged from their homomorphic Xs in a short male-specific and non-recombining region (MSY), while the heteromorphic Ys of S. latifolia, R. acetosa and M. polymorpha have diverged from their respective Xs. As in the Y chromosomes of mammals and Drosophila, the accumulation of repetitive DNA, including both transposable elements and satellite DNA, has played an important role in the divergence and size enlargement of plant Ys, and consequently in reducing gene density. Nevertheless, the degeneration process in plants does not appear to have reached the Y-linked genes. Although a low gene density has been found in the sequenced Y chromosome of M. polymorpha, most of its genes are essential and are expressed in the vegetative and reproductive organs in both male and females. Similarly, most of the Y-linked genes that have been isolated and characterized up to now in S. latifolia are housekeeping genes that have X-linked homologues, and are therefore expressed in both males and females. Only one of them seems to be degenerate with respect to its homologous region in the X. Sequence analysis of larger regions in the homomorphic X and Y chromosomes of papaya and asparagus, and also in the heteromorphic sex chromosomes

  2. DNA polymorphism in recombining and non-recombing mating-type-specific loci of the smut fungus Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    Votintseva, A A; Filatov, D A

    2011-01-01

    The population-genetic processes leading to the genetic degeneration of non-recombining regions have mainly been studied in animal and plant sex chromosomes. Here, we report population genetic analysis of the processes in the non-recombining mating-type-specific regions of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum. M. violaceum has A1 and A2 mating types, determined by mating-type-specific ‘sex chromosomes' that contain 1–2 Mb long non-recombining regions. If genetic degeneration were occurring, then one would expect reduced DNA polymorphism in the non-recombining regions of this fungus. The analysis of DNA diversity among 19 M. violaceum strains, collected across Europe from Silene latifolia flowers, revealed that (i) DNA polymorphism is relatively low in all 20 studied loci (π∼0.15%), (ii) it is not significantly different between the two mating-type-specific chromosomes nor between the non-recombining and recombining regions, (iii) there is substantial population structure in M. violaceum populations, which resembles that of its host species, S. latifolia, and (iv) there is significant linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that widespread selfing in this species results in a reduction of the effective recombination rate across the genome. We hypothesise that selfing-related reduction of recombination across the M. violaceum genome negates the difference in the level of DNA polymorphism between the recombining and non-recombining regions, and may possibly lead to similar levels of genetic degeneration in the mating-type-specific regions of the non-recombining ‘sex chromosomes' and elsewhere in the genome. PMID:21081967

  3. A New GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments Site in Southwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Warden, J. E.; Apple, C. J.; Pullman, T. Y.; Gallagher, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    Global climate change is predicted to have a major impact on the alpine environments and plants of western North America. Alpine plant species and treelines may migrate upwards due to warmer temperatures. Species composition, vegetation cover, and the phenology of photosynthesis, flowering, pollination, and seed dispersal may change. The Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a network of alpine sites established with the goal of understanding the interactions between climate change and alpine plants. The Continental Divide traverses Southwestern Montana, where the flora contains representative species from both sides of the divide. In the summer of 2008, we established a GLORIA site in southwestern Montana east of the Continental Divide with the objective of determining whether the temperature changes at the site, and if so, how temperature changes influence alpine plants. We are monitoring soil temperature along with species composition and percent cover of alpine plants at four sub-summits along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We placed the treeline, lower alpine, and upper alpine sites on Mt. Fleecer (45°49'36.06"N, 112°48'08.18"W, 2886.2 m (9469 ft)) and the highest sub-summit on Keokirk Mountain, (45°35'37.94"N, 112°57'03.89"W, 2987.3 m (9801 ft)) in the Pioneer Range. Interesting species on these mountains include Lewisia pygmaea, the Pygmy Bitterroot, Silene acaulis, the Moss Campion, Eritrichium nanum, the Alpine Forget-Me-Not, Lloydia serotina, the Alpine Lily, and Pinus albicaulis, the Whitebark Pine. This new site will remain in place indefinitely. Baseline and subsequent data from this site will be linked with the global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora.

  4. Assessing radiation exposure of herbaceous plant species at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace.

    PubMed

    Karimullina, Elina; Antonova, Elena; Pozolotina, Vera

    2013-10-01

    The East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is a result of the Mayak Production Association accident that occurred in 1957 in Russia. Radiological assessment improves the interpretation of biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore a modeling approach was used to estimate dose rates on Leonurus quinquelobatus, Silene latifolia, Stellaria graminea and Bromus inermis. Soil-to-organism transfer parameter values are delivered from empirical data of (90)Sr and (137)Cs soil and vegetative plant mass activity concentrations. External and internal whole-body dose rates were calculated using deterministic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2 and R&D 128/SP1a) and probabilistic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 3) methods. The total dose rate for herbs was under 100 μGy h(-1) at the most polluted site. The total absorbed dose rates increased 43-110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. Based on these data, it can be concluded that herbaceous plant populations currently exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area.

  5. A plant pathogen reduces the enemy-free space of an insect herbivore on a shared host plant.

    PubMed Central

    Biere, Arjen; Elzinga, Jelmer A; Honders, Sonja C; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2002-01-01

    An important mechanism in stabilizing tightly linked host-parasitoid and prey-predator interactions is the presence of refuges that protect organisms from their natural enemies. However, the presence and quality of refuges can be strongly affected by the environment. We show that infection of the host plant Silene latifolia by its specialist fungal plant pathogen Microbotryum violaceum dramatically alters the enemy-free space of a herbivore, the specialist noctuid seed predator Hadena bicruris, on their shared host plant. The pathogen arrests the development of seed capsules that serve as refuges for the herbivore's offspring against the specialist parasitoid Microplitis tristis, a major source of mortality of H. bicruris in the field. Pathogen infection resulted both in lower host-plant food quality, causing reduced adult emergence, and in twofold higher rates of parasitism of the herbivore. We interpret the strong oviposition preference of H. bicruris for uninfected plants in the field as an adaptive response, positioning offspring on refuge-rich, high-quality hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that plant-inhabiting micro-organisms can affect higher trophic interactions through alteration of host refuge quality. We speculate that such interference can potentially destabilize tightly linked multitrophic interactions. PMID:12427312

  6. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009-30 September 2009.

    PubMed

    Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I; Adebayo, Abisola A; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R C; Bock, Dan G; Born, Céline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Amezúa, P; Catanéo, J; Correa-Ramirez, M M; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E; Etchberger, Lianna K; Fan, Bin; Fields, Peter D; Forcioli, D; Furla, P; Garcia de Leon, F J; García-Jiménez, R; Gauthier, Philippe; Gergs, René; González, Clementina; Granjon, Laurent; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Havill, Nathan P; Helsen, P; Hether, Tyler D; Hoffman, Eric A; Hu, Xiangyang; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Ishizaki, S; Ji, Heyi; Ji, X S; Jimenez, M L; Kapil, R; Karban, R; Keller, Stephen R; Kubota, S; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Wansha; Lim, Douglas D; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Luo, Yayan; Machordom, A; Martin, Andrew P; Matthysen, E; Mazzella, Maxwell N; McGeoch, Mélodie A; Meng, Zining; Nishizawa, M; O'Brien, Patricia; Ohara, M; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Ortu, M F; Pedersen, Amy B; Preston, L; Ren, Qin; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Sackett, Loren C; Sang, Qing; Sawyer, G M; Shiojiri, K; Taylor, Douglas R; Van Dongen, S; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Vandewoestijne, S; Wang, H; Wang, J T; Wang, L E; Xu, Xiang-Li; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yongping; Zeng, Y Q; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yongping; Zhao, Y; Zhou, Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides. PMID:21565018

  7. LC-MS and 1H NMR as an improved dereplication tool to identify antifungal diterpenoids from Sagittaria latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dereplication strategy using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) to facilitate compound identification towards antifungal natural product discovery is presented. This analytical approach takes advantage of th...

  8. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND THE EFFECT OF POLLUTANTS IN TYPHA LATIFOLIA EXAMINED WITH SYNTHETIC TANDEM-REPETITIVE DNA PROBES. (R826602)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Derivatization of phytochelatins from Silene vulgaris, induced upon exposure to arsenate and cadmium: comparison of derivatization with Ellman's reagent and monobromobimane.

    PubMed

    Sneller, F E; van Heerwaarden, L M; Koevoets, P L; Vooijs, R; Schat, H; Verkleij, J A

    2000-09-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are a family of thiol-rich peptides, with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)(n)()-Gly, with n = 2-11, induced in plants upon exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals and some metalloids, such as arsenic. Two types of PC analyses are currently used, i.e., acid extraction and separation on HPLC with either precolumn derivatization (pH 8.2) with monobromobimane (mBBr) or postcolumn derivatization (pH 7.8) with Ellman's reagent [5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), DTNB]. Although both methods were satisfactory for analysis of Cd-induced PCs, formation of (RS)(3)-As complexes during extraction of As-induced PCs rendered the DTNB method useless. This paper shows that precolumn derivatization with mBBr, during which the (RS)(3)-As complexes are disrupted, provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of both Cd- and As-induced PCs. In addition, derivatization efficiencies of both methods for the oligomers with n = 2-4 (PC(2)(-)(4)) are compared. Derivatization efficiency decreased from 71.8% and 81.4% for mBBr and DTNB derivatization, respectively, for PC(2) to 27.4% and 50.2% for PC(4). This decrease is most likely due to steric hindrance. Correction of measured thiol concentration is therefore advised for better quantification of PC concentrations in plant material.

  10. Derivatization of phytochelatins from Silene vulgaris, induced upon exposure to arsenate and cadmium: comparison of derivatization with Ellman's reagent and monobromobimane.

    PubMed

    Sneller, F E; van Heerwaarden, L M; Koevoets, P L; Vooijs, R; Schat, H; Verkleij, J A

    2000-09-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are a family of thiol-rich peptides, with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)(n)()-Gly, with n = 2-11, induced in plants upon exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals and some metalloids, such as arsenic. Two types of PC analyses are currently used, i.e., acid extraction and separation on HPLC with either precolumn derivatization (pH 8.2) with monobromobimane (mBBr) or postcolumn derivatization (pH 7.8) with Ellman's reagent [5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), DTNB]. Although both methods were satisfactory for analysis of Cd-induced PCs, formation of (RS)(3)-As complexes during extraction of As-induced PCs rendered the DTNB method useless. This paper shows that precolumn derivatization with mBBr, during which the (RS)(3)-As complexes are disrupted, provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of both Cd- and As-induced PCs. In addition, derivatization efficiencies of both methods for the oligomers with n = 2-4 (PC(2)(-)(4)) are compared. Derivatization efficiency decreased from 71.8% and 81.4% for mBBr and DTNB derivatization, respectively, for PC(2) to 27.4% and 50.2% for PC(4). This decrease is most likely due to steric hindrance. Correction of measured thiol concentration is therefore advised for better quantification of PC concentrations in plant material. PMID:10995306

  11. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. PMID:27136128

  12. Chaos of Rearrangements in the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae

    PubMed Central

    Badouin, Hélène; Hood, Michael E.; Gouzy, Jérôme; Aguileta, Gabriela; Siguenza, Sophie; Perlin, Michael H.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Fairhead, Cécile; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes in plants and animals and fungal mating-type chromosomes often show exceptional genome features, with extensive suppression of homologous recombination and cytological differentiation between members of the diploid chromosome pair. Despite strong interest in the genetics of these chromosomes, their large regions of suppressed recombination often are enriched in transposable elements and therefore can be challenging to assemble. Here we show that the latest improvements of the PacBio sequencing yield assembly of the whole genome of the anther-smut fungus, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (the pathogenic fungus causing anther-smut disease of Silene latifolia), into finished chromosomes or chromosome arms, even for the repeat-rich mating-type chromosomes and centromeres. Suppressed recombination of the mating-type chromosomes is revealed to span nearly 90% of their lengths, with extreme levels of rearrangements, transposable element accumulation, and differentiation between the two mating types. We observed no correlation between allelic divergence and physical position in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. This may result from gene conversion or from rearrangements of ancient evolutionary strata, i.e., successive steps of suppressed recombination. Centromeres were found to be composed mainly of copia-like transposable elements and to possess specific minisatellite repeats identical between the different chromosomes. We also identified subtelomeric motifs. In addition, extensive signs of degeneration were detected in the nonrecombining regions in the form of transposable element accumulation and of hundreds of gene losses on each mating-type chromosome. Furthermore, our study highlights the potential of the latest breakthrough PacBio chemistry to resolve complex genome architectures. PMID:26044594

  13. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants. PMID:23286393

  14. Multiple Infections by the Anther Smut Pathogen Are Frequent and Involve Related Strains

    PubMed Central

    López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Jonot, Odile; Coantic, Amélie; Hood, Michael E; Enjalbert, Jérôme; Giraud, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Population models of host–parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use, and forces

  15. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus.

  16. Web-Based Dynamic Assessment: Taking Assessment as Teaching and Learning Strategy for Improving Students e-Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2010-01-01

    This research combines the idea of cake format dynamic assessment defined by Sternberg and Grigorenko (2001) and the "graduated prompt approach" proposed by (Campione and Brown, 1985) and (Campione and Brown, 1987) to develop a multiple-choice Web-based dynamic assessment system. This research adopts a quasi-experimental design to investigate the…

  17. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species. PMID:24237338

  18. Effect of N:P ratio of influent on biomass, nutrient allocation, and recovery of Typha latifolia and Canna 'Bengal Tiger' in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an effective low-technology approach for treating agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. Recovery of phosphorous by constructed wetland plants may be affected by wastewater nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratios. Varying N:P ratios were supplied to Canna '...

  19. Protective potentials of wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2012-07-01

    The study evaluates the protective potentials of wild rice against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. In addition to the rats of low-fat diet group, others animals were exposed to a high-fat/cholesterol diet condition for 8 weeks. The city diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by urban residents in modern China, which is rich in fat/cholesterol and high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The chief source of dietary carbohydrates of wild rice diet (WRD) is from Chinese wild rice and other compositions are the same with CD. Rats fed CD showed elevated body and liver organ weights, lipid profiles, free fatty acids (FFA) and leptin comparable with rats fed high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia in this species. However, rats consuming WRD suppressed the increase of lipid droplets accumulation, FFA, and leptin, and the decrease of lipoprotein lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase. Meanwhile, WRD prevented high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced elevation in protein expression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c, and gene expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These findings indicate that wild rice as a natural food has the potentials of preventing obesity and liver lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. PMID:22579924

  20. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-01-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  1. Wild rice ( Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) improves the serum lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats fed with a high fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Cao, Pei; Agellon, Luis B; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2009-12-01

    The diet consumed by urban residents in modern China has become rich in saturated fats and cholesterol. In addition, the diet is high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch with wild rice (WR) as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates. Rats fed with the diet patterned after the diet consumed by city residents of modern China showed elevated serum lipid levels comparable with rats consuming a high fat/cholesterol diet known to induce hyperlipidaemia in this species. Meanwhile, rats consuming the city diet with WR as the carbohydrate source suppressed the increase in serum TAG and total cholesterol, and the decrease in HDL cholesterol level. In addition, the rats fed the WR diet suppressed the build-up of oxidative stress by improving antioxidant capacity, increasing superoxide dismutase activity and reducing malondialdehyde concentration, both in the serum and liver. These findings illustrate that WR is effective in suppressing hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress in rats even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:19631021

  2. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  3. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-15

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  4. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species.

  5. 75 FR 60735 - Proposed Issuance of Incidental Take Permits to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... FR 60727, November 8, 1999). Section 10 of the ESA and its implementing regulations specify the... plover, Oregon silverspot butterfly, golden paintbrush, howellia, Spalding's silene, Ute ladies'...

  6. Immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage functions and antioxidant activities of 11 plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghonime, Mohammed; Emara, Mohamed; Shawky, Riham; Soliman, Hesham; El-Domany, Ramadan; Abdelaziz, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A group of 11 medicinal plants, including Lavandula pubescens, Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Silene villosa, Bogonvillea glabra, Cakile maritime, Gomphrene celesoids, Mirabilis jalaba, and Silene nocturna growing in Egypt, were extracted and examined for their immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. RAW 264.7 cells were recruited to investigate the immunomodulatory effect through multiple parameters analysis. First, the proliferation index of macrophages cells was evaluated revealing that Trigonella foenugricium, Silene succulenta and Silene villosa have a significant cytotoxic effect on RAW cells. Interestingly, we observed enhancement of macrophages phagocytic function of by all extracts except Cakile maritime, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. Afterwards, macrophages were challenged by incubation with LPS and the effect of various extracts on inflammatory responses was investigated; the generation of NO from activated macrophage was substantially suppressed by 7 extracts namely, Trigonella foenugricium, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Bougainvillea glabra, Mirabilis jalaba, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. TNF-α was decreased by percentage range from 3.8 to 85.8% and Trigonella foenugricium extract showed the highest inhibition of TNF-α release. All extracts except Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Silene succulenta and Mirabilis jalaba significantly inhibited COX-2 production from stimulated macrophage. Moreover, evaluating the potential antioxidant activity of these extracts showed that Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Bogonvillea glabra and Mirabilis jalaba exhibited some antioxidant activities. Taken together, our results suggest that some of these extracts may have a considerable antinflammatory and antioxidant effects and may be a potential therapeutic choice in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25564700

  7. HPLC analysis of ecdysteroids in plant extracts using superheated deuterium oxide with multiple on-line spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, 1H NMR, and MS).

    PubMed

    Louden, Dave; Handley, Alan; Lafont, Rene; Taylor, Steve; Sinclair, Ian; Lenz, Eva; Orton, Timothy; Wilson, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    HPLC, using superheated D20 as the mobile phase, combined with on-line characterization via a combination of diode array UV, 1H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry has been used for the analysis of a standard of 20-hydroxyecdysone- and ecdysteroid-containing plant extracts. This combination of spectrometers enabled the on-flow collection of UV, 1H NMR, IR, and mass spectra not only for pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (100-400 microg on column) but also the major ecdysteroids present in crude extracts of Silene otites, Silene nutans, and Silene frivaldiskyana. The ecdysteroids unequivocally identified in these extracts included 20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, and integristerone A.

  8. [Risk of hemolysis in blood sampling from peripheral intravenous catheter: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Danielis, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    SCOPO. L’emolisi è uno dei fattori principali in grado di compromettere un campione di sangue. La disponibilità di un accesso venoso già posizionato spinge molti infermieri ad utilizzare questa via per il prelievo ematico, anche se è noto come questa tecnica sia associata a maggior incidenza di emolisi rispetto al prelievo con ago diretto. L’intento di questo lavoro è individuare gli interventi che prevengono il rischio di emolisi qualora il campione di sangue provenga da un ago cannula periferico. METODO. E’ stata condotta una revisione della letteratura attraverso la consultazione delle banche dati MEDLINE, CINAHL e Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews. RISULTATI. Sono stati selezionati 15 articoli. Fattori quali il materiale e il calibro del catetere venoso periferico (CVP), la presenza di ostruzioni, la sede anatomica, la permanenza del laccio emostatico, la difficoltà di posizionamento dell’ago cannula, il volume della provetta utilizzata e le abilità dell’operatore sono determinanti nel rischio di emolisi del campione di sangue ottenuto dalla cannula periferica. In termine di costi e di preferenze del paziente, la tecnica del prelievo ematico da CVP è da preferirsi. CONCLUSIONI. I prelievi di sangue ottenuti da cannula periferica sono associati a maggiore rischio di emolisi. Tuttavia, prelevare un campione di sangue da CVP per effettuare un’analisi e, nel contempo, ridurre il rischio di emolisi è possibile se vengono seguiti alcuni accorgimenti.

  9. Urban Schools' Teachers Enacting Project-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Blumenfeld, Phyllis C.

    2006-01-01

    What teaching practices foster inquiry and promote students to learn challenging subject matter in urban schools? Inquiry-based instruction and successful inquiry learning and teaching in project-based science (PBS) were described in previous studies (Brown & Campione, [1990]; Crawford, [1999]; Krajcik, Blumenfeld, Marx, Bass, & Fredricks, [1998];…

  10. Pedagogical Praxis: The Professions as Models for Learning in the Age of the Smart Machine. WCER Working Paper No. 2003-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Successful curricula are not collections of isolated elements; rather, effective learning environments function as coherent systems (Brown & Campione, 1996; see also Papert, 1980; Shaffer, 1998). The theory of pedagogical praxis begins with the premise that computers and other information technologies make it easier for students to become active…

  11. Implementation of Web-Based Dynamic Assessment in Facilitating Junior High School Students to Learn Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    This research adopts the Graduated Prompting Assessment Module of the WATA system (GPAM-WATA) and applies it to the remedial teaching of junior high school mathematics. The theoretical basis of the development of GPAM-WATA is the idea of 'graduated prompt approach' proposed by Campione and Brown (1985; 1987, pp. 92-95). In GPAM-WATA, when…

  12. Shakespeare, plant blindness and electronic media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use is made of a published (2005) survey of botanical literacy in modern London: Ten very common wild flowers (ragwort, cow parsley, foxglove, red campion, germander speedwell, primrose, lesser celandine, common dog violet, common daisy, and greater plantain) were seldom recogonized by A-level stude...

  13. Teaching the Species Concept Using Hybrid Plants and Habitats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, C. M.; Oldham, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a field exercise which links ecology and taxonomy in the teaching of the species concept. Two common hedgerow plants (red and white campions) are used as a pair of "species" that are normally distinct. Plants of intermediate character can be encountered, and the status of these plants is investigated. (Author/JN)

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). Visual Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Visual Communication Division of the proceedings contains the following 7 papers: "Photography Editors as Gatekeepers: Choosing Between Publishing or Self-Censoring Disturbing Images of 9-11" (Renee Martin Kratzer and Brian Kratzer); "Jane Campion's 'The Piano': The Female Gaze, the Speculum and the Chora within the H(y)st(e)rical Film" (Jaime…

  15. First report of anther smut caused by Microbotryum violaceum on forked catchfly in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forked catchfly (Silene dichotoma Ehrh.), family Caryophyllaceae, is a common and native plant in rangelands and pastures in Turkey. It is also an introduced plant that is widely distributed in North America. In May, 2007 about 20 forked catchfly plants on the campus of Ondokuz Mayis University, i...

  16. Silicon meets cyclotron: muon spin resonance of organosilicon radicals.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Samedov, Kerim; Percival, Paul W

    2014-07-21

    Muons, generated at a high-powered cyclotron, can capture electrons to form muonium atoms. Muon spin resonance spectra can be recorded for organosilyl radicals obtained by addition of muonium atoms to silylenes and silenes. We present a brief summary of progress in this new area since the first such experiments were reported in 2008.

  17. Central radio galaxies in groups: cavities, bubbles and the history of AGN heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacintucci, S.; Venturi, T.; Raychaudhury, S.; Vrtilek, J.

    2008-10-01

    E' noto che le regioni centrali degli ammassi e gruppi di galassie costituiscono un ambiente in cui gas caldo e plasma radioemittente proveniente dalle galassie dominanti interagiscono tra loro. In particolare, si pensa che la radioemissione dell'AGN centrale ed i suoi possibili cicli di attivita', siano strettamente legati alla presenza di cavita' e "bubbles" nel gas intergalattico. Si presentera' lo status di un progetto osservativo effettuato con il Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT, India) su di un campione di 18 gruppi di galassie, osservati a tre frequenze radio (235 MHz, 325 MHz e 610 MHz). Lo studio della morfologia radio degli AGN centrali e la relativa analisi spettrale permettono di ottenere stime sull'eta' di questi oggetti, e sulla loro energia totale, che a loro volta sono in relazione con le proprieta' X dei gruppi stessi. Per tutti gli oggetti del campione sono disponibili osservazioni Chandra di proprieta'. Per due oggetti del campione, 4C+24.36 (al centro di AWM04) e NGC741 (al centro di RSOG17) verra' presentato uno studio dettagliato.

  18. Molecular Evidence for the Hybrid Origin of Ilex dabieshanensis (Aquifoliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lin; Li, Naiwei; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhou, Yubing; Huang, Weijie; Yang, Yuchen; Ma, Yongpeng; Zhou, Renchao

    2016-01-01

    Ilex, the largest genus of dioecious woody plants, is a good study system to assess the role of hybridization in speciation and evolution. Ilex dabieshanensis, a tree endemic to Dabieshan Mountains region, was initially described as a new species. Based on morphological intermediacy and sympatric distribution with its putative parental species, I. cornuta and I. latifolia, we proposed it as a natural hybrid between them. In this study, we sequenced one chloroplast intergenic spacer (trnH-psbA) and two nuclear genes (gapC and nepGS) in I. dabieshanensis and its putative parental species to test the hybrid origin hypothesis. Our results showed that there were one to two differentially fixed sequence differences between I. cornuta and I. latifolia at the two nuclear genes. Twelve of the 14 individuals of I. dabieshanensis exhibited additivity in chromatograms on these differentially fixed sites at both nuclear genes, and the remaining two exhibited additivity in chromatograms on the fixed site at only the nepGS gene. Except one haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene, all of the haplotypes of I. cornuta at the two nuclear genes were well separated from those of I. latifolia, and most haplotypes of I. dabieshanensis were shared with those of I. cornuta and I. latifolia. Phylogenetic analysis of these haplotypes was largely consistent with haplotype network analysis. I. cornuta and I. latifolia differed by two nucleotide substitutions in the chloroplast intergenic spacer, and 12 individuals of I. dabieshanensis had the same sequences as I. latifolia, while the remaining two were identical with I. cornuta. The molecular data provide convincing evidence for the hybrid origin of I. dabieshanensis and asymmetrical direction of hybridization. One haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene was nested with those of I. latifolia, indicating introgression to I. cornuta. PMID:26808531

  19. Effects of plant species on soil microbial processes and CH4 emission from constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Hao; Ye, Chun; Chen, Xia; Xie, Biao; Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Jixiang; Xu, Meina

    2013-03-01

    Methane (CH(4)) emission from constructed wetland has raised environmental concern. This study evaluated the influence of mono and polyculture constructed wetland and seasonal variation on CH(4) fluxes. Methane emission data showed large temporal variation ranging from 0 to 249.29 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1). Results indicated that the highest CH(4) flux was obtained in the polyculture system, planted with Phragmites australis, Zizania latifolia and Typha latifolia, reflecting polyculture system could stimulate CH(4) emission. FISH analysis showed the higher amount of methanotrophs in the profile of Z. latifolia in both mono and polyculture systems. The highest methanogens amount and relatively lower methanotrophs amount in the profile of polyculture system were obtained. The results support the characteristics of CH(4) fluxes. The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher potential of global warming. PMID:23291006

  20. Ray tracing method with Fresnel's transmission to calculate polarized radiation power distribution focused by a terahertz Silicon lens antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apriono, Catur; Rahardjo, Eko Tjipto; Hiromoto, Norihisa

    2015-03-01

    We study a method for simulating a power-flow density distribution of terahertz-wave focused by a hemispherical Silicon lens antenna. A regular ray-tracing method is not enough to evaluate a correct radiation power-flow because it does not take into account transmittances dependent on angles of incidence at different positions on the spherical boundary of the Si-lens. In this study, we propose a ray-tracing method including Fresnel's transmission coefficients on the surface of a Si-lens for incoming polarized rays. The power-flow-density distribution calculated by the proposed method has a good agreement except for interference and diffraction with the result obtained by an electromagnetic wave simulator. Our method is so simple and reliable that it is useful for designing and evaluating THz optical systems using dielectric lens antennas.

  1. NHC-Stabilized Silicon-Carbon Mixed Cumulene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendong; Zhang, Jianying; Li, Jianfeng; Cui, Chunming

    2016-08-24

    The NHC-stabilized silicon-carbon mixed cumulene (Me3Si)2C═Si(IPr)═Si(IPr)═C(SiMe3)2 (3, IPr = 1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazol-2-ylidene) has been prepared by reaction of Ar(SiMe3)NK with the NHC-stabilized silene (Me3Si)2C═Si(SiMe3)Cl(IPr) (2) in toluene at low temperature via the elimination of trimethylsilyl and chloride groups from 2. X-ray crystal analysis of 3 indicated the formal C═Si═Si═C cumulene skeleton with the short Si-Si double bond distance of 2.1896(10) Å. DFT calculations disclosed its zwitterionic character. Reaction of 3 with diphenylacetylene resulted in the formation of a silatriafulvene with an exocyclic NHC-stabilized silene moiety. PMID:27513613

  2. Palatability of weeds from different European origins to the slugs Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Arion lusitanicus Mabille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Michael; Kollmann, Johannes; Edwards, Peter J.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a study on the significance of seed provenances in schemes to enhance biodiversity in agricultural habitats, juvenile plants of Cichorium intybus, Daucus carota, Leucanthemum vulgare and Silene alba of different European origins were exposed to grazing by two slug species, Deroceras reticulatum and Arion lusitanicus. Living plants were offered in trays, either in a glasshouse ( Deroceras) or outdoors ( Arion). The amount of herbivory was origin-dependent, with higher losses for all four species from German and Hungarian provenances compared with English and Swiss plants. The main trend was similar for both slug species except in the case of Daucus, and there was a significant 'origin × plant species' interaction. We found strong correlations between provenance-specific herbivory and certain climatic characteristics of the corresponding regions, i.e. winter minimum temperatures, and dryness in spring and late summer, which are crucial for the development of slugs. The results can be interpreted in terms of a SW-NE European climatic gradient and may be a consequence of differences in the need for plant defences against herbivory by slugs. Additionally, the data on palatability were compared with susceptibility towards two parasites which occurred in a field experiment, a leaf miner on Leucanthemum vulgare and a rust fungus on Silene alba. While specific leaf mining frequencies on Leucanthemum contrasted with the palatability of the different provenances to slugs, the rust infection on Silene was low on local and German plants, and higher on the more distant provenances from England and Hungary.

  3. Infrared Spectra and Density Functional Calculations for Singlet CH2═SiX2 and Triplet HC-SiX3 and XC-SiX3 Intermediates in Reactions of Laser-Ablated Silicon Atoms with Di-, Tri-, and Tetrahalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Gook; Andrews, Lester

    2016-03-21

    Reactions of laser-ablated silicon atoms with di-, tri-, and tetrahalomethanes in excess argon were investigated, and the products were identified from the matrix infrared spectra, isotopic shifts, and density functional theory energy, bond length, and frequency calculations. Dihalomethanes produce planar singlet silenes (CH2═SiX2), and tri- and tetrahalomethanes form triplet halosilyl carbenes (HC-SiX3 and XC-SiX3). The Si-bearing molecules identified are the most stable, lowest-energy product in the reaction systems. While the C-Si bond in the silene is a true double bond, the C-Si bond in the carbene is a shortened single bond enhanced by hyperconjugation of the two unpaired electrons on C to σ*(Si-X) orbitals, which contributes stabilization through a small amount of π-bonding and reduction of the HCSi or XCSi angles. The C-Si bond lengths in these carbenes (1.782 Å for HC-SiF3) are between the single-bond length in the unobserved first insertion intermediate (1.975 Å for CHF2-SiF) and the double-bond length in the silene (1.704 Å for CHF═SiF2). The silicon s(2)p(2) and titanium s(2)d(2) electron configurations produce similar primary products, but the methylidyne with Ti has a bond to carbon stronger than that of the halosilyl carbene.

  4. A panchromatic view of the evolution of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusso, E.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.

    2008-10-01

    Verranno presentati i risultati preliminari di uno studio sistematico delle distribuzioni di energia spettrale (SED) di un campione statisticamente significativo di alcune centinaia di AGN (sia di tipo 1 che di tipo 2) selezionati dalla survey XMM-COSMOS. La vasta mole di dati disponibili sull'intero spettro elettromagnetico permette di calcolare le SED medie per diversi intervalli di redshift e luminosita'. Una stima affidabile della SED e' di fondamentale importanza per il calcolo della luminosita' bolometrica e quindi per lo studio della fisica dei processi di accrescimento su SMBH, per la loro evoluzione con il tempo cosmico.

  5. Foliar CO₂ in a holm oak forest subjected to 15 years of climate change simulation.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Romà; Llusià, Joan; Barbeta, Adrià; Asensio, Dolores; Liu, Daijun; Alessio, Giorgio Arturo; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-09-01

    A long-term experimental drought to simulate future expected climatic conditions for Mediterranean forests, a 15% decrease in soil moisture for the following decades, was conducted in a holm oak forest since 1999. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential were measured from 1999 to 2013 in Quercus ilex and Phillyrea latifolia, two co-dominant species of this forest. These measurements were performed in four plots, two of them received the drought treatment and the two other plots were control plots. The three studied variables decreased with increases in VPD and decreases in soil moisture in both species, but the decrease of leaf water potential during summer drought was larger in P. latifolia, whereas Q. ilex reached higher net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance values during rainy periods than P. latifolia. The drought treatment decreased ca. 8% the net photosynthetic rates during the overall studied period in both Q. ilex and P. latifolia, whereas there were just non-significant trends toward a decrease in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance induced by drought treatment. Future drier climate may lead to a decrease in the carbon balance of Mediterranean species, and some shrub species well resistant to drought could gain competitive advantage relative to Q. ilex, currently the dominant species of this forest.

  6. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. Pines counter these threats by producing secondary metabolite...

  7. Lodgepole pine provenances differ in chemical defense capacities against foliage and stem diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximization of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) growth in the face of climate change and new pest outbreaks requires an understanding of the natural variability of quantitative resistance to disease. We assessed trees for the severity of foliar d...

  8. Ammonium removal in constructed wetland microcosms as influenced by season and organic carbon load.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kate A; Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated ammonium nitrogen removal and nitrogen transformations in three-year-old, batch-operated, subsurface wetland microcosms. Treatments included replicates of Typha latifolia, Carex rostrata, and unplanted controls when influent carbon was excluded, and C. rostrata with an influent containing organic carbon. A series of 10-day batch incubations were conducted over a simulated yearlong cycle of seasons. The presence of plants significantly enhanced ammonium removal during both summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) conditions, but significant differences between plant species were evident only in summer when C. rostrata outperformed T. latifolia. The effect of organic carbon load was distinctly seasonal, enhancing C. rostrata ammonium removal in winter but having an inhibitory effect in summer. Season did not influence ammonium removal in T. latifolia or unplanted columns. Net production of organic carbon was evident year-round in units without an influent organic carbon source, but was enhanced in summer, especially for C. rostrata, which produced significantly more than T. latifolia and unplanted controls. No differences in production were evident between species in winter. COD values for C. rostrata microcosms with and without influent organic carbon converged within 24 hours in winter and 7 days in summer. Gravel sorption, microbial immobilization and sequential nitrification/denitrification appear to be the major nitrogen removal mechanisms. All evidence suggests differences between season and species are due to differences in seasonal variation of root-zone oxidation.

  9. Nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: effect of plant species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Inamori, Ryuhei; Kong, Hainan; Xu, Kaiqin; Inamori, Yuhei; Kondo, Takashi; Zhang, Jixiang

    2008-03-01

    Loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. This study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs). To better understand the mechanism of N2O emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. N2O emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg N2O m(-2) d(-1). The highest N2O emission occurred in the cell planted with Phragmites australis and Zizania latifolia. Whereas, the lower emission rate were obtained in the cell planted with P. australis and Typha latifolia. These revealed that Z. latifolia stimulated the N2O emission. Transportation of more organic matter and oxygen for AOB growth may be the reason. The study of AOB also supported this result, indicating that the root structure of Z. latifolia was favored by AOB for N2O formation.

  10. Potentiometric Demonstration of Metal Biosorption by Nonliving Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Jimenez, Litza Halla; Torres-Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Garcia-de la Cruz, Ramon Fernando; Montes-Rojas, Antonio; Lopez-Arteaga, Rafael Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical experiment is presented to illustrate biosorption to second-year and upper-division undergraduate students. The extraction of Cd[superscript 2+], Pb[superscript 2+], and Cu[superscript 2+] by nonliving "Typha latifolia" (cattail) roots can be monitored in real time by potentiometry determinations. The open circuit potential…

  11. [A case of fasciolasis hepatic in Zunyi City, Guizhou Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-feng; Tang, Ling-jing; Zhou, Ai-ming

    2014-04-01

    Four adults of Fasciola hepatica were found from the bile ducts of a patient diagnosed as biliary calculi during a surgical operation. We investigated retrospectively the infection source and concluded that the patient may be infected by eating raw or half-cooked Zizania latifolia, an aquatic plant, which was contaminated with metacercariae of F. hepatica. PMID:25051832

  12. Nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: effect of plant species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Inamori, Ryuhei; Kong, Hainan; Xu, Kaiqin; Inamori, Yuhei; Kondo, Takashi; Zhang, Jixiang

    2008-03-01

    Loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. This study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs). To better understand the mechanism of N2O emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. N2O emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg N2O m(-2) d(-1). The highest N2O emission occurred in the cell planted with Phragmites australis and Zizania latifolia. Whereas, the lower emission rate were obtained in the cell planted with P. australis and Typha latifolia. These revealed that Z. latifolia stimulated the N2O emission. Transportation of more organic matter and oxygen for AOB growth may be the reason. The study of AOB also supported this result, indicating that the root structure of Z. latifolia was favored by AOB for N2O formation. PMID:17655987

  13. A new species of Chaenusa Haliday sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Nearctic Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaenusa psillosae Kula, new species from the Nearctic Region is described. Specimens upon which the new species is described were reared from an undetermined species of Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy infesting Sagittaria latifolia Willd. A key to the New World species of Chaenusa sensu lato is amended...

  14. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATION ON THE GROWTH OF CATTAIL CALLUS CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation examined the growth of Typha latifolia (cattail) callus cells grown in 5 different (0, 11, 22, 33, 44, jg/L(-1) phosphosur concentrations. The cells were grown for two successive subcultures on semi-solid media, and subsequently in suspension culture with the s...

  15. Relationship between carbon and water economies and drought-vulnerability in two coexistent iso- and anisohydric species.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Forner, Núria; Biel, Carmen; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Stomata control carbon and water fluxes between leaves and the atmosphere. Isohydry (i.e., strong regulation of leaf water potential, Ψl) is commonly linked to 'early' stomatal closure under drought, which in turn is believed to imply lower hydraulic risk at the expense of reduced carbon assimilation. Hence, the iso/anisohydric classification has been widely used to assess drought-resistance and mortality mechanisms across species, but the underlying assumptions have been rarely tested. These include a direct correspondence between iso/anisohydric Ψl regulation and stomatal behavior across species, and similar vulnerability to xylem embolism in iso- and anisohydric species. Our objective is to assess the physiological mechanisms underlying drought-resistance differences under controlled, experimental conditions between two coexistent Mediterranean forest species with contrasted drought-vulnerability in the field: the resistant Phillyrea latifolia (anisohydric) and vulnerable Quercus ilex (isohydric). We hypothesize that lower Ψl in P. latifolia will not necessarily be associated with narrower hydraulic safety margins or longer periods of positive gas exchange under drought. Isohydric behavior was confirmed in Q. ilex, but did not imply lower hydraulic impairment, due to lower resistance to xylem embolism in this species. We found similar temporal patterns of stomatal conductance and assimilation between species. If anything, the anisohydric P. latifolia tended to show lower assimilation rates than Q. ilex under extreme drought. The fact that P. latifolia was as carbon-constrained as Q. ilex was also indicated by similar growth rates and carbon reserves dynamics in both species. Despite similarities in carbon management between species, after two years with no water supply P. latifolia mortality was less than half of Q. ilex mortality by this time. Our study warns against making direct connections between Ψl regulation, stomatal behavior and the mechanisms of

  16. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  17. In vivo antiplasmodial potentials of the combinations of four nigerian antimalarial plants.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Odediran, Samuel Akintunde; Aliyu, Fatimah Abosede; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Nwoko, Ndifreke Thomas; Umana, Usenobong Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Various combinations of Nauclea latifolia root, Artocarpus altilis stem bark, Murraya koenigii leaf and Enantia chlorantha stem bark used in African ethnomedicine as decoctions for malaria and fevers, and combinations with standard drugs, were investigated for antiplasmodial activities using Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected mice. The respective prophylactic and curative ED50 values of 189.4 and 174.5 mg/kg for N. latifolia and chemosuppressive ED50 value of 227.2 mg/kg for A. altilis showed that they were the best antimalarial herbal drugs. A 1.6-fold increase of the survival time given by the negative control was elicited by M. koenigii, thereby confirming its curative activity. Pyrimethamine with an ED50 of 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg for the prophylactic, and chloroquine with ED50 = 2.2 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.0 mg/kg for the chemosuppressive and curative tests, respectively, were significantly (p < 0.05) more active. Co-administrations of N. latifolia with the standard drugs significantly reduced their prophylactic, chemosuppressive and curative actions, possibly increasing the parasites' resistance. Binary combinations of N. latifolia or M. koenigii with any of the other plants significantly increased the prophylactic and suppressive activities of their individual plants, respectively. Also, E. chlorantha with A. altilis or N. latifolia enhanced their respective prophylactic or curative activities, making these combinations most beneficial against malaria infections. Combinations of three and four extracts gave varied activities. Hence, the results justified the combinations of ethnomedicinal plants in antimalarial herbal remedies and showed the importance of the three in vivo models in establishing antimalarial activity. PMID:25162955

  18. In vivo antiplasmodial potentials of the combinations of four nigerian antimalarial plants.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Odediran, Samuel Akintunde; Aliyu, Fatimah Abosede; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Nwoko, Ndifreke Thomas; Umana, Usenobong Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Various combinations of Nauclea latifolia root, Artocarpus altilis stem bark, Murraya koenigii leaf and Enantia chlorantha stem bark used in African ethnomedicine as decoctions for malaria and fevers, and combinations with standard drugs, were investigated for antiplasmodial activities using Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected mice. The respective prophylactic and curative ED50 values of 189.4 and 174.5 mg/kg for N. latifolia and chemosuppressive ED50 value of 227.2 mg/kg for A. altilis showed that they were the best antimalarial herbal drugs. A 1.6-fold increase of the survival time given by the negative control was elicited by M. koenigii, thereby confirming its curative activity. Pyrimethamine with an ED50 of 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg for the prophylactic, and chloroquine with ED50 = 2.2 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.0 mg/kg for the chemosuppressive and curative tests, respectively, were significantly (p < 0.05) more active. Co-administrations of N. latifolia with the standard drugs significantly reduced their prophylactic, chemosuppressive and curative actions, possibly increasing the parasites' resistance. Binary combinations of N. latifolia or M. koenigii with any of the other plants significantly increased the prophylactic and suppressive activities of their individual plants, respectively. Also, E. chlorantha with A. altilis or N. latifolia enhanced their respective prophylactic or curative activities, making these combinations most beneficial against malaria infections. Combinations of three and four extracts gave varied activities. Hence, the results justified the combinations of ethnomedicinal plants in antimalarial herbal remedies and showed the importance of the three in vivo models in establishing antimalarial activity.

  19. Leaf phenology and seasonal variation of photosynthesis of invasive Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) and two co-occurring native understory shrubs in a northeastern United States deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L; Schuster, W S F

    2007-11-01

    Early leafing and extended leaf longevity can be important mechanisms for the invasion of the forest understory. We compared the leaf phenology and photosynthetic characteristics of Berberis thunbergii, an early leafing invasive shrub, and two co-occurring native species, evergreen Kalmia latifolia and late leafing Vaccinium corymbosum, throughout the 2004 growing season. Berberis thunbergii leafed out 1 month earlier than V. corymbosum and approximately 2 weeks prior to the overstory trees. The photosynthetic capacity [characterized by the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (V (cmax)) and the RuBP regeneration capacity mediated by the maximum electron transport rate (J (max))] of B. thunbergii was highest in the spring open canopy, and declined with canopy closure. The 2003 overwintering leaves of K. latifolia displayed high V (cmax) and J (max) in spring 2004. In new leaves of K. latifolia produced in 2004, the photosynthetic capacity gradually increased to a peak in mid-September, and reduced in late November. V. corymbosum, by contrast, maintained low V (cmax) and J (max) throughout the growing season. In B. thunbergii, light acclimation was mediated by adjustment in both leaf mass per unit area and leaf N on a mass basis, but this adjustment was weaker or absent in K. latifolia and V. corymbosum. These results indicated that B. thunbergii utilized high irradiance in the spring while K. latifolia took advantage of high irradiance in the fall and the following spring. By contrast, V. corymbosum generally did not experience a high irradiance environment and was adapted to the low irradiance understory. The apparent success of B. thunbergii therefore, appeared related to a high spring C subsidy and subsequent acclimation to varying irradiance through active N reallocation and leaf morphological modifications.

  20. Distribution and dynamics of the evergreen understory layer in central Appalachian highland forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastain, Robert A., Jr.

    Evergreen understory layer communities dominated by Rhododendron maximum L. and/or Kalmia latifolia L. may exert significant controls on regeneration of overstory trees, carbon sequestration, and nutrient retention in central Appalachian forests, but their distribution and ecological importance are poorly understood at the regional scale. The distribution, temporal dynamics, and biomass of the evergreen understory layer were examined in the Ridge and Valley and Allegheny Plateau physiographic provinces in the mid-Atlantic Highlands using plot data, remote sensing, dendrochronology, and modeling. First, leaf-off satellite remote sensing and topographic data were applied to map the spatial extent and distribution of R. maximum and K. latifolia with better than 80 percent accuracy. Second, plot data were used to determine the relevant environmental factors and species associations related to the distributions of K. latifolia and R. maximum and assess their influence on forest vertical structure. Cluster analysis and ordination revealed that topo-edaphic gradients and intensity of gypsy moth defoliation were associated with differences in the distribution of these two shrub species within and between the two study areas, and midstory volume was significantly lower where evergreen understory coverage was continuous. Third, variation in K. latifolia and R. maximum growth rates were examined using remote sensing change detection and dendrochronology, and trends were compared to the timing of climatic fluctuations and gypsy moth defoliation of canopy trees. Remote sensing showed that patterns of evergreen understory growth vigor correlated with both defoliation and topographically mediated drought stress. Dendrochronology revealed considerable within-site variability among individual shrubs. However, both releases and suppressions in growth were associated with the timing of gypsy moth defoliation for K. latifolia in both provinces and for R. maximum in the Allegheny

  1. DNA profiling, telomere analysis and antioxidant properties as tools for monitoring ex situ seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Donà, M.; Balestrazzi, A.; Mondoni, A.; Rossi, G.; Ventura, L.; Buttafava, A.; Macovei, A.; Sabatini, M. E.; Valassi, A.; Carbonera, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The germination test currently represents the most used method to assess seed viability in germplasm banks, despite the difficulties caused by the occurrence of seed dormancy. Furthermore, seed longevity can vary considerably across species and populations from different environments, and studies related to the eco-physiological processes underlying such variations are still limited in their depth. The aim of the present work was the identification of reliable molecular markers that might help in monitoring seed deterioration. Methods Dry seeds were subjected to artificial ageing and collected at different time points for molecular/biochemical analyses. DNA damage was measured using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) approach while the seed antioxidant profile was obtained using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl) assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provided profiles of free radicals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression profiles of the antioxidant genes MT2 (type 2 metallothionein) and SOD (superoxide dismutase). A modified QRT-PCR protocol was used to determine telomere length. Key Results The RAPD profiles highlighted different capacities of the two Silene species to overcome DNA damage induced by artificial ageing. The antioxidant profiles of dry and rehydrated seeds revealed that the high-altitude taxon Silene acaulis was characterized by a lower antioxidant specific activity. Significant upregulation of the MT2 and SOD genes was observed only in the rehydrated seeds of the low-altitude species. Rehydration resulted in telomere lengthening in both Silene species. Conclusions Different seed viability markers have been selected for plant species showing inherent variation of seed longevity. RAPD analysis, quantification of redox activity of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and gene expression profiling provide

  2. Rocky Flats Neutron Detector Testing at Valduc, France

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S S; Dulik, G M

    2011-01-03

    Recent program requirements of the US Department of Energy/NNSA have led to a need for a criticality accident alarm system to be installed at a newly activated facility. The Criticality Safety Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was able to recover and store for possible future use approximately 200 neutron criticality detectors and 20 master alarm panels from the former Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado when the plant was closed. The Criticality Safety Group participated in a facility analysis and evaluation, the engineering design and review process, as well as the refurbishment, testing, and recalibration of the Rocky Flats criticality alarm system equipment to be used in the new facility. In order to demonstrate the functionality and survivability of the neutron detectors to the effects of an actual criticality accident, neutron detector testing was performed at the French CEA Valduc SILENE reactor from October 7 to October 19, 2010. The neutron detectors were exposed to three criticality events or pulses generated by the SILENE reactor. The first excursion was performed with a bare or unshielded reactor, and the second excursion was made with a lead shielded/reflected reactor, and the third excursion with a polyethylene reflected core. These tests of the Rocky Flats neutron detectors were performed as a part of the 2010 Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Measurements at the SILENE Reactor. The principal investigators for this series of experiments were Thomas M. Miller and John C. Wagner of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Nicolas Authier and Nathalie Baclet of CEA Valduc. Several other organizations were also represented, including the Y-12 National Security Complex, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, CEA Saclay, and Babcock International Group.

  3. [The results of experimental study of phytoecdysteroids as erythropoiesis stimulators in laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Syrov, V N; Nasyrova, S S; Khushbaktova, Z A

    1997-01-01

    Phytoecdysteroids alpha-ecdysone, 2-desoxyecdysterone, ecdysterone, sileneoside A, and turkesterone isolated from Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) IIjin, Silene brahuica Boiss and Ajuga turkestanica (Rgl.) Repeated administration of brig increased the content of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood of intact rats. The most active of them--ecdysterone, sileneoside A, and, particularly turkesterone, cause also a marked effect on red blood regeneration in hemotoxic phenylhydrazine anemia. In its capacity for simulating erythropoiesis turkesterone resembles the well-known steroidal anabolic drug nerobol. PMID:9324397

  4. [Estimation of the hypoglycemic effect of phytoecdysteroids].

    PubMed

    Syrov, V N; Iuldasheva, N Kh; Égamova, F R; Ismailova, G I; Abdullaev, N D; Khushbaktova, Z A

    2012-01-01

    A series of phytoecodysteroids, including alpha-ecdysone, 2-deoxy-alpha-ecdysone, and 2-deoxyecdysterone isolated from Silene praemixta, integristerone A and ecdysterone isolated from Rhaponticum carthamoides and 22-acetylcyasterone and turkesterone isolated from Ajuga turkestanica, exhibit a pronounced hypoglycemic effect in experiments on intact male rats. The most active compounds--ecdysteron and turkesterone--also produce an expressed hypoglycemic effect in animals with model hyperglycemia induced by the administration of glucose, adrenalin and alloxan. Phytoecdysteroids are substances possessing protein-anabolic activity and are somewhat similar to steranobols in this aspect. Phytoecdysteroids exhibit unidirectional effect and are well comparable with steranabol actionon the carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:22834126

  5. [Treatment of marine-aquaculture effluent by the multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Huang, Yu-ting; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-jianz; Luo, An-cheng

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland to treat the wastewater of marine cultured Penaeus vannamei and to determine the suitable process for the local aquaculture wastewater pollution characteristics. In this study, MSL system and four constructed wetland systems with Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system were evaluated for their potentials of pollutants removal capacity. The results showed the average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)+ -N) and nitrate (NO-(3) -N) by MSL system were 80. 38% ± 2. 14% , 68. 14% ± 3.51% , 40.79% ± 3. 10% , 42. 68% ± 2.90% and 54. 19% ± 5. 15% , respectively. Additionally, the ability of pollutants removal of other four wetland systems decreased in the order: Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system. PMID:25518662

  6. Vegetation ecology of the Princes' Islands, Istanbul-Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozyigit, Serpil; Altay, Volkan; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Llker; Yarci, Celal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate phytoecological and phytosociological characteristics of the vegetation distributed in Princes' Islands (Istanbul/Turkey). Field studies were carried out during 2002-2010 following the classical Braun-Blanquet method. The data obtained from the research area on characteristics of two associations belonging to maquis vegetation was analyzed. One of these associations was new and its detailed description, typification and syntaxonomy are mentioned. The associations identified were: Arbuto unedonis-Phillyretum latifoliae ass. nova and Phillyreo latifoliae-Pinetum brutiae. The physical and chemical characteristics of soil like saturation (%), pH, P20, (kg da-), K20 (kg da1), CaCO, (%), total salt (%) and organic matter (%) are presented as well. Relationship between vegetation, ecological characteristics and their protection against biotic pressures were discussed together with phytosociological and phytoecological features of the associations and was compared with similar other studies. PMID:26591890

  7. [Treatment of marine-aquaculture effluent by the multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Huang, Yu-ting; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-jianz; Luo, An-cheng

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using multi-soil-layer (MSL) system and subsurface flow constructed wetland to treat the wastewater of marine cultured Penaeus vannamei and to determine the suitable process for the local aquaculture wastewater pollution characteristics. In this study, MSL system and four constructed wetland systems with Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system were evaluated for their potentials of pollutants removal capacity. The results showed the average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)+ -N) and nitrate (NO-(3) -N) by MSL system were 80. 38% ± 2. 14% , 68. 14% ± 3.51% , 40.79% ± 3. 10% , 42. 68% ± 2.90% and 54. 19% ± 5. 15% , respectively. Additionally, the ability of pollutants removal of other four wetland systems decreased in the order: Spartina anglica, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and unplanted system.

  8. [Purification capacity of ditch wetland to agricultural non-point pollutants].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cui-ling; Cui, Guang-bo; Fan, Xiao-qiu; Zhang, Yi-bing

    2004-03-01

    Ditch wetlands have the capacity to remove and purify non-point pollutants from agricultural drainage by sediment retention, plant absorption and microorganism decomposition. Phragmites communis and Zizania latifolia are two main kinds of plants growing naturally in ditch wetlands in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. They can absorb N and P efficiently, which is the main mechanism of non-point source pollutants purification by wetlands. The harvest of Phragmites communis and Zizania latifolia will take away 463-515 kg/hm2 of N and 127-149 kg/hm2 of P each year, it equal to N and P discharged from 2.3-3.2 hm2 and 1.3-3.0 hm2 of fields respectively in this area. The absorption and decomposition capacity of Zizania latifolia wetland is higher than Phragmites communis wetland. After harvest of plants, wetlands are uncovered to sunlight and oxygen that speeds the transportation and decomposition of nutrients. The amount of organic matters, TN and TP are higher in sediment of harvested area than in that of control. Therefore, seasonal harvest of plants is an efficient measure for wetlands to purify nutrients and alleviate eutrophication of lakes. PMID:15202249

  9. An efficient genetic manipulation protocol for Ustilago esculenta.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiajia; Zhang, Yafen; Cui, Haifeng; Hu, Peng; Yu, Xiaoping; Ye, Zihong

    2015-06-01

    Ustilago esculenta grows within the flowering stem of the aquatic grass Zizania latifolia, resembling a fungal endophyte. The fungus colonizes Z. latifolia and induces swelling which results in the formation of galls near the base of the plant. Due to their unique flavor and textures these galls are considered as a delicacy in southern China. Efficient genetic manipulation is required to determine the relationship between U. esculenta and Z. latifolia. In this study, we report a protoplast-based transformation system for this unique fungal species. We have explored various factors (enzyme digesting conditions, osmotic pressure stabilizers, vectors and selection agents) that might impact protoplast yield and high frequencies of transformation. A haploid strain (UeT55) of U. esculenta was found to produce higher yields of protoplasts when treating with 15 mg mL(-1) lywallzyme in a sucrose-containing solution at 30°C for 3 h. The transformation frequencies were higher when fungal strain was transformed with a linear plasmid harboring hygromycin or carboxin resistance gene and regenerated on a sucrose-containing medium. A UeICL gene (coding isocitrate lyase) was disrupted and an EGFP (coding enhanced green fluorescent protein) gene was overexpressed successfully in the UeT55 strain using the developed conditions. The genetic manipulation system reported in this study will open up new opportunities for forward and reverse genetics in U. esculenta. PMID:26038251

  10. Use of cattails in treating wastewater from a Pb/Zn mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Chongyu; Chen, Guizhu; Li, Liuchun; Wong, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the use of a combined treatment system, which includes an aquatic treatment pond with Typha latifolia Linn. (Typhaceae) as the dominant species and a stabilization pond, to treat the wastewater from a Pn/Zn mine at Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. In 1983, it was noted that T. latifolia bloomed in areas affected by the wastewater emitted from the mine, hence a combined purification system was subsequently built. The influent contained high levels of total suspended solids (4635 mg/liter), chemical oxygen demand (14.5 mg/liter) as well as Pb (1.6 mg/liter) and Zn (1.9 mg/liter). The results of the effluent after treatment showed that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, Pb, and Zn had been reduced by 99%, 55%, 95%, and 80% respectively. The results of plant tissue analysis indicled that T. latifolia assimilated significant amounts of Pb and Zn, especially in the root portion. During 1986 several species of algae and fish were present in the pond, usually with a higher density in areas containing lower metal concentrations in the water.

  11. Control of the Diurnal Pattern of Methane Emission from Emergent Aquatic Macrophytes by Gas Transport Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    1995-01-01

    Methane emissions from Typha latifolia (L.) showed a large mid-morning transient peak associated with rising light levels. This peak was also associated with a steep decline in lacunal CH, concentrations near the stem base. This pattern contrasted sharply with emissions from Peltandra virginica (L.) that gradually rose to a peak in the mid-afternoon corresponding to elevated air temperatures. Internal CH4 concentrations within P. virginica stems did not change significantly over the diurnal period. Stomatal conductance appeared to correlate directly with light levels in both plant types and were not associated with peak CH4 emission events in either plant. These patterns are consistent with a convective throughflow and diffusive gas ventilation systems for Typha and Peltandra, respectively. Further effects of the convective throughflow in T. latifolia were evident in the elevated CH4 concentrations measured within brown leaves as contrasted to the near ambient levels measured within live green leaves. Experimental manipulation of elevated and reduced CO2 levels in the atmosphere surrounding the plants and of light/dark periods suggested that stomatal aperture has little or no control of methane emissions from T. latifolia.

  12. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in plants associated with a contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Peles, John D; Smith, Michael H; Brisbin, I Lehr

    2002-01-01

    Ecological half-life (Te) is a useful measure for studying the long-term decline of contaminants, such as radionuclides, in natural systems. The current investigation determined levels of radiocesium (137Cs) in two aquatic (Polygonum punctatum, Sagittaria latifolia) and three terrestrial (Alnus serrulata, Myrica cerifera, Salix nigra) plant species from a contaminated stream and floodplain on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Current 137Cs levels in plants were used in conjunction with historical data to determine Te of 137Cs in each species. Median concentrations of 137Cs were highest in S. latifolia (0.84 Bq g(-1)) and lowest in M. cerifera (0.10 Bq g(-1)). Te's ranged from 4.85 yr in M. cerifera to 8.35 yr in S. nigra, both terrestrial species. Te's for all aquatic (6.30 yr) and all terrestrial (5.87) species combined were very similar. The Te's of the two aquatic primary producers (P. punctatum and S. latifolia) in the Steel Creek ecosystem were somewhat longer than Te values previously reported for some consumers from this ecosystem.

  13. [Adhesion of Bacillus subtilis on the surface of pectin-calcium gel].

    PubMed

    Gunter, E A; Melekhin, A K

    2015-01-01

    Pectin-calcium gels obtained based on pectins of callus cultures are able to adhere to the surface of cells of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis to various degrees and this is thanks to the structural features of pectin. Rapid adhesion of the cells to gels obtained from the pectin of Tanacetum vulgare (TVC) callus cultures is associated with a high content of the linear region in the carbohydrate chain of pectin, a high molecular weight, and a low degree of methyl etherification of pectin. The number of adherent cells on the surface of gels obtained from pectins of Silene vulgaris callus cultures (SVC), TVC, and Lemna minor (LMC) after 8 h of incubation was close, whereas the number of cells was minimal on a gel produced using the pectin of Silene tatarica (STC) callus culture. This was due to the higher degree of methyl etherification of STC pectin (45%) compared to other pectins (4-12%). The adhesion rate constant (k) of B. subtilis for TCV gel during the first 120 min was the highest in comparison with other gels; the k value for SVC, STC and LMC gels was similar. The lowest level of k was characteristic for the gel from commercial apple pectin. The obtained data can beused for the production of gels with adhesive and antiadhesive properties. PMID:25842905

  14. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of the plastid inverted repeat: the effects of expansion, contraction, and loss on substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Andan; Guo, Wenhu; Gupta, Sakshi; Fan, Weishu; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2016-03-01

    Rates of nucleotide substitution were previously shown to be several times slower in the plastid inverted repeat (IR) compared with single-copy (SC) regions, suggesting that the IR provides enhanced copy-correction activity. To examine the generality of this synonymous rate dependence on the IR, we compared plastomes from 69 pairs of closely related species representing 52 families of angiosperms, gymnosperms, and ferns. We explored the breadth of IR boundary shifts in land plants and demonstrate that synonymous substitution rates are, on average, 3.7 times slower in IR genes than in SC genes. In addition, genes moved from the SC into the IR exhibit lower synonymous rates consistent with other IR genes, while genes moved from the IR into the SC exhibit higher rates consistent with other SC genes. Surprisingly, however, several plastid genes from Pelargonium, Plantago, and Silene have highly accelerated synonymous rates despite their IR localization. Together, these results provide strong evidence that the duplicative nature of the IR reduces the substitution rate within this region. The anomalously fast-evolving genes in Pelargonium, Plantago, and Silene indicate localized hypermutation, potentially induced by a higher level of error-prone double-strand break repair in these regions, which generates substitutional rate variation. PMID:26574731

  16. Quantifying hummingbird preference for floral trait combinations: The role of selection on trait interactions in the evolution of pollination syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Charles B; Reynolds, Richard J; Williams, Christopher W; Makowsky, Robert; Dudash, Michele R

    2015-05-01

    Darwin recognized the flower's importance for the study of adaptation and emphasized that the flower's functionality reflects the coordinated action of multiple traits. Here we use a multitrait manipulative approach to quantify the potential role of selection acting on floral trait combinations underlying the divergence and maintenance of three related North American species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae). We artificially generated 48 plant phenotypes corresponding to all combinations of key attractive traits differing among the three Silene species (color, height, inflorescence architecture, flower orientation, and corolla-tube width). We quantified main and interaction effects of trait manipulation on hummingbird visitation preference using experimental arrays. The main effects of floral display height and floral orientation strongly influenced hummingbird visitation, with hummingbirds preferring flowers held high above the ground and vertically to the sky. Hummingbirds also prefer traits in a nonadditive manner as multiple two-way and higher order interaction effects were important predictors of hummingbird visitation. Contemporary trait combinations found in hummingbird pollinated S. virginica are mostly preferred. Our study demonstrates the likelihood of pollination syndromes evolving due to selection on trait combinations and highlights the importance of trait interactions in understanding the evolution of complex adaptations. PMID:25765062

  17. Quantifying hummingbird preference for floral trait combinations: The role of selection on trait interactions in the evolution of pollination syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Charles B; Reynolds, Richard J; Williams, Christopher W; Makowsky, Robert; Dudash, Michele R

    2015-05-01

    Darwin recognized the flower's importance for the study of adaptation and emphasized that the flower's functionality reflects the coordinated action of multiple traits. Here we use a multitrait manipulative approach to quantify the potential role of selection acting on floral trait combinations underlying the divergence and maintenance of three related North American species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae). We artificially generated 48 plant phenotypes corresponding to all combinations of key attractive traits differing among the three Silene species (color, height, inflorescence architecture, flower orientation, and corolla-tube width). We quantified main and interaction effects of trait manipulation on hummingbird visitation preference using experimental arrays. The main effects of floral display height and floral orientation strongly influenced hummingbird visitation, with hummingbirds preferring flowers held high above the ground and vertically to the sky. Hummingbirds also prefer traits in a nonadditive manner as multiple two-way and higher order interaction effects were important predictors of hummingbird visitation. Contemporary trait combinations found in hummingbird pollinated S. virginica are mostly preferred. Our study demonstrates the likelihood of pollination syndromes evolving due to selection on trait combinations and highlights the importance of trait interactions in understanding the evolution of complex adaptations.

  18. Gender and letters of recommendation for academia: agentic and communal differences.

    PubMed

    Madera, Juan M; Hebl, Michelle R; Martin, Randi C

    2009-11-01

    In 2 studies that draw from the social role theory of sex differences (A. H. Eagly, W. Wood, & A. B. Diekman, 2000), the authors investigated differences in agentic and communal characteristics in letters of recommendation for men and women for academic positions and whether such differences influenced selection decisions in academia. The results supported the hypotheses, indicating (a) that women were described as more communal and less agentic than men (Study 1) and (b) that communal characteristics have a negative relationship with hiring decisions in academia that are based on letters of recommendation (Study 2). Such results are particularly important because letters of recommendation continue to be heavily weighted and commonly used selection tools (R. D. Arvey & T. E. Campion, 1982; R. M. Guion, 1998), particularly in academia (E. P. Sheehan, T. M. McDevitt, & H. C. Ross, 1998). PMID:19916666

  19. The Piano, the animus, and the colonial experience.

    PubMed

    Izod, J

    1996-01-01

    Focused principally on an analysis of Ada, the mute heroine of Jane Campion's The Piano, this article shows how post-Jungian animus theory illuminates that character's mysterious personality. In particular, Ann Ulanov's thoughts about animus development are connected with Demaris Wehr's observations concerning the internalization of social oppression in an argument that shows how, notwithstanding she is a woman, Ada is a product of colonial oppression. Her mythological antecedents are also considered, and are particularly marked in that she resembles the handless maiden in Marie-Louise von Franz's analysis of that fairy tale. In this context Ada's ultimate renunciation of her husband is symbolically reinforced by the developing personality of her daughter Flora. The changes in both characters can be seen as implying not only the rebirth of Ada's psyche but also the emergence of a new psychological readiness to throw off the colonial mantle.

  20. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Christopher M; Huber, Dezene P W; Lewis, Kathy J

    2011-06-01

    Lodgepole pines, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson, are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. This tree species counters these threats by producing secondary metabolites, including phenolics and terpenoids. We examined foliar levels of lignin, soluble phenolics, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids in 12 stands in British Columbia, Canada. We used these data to assess associations among foliar secondary metabolite levels and ecosystem, geographic, and climatic variables. Regressions were also performed to observe which combinations of variables best explained secondary metabolite variance. Stands of P. c. latifolia in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Interior Cedar/Hemlock biogeoclimatic zones had consistently greater foliar levels of almost all measured secondary metabolites than did other stands. Lignin was present in greater amounts in Boreal White/Black Spruce ecosystem (i.e., northern) stands than in southern stands, suggesting a role for this metabolite in pine survival in the boreal forest. Attempts to develop regression models with geographic and climatic variables to explain foliar secondary metabolite levels resulted in multiple models with similar predictive capability. Since foliar secondary metabolite levels appeared to vary most between stand ecosystem types and not as much due to geographic and climatic variables, metabolic profiles appeared best matched to the stress levels within local environments. It is unknown if differences in secondary metabolite levels are the result of genetic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, but results from this and other studies suggest that both are important. These results are interpreted in light of ongoing efforts to assist in the migration of certain populations of P. c. latifolia northward in an effort to counter predicted effects of climate change. PMID

  1. [Effect of intermittent artificial aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-qiang; Li, Jin-zhong; Li, Xue-Ju; Liu, Xue-gong; Huang, Sui-liang

    2008-04-01

    Shale and T. latifolia were used as subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetland substrate and vegetation for eutrophic Jin River water treatment, and investigate the effect of intermittent aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, hydraulic loading rate was equal to 800 mm/d, and ratio of air and water was 5:1. During the entire running period, maximal monthly mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+ -N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were observed in August 2006. In contrast to the non-aerated wetland, aeration enhanced ammonia-nitrogen, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus removal: 10.1%, 4.7%, 10.2% and 8.8% for aeration in the middle, and 25.1%, 10.0%, 7.7% and 7.4% for aeration at the bottom of the substrate, respectively. However, aeration failed to improve the nitrate-nitrogen removal. During the whole experimental period, monthly mean NO3(-) -N removal rates were much lower for aerated constructed wetlands (regarding aeration in the middle and at the bottom) than those for non-aerated system. After finishing the experiment, aboveground plant biomass (stems and leaves) of T. latifolia was harvested, and its weight and nutrient content (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were measured. Analysis of aboveground plant biomass indicated that intermittent aeration restrained the increase in biomass but stimulated assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into stems and leaves. Additional total nitrogen removal of 11.6 g x m(-2) and 12.6 g x m(-2) by aboveground T. latifolia biomass for intermittent artificial aeration in the middle and at the bottom of the wetland substrate, respectively, was observed.

  2. Phylogeny and biogeography of the eastern Asian-North American disjunct wild-rice genus (Zizania L., Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinwei; Walters, Christina; Antolin, Michael F; Alexander, Mara L; Lutz, Sue; Ge, Song; Wen, Jun

    2010-06-01

    The wild-rice genus Zizania includes four species disjunctly distributed in eastern Asia and North America, with three species (Z. aquatica, Z. palustris, and Z. texana) in North America and one (Z. latifolia) in eastern Asia. The phylogeny of Zizania was constructed using sequences of seven DNA fragments (atpB-rbcL, matK, rps16, trnL-F, trnH-psbA, nad1, and Adh1a) from chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes. Zizania is shown to be monophyletic with the North American species forming a clade and the eastern Asian Z. latifolia sister to the North American clade. The divergence between the eastern Asian Z. latifolia and the North American clade was dated to be 3.74 (95% HPD: 1.04-7.23) million years ago (mya) using the Bayesian dating method with the combined atpB-rbcL, matK, rps16, trnL-F, and nad1 data. Biogeographic analyses using a likelihood method suggest the North American origin of Zizania and its migration into eastern Asia via the Bering land bridge. Among the three North American species, the organellar data and the haplotype network of the nuclear Adh1a gene show a close relationship between Z. palustris and the narrowly distributed endangered species Z. texana. Bayesian dating estimated the divergence of North American Zizania to be 0.71 (95% HPD: 0.12-1.54) mya in the Pleistocene. The non-monophyly of Z. palustris and Z. aquatica in the organellar and nuclear data is most likely caused by incomplete lineage sorting, yet low-frequency unidirectional introgression of Z. palustris into Z. aquatica is present in the nuclear data as well. PMID:19944174

  3. Using aquatic vegetation to remediate nitrate, ammonium, and soluble reactive phosphorus in simulated runoff.

    PubMed

    Moore, M T; Locke, M A; Kröger, R

    2016-10-01

    Within the agriculturally-intensive Mississippi River Basin of the United States, significant conservation efforts have focused on management practices that reduce nutrient runoff into receiving aquatic ecosystems. Only a small fraction of those efforts have focused on phytoremediation techniques. Each of six different aquatic macrophytes were planted, in monoculture, in three replicate mesocosms (1.2 m × 0.15 m × 0.65 m). Three additional unvegetated mesocosms served as controls for a total number of 21 mesocosms. Over two years, mesocosms were amended once each summer with sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and potassium phosphate dibasic to represent nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural runoff. System retention was calculated using a simple aqueous mass balance approach. Ammonium retention in both years differed greatly, as Panicum hemitomon and Echinodorus cordifolius retentions were significantly greater than controls in the first year, while only Myriophyllum aquaticum and Typha latifolia were significantly greater than controls in the second year. Greater soluble reactive phosphorus retention was observed in T. latifolia compared to controls in both years. Several other significant differences were observed in either the first or second year, but not both years. In the first year's exposure, P. hemitomon was significantly more efficient than the control, Saururus cernuus, and T. latifolia for overall percent nitrate decrease. Results of this novel study highlight inherent variability within and among species for nutrient specific uptake and the temporal variations of species for nutrient retention. By examining this natural variability, scientists may design phytoremediation systems with greater impact on improving agricultural runoff water quality. PMID:27372264

  4. Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daijun; Ogaya, Romà; Barbeta, Adrià; Yang, Xiaohong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition

  5. Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daijun; Ogaya, Romà; Barbeta, Adrià; Yang, Xiaohong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition

  6. Isolable aryl-substituted silyl radicals: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Taira, Kanako; Ichinohe, Masaaki; Sekiguchi, Akira

    2014-07-21

    Isolable aryl-substituted silyl radicals (tBu2 MeSi)2(Ar)Si(·) (Ar = C6H5, 4-tBuC6H4, 4-PhC6H4, 3,5-tBu2C6H3) were synthesized by the reaction of the corresponding iodosilane with an equimolar amount of potassium graphite (KC8 ) in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The crystal structure of 3,5-tBu2C6H3 derivative, which was determined by X-ray crystallography, showed a planar geometry around the Si atom for the radical center. EPR studies of all four radicals revealed the lack of the delocalization of the unpaired electron over the aromatic ring. Reactivity and spectroscopic studies of the less-hindered phenyl-substituted silyl radical showed that it exists as an equilibrium mixture of the radical and its silene-type dimer in solution. PMID:24909557

  7. Targeting β-secretase with RNAi in neural stem cells for Alzheimer's disease therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Shengliang; Liang, Zibin; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yulin; Yang, Yaqi; Wang, Minjuan; Li, Feng

    2013-01-01

    There are several major pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease, including apoptosis of cholinergic neurons, overactivity or overexpression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and inflammation. In this study, we synthesized a 19-nt oligonucleotide targeting BACE1, the key enzyme in amyloid beta protein (Aβ) production, and introduced it into the pSilenCircle vector to construct a short hairpin (shRNA) expression plasmid against the BACE1 gene. We transfected this vector into C17.2 neural stem cells and primary neural stem cells, resulting in downregulation of the BACE1 gene, which in turn induced a considerable reduction in reducing Aβ protein production. We anticipate that this technique combining cell transplantation and gene therapy will open up novel therapeutic avenues for Alzheimer's disease, particularly because it can be used to simultaneously target several pathogenetic changes in the disease. PMID:25206630

  8. An improved method for thin layer chromatographic analysis of saponins.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Tej K

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of saponins by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is reported. The solvent system was n-butanol:water:acetic acid (84:14:7). Detection of saponins on the TLC plates after development and air-drying was done by immersion in a suspension of sheep erythrocytes, followed by washing off the excess blood on the plate surface. Saponins appeared as white spots against a pink background. The protocol provided specific detection of saponins in the saponins enriched extracts from Aesculusindica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Silene inflata Sm., Sapindusmukorossi Gaertn., Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes, Asparagusadscendens Roxb., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Agave americana L., Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze. The protocol is convenient, inexpensive, does not require any corrosive chemicals and provides specific detection of saponins. PMID:26434348

  9. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  10. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity explain disease dynamics in a spatially explicit network model.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Christopher P; Antonovics, Janis; Keitt, Timothy H

    2008-08-01

    There is an increasing recognition that individual-level spatial and temporal heterogeneity may play an important role in metapopulation dynamics and persistence. In particular, the patterns of contact within and between aggregates (e.g., demes) at different spatial and temporal scales may reveal important mechanisms governing metapopulation dynamics. Using 7 years of data on the interaction between the anther smut fungus (Microbotryum violaceum) and fire pink (Silene virginica), we show how the application of spatially explicit and implicit network models can be used to make accurate predictions of infection dynamics in spatially structured populations. Explicit consideration of both spatial and temporal organization reveals the role of each in spreading risk for both the host and the pathogen. This work suggests that the application of spatially explicit network models can yield important insights into how heterogeneous structure can promote the persistence of species in natural landscapes. PMID:18662121

  11. Evaluation of LLNL's Nuclear Accident Dosimeters at the CALIBAN Reactor September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Wysong, A R; Heinrichs, D P; Wong, C T; Merritt, M J; Topper, J D; Gressmann, F A; Madden, D J

    2011-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses neutron activation elements in a Panasonic TLD holder as a personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). The LLNL PNAD has periodically been tested using a Cf-252 neutron source, however until 2009, it was more than 25 years since the PNAD has been tested against a source of neutrons that arise from a reactor generated neutron spectrum that simulates a criticality. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at the CEA Valduc Silene reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at CEA Valduc. The reactor generated neutron irradiations for the 2010 exercise were performed at the Caliban reactor. The Caliban results are described in this report. The procedure for measuring the nuclear accident dosimeters in the event of an accident has a solid foundation based on many experimental results and comparisons. The entire process, from receiving the activated NADs to collecting and storing them after counting was executed successfully in a field based operation. Under normal conditions at LLNL, detectors are ready and available 24/7 to perform the necessary measurement of nuclear accident components. Likewise LLNL maintains processing laboratories that are separated from the areas where measurements occur, but contained within the same facility for easy movement from processing area to measurement area. In the event of a loss of LLNL permanent facilities, the Caliban and previous Silene exercises have demonstrated that LLNL can establish field operations that will very good nuclear accident dosimetry results. There are still several aspects of LLNL's nuclear accident dosimetry program that have not been tested or confirmed. For instance, LLNL's method for using of biological samples (blood and hair) has not been verified since the method was first developed in the 1980's. Because LLNL and the other DOE

  12. Biosynthesis of Cd-bound phytochelatins by Phaeodactylum tricornutum and their speciation by size-exclusion chromatography and ion-pair chromatography coupled to ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Loreti, Valeria; Toncelli, Daniel; Morelli, Elisabetta; Scarano, Gioacchino; Bettmer, Jörg

    2005-10-01

    Cd-bound phytochelatins (Cd-PCs) have been synthesised by incubation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum cell cultures with Cd and purified by size-exclusion chromatography-UV-Vis. These complexes, which were identified in previous work, have now been used as model substances to develop and optimise ion-pair chromatography (IPC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for analysis of Cd-PCs. Subsequent analysis of samples taken from Silene vulgaris plants cultivated under heavy metal stress conditions revealed Cd signals but no Cd-PC signals. By use of isotopically enriched (116)Cd-PCs the sample preparation steps were verified to determine the stability of the analytes. We observed species transformation between Cd-PCs and other unidentified Cd complexes. Consequently, the kinetic and thermodynamic lability of Cd-PCs are decisive factors in their detection.

  13. Paleobotanical analysis of materials from fossil gopher burrows and upper pleistocene host deposits, the Kolyma River lower reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatina, D. A.; Zanina, O. G.

    2006-10-01

    The comparative analysis of palynomorphs and plant megafossils (fruits, seeds, twigs, leaves) in the Upper Pleistocene host sediments and materials filling in fossil burrows of gophers, their coprolites included, at the Duvannyi Yar, Stanchikovskii Yar and Zelenyi Mys sites of the Kolyma Lowland is carried out. Genera Salix, Lychnis, Silene, Draba, Potentilla, Larix, and families Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Cyperaceae, Compositae, and Leguminosae are determined among palynological remains and megafossils. Factors responsible for qualitative and quantitative differences in taxonomic compositions of palynological and megafossil assemblages are biological peculiarities of plants, different character of fossilization of palynomorphs and large plant remains, geographic conditions, different genesis of assemblages (allochthonous for microfossils and autochthonous for megafossils), and inadequately known morphology of certain spore and pollen taxa. The comprehensive paleobotanical analysis leads to the conclusion that the study region was occupied in the Late Pleistocene by plant communities of humid to somewhat dryer tundra with separate areas of pioneering and steppe vegetation.

  14. Synthesis, structure, and C-H bond activation chemistry of ([eta][sup 6]-arene)Ru(H)[sub 2](SiMe[sub 3])[sub 2] complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Djurovich, P.I.; Carroll, P.J.; Berry, D.H. )

    1994-07-01

    The ([eta][sup 6]-arene)Ru(H)[sub 2](SiMe[sub 3])[sub 2] arene = C[sub 6]-Me[sub 6] (1a), p-cymene (1b), C[sub 6]H[sub 6] (1c) complexes have been prepared and characterized. The complexes activate both aromatic and aliphatic C-H bonds and catalyze H/D exchange in alkylsilanes upon thermolysis in benzene-d[sub 6]. A mechanism based on oxidative-addition/reductive-elimination steps which utilizes a Ru(II)-Ru(IV) cycle is proposed to account for the C-H bond activation and H/D exchange reactions. It is further proposed that H/D exchange into sites adjacent to silicon in alkylsilanes is due to the intermediacy of an [eta][sup 2]-silene complex generated by [beta]-hydrogen elimination from the silyl group. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Ecdysteroid glycosides: identification, chromatographic properties, and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Maria, Annick; Girault, Jean-Pierre; Saatov, Ziyadilla; Harmatha, Juraj; Dinan, Laurence; Lafont, René

    2005-03-01

    Ecdysteroid glycosides are found in both animals and plants. The chromatographic behavior of these molecules is characteristic, as they appear much more polar than their corresponding free aglycones when analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), whereas the presence of glycosidic moieties has a very limited (if any) impact on polarity when using reversed-phase HPLC. Biological activity is greatly reduced because the presence of this bulky substituent probably impairs the interaction with ecdysteroid receptor(s). 2-Deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 22-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, which has been isolated from the dried aerial parts of Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae), is used as a model compound to describe the rationale of ecdysteroid glycoside purification and identification.

  16. An improved method for thin layer chromatographic analysis of saponins.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Tej K

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of saponins by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is reported. The solvent system was n-butanol:water:acetic acid (84:14:7). Detection of saponins on the TLC plates after development and air-drying was done by immersion in a suspension of sheep erythrocytes, followed by washing off the excess blood on the plate surface. Saponins appeared as white spots against a pink background. The protocol provided specific detection of saponins in the saponins enriched extracts from Aesculusindica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Silene inflata Sm., Sapindusmukorossi Gaertn., Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes, Asparagusadscendens Roxb., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Agave americana L., Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze. The protocol is convenient, inexpensive, does not require any corrosive chemicals and provides specific detection of saponins.

  17. Typifications and synonymy in Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) from Chile and Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Morero, Rita E.; Barrington, David S.; McHenry, Monique A.; Condack, João P. S.; Barboza, Gloria E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Polystichum Roth is one of the largest and most taxonomically challenging fern genera. South American species have a rich and complex nomenclatural history; many of the early names are inadequately typified. Based on extensive examination of original type material, we designate eleven lectotypes (including Aspidium mohrioides, Aspidium montevidense f. imbricata, Aspidium montevidense f. squamulosa, Aspidium plicatum, Aspidium pycnolepis, Dicksonia andina, Polystichum elegans, Polystichum mohrioides f. latifolia, Polystichum multifidum var. autranii, Polystichum platyphyllum var. kurtziana, and Polypodium polystichoides), and one neotype (Polystichum brongniartianum) for Polystichum taxa. Furthermore, three new synonyms are proposed. PMID:27489490

  18. Typifications and synonymy in Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) from Chile and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morero, Rita E; Barrington, David S; McHenry, Monique A; Condack, João P S; Barboza, Gloria E

    2016-01-01

    Polystichum Roth is one of the largest and most taxonomically challenging fern genera. South American species have a rich and complex nomenclatural history; many of the early names are inadequately typified. Based on extensive examination of original type material, we designate eleven lectotypes (including Aspidium mohrioides, Aspidium montevidense f. imbricata, Aspidium montevidense f. squamulosa, Aspidium plicatum, Aspidium pycnolepis, Dicksonia andina, Polystichum elegans, Polystichum mohrioides f. latifolia, Polystichum multifidum var. autranii, Polystichum platyphyllum var. kurtziana, and Polypodium polystichoides), and one neotype (Polystichum brongniartianum) for Polystichum taxa. Furthermore, three new synonyms are proposed. PMID:27489490

  19. The response of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) to lodgepole pine trees baited with verbenone and exo-brevicomin.

    PubMed

    Shore, T L; Safranyak, L; Lindgren, B S

    1992-04-01

    exo-brevicomin, a multifunctional pheromone of the mountain pine beetle,Dendroctonus ponderosae, was tested at release rates of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/day alone and in combination with the antiaggregation pheromone verbenone against unbaited controls. Significantly more lodgepole pinePinus contorta var.latifolia trees were attacked, and at higher densities, with both release rates ofexo-brevicomin than with all other treatments. Verbenone significantly reduced the response of mountain pine beetles toexo-brevicomin. Verbenone alone did not reduce the number of trees attacked by mountain pine beetle or the attack density when compared to the unbaited controls.

  20. An enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot analysis for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein: cross-reactivity of curculin and miraculin to both antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, S; Akabane, T; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1992-02-01

    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay method for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein. This method can accurately quantify 0.05-20 ng of curculin, a sensitivity about 3000-times that of the psychometric method. The content of curculin in the fruit of Curculigo latifolia increased gradually until 3 weeks after artificial pollination and dramatically at 4 weeks, to finally reach 1.3 mg per fruit. Immunoblot analysis indicated that antiserum to curculin was faintly reactive with miraculin, but not with thaumatin or monellin. PMID:1737052

  1. Typifications and synonymy in Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) from Chile and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morero, Rita E; Barrington, David S; McHenry, Monique A; Condack, João P S; Barboza, Gloria E

    2016-01-01

    Polystichum Roth is one of the largest and most taxonomically challenging fern genera. South American species have a rich and complex nomenclatural history; many of the early names are inadequately typified. Based on extensive examination of original type material, we designate eleven lectotypes (including Aspidium mohrioides, Aspidium montevidense f. imbricata, Aspidium montevidense f. squamulosa, Aspidium plicatum, Aspidium pycnolepis, Dicksonia andina, Polystichum elegans, Polystichum mohrioides f. latifolia, Polystichum multifidum var. autranii, Polystichum platyphyllum var. kurtziana, and Polypodium polystichoides), and one neotype (Polystichum brongniartianum) for Polystichum taxa. Furthermore, three new synonyms are proposed.

  2. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    PubMed

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we

  3. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    PubMed

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we

  4. Sap flow of three co-occurring Mediterranean woody species under varying atmospheric and soil water conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mangirón, Marta; Ogaya, Romà; Sauret, Miquel; Serrano, Lydia; Peñuelas, Josep; Piñol, Josep

    2003-08-01

    We studied the seasonal patterns of water use in three woody species co-occurring in a holm oak forest in northeastern Spain. The three species studied, Quercus ilex L., Phillyrea latifolia L. and Arbutus unedo L., constitute more than 99% of the total basal area of the forest. The study period included the dry seasons of 1999 and 2000. Water use was estimated with Granier-type sap flux sensors. Standard meteorological variables, soil water content and leaf water potentials were also monitored. All monitored individuals reduced leaf-related sap flow (Q(l)) during the summer, concurrent with an increase in soil moisture deficit (SMD). Despite similar maximum Q(l) between species, the decline in Q(l) with increasing SMD was species-dependent. The average reduction in Q(l) between early summer and the peak of the drought was 74% for A. unedo (n = 3), 58% for P. latifolia (n = 3) and 87% for Q. ilex (n = 1). The relationship between canopy stomatal conductance (G(s)) and vapor pressure deficit (D) changed during the course of the drought, with progressively lower G(s) for any given D. Summertime reductions of Q(l) and G(s) were associated with between-species differences in vulnerability to xylem embolism, and with the corresponding degree of native embolism (lowest in P. latifolia and highest in Q. ilex). Our results, combined with previous studies in the same area, outlined differences among the species studied in manner of responding to water shortage, with P. latifolia able to maintain water transport at much lower water potentials than the other two species. In an accompanying experiment, A. unedo responded to an experimental reduction in water availability by reducing Q(l) during the summer. This species also modified its water use between years according to the different seasonal patterns of precipitation. These results are discussed in relation to the possible impacts that climate change will have on Q. ilex-dominated forests. PMID:12839728

  5. Sap flow of three co-occurring Mediterranean woody species under varying atmospheric and soil water conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mangirón, Marta; Ogaya, Romà; Sauret, Miquel; Serrano, Lydia; Peñuelas, Josep; Piñol, Josep

    2003-08-01

    We studied the seasonal patterns of water use in three woody species co-occurring in a holm oak forest in northeastern Spain. The three species studied, Quercus ilex L., Phillyrea latifolia L. and Arbutus unedo L., constitute more than 99% of the total basal area of the forest. The study period included the dry seasons of 1999 and 2000. Water use was estimated with Granier-type sap flux sensors. Standard meteorological variables, soil water content and leaf water potentials were also monitored. All monitored individuals reduced leaf-related sap flow (Q(l)) during the summer, concurrent with an increase in soil moisture deficit (SMD). Despite similar maximum Q(l) between species, the decline in Q(l) with increasing SMD was species-dependent. The average reduction in Q(l) between early summer and the peak of the drought was 74% for A. unedo (n = 3), 58% for P. latifolia (n = 3) and 87% for Q. ilex (n = 1). The relationship between canopy stomatal conductance (G(s)) and vapor pressure deficit (D) changed during the course of the drought, with progressively lower G(s) for any given D. Summertime reductions of Q(l) and G(s) were associated with between-species differences in vulnerability to xylem embolism, and with the corresponding degree of native embolism (lowest in P. latifolia and highest in Q. ilex). Our results, combined with previous studies in the same area, outlined differences among the species studied in manner of responding to water shortage, with P. latifolia able to maintain water transport at much lower water potentials than the other two species. In an accompanying experiment, A. unedo responded to an experimental reduction in water availability by reducing Q(l) during the summer. This species also modified its water use between years according to the different seasonal patterns of precipitation. These results are discussed in relation to the possible impacts that climate change will have on Q. ilex-dominated forests.

  6. Interactions between a pollinating seed predator and its host plant: the role of environmental context within a population

    PubMed Central

    Kula, Abigail A R; Castillo, Dean M; Dudash, Michele R; Fenster, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    Plant–insect interactions often are important for plant reproduction, but the outcome of these interactions may vary with environmental context. Pollinating seed predators have positive and negative effects on host plant reproduction, and the interaction outcome is predicted to vary with density or abundance of the partners. We studied the interaction between Silene stellata, an herbaceous perennial, and Hadena ectypa, its specialized pollinating seed predator. Silene stellata is only facultatively dependent upon H. ectypa for pollination because other nocturnal moth co-pollinators are equally effective at pollen transfer. We hypothesized that for plants without conspecific neighbors, H. ectypa would have higher visitation rates compared to co-pollinators, and the plants would experience lower levels of H. ectypa pollen deposition. We predicted similar oviposition throughout the study site but greater H. ectypa predation in the area without conspecific neighbors compared to plants embedded in a naturally high density area. We found that H. ectypa had consistently higher visitation than moth co-pollinators in all host plant contexts. However, H. ectypa pollinator importance declined in areas with low conspecific density because of reduced pollen deposition, resulting in lower seed set. Conversely, oviposition was similar across the study site independent of host plant density. Greater likelihood of very high fruit predation combined with lower pollination by H. ectypa resulted in reduced S. stellata female reproductive success in areas with low conspecific density. Our results demonstrate local context dependency of the outcomes of pollinating seed predator interactions with conspecific host plant density within a population. PMID:25165527

  7. Promotion of exocyclic bond cleavages in the decomposition of 1,3-disilacyclobutane in the presence of a metal filament.

    PubMed

    Badran, I; Shi, Y J

    2015-01-29

    The primary decomposition of 1,3-disilacyclobutane (DSCB) on a tungsten filament and its secondary gas-phase reactions in a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor have been studied using laser ionization mass spectrometry. Under the collision-free conditions, DSCB decomposes on the W filament to produce H2 molecules with an activation energy of 43.6 ± 4.1 kJ·mol(-1). With the help of the isotope labeling and chemical trapping methods, the mechanistic details in the secondary gas-phase reactions important in the hot-wire CVD reactor setup have been examined. The dominant pathway has been demonstrated to be the insertion of the cyclic 1,3-disilacyclobut-1-ylidene, generated by exocyclic Si-H bond rupture, into the Si-H bond in DSCB to form 1,1'-bis(1,3-disilacyclobutane) (174 amu). The successful trapping of 1,3-disilacyclobut-1-ylidene by both 1,3-butadiene and trimethylsilane provides compelling evidence for the existence of this cyclic silylene species in the hot-wire CVD reactor with DSCB. Other reactions operating in the reactor include the DSCB cycloreversion to form silene and the ring opening of DSCB via 1,2-H shift to produce silene/methylsilylene and 1-methylsilene/silylene. The introduction of an additional Si atom in the four-membered ring monosilacyclobutane molecule has caused two major changes in the reaction chemistry assumed by DSCB: (1) The endocyclic cycloreversion reactions that dominate in the decomposition of monosilacyclobutane molecules only play a much less important role in the dissociation of DSCB; and (2) the exocyclic bond cleavages are promoted in DSCB due to the ring stabilization caused by the introduction of one additional Si atom.

  8. Nectar sugar composition of European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) in relation to flower length, pollination biology and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Witt, T; Jürgens, A; Gottsberger, G

    2013-10-01

    Floral nectar composition has been explained as an adaptation to factors that are either directly or indirectly related to pollinator attraction. However, it is often unclear whether the sugar composition is a direct adaptation to pollinator preferences. Firstly, the lower osmolality of sucrose solutions means that they evaporate more rapidly than hexose solutions, which might be one reason why sucrose-rich nectar is typically found in flowers with long tubes (adapted to long-tongued pollinators), where it is better protected from evaporation than in open or short-tubed flowers. Secondly, it can be assumed that temperature-dependent evaporation is generally lower during the night than during the day so that selection pressure to secrete nectar with high osmolality (i.e. hexose-rich solutions) is relaxed for night-active flowers pollinated at night. Thirdly, the breeding system may affect selection pressure on nectar traits; that is, for pollinator-independent, self-pollinated plants, a lower selective pressure on nectar traits can be assumed, leading to a higher variability of nectar sugar composition independent of pollinator preferences, nectar accessibility and nectar protection. To analyse the relations between flower tube length, day vs. night pollination and self-pollination, the nectar sugar composition was investigated in 78 European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) with different pollination modes (diurnal, nocturnal, self-pollination) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All Caryophylleae species (Dianthus and relatives) were found to have nectar with more than 50% sucrose, whereas the sugar composition of Sileneae species (Silene and relatives) ranged from 0% to 98.2%. In the genus Silene, a clear dichotomous distribution of sucrose- and hexose-dominant nectars is evident. We found a positive correlation between the flower tube length and sucrose content in Caryophylloideae, particularly in day-flowering species, using both conventional

  9. Cytonuclear interactions and relaxed selection accelerate sequence evolution in organelle ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Daniel B; Triant, Deborah A; Wu, Martin; Taylor, Douglas R

    2014-03-01

    Many mitochondrial and plastid protein complexes contain subunits that are encoded in different genomes. In animals, nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins often exhibit rapid sequence evolution, which has been hypothesized to result from selection for mutations that compensate for changes in interacting subunits encoded in mutation-prone animal mitochondrial DNA. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed nuclear genes encoding cytosolic and organelle ribosomal proteins in flowering plants. The model angiosperm genus Arabidopsis exhibits low organelle mutation rates, typical of most plants. Nevertheless, we found that (nuclear-encoded) subunits of organelle ribosomes in Arabidopsis have higher amino acid sequence polymorphism and divergence than their counterparts in cytosolic ribosomes, suggesting that organelle ribosomes experience relaxed functional constraint. However, the observed difference between organelle and cytosolic ribosomes was smaller than in animals and could be partially attributed to rapid evolution in N-terminal organelle-targeting peptides that are not involved in ribosome function. To test the role of organelle mutation more directly, we used transcriptomic data from an angiosperm genus (Silene) with highly variable rates of organelle genome evolution. We found that Silene species with unusually fast-evolving mitochondrial and plastid DNA exhibited increased amino acid sequence divergence in ribosomal proteins targeted to the organelles but not in those that function in cytosolic ribosomes. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that rapid organelle genome evolution has selected for compensatory mutations in nuclear-encoded proteins. We conclude that coevolution between interacting subunits encoded in different genomic compartments within the eukaryotic cell is an important determinant of variation in rates of protein sequence evolution.

  10. Assessing Intraspecific Variation in Effective Dispersal Along an Altitudinal Gradient: A Test in Two Mediterranean High-Mountain Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Romero, Carlos; Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan J.; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Iriondo, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant recruitment depends among other factors on environmental conditions and their variation at different spatial scales. Characterizing dispersal in contrasting environments may thus be necessary to understand natural intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment. Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa are two representative species of cryophilic pastures above the tree line in Mediterranean high mountains. No explicit estimations of dispersal kernels have been made so far for these or other high-mountain plants. Such data could help to predict their dispersal and recruitment patterns in a context of changing environments under ongoing global warming. Methods We used an inverse modelling approach to analyse effective seed dispersal patterns in five populations of both Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa along an altitudinal gradient in Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid, Spain). We considered four commonly employed two-dimensional seedling dispersal kernels exponential-power, 2Dt, WALD and log-normal. Key Results No single kernel function provided the best fit across all populations, although estimated mean dispersal distances were short (<1 m) in all cases. S. ciliata did not exhibit significant among-population variation in mean dispersal distance, whereas significant differences in mean dispersal distance were found in A. caespitosa. Both S. ciliata and A. caespitosa exhibited among-population variation in the fecundity parameter and lacked significant variation in kernel shape. Conclusions This study illustrates the complexity of intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment, showing that effective dispersal kernels can remain relatively invariant across populations within particular species, even if there are strong variations in demographic structure and/or physical environment among populations, while the invariant dispersal assumption may not hold for other species in the same environment. Our results call for a

  11. Ecological aspects of selenium effects on plant growth and species diversity in soils with elevated concentrations of salinity and selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhangzhi.

    1991-01-01

    A field study was conducted in soils with elevated concentrations of salinity and selenium during 1986-1990 at Kesterson Reservoir, Merced County, California. The investigation was conducted in three stages of plant habitat restoration: (1) wet habitat, (2) dry habitat, and (3) fill dirt cover habitat. The total water extractable selenium concentrations of wet habitat, dry habitat and fill dirt cover habitat were 2260-3700, 90-670, and undetectable-37 [mu]g/kg dry soil, respectively. Among the vascular flowering plants, saltgrass (Distichlis spicata L.) was the dominant species in dry habitat, and cattail (Typha latifolia L.) was the dominant species in wet habitat in the evaporation ponds at Kesterson. High concentrations of selenium were found in Kesterson marsh plant species. In wet habitat, selenium concentrations averaged 12.50 ppm ([mu]g/g dry wt) in Distichlis spicata leaves, 15.20 ppm in Typha latifolia leaves and 4.10 ppm in Juncus mexicanus leaves, respectively. In dry habitat, the tissue selenium concentration was about 1.5 ppm for Distichlis spicata and 4 ppm for Atriplex species. In fill dirt cover habitat, plant tissue selenium concentrations ranged from 1 to 19 ppm. Biomass distribution, species richness, and selenium accumulation of plants were studied for four sites during 1988-1990. At two sites, the surface soil consisted of fill dirt. Another two sites were native-soil cover (including Kesterson sediment).

  12. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anıl

    2013-05-15

    This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l(-1) (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg(-1) whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg(-1) B during the research period.

  13. Constructed wetlands as green tools for management of boron mine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are of increasing interest worldwide given that they represent an eco-technological solution to many environmental problems such as wastewater treatment. Turkey possesses approximately 70% of the world's total boron (B) reserves, and B contamination occurs in both natural and cultivated sites throughout Turkey, particularly in the north-west of the country. This study analyzes B removal and plant uptake of B in pilot plots of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands were vegetated with Typha latifolia (referred to as CW1) and Phragmites australis (referred to as CW2) to treat wastewater from a borax reserve in Turkey--the largest of its type in the world and were assessed under field conditions. The B concentrations of water inflows to the systems were determined to be 10.2, 28.2, 84.6, 232.3, 716.4, and 2019.1 mg l(-1). The T. latifolia in the CW1 treatment group absorbed a total of 1300 mg kg(-1) B, whereas P. australis absorbed 839 mg kg(-1). As a result, CW1 had an average removal efficiency of 40.7%, while that of CW2 was 27.2%. Our results suggest that constructed wetlands are an effective, economic and eco-friendly solution to treating B mine wastewater and controlling the adverse environmental effects of B mining.

  14. Genetics of cattails in radioactively contaminated areas around Chornobyl.

    PubMed

    Tsyusko, Olga V; Smith, Michael H; Oleksyk, Taras K; Goryanaya, Julia; Glenn, Travis C

    2006-08-01

    Research on populations from radioactively contaminated areas around Chornobyl has produced ambiguous results for the presence of radiation effects. More studies are needed to provide information on whether radiation exposure at Chornobyl significantly affected genetic diversity in natural populations of various taxa. Eleven and nine variable microsatellite loci were used to test for differences in genetic diversity between reference and Chornobyl populations of two cattail species (Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia, respectively) from Ukraine. Our purpose was to determine whether radiation had a significant impact on genetic diversities of the Chornobyl Typha populations, or if their genetic composition might be better explained by species demography and/or changes in population dynamics, mainly in sexual and asexual reproduction. Populations closest to the reactor had increased genetic diversities and high number of genets, which likely were due to factors other than radiation including increased gene flow among Chornobyl populations, enhanced sexual reproduction within populations, and/or origin of the genets from seed bank. Both Typha species also demonstrated small but significant effects associated with latitude, geographical regions, and watersheds. Typha's demography in Ukraine possibly varies with these three factors, and the small difference between Chornobyl and reference populations of T. latifolia detected after partitioning the total genetic variance between them is probably due primarily to these factors. However, the positive correlations of several genetic characteristics with radionuclide concentrations suggest that radiation may have also affected genetics of Chornobyl Typha populations but much less than was expected considering massive contamination of the Chornobyl area. PMID:16842431

  15. Root biomass production in populations of six rooted macrophytes in response to Cu exposure: intra-specific variability versus constitutive-like tolerance.

    PubMed

    Marchand, L; Nsanganwimana, F; Lamy, J B; Quintela-Sabaris, C; Gonnelli, C; Colzi, I; Fletcher, T; Oustrière, N; Kolbas, A; Kidd, P; Bordas, F; Newell, P; Alvarenga, P; Deletic, A; Mench, M

    2014-10-01

    Intra-specific variability of root biomass production (RP) of six rooted macrophytes, i.e. Juncus effusus, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus lacustris, Typha latifolia, Phalaris arundinacea, and Iris pseudacorus grown from clones, in response to Cu exposure was investigated. Root biomass production varied widely for all these macrophytes in control conditions (0.08 μM) according to the sampling site. Root biomass production of T. latifolia and I. pseudacorus in the 2.5-25 μM Cu range depended on the sampling location but not on the Cu dose in the growth medium. For P. australis, J. effusus, S. lacustris, and P. arundinacea, an intra-specific variability of RP depending on both the sampling location and the Cu-dose was evidenced. This intra-specific variability of RP depending on the sampling location and of Cu-tolerance for these last four species suggests that Cu constitutive tolerance for all rooted macrophytes is not a species-wide trait but it exhibits variability for some species. PMID:25058419

  16. Phytoremediation of effluents from aluminum smelters: a study of Al retention in mesocosms containing aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Richard R; Lalonde, Janick D; Munger, Catherine; Dupuis, Suzanne; Dumont-Frenette, Geneviève; Prémont, Stéfane; Campbell, Peter G C

    2005-06-01

    Four mesocosms were exposed to circumneutral and aluminum (Al)-rich wastewater during two successive summers (2000, 2001). The goals of the study were to measure the bioaccumulation of dissolved Al by the aquatic plants Typha latifolia, Lemna minor, Nuphar variegatum and Potamogeton epihydrus, and to evaluate their importance in the retention of Al by the mesocosms. In 2000, inlet concentrations of total monomeric Al were reduced by 56% and 29% at the Arvida and Laterrière mesocosms, respectively, whereas in 2001 inlet dissolved Al concentrations in the inlet decreased by 40% and 33%. L. minor had the highest Al uptake rate (0.8--17 mg Al g(-1)d(-1)). However, because T. latifolia (cattails) yielded the highest biomass, it was responsible for 99% of the Al uptake, largely in its root tissue. In 2001, Al uptake by macrophytes accounted for 2--4% and 15--54% of the total Al retained by the Laterrière and Arvida mesocosms, respectively. In the Laterrière mesocosms, Al uptake by cattails could account for 12% and 18% of the dissolved Al retained by both mesocosms. In contrast, dissolved Al was not significantly reduced in the Arvida enclosures, yet cattails did accumulate Al in their roots. Further research is needed to identify the species community composition that would optimize dissolved Al retention.

  17. Effect of different plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms distribution in horizontal-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Meng, Panpan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Hou, Qingjie; Ji, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Three macrophyte species, Phragmites australis, Arundo donax L., and Typha latifolia L. have been separately grown in a horizontal-flow (HF) constructed wetland (CW) fed with domestic wastewater to investigate effects of plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms. All the three mesocosms have been in operation for eight months under the loading rates of 1.14 g Nm(-2) d(-1) and 0.014gP m(-2) d(-1). Appropriately 34-43% phosphorus (P) was removed in HF CWs, and no distinct difference was found among the plants. In the growing season, A. donax L. removed 31.19 gm(-2) of nitrogen (N), followed by P. australis (29.96 g m(-2)), both of which were significantly higher than T. latifolia L. (7.21 g m(-2). Depending on the species, plants absorbed 1.73-7.15% of the overall N, and 0.06-0.56% of the P input. At least 10 common dominant microorganisms were found in the rhizosphere of all the three plants, and 6 of the 10 kinds of bacteria had close relationship with denitrifying bacteria, implying that denitrifiers were dominant microorganism distributed in rhizosphere of wetland plants.

  18. Associations of methanotrophs with the roots and rhizomes of aquatic vegetation.

    PubMed Central

    King, G M

    1994-01-01

    Results of an in vitro assay revealed that root-associated methane consumption was a common attribute of diverse emergent wetland macrophytes from a variety of habitats. Maximum potential uptake rates (Vmaxp) varied between about 1 and 10 micromol g (dry weight)-1 h-1, with no obvious correlation between rate and gross morphological characteristics of the plants. The Vmaxp corresponded to about 2 x 10(8) to 2 x 10(9) methanotrophs g (dry weight)-1, assuming that the root-associated methanotrophs have cell-specific activities comparable to those of known isolates. Vmaxp varied seasonally for an aquatic grass, Calamogrostis canadensis, and for the cattail, Typha latifolia, with highest rates in the late summer. Vmaxp was well correlated with ambient temperature for C. canadensis but weakly correlated for T. latifolia. The seasonal changes in Vmaxp, as well as inferences from apparent half-saturation constants for methane uptake (Kapp; generally 3 to 6 microM), indicated that oxygen availability might be more important than methane as a rate determinant. In addition, roots incubated under anoxic conditions showed little or no postanoxia aerobic methane consumption, indicating that root-associated methanotrophic populations might not tolerate variable oxygen availability. Hybridization of oligodeoxynucleotide probes specific for group I or group II methylotrophs also varied seasonally. The group II-specific probe consistently hybridized to a greater extent than the group I probe, and the relative amount of group II probe hybridization to C. canadensis root extracts was positively correlated with Vmaxp. PMID:7524441

  19. [Optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands by using polypropylene pellet as part of substrate].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-Qiang; Li, Jin-Zhong; Li, Xue-Ju; Liu, Xue-Gong; Huang, Sui-Liang

    2008-05-01

    Constructed wetlands experiments were conducted by using shale and Typha latifolia L. as vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland substrate and plant for eutrophic Jin River water treatment, and part of shale with polypropylene pellet was replaced to investigate its effect on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, hydraulic loading rate was equal to 800 mm/d, theoretic residence time was equal to 12 h. During the entire running period, maximal monthly mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH(4+) -N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were observed in August 2006. In contrast to the full shale used wetland, polypropylene pellet enhanced ammonia-nitrogen, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus removal by 13.38%, 8.9%, 9.29% and 8.25% respectively. After finishing the experiment, aboveground plant biomass (stems and leaves) of Typha latifolia L. was harvested, and its weight and nutrient content (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were measured. Analysis of aboveground plant biomass indicated that polypropylene pellet restrained the increase in biomass but stimulated assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into stems and leaves. The subsequent harvesting of the plants resulted in the additional removal of total nitrogen and phosphorus of about 29.382 g x m(-2) and 13.469 g x m(-2), respectively.

  20. Functional linkage between N acquisition strategies and aeration capacities of hydrophytes for efficient oxygen consumption in roots.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motoka; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Ko

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the specific strategies of hydrophytes for root O(2) consumption in relation to N acquisition and investigated whether the strategies varied depending on the aeration capacity. Aeration capacity of roots is an important factor for determining hypoxia tolerance in plants. However, some hydrophytes possessing quite different aeration capacities often co-occur in wetlands, suggesting that root O(2) consumption also strongly affects hypoxia tolerance. We cultivated Phragmites australis with high aeration capacity and Zizania latifolia with low aeration capacity in hypoxic conditions with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) treatment and compared the growth, N uptake, N assimilation and root respiration between the two species. In Z. latifolia grown with NH(4)(+) treatment, high N uptake activity and restrained root growth led to sufficient N acquisition and decrease in whole-root respiration rate. These characteristics consequently compensated for the low aeration capacity. In contrast, in P. australis, low N uptake activity was compensated by active root growth, but the whole-root respiration rate was high. This high root respiration rate was allowed by the high aeration capacity. The O(2) consumption-related traits of hydrophyte roots were closely correlated with N acquisition strategies, which consequently led to a compensational relationship with the root aeration capacity. It is likely that this functional linkage plays an important role as a core mechanism in the adaptation of plants to hypoxic soils.

  1. Functional linkage between N acquisition strategies and aeration capacities of hydrophytes for efficient oxygen consumption in roots.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motoka; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Ko

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the specific strategies of hydrophytes for root O(2) consumption in relation to N acquisition and investigated whether the strategies varied depending on the aeration capacity. Aeration capacity of roots is an important factor for determining hypoxia tolerance in plants. However, some hydrophytes possessing quite different aeration capacities often co-occur in wetlands, suggesting that root O(2) consumption also strongly affects hypoxia tolerance. We cultivated Phragmites australis with high aeration capacity and Zizania latifolia with low aeration capacity in hypoxic conditions with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) treatment and compared the growth, N uptake, N assimilation and root respiration between the two species. In Z. latifolia grown with NH(4)(+) treatment, high N uptake activity and restrained root growth led to sufficient N acquisition and decrease in whole-root respiration rate. These characteristics consequently compensated for the low aeration capacity. In contrast, in P. australis, low N uptake activity was compensated by active root growth, but the whole-root respiration rate was high. This high root respiration rate was allowed by the high aeration capacity. The O(2) consumption-related traits of hydrophyte roots were closely correlated with N acquisition strategies, which consequently led to a compensational relationship with the root aeration capacity. It is likely that this functional linkage plays an important role as a core mechanism in the adaptation of plants to hypoxic soils. PMID:22575011

  2. Chiral response of Oryzeae and Paniceae plants in alpha-methylbenzyl-3-p-tolyl urea agar medium.

    PubMed

    Omokawa, Hiroyoshi; Murata, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shoko

    2004-01-01

    The results presented here support the hypothesis that plants of the tribe Oryzeae respond enantioselectively and homogeneously to optically active 1-alpha-methylbenzyl-3-p-tolylurea (MBTU) in root growth inhibition, in contrast to Echinochloa species. The Oryzeae plants tested in this study belong to different genera (Oryza, Leersia, Chikusichloa and Zizania), to different species (O sativa, O glaberrima, O alta, O coarctata, O latifolia, O minuta, O rufipogon), to various ecospecies of Oryza (japonica, indica, japonica x indica, javanica) and to different levels of evolution [cultivated rice (O sativa and O glaberrima) and ancestral wild rice species]. In spite of their different phylogenic status and diverse sensitivity, the root growth of all members of the genus Oryza was inhibited more by R-MBTU than by S-MBTU. Zizania palustris, Z latifolia, Leersia oryzoides and Chikusichloa aquatica belonging to the tribe Oryzeae exhibited similar chiral recognition to the Oryza plants, suggesting that Oryzeae have a common chiral recognition mechanism in their response to optically active MBTUs. In contrast, Echinochloa plants (E crus-galli (L) Beauv var crus-galli and E colonum (L) Link), belonging into subfamily Panicoideae tribe Paniceae, responded in a different way, where their root growth was more sensitive to S-MBTU than to the antipodal R-MBTU. A reverse chiral response between the tribe Oryzeae and the genus Echinochloa was clearly indicated in this study. This diverse response may be relevant to Gramineae classification. PMID:14727742

  3. Correlations between some hazardous inorganic pollutants in the Gomti River and their accumulation in selected macrophytes under aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Shah, Abdul Barey; Rai, U N; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2015-06-01

    Water quality of the Gomti River and phytoremediation potential of native macrophytes dwelling therein at six different sites were evaluated. River water showed high biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate (12.84, 77.94, 36.88, 6.04 and 2.25 mg L(-1), respectively). Gomti water was found to be contaminated with different metals like Fe, Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb (5.54, 1.05, 3.74, 2.57 and 0.73 mg L(-1), respectively). Macrophytes growing in the river accumulated considerable amounts of Fe, Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb in different parts. Among the studied plants, Eichhornia crassipes showed maximum remediation potential for Fe, Cd and Pb; Jussiaea repens for Cr; and Pistia stratiotes for Cd. However, in Typha latifolia, Cu accumulation was maximum. Except for Fe, translocation factor of E. crassipes, P. stratiotes, Hydrilla verticellata and T. latifolia was >1 for the studied metals, showing their potential to accumulate multiple metals in different plant parts. PMID:25894347

  4. Effect of cyclic phytoremediation with different wetland plants on municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Farid, Mudassar; Irshad, Muhammad; Fawad, Muhammad; Ali, Zeshan; Eneji, A Egrinya; Aurangzeb, Naureen; Mohammad, Ashiq; Ali, Barkat

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost. The objective of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of phytoremediation on municipal wastewater (MWW). For this purpose, a phytoremediation garden was established using different aquatic plants species [Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipess, Hydrocotyle umbellatta, Lemna minor, Tyhpa latifolia, and Scirpus acutus] in seven earthen pond systems (P1-P7) for the cyclic treatment of MWW. The physico-chemical analysis of MWW was carried out before and after the cyclic phytoremediation. Results showed that pH, EC and turbidity of MWW were reduced by 5.5%, 33.7%, and 93.1%, respectively after treatment (from P1 to P7). Treatment system also reduced total dissolved solids (TDS) by 35.2%, Cl by 61%, HCO3 by 29.2%, hardness by 45.7%, Ca by 32.3% and Mg by 55.9%. Nitrate concentration was reduced by 77.6% but SO4 was enhanced slightly. An ameliorative combined effect of wetland plants namely L. minor, T. latifolia, and S. acutus on MWW was noticed. Sequential phytoremediation with a mixture of plants was more effective than that relying only on a single plant species. PMID:24912243

  5. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of three medicinal plants in diabetic pregnancy: modulation of T cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Populations in Africa mostly rely on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care, but so far scientific studies supporting the use of plants in traditional medicine remain poor. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Picralima nitida (seeds), Nauclea latifolia (root and stem) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (leaves) commonly used, in diabetic pregnancy. Methods Pregnant wistar rats, rendered diabetic by multiple low injections of streptozotocin, were treated with selected plant extracts based on their antioxidant activities. Vitamin C concentrations, fatty acid compositions and phytochemical analysis of plants extracts were determined. Effect of selected plant extracts on human T cell proliferation was also analysed. Results All analysed plant extracts exhibited substantial antioxidant activities probably related to their content in polyphenols. Picralima nitida exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. Ethanolic and butanolic extracts of Picralima nitida, butanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia and ethanolic extract of Oxytenanthera abyssinica significantly decreased hyperglycemia in the diabetic pregnant rats. Butanolic extract of Picralima, also appeared to be the most potent immunosuppressor although all of the analysed extracts exerted an immunosuppressive effect on T cell proliferation probably due to their linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and/or alkaloids content. Nevertheless, all analysed plants seemed to be good source of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion By having antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and immunosuppressive activities, these plants could be good candidates in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic pregnancy. PMID:23565805

  6. Polyploid evolution and Pleistocene glacial cycles: A case study from the alpine primrose Primula marginata (Primulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighted the role of Pleistocene climatic cycles in polyploid speciation and of southern Alpine refugia as reservoirs of diversity during glacial maxima. The polyploid Primula marginata, endemic to the southwestern Alps, includes both hexaploid and dodecaploid cytotypes that show no ecological or morphological differences. We used flow cytometry to determine variation and geographic distribution of cytotypes within and between populations and analyses of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA sequences from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region to infer the evolutionary history of the two cytotypes and the auto- vs. allopolyploid origin of dodecaploid populations. Results We did not detect any intermediate cytotypes or variation of ploidy levels within populations. Hexaploids occur in the western and dodecaploids in the eastern part of the distributional range, respectively. The cpDNA and nrDNA topologies are in conflict, for the former supports shared ancestry between P. marginata and P. latifolia, while the latter implies common origins between at least some ITS clones of P. marginata and P. allionii. Conclusions Our results suggest an initial episode of chloroplast capture involving ancestral lineages of P. latifolia and P. marginata, followed by polyploidization between P. marginata-like and P. allionii-like lineages in a southern refugium of the Maritime Alps. The higher proportion of ITS polymorphisms in dodecaploid than in hexaploid accessions of P. marginata and higher total nucleotide diversity of ITS clones in dodecaploid vs. hexaploid individuals sequences are congruent with the allopolyploid hypothesis of dodecaploid origin. PMID:22530870

  7. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands.

  8. Water level, vegetation composition and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, M.; Augustin, J.; Burlo, A.; Yarmashuk, T.; Chuvashova, H.; Thiele, A.; Freibauer, A.; Tikhonov, V.; Hoffmann, M.

    2015-10-01

    Rewetting of temperate continental cutover peatlands generally implies the creation of flooded areas, which are - dependent on water depth - colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported to be large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. This paper describes the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse emissions were measured with manual chambers in weekly to few - weekly intervals over a two years period and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions were generally associated with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Small sedges were minor methane emitters and net CO2 sinks, while Phragmites australis sites released large amounts of methane and sequestered very much CO2. Variability of both fluxes increased with site productivity. Floating mats composed of Carex tussocks and Typha latifolia were a source for both methane and CO2. We conclude that shallow, stable flooding is a better measure to arrive at low GHG emissions than deep flooding, and that the risk of high GHG emissions consequent on rewetting is larger for eutrophic than for mesotrophic peatlands.

  9. Constructed wetlands as green tools for management of boron mine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are of increasing interest worldwide given that they represent an eco-technological solution to many environmental problems such as wastewater treatment. Turkey possesses approximately 70% of the world's total boron (B) reserves, and B contamination occurs in both natural and cultivated sites throughout Turkey, particularly in the north-west of the country. This study analyzes B removal and plant uptake of B in pilot plots of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands were vegetated with Typha latifolia (referred to as CW1) and Phragmites australis (referred to as CW2) to treat wastewater from a borax reserve in Turkey--the largest of its type in the world and were assessed under field conditions. The B concentrations of water inflows to the systems were determined to be 10.2, 28.2, 84.6, 232.3, 716.4, and 2019.1 mg l(-1). The T. latifolia in the CW1 treatment group absorbed a total of 1300 mg kg(-1) B, whereas P. australis absorbed 839 mg kg(-1). As a result, CW1 had an average removal efficiency of 40.7%, while that of CW2 was 27.2%. Our results suggest that constructed wetlands are an effective, economic and eco-friendly solution to treating B mine wastewater and controlling the adverse environmental effects of B mining. PMID:24912241

  10. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anıl

    2013-05-15

    This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l(-1) (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg(-1) whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg(-1) B during the research period. PMID:23500796

  11. Calorimetric Properties of Dehydrating Pollen (Analysis of a Desiccation-Tolerant and an Intolerant Species).

    PubMed

    Buitink, J.; Walters-Vertucci, C.; Hoekstra, F. A.; Leprince, O.

    1996-05-01

    The physical state of water in the desiccation-tolerant pollen of Typha latifolia L. and the desiccation-sensitive pollen of Zea mays L. was studied using differential scanning calorimetry in an attempt to further unravel the complex mechanisms of desiccation tolerance. Melting transitions of water were not observed at water content (wc) values less than 0.21 (T. latifolia) and 0.26 (Z. mays) g H2O/g dry weight. At moisture levels at which melting transitions were not observable, water properties could be characterized by changes in heat capacity. Three hydration regions could be distinguished with the defining wc values changing as a function of temperature. Shifts in baseline power resembling second-order transitions were observed in both species and were interpreted as glass-to-liquid transitions, the glass-transition temperatures being dependent on wc. Irrespective of the extent of desiccation tolerance, both pollens exhibited similar state diagrams. The viability of maize pollen at room temperature decreased gradually with the removal of the unfrozen water fraction. In maize, viability was completely lost before grains were sufficiently dried to enter into a glassy state. Apparently, the glassy state per se cannot provide desiccation tolerance. From the existing data, we conclude that, although no major differences in the physical behavior of water could be distinguished between desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant pollens, the physiological response to the loss of water varies between the two pollen types. PMID:12226289

  12. Towards science educational spaces as dynamic and coauthored communities of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    2008-04-01

    In this essay review, four studies around the themes of identity and globalization are summarized and analyzed. The researchers' perspectives are generally grounded in Brown and Campione's ideas on situated knowledge ( Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp. 229-270). Cambridge: The MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1994) and Lave and Wenger's definition of learning as an activity fostered through participation in communities of practice ( Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1991). Questions about the goals of science education spaces, the nature of globalization in relation to practices in schools, the role of identities-in-practice in relation to participation in communities of practice such as classrooms are explored. Recommendations for key design features in effective science educational spaces, based upon the findings presented in the collection of four studies, are offered. School, it is suggested here, functions best as a clearing house for the myriad science-related stories student participants generate in their various communities of practice (e.g., within popular culture, family, community, informal educational sites). In this way, school has the potential to construct bridges between multiple student experiences and identities-in-practice.

  13. WEED SURVEYING OF PHACELIA (PHACELIA TANACETIFOLIA L.) AND EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WEED CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Horváth, E; Szabó, R

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was set up in an area of 9 ha that was split into 4 plots: in plot 1 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 2 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 3 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg; in plot 4 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg. After the weed surveying, the total weed coverage was established as follows: in plot 1 the total weed coverage was 11.34%, in plot 2 it was 12.3%, in plot 3 it was 18%, and in plot 4 the total weed coverage was 15%. Based on the weed survey, on the test area the following dicotyledon weeds belonging to the T4 Raunkiaer plant life-form category occupied the highest percentage: heal-all, black-bindweed, goosefoot. The proportion of the perennial dicotyledons: field bindweed (G3), tuberous pea (G1), white campion (H3) was negligible. In all four cases the weed control was executed using the same herbicide in the same doses and with regard to the weed species it showed the same level of efficiency. The smaller row spacing and higher seeding rate has a beneficial effect on the weed suppressing capacity of the crop, the crop's weed suppressing capacity is better and the development of the weeds becomes worse.

  14. Rare case of isolated osteochondroma of the zygomatic bone: an endoscopic-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Romano, Antonio; Dell'Aversana, Giovanni; Corvino, Raffaele; Abbate, Vincenzo; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Califano, Luigi

    2015-11-03

    L’osteocondroma è una neoplasia benigna che nel distretto cranio-facciale colpisce spesso il corpo ed il ramo mandibolare e soltanto di rado può interessare il processo coronoide e l’arco zygomatico. In questo articolo descriviamo un raro caso di osteocondroma isolato dell’osso zygomatico trattato mediante approccio chirurgico intraorale endoscopicamente assistito ed in letteratura non sono riportati altri casi di questa patologia trattati con procedure endoscopicamente assistite. Una donna caucasica di cinquantadue anni, è stata osservata nel nostro reparto nel mese di marzo del 2012, la paziente lamentava dolore in regione zygomatica destra. La tomografia computerizzata (TC) del distretto osseo interessato mostrava una lesione sessile non definita. Il sospetto diagnostico è stato di osteocondroma. L’intervento è stato realizzato in anestesia generale mediante approccio intraorale endoscopicamente assistito. All’esame istologico del campione operatorio è stata confermata la diagnosi di osteocondroma. Nell’immediato post operatorio la paziente non ha presentato edema, dolore o febbre. L’uso dell’endoscopia nel trattamento chirurgico di questa patologia quindi ha consentito di ottenere una maggiore precisione e una maggiore rispetto delle strutture anatomiche. L’approccio intraorale ci garantisce l’assenza di cicatrici visibili e l’ausilio dell’endoscopia ci consente di avere una migliore visione di tutte le strutture anatomiche, una buona gestione della patologia riducendo quindi il rischio di complicanze intraoperatorie quali: fratture patologiche e lesioni del VII nervo cranico.

  15. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD. PMID:27362821

  16. The population biology of fungal invasions.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

    2015-05-01

    Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous, and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther-smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life history traits are particularly unfavourable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions.

  17. Flow sorting of the Y sex chromosome in the dioecious plant Melandrium album

    SciTech Connect

    Veuskens, J.; Jacobs, M.; Negrutiu, I.

    1995-12-01

    The preparation of stable chromosome suspensions and flow cytometric sorting of both the Y sex chromosome of the white campion, Melandrium album, and the deleted Y chromosome of an asexual mutant, 5K63, is described. The principle has been to maintain transformed roots in vitro, synchronize and block mitosis, reduce cells to protoplasts, and lyse these to release chromosomes. Such in vitro material, unlike many cell suspensions, showed a stable karyotype. Factors critical to producing high-quality chromosome suspensions from protoplasts include osmolality of isolation solutions and choice of spindle toxin and of lysis buffer. Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed young growing root cultures were synchronized at G1/S with 50 {mu}M aphidicolin for 24 h and released to a mitotic block with 30 {mu}M oryzalin for 11 h. Protoplast preparations from such tissue routinely had metaphase indices reaching 15%. Suspensions of intact metaphase chromosomes, with few chromatids, were obtained by lysing swollen mitotic protoplasts in a citric acid/disodium phosphate buffer. Except for the presence of clumps of autosomal chromosomes near the X and Y chromosome zones, monoparametric histograms of fluorescence intensities of suspensions stained with 4{prime},6-diamidino-2-phenylindole showed profiles similar to theoretical flow karyotypes. Two types of Y chromosomes, one full-length and one partially deleted (from the asexual mutant), could be sorted at 90% purity (21-fold enrichment of Y). These results are discussed in the context of sex determination and differentiation in higher plants. 45 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A stream function-vorticity finite element formulation for Navier-Stokes equations in multi-connected domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, A.

    1983-09-01

    It is pointed out that the conventional stream function-vorticity (psi-omega) finite element formulation for Navier-Stokes equations entails the difficulty that the no-slip boundary conditions cannot be introduced directly. Without this difficulty, the discretized equations for psi and omega can be solved simultaneously. Reference is made to studies by Fix (1976), who used Lagrange multipliers, and Ikenouchi and Kumura (1974), who employed the method of selecting the weighting functions suitable to the boundary conditions. The latter ideas were subsequently developed by Campion-Renson and Crochet (1978). This method is reconsidered here from the viewpoint that the Galerkin method is the orthogonal projection of the residual to the space spanned by the linearly independent basis functions of approximate solutions. A stream function-vorticity finite element formulation for Navier-Stokes equations is presented which does not require an iterative procedure for satisfying the boundary conditions. It is shown that this formulation confers a considerable advantage in solving the flow problems in a multiconnected domain.

  19. [Uniform and ornaments of hands of Healthcare workers: a point prevalence survey in Ausl of Rimini].

    PubMed

    Santullo, Antonietta; Fabbri, Lorella; Curzi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Introduzione: Il dibattito sulla divisa e gli ornamenti indossati dal personale infermieristico, tecnico e di supporto ruota intorno a due temi chiave: il rischio infettivo e l'impatto sull'immagine percepita dall’utente. Obiettivo: Obiettivo primario: descrivere i comportamenti del personale sanitario non medico sulla tenuta della divisa. Obiettivo secondario: descrivere l’uso di ornamenti delle mani durante il turno di lavoro. Metodo: l'indagine, su campo condotta da 7 rilevatori, si è svolta in 67 contesti lavorativi nell’arco di 14 giornate su un campione di 503 operatori. Lo strumento di rilevazione è composto da 5 item che descrivono i comportamenti sulla tenuta della divisa (item 1-2) e sulla presenza di ornamenti delle mani (item 3-5). Risultati: Il 17.3% degli operatori non indossa la divisa completa o il cartellino identificativo; il 16.1% indossa ornamenti delle mani. Discussione: Nonostante i rappresentanti dei pazienti, attraverso i Comitati Consultivi Misti, segnalino la necessità di individuare gli operatori attraverso la divisa ed il cartellino, il livello di adesione a queste indicazioni non è ritenuto soddisfacente dalla Direzione Aziendale. La presenza di ornamenti che interferiscono con l’igiene delle mani e aumentano il rischio di contamina- zione rappresenta un fattore critico che dovrà essere periodicamente monitorato.

  20. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD.

  1. A process-based model to estimate gas exchange and monoterpene emission rates in the mediterranean maquis - comparisons between modelled and measured fluxes at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M.; Matteucci, G.; Fares, S.; Davison, B.

    2009-02-01

    This paper concerns the application of a process-based model (MOCA, Modelling of Carbon Assessment) as an useful tool for estimating gas exchange, and integrating the empirical algorithms for calculation of monoterpene fluxes, in a Mediterranean maquis of central Italy (Castelporziano, Rome). Simulations were carried out for a range of hypothetical but realistic canopies of the evergreen Quercus ilex (holm oak), Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree) and Phillyrea latifolia. More, the dependence on total leaf area and leaf distribution of monoterpene fluxes at the canopy scale has been considered in the algorithms. Simulation of the gas exchange rates showed higher values for P. latifolia and A. unedo (2.39±0.30 and 3.12±0.27 gC m-2 d-1, respectively) with respect to Q. ilex (1.67±0.08 gC m-2 d-1) in the measuring campaign (May-June). Comparisons of the average Gross Primary Production (GPP) values with those measured by eddy covariance were well in accordance (7.98±0.20 and 6.00±1.46 gC m-2 d-1, respectively, in May-June), although some differences (of about 30%) were evident in a point-to-point comparison. These differences could be explained by considering the non uniformity of the measuring site where diurnal winds blown S-SW direction affecting thus calculations of CO2 and water fluxes. The introduction of some structural parameters in the algorithms for monoterpene calculation allowed to simulate monoterpene emission rates and fluxes which were in accord to those measured (6.50±2.25 vs. 9.39±4.5μg g-1DW h-1 for Q. ilex, and 0.63±0.207μg g-1DW h-1 vs. 0.98±0.30μg g-1DW h-1 for P. latifolia). Some constraints of the MOCA model are discussed, but it is demonstrated to be an useful tool to simulate physiological processes and BVOC fluxes in a very complicated plant distributions and environmental conditions, and necessitating also of a low number of input data.

  2. Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the

  3. Water level, vegetation composition, and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, Merten; Augustin, Jürgen; Burlo, Andrei; Yarmashuk, Tatsiana; Chuvashova, Hanna; Thiele, Annett; Freibauer, Annette; Tikhonov, Vitalij; Hoffmann, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Peat extraction leaves a land surface with a strong relief of deep cutover areas and higher ridges. Rewetting inundates the deep parts, while less deeply extracted zones remain at or above the water level. In temperate fens the flooded areas are colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis dependent on water depth. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported as large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. Here, we analyze the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse gas emissions were measured campaign-wise with manual chambers every 2 to 4 weeks for 2 years and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions generally increased with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Mesotrophic small sedge reeds with water table around the land surface were small GHG sources in the range of 2.3 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. Eutrophic tall sedge - Typha latifolia reeds on newly formed floating mats were substantial net GHG emitters in the range of 25.1 to 39.1 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr. They represent transient vegetation stages. Phragmites reeds ranged between -1.7 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1 with an overall mean GHG emission of 1.3 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. The annual CO2 balance was best explained by vegetation biomass, which includes the role of vegetation composition and species. Methane emissions were obviously driven by biological activity of vegetation and soil organisms. Shallow flooding of cutover temperate fens is a suitable measure to arrive at low GHG emissions. Phragmites australis establishment should be promoted in deeper flooded areas and will lead to moderate, but

  4. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  5. Use of dried aquatic plant roots to adsorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of heavy metal ions by dried aquatic macrophytes was investigated. The ability of the biomass, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Typha latifolia (cattail), Sparganium minimum (burr reed) and Menyanthes trifoliata to abstract lead and mercury ions is presented here, along with a conceptual filter design. This paper examines an alternative to both the traditional and recent systems designed for metal removal. It involves the use of dried aquatic macrophytes. There are numerous advantages for the use of dried macrophytes in the treatment of industrial wastewater. First, it is cost-effective. There are also funding opportunities through a variety of Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) programs. It is more environmentally conscious because a wetland, the harvesting pond, has been created. And, it creates public goodwill by providing a more appealing, less hardware-intensive, natural system.

  6. Insecticidal and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Sparassol and Its Analogues against Drosophila suzukii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junheon; Jang, Miyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-07-13

    Drosophila suzukii is an economically important pest in America and Europe as well as in Asia. Sparassol and methyl orsellinate are naturally produced by the cultivating mushrooms Sparassis cripta and Sparassis latifolia. Fumigant and contact toxicities of synthetic sparassol and its analogues, methyl orsellinate and methyl 2,4-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzoate (DMB), were investigated. Negligible fumigant activity was observed from the tested compounds. However, DMB showed the strongest contact toxicity, followed by sparassol and methyl orsellinate. The possible modes of action of the compounds were assessed for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE)- and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-inhibiting activities. AChE activity was weakly inhibited by methyl orsellinate and DMB, but GST was inhibited by sparassol, methyl orsellinate, and DMB. Thus, DMB could be a promising alternative to common insecticides as it can be easily synthesized from sparassol, which is the natural product of Sparassis species. Sparassis species could be an industrial resource of DMB. PMID:27327201

  7. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    PubMed

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. PMID:24681362

  8. Effects of acid and metal solutions on seedling foliage of two western conifers. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.; Weaver, T.; Cole, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    A greenhouse study tested the effects of three acids and five metals on foliage of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugs menziesii) seedlings. The seedlings were treated with a single immersion of foliage into solutions of three acids (HCL, H2S04, and HN3) and five metal chlorides (ZnC12, CdC12, HgC12, CuC12, and PbC12) each at five different concentration levels. Injury to the foliage was recorded after 5 weeks by counting needles that were chlorotic (yellow) or dead. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) effects were observed for both acids and metals. The effects of metals were far greater than the effects of acids for both species.

  9. Effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in a bioreactor based on the integrated technology of activated sludge and hydrophyte system.

    PubMed

    Debowski, M; Zieliński, M; Krzemieniewski, M; Rokicka, M; Kupczyk, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in the integrated technology based on the simultaneous use of the activated sludge method (AS) and a hydrophyte system (HS) (AS-HS), in this case, common reed (Phragmites australis) or common cattail (Typha latifolia). Experiments were conducted in an innovative reactor exploited in the fractional-technical scale at the loads of 0.05 mg BOD5/mg.d.m. d (biochemical oxygen demand) and 0.10 mg BOD5/mg.d.m d. The AS--HS enabled improving the removal effectiveness ofbiogenes characterized by concentrations of Ntot., N-NH4 and Ptot. In contrast, the integrated system had no significant reducing effect either on concentrations of organic compounds characterized by BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand parameters or on the structure of AS in the sequencing batch-type reactors. PMID:24701933

  10. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with the Roots of Four Aquatic Plants Inhabiting Two Wetlands in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Young-Hyun; Park, Jong Myong; Park, Jong-Han; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-09-01

    A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands.

  11. Comparison between polishing (maturation) ponds and subsurface flow constructed wetlands (planted and unplanted) for the post-treatment of the effluent from UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    von Sperling, M; Dornelas, F L; Assunção, F A L; de Paoli, A C; Mabub, M O A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison of the performance of two treatment systems operating in parallel, with the same influent wastewater. The investigated systems are (i) UASB + three polishing ponds in series + coarse filter (200 population equivalents) and (ii) UASB + subsurface flow constructed wetlands (50 population equivalents). Two wetland units, operating in parallel, were analysed, being one planted (Typha latifolia) and the other unplanted. The systems were located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The wetland systems showed to be more efficient in the removal of organic matter and suspended solids, leading to good effluent BOD and COD concentrations and excellent SS concentrations. The planted wetland performed better than the unplanted unit, but the latter was also able to provide a good effluent quality. The polishing pond system was more efficient in the removal of nitrogen (ammonia) and coliforms (E. coli). Land requirements and cost considerations are presented.

  12. Effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in a bioreactor based on the integrated technology of activated sludge and hydrophyte system.

    PubMed

    Debowski, M; Zieliński, M; Krzemieniewski, M; Rokicka, M; Kupczyk, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in the integrated technology based on the simultaneous use of the activated sludge method (AS) and a hydrophyte system (HS) (AS-HS), in this case, common reed (Phragmites australis) or common cattail (Typha latifolia). Experiments were conducted in an innovative reactor exploited in the fractional-technical scale at the loads of 0.05 mg BOD5/mg.d.m. d (biochemical oxygen demand) and 0.10 mg BOD5/mg.d.m d. The AS--HS enabled improving the removal effectiveness ofbiogenes characterized by concentrations of Ntot., N-NH4 and Ptot. In contrast, the integrated system had no significant reducing effect either on concentrations of organic compounds characterized by BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand parameters or on the structure of AS in the sequencing batch-type reactors.

  13. Pathogen removal from domestic and swine wastewater by experimental constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Giácoman-Vallejos, G; Ponce-Caballero, C; Champagne, P

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the performance of subsurface flow horizontal wetlands in total coliforms, faecal coliforms, enterococci and Salmonella removal from swine and domestic wastewaters. The effects of organic loading rate, contact time (CT) and the presence of aquatic macrophytes, Typha dominguensis and Typha latifolia, on treatment performance were evaluated. In general, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) were reduced by 66 and 72% after 24 h and 75 and 84% after 48 h in domestic wastewaters, and 73 and 71% after 24 h and 72 and 78% after 48 h in swine wastewater. Total coliform and faecal coliform reductions of 70-83% and 65-78% were observed in the vegetated systems after 24 h of CT, while after 48 h, total coliform and faecal coliform reductions of 80-82% and 86-91% were noted.

  14. Dispersal ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in its native environment as related to Swedish forestry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Despain, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) covers extensive areas of the mountains of western North America. It has evolved into four subspecies, each adapted to slightly different environmental conditions. All are adapted to reproduce following fire. Subspecies latifolia is the most extensive and economically important in North America. Serotiny is common in this subspecies, but trees bearing nonserotinous cones can be found in most stands, sometimes constituting more that 70% of the trees. Cone crops are produced yearly and seed loss to seed predators, insects and diseases are minimal. Germination and establishment occurs across a broad range of conditions allowing lodgepole pine to grow on poor sites as well as highly productive sites. These characteristics give lodgepole pine the ability to be highly invasive in new areas of suitable habitat.

  15. Feasibility of using an organic substrate in a wetland system treating sewage sludge: Impact of plant species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Runying; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Prudent, Pascale; Domeizel, Mariane; Rolando, Christiane; Bonin, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    A vertical-flow wetland system was tested for treatment of liquid sludge with high organic concentrations using an organic substrate (peat/crushed pine bark, 1/1) as growing medium. Mesocosms (1 m(3)) were planted with either Phragmites australis Cav., Typha latifolia L., or Iris pseudacorus L. The aim of the work was to determine the feasibility of using an organic substrate in treatment wetlands, through the study of its temporal patterns and of its impact on the water output quality. Results confirmed that the organic substrate can be used in such wetlands treating highly organic sludge, without clogging phenomena for the experimental period. The organic substrate released soluble organic matter but few mineral elements. Over the experimental period, substrate TOC concentration did not change while N concentration increased. Plants showed positive impact on substrate temporal patterns and also on the outflow water quality. Overall, Phragmites seemed to be more beneficial than Typha and Iris.

  16. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented. PMID:27395706

  17. Retrotransposon activation followed by rapid repression in introgressed rice plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wendel, J F

    2000-10-01

    Plant retrotransposons are largely inactive during normal development, but may be activated by stresses. Both copia-like and gypsy-like retrotransposons of rice were activated by introgression of DNA from the wild species Zizania latifolia Griseb. The copy number increase was associated with cytosine methylation changes of the elements. Activity of the elements was ephemeral, as evidenced by nearly identical genomic Southern hybridization patterns among randomly chosen individuals both within and between generations for a given line, and the absence of transcripts based on Northern analysis. DNA hypermethylation, internal sequence deletion, and possibly other mechanisms are likely responsible for the rapid element repression. Implications of the retroelement dynamics on plant genome evolution are discussed. PMID:11081978

  18. Pythiogeton zizaniae, a new species causing basal stalk rot of water bamboo in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ann, Pao-Jen; Huang, Jin-Hsing; Wang, In-Tin; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2006-01-01

    A new species, Pythiogeton zizaniae, was isolated from diseased water bamboo (Zizania latifolia) in central Taiwan. The organism formed a colony with scanty mycelia and mycelial aggregates on rye-water bamboo medium. Special treatments were required for production of sporangia which were terminal, noncaducous and mostly ovoid. Chlamydospores were absent. The fungus was homothallic. Oogonia produced on V-8 water bamboo medium in water were mostly globose to subglobose and each was attached with a club-shaped, monoclinous antheridium by the base of the oogonium stalk. Oospores were plerotic and globose to subglobose. Py. zizaniae caused death of water bamboo suckers but did not infect seedlings of corn, rice, wheat, sorghum, cucumber, tomato, soybean or water spinach. It also did not affect cucumber and tomato fruit, carrot roots or potato tubers. PMID:16800309

  19. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal of locally adapted plant species used in constructed wetlands in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xia; König, Thomas; Qi, Zhang; Yongsheng, Gao

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of seven plant species (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Vetiveria zizanioides, Acorus calamus, Canna indica, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis, and Iris pseudacorus) commonly used in constructed wetland systems in southern China. The investigation considers two aspects that are relevant to determine nutrient removal efficiency: plants' biomass production and nutrient content in water effluent. Both assessments are correlated with each other. Three different hydraulic retention times with different nutrient loads have been applied in this ex-situ trial. The plants' biomass production correlates positively with the effluent's nutrient removal efficiency. Six out of seven species reviewed produce more biomass above ground than below ground (average: 67% of dried biomass in aerial part); only I. pseudacorus produces more biomass below ground. S. lacustris, V. zizanioides, I. pseudacorus, and C. indica have performed best in terms of nutrient removal efficiency (65.6-90.2% for nitrogen; 67.7-84.6% for phosphorus). PMID:22766855

  20. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with the Roots of Four Aquatic Plants Inhabiting Two Wetlands in Korea

    PubMed Central

    You, Young-Hyun; Park, Jong Myong; Park, Jong-Han

    2015-01-01

    A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands. PMID:26539039

  1. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with the Roots of Four Aquatic Plants Inhabiting Two Wetlands in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Young-Hyun; Park, Jong Myong; Park, Jong-Han; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-09-01

    A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands. PMID:26539039

  2. Intense, natural pollution affects Arctic tundra vegetation at the Smoking Hills, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B. ); Zobens, V.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Gizyn, W.I. )

    1990-04-01

    Long-term, natural emissions of sulfur dioxide and acidic aerosols have had an impact on remote tundra at the Smoking Hills. The emissions have caused plant damage by SO{sub 2} toxicity, and have severely acidified soil and freshwater. At the most intensively fumigated locations closest to the sources of emission, pollution stresses have devegetated the terrestrial ecosystem. The first plants that are encountered along a spatial gradient of decreasing pollution stress are Artemisia tilesii and Arctagrostis latifolia, which dominate a characteristic, pollution-tolerant community. Farther away at moderately polluted sites there are mixed communities with floristic elements of both fumigated and reference, unfumigated tundra. This pattern of ecosystem response to a concatenation of stresses caused by natural air and soil pollution is qualitatively similar to the damage that occurs in the vicinity of anthropogenic point sources of air pollution, such as smelters.

  3. Tundra in the rain: differential vegetation responses to three years of experimentally doubled summer precipitation in Siberian shrub and Swedish bog tundra.

    PubMed

    Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Blok, Daan; van Bodegom, Peter M; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Hal, Jurgen R; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year(-1)) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the plant level, total tundra plant productivity is, at least at the short or medium term, largely irresponsive to experimentally increased summer precipitation.

  4. Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river.

    PubMed

    Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Dwivedi, S; Shukla, M K; Mallick, S; Singh, S N; Nautiyal, C S

    2013-11-01

    With aim to develop an efficient and ecofriendly approach for on-site treatment of sewage, a sub-surface flow constructed wetland (CW) has been developed by raising potential aquatic macrophytes; Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Colocasia esculenta, Polygonum hydropiper, Alternanthera sessilis and Pistia stratoites in gravel as medium. Sewage treatment potential of CW was evaluated by varying retention time at three different stages of plant growth and stabilization. After 6 months, monitoring of fully established CW indicated reduction of 90%, 65%, 78%, 84%, 76% and 86% of BOD, TSS, TDS, NO3-N, PO4-P and NH4-N, respectively in comparison to inlet after 36 h of retention time. Sewage treatment through CW also resulted in reduction of heavy metal contents. Thus, CW proved an effective method for treatment of wastewater and may be developed along river Ganga stretch as an alternative technology. Treated water may be drained into river to check further deterioration of Ganga water quality. PMID:24080292

  5. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    PubMed

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management.

  6. Leptographium longiclavatum sp. nov., a new species associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Jae-Jin; Breuil, Colette

    2005-10-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and its fungal associates are devastating the lodgepole pine forests in British Columbia, Canada. During our fungal survey, an unknown Leptographium species has been consistently isolated from both D. ponderosae and infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia). This Leptographium species has similar morphology with the Leptographium anamorph of Ophiostoma clavigerum whose association with the D. ponderosae is well known. However, thorough morphological comparisons showed that this fungus is distinct from all the other Leptographium species described in the literature, and especially from O. clavigerum. Comparison of DNA sequences of multiple loci and the profiles by the PCR-RFLP marker also confirmed that this Leptographium species represents an undescribed taxon. Based on its distinct morphological, physiological characteristics and phylogenetic position, we describe it as L. longiclavatum sp. nov.

  7. Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, a new species of the C. lixella group (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) from France and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Baldizzone, Giorgio; Nel, Jacques; Landry, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, sp. n. is described from the southern Alps (Italy and France). It belongs to the Coleophora lixella species group. Its host plants are Nepeta nepetella L. (Lamiaceae) and an unidentified Poaceae. The fifth instar larva, its case, the adult habitus, and genitalia are illustrated. The species is compared to Coleophora nevadella Baldizzone, 1985, here newly confirmed from France and whose larvae feed on Nepeta latifolia DC. in the Eastern Pyrénées. DNA barcodes are shown to be distinct and congruent with morphological differences among species of the lixella group. Barcodes revealed that Coleophora tricolor Walsingham, 1889, formerly known only from Great Britain, is also present in France and Greece. PMID:25561856

  8. Studies on production and biological potential of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-07-01

    Efficacy of Serratia marcescens for pigment production and biological activity was investigated. Natural substrates like sweet potato, mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L.), and sesam at different concentrations were taken. As a carbon source microorganism favored potato powder was followed by sesam and mannitol, and as nitrogen source casein hydrolysate was followed by yeast and malt extract. The effect of inorganic salts on pigment production was also studied. At final optimized composition of suitable carbon, nitrogen source, and trace materials and at suitable physiological conditions, prodigiosin production was 4.8 g L(-1). The isolated pigment showed antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Extracted pigment was characterized by spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and thin layer chromatography (TLC) which confirm production of biological compound prodigiosin. This study suggests that use of sweet potato powder and casein can be a potential alternative bioresource for commercial production of pigment prodigiosin.

  9. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David J; Moran, Bridget M; Otte, Marinus L

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. PMID:15589661

  10. The utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C. K.; Scantland, D. A.; Groet, S. S.; Lawhon, W. T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement.

  11. Virucidal activity of essential oils from aromatic plants of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    García, C C; Talarico, L; Almeida, N; Colombres, S; Duschatzky, C; Damonte, E B

    2003-11-01

    Essential oils obtained from eight aromatic plants of San Luis Province, Argentina, were screened for virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Junin virus (JUNV) and dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2). The most potent inhibition was observed with the essential oil of Lippia junelliana and Lippia turbinata against JUNV with virucidal concentration 50% (VC(50)) values in the range 14-20 ppm, whereas Aloysia gratissima, Heterotheca latifolia and Tessaria absinthioides inhibited JUNV in the range 52-90 ppm. The virucidal activity was time- and temperature-dependent. The essential oils of A. gratissima, Artemisia douglasiana, Eupatorium patens and T. absinthioides inactivated HSV-1 at 65-125 ppm. However, only A. douglasiana and E. patens had any discernible effect on DEN-2 infectivity with VC(50) values of 60 and 150 ppm, respectively. PMID:14595590

  12. Pollen Dispersal by Catapult: Experiments of Lyman J. Briggs on the Flower of Mountain Laurel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, John R.; Hermann, Paula M.; Kirkham, M. B.; Landa, Edward R.

    2014-09-01

    The flower of Kalmia latifolia L. employs a catapult mechanism that flings its pollen to considerable distances. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs investigated this phenomenon in the 1950s after retiring as longtime director of the National Bureau of Standards, attempting to explain how hydromechanical effects inside the flower's stamen could make it possible. Briggs's unfinished manuscript implies that liquid under negative pressure generates stress, which, superimposed on the stress generated from the flower's growth habit, results in force adequate to propel the pollen as observed. With new data and biophysical understanding to supplement Briggs's experimental results and research notes, we show that his postulated negative-pressure mechanism did not play the exclusive and crucial role that he credited to it, though his revisited investigation sheds light on various related processes. Important issues concerning the development and reproductive function of Kalmia flowers remain unresolved, highlighting the need for further biophysical advances.

  13. Susceptibility of two-week old Lymnaea natalensis to some plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    The molluscacidal potency of 17 Nigerian plants extracted by the unevaporated crude water (UECW) method was evaluated on two-week old Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Five extracts were not active but extracts of Balanites aegytiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Cissampelos mucronata, Detarium microcarpum, Kigelia africana, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Nauclea latifolia and Securidaca longipedunculata were molluscacidal. There is potential for their future use in the integrated control of Lymnaea natalensis, as well as other snails. Mortality data for lethal concentration values for all extracts were analysed by use of probit transformation. The upper and lower fiducial limits of the LC50 (P = 0.05) were also determined. PMID:2626571

  14. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds. PMID:2626572

  15. Purification processes involved in sludge treatment by a vertical flow wetland system: focus on the role of the substrate and plants on N and P removal.

    PubMed

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Wang, Runying; Baldy, Virginie

    2012-02-01

    Vertical-flow wetland systems were tested for treatment of liquid waste activated sludge with high content of organic compounds from a soft drink factory. A mesocosm experiment was carried out on planted and unplanted systems to understand the relative importance of substrate and plants in purification processes and to compare three species: Phragmites australis Cav., Typha latifolia L., or Iris pseudacorus L. All planted mesocosms performed better than unplanted mesocosms and Phragmites showed the highest efficiencies, both in volumes and loads, closely followed by Typha. Removal efficiencies were very high in all cases, and physical filtration by the organic substrate was identified as the main processes for nutrient removal (>50%). We showed that plants played direct and indirect roles such as nutrients uptake (up to 23% of the N for Phragmites), evapotranspiration reducing outflow volumes; or improvement of filtration by the root systems and stimulation of microbial activities (respiration rate was double compared to unplanted mesocosms).

  16. Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Mesia, K; Penge, O; Lusakibanza, M; Cimanga, K; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Totte, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major extracts from some traditional preparations, based on medicinal plants, used as antidiarrhoeal agents were investigated for their putative antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities in vitro. Results indicated that both biological activities are concentrated in the polyphenolic fraction, and not in the saponin or alkaloid containing fractions. The most active polyphenolic extracts were those from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Alchornea cordifolia, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Nauclea latifolia, Psidium guajava, Tithonia diversifolia, stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis, Mangifera indica, Maprounea africana and Psidium guajava, inhibiting Entamoeba histolytica growth with MAC < 10 micrograms/ml. The same extracts, at a concentration of 80 micrograms/ml in an organ bath, also exhibited more than 70% inhibition of acetylcholine and/or KCl solution-induced contractions on isolated guinea-pig ileum. PMID:10782488

  17. Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India.

    PubMed

    Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2009-01-01

    A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management.

  18. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David J; Moran, Bridget M; Otte, Marinus L

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin.

  19. Earthworm-derived pore-forming toxin lysenin and screening of its inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sukumwang, Neelanun; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2013-08-01

    Lysenin is a pore-forming toxin from the coelomic fluid of earthworm Eisenia foetida. This protein specifically binds to sphingomyelin and induces erythrocyte lysis. Lysenin consists of 297 amino acids with a molecular weight of 41 kDa. We screened for cellular signal transduction inhibitors of low molecular weight from microorganisms and plants. The purpose of the screening was to study the mechanism of diseases using the obtained inhibitors and to develop new chemotherapeutic agents acting in the new mechanism. Therefore, our aim was to screen for inhibitors of Lysenin-induced hemolysis from plant extracts and microbial culture filtrates. As a result, we isolated all-E-lutein from an extract of Dalbergia latifolia leaves. All-E-lutein is likely to inhibit the process of Lysenin-membrane binding and/or oligomer formation rather than pore formation. Additionally, we isolated tyrosylproline anhydride from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces as an inhibitor of Lysenin-induced hemolysis. PMID:23965430

  20. Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river.

    PubMed

    Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Dwivedi, S; Shukla, M K; Mallick, S; Singh, S N; Nautiyal, C S

    2013-11-01

    With aim to develop an efficient and ecofriendly approach for on-site treatment of sewage, a sub-surface flow constructed wetland (CW) has been developed by raising potential aquatic macrophytes; Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Colocasia esculenta, Polygonum hydropiper, Alternanthera sessilis and Pistia stratoites in gravel as medium. Sewage treatment potential of CW was evaluated by varying retention time at three different stages of plant growth and stabilization. After 6 months, monitoring of fully established CW indicated reduction of 90%, 65%, 78%, 84%, 76% and 86% of BOD, TSS, TDS, NO3-N, PO4-P and NH4-N, respectively in comparison to inlet after 36 h of retention time. Sewage treatment through CW also resulted in reduction of heavy metal contents. Thus, CW proved an effective method for treatment of wastewater and may be developed along river Ganga stretch as an alternative technology. Treated water may be drained into river to check further deterioration of Ganga water quality.

  1. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia. PMID:26624084

  2. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat.

    PubMed

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17-21 mm, MIC: 7.12-62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 15.62-31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 12.62-62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20-22 mm, MIC: 3-15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21-25 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14-20 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93-0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  3. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  4. Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in three Mediterranean woody species following long-term experimental drought

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Teresa; Galiano, Lucía; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Stored non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) have been proposed as a key determinant of drought resistance in plants. However, the evidence for this role is controversial, as it comes mostly from observational, short-term studies. Here, we take advantage of a long-term experimental throughfall reduction to elucidate the response of NSC to increased drought 14 years after the beginning of the treatment in three Mediterranean resprouter trees (Quercus ilex L., Arbutus unedo L. and Phillyrea latifolia L.). In addition, we selected 20 Q. ilex individuals outside the experimental plots to directly assess the relationship between defoliation and NSC at the individual level. We measured the seasonal course of NSC concentrations in leaves, branches and lignotuber in late winter, late spring, summer, and autumn 2012. Total concentrations of NSC were highest in the lignotuber for all species. In the long-term drought experiment we found significant depletion in concentrations of total NSC in treatment plots only in the lignotuber of A. unedo. At the same time, A. unedo was the only species showing a significant reduction in BAI under the drought treatment during the 14 years of the experiment. By contrast, Q. ilex just reduced stem growth only during the first 4 years of treatment and P. latifolia remained unaffected over the whole study period. However, we found a clear association between the concentrations of NSC and defoliation in Q. ilex individuals sampled outside the experimental plots, with lower total concentrations of NSC and lower proportion of starch in defoliated individuals. Taken together, our results suggest that stabilizing processes, probably at the stand level, may have been operating in the long-term to mitigate any impact of drought on NSC levels, and highlight the necessity to incorporate long-term experimental studies of plant responses to drought. PMID:24130568

  5. Impact of elevated CO₂ and N addition on bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh ecosystem with various types of plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seon-Young; Ding, Weixing; Kang, Hojeong

    2015-06-01

    The individual effects of either elevated CO2 or N deposition on soil microbial communities have been widely studied, but limited information is available regarding the responses of the bacteria, fungi, and archaea communities to both elevated CO2 and N in wetland ecosystems with different types of plants. Using a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR), we compared communities of bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh microcosm with one of seven macrophytes, Typha latifolia, Phragmites japonica, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Scirpus lacustris, Juncus effusus, Phragmites australis, or Zizania latifolia, after exposing them to eCO2 and/or amended N for 110 days. Overall, our results showed that the elevated CO2 and N may affect the bacterial and archaeal communities, while they may not affect the fungal community in terms of both diversity and abundance. The effects of elevated CO2 and N on microbial community vary depending on the plant types, and each microbial community shows different responses to the elevated CO2 and N. In particular, elevated CO2 might force a shift in the archaeal community irrespective of the plant type, and the effect of elevated CO2 was enhanced when combined with the N effect. This study indicates that elevated CO2 and N addition could lead to changes in the community structures of bacteria and archaea. Our results also suggest that the fungal group is less sensitive to external changes, while the bacterial and archaeal groups are more sensitive to them. Finally, the characteristics of the plant type and relevant physicochemical factors induced by the elevated CO2 and N may be important key factors structuring the microbial community's response to environmental change, which implies the need for a more comprehensive approach to understanding the pattern of the wetland response to climate change. PMID:25605423

  6. Comparative responses of freshwater organisms to exposures of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    PubMed

    Kinley, Ciera M; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H

    2016-06-01

    Comparative toxicity studies using unconfounded exposures can prioritize the selection of sensitive sentinel test species and refine methods for evaluating ecological risks of complex mixtures like naphthenic acids (NAs), a group of organic acids associated with crude oils and energy-derived waters that have been a source of aquatic toxicity. The objectives of this study were to compare responses of freshwater aquatic organisms (vertebrate, invertebrates, and a macrophyte; in terms of acute toxicity) to Fluka commercial NAs and to compare measured toxicity data with peer-reviewed toxicity data for other commercial NA sources and energy-derived NA sources. Exposures were confirmed using high performance liquid chromatography. Responses (7-d LC50s/EC50) ranged from 1.9 mg L(-1) for Pimephales promelas to 56.2 mg L(-1) for Typha latifolia. Following P. promelas in order of decreasing sensitivity were Ceriodaphnia dubia (7-d LC50 = 2.8 mg L(-1)), Hyalella azteca (7-d LC50 = 4.1 mg L(-1)), Chironomus dilutus (7-d LC50 = 6.5 mg L(-1)), and T. latifolia (7-d EC50 = 56.2 mg L(-1)), indicating that in terms of sensitivities, fish > invertebrates > plant for Fluka NAs in this study. Factors that affect exposures and measurements of exposures differ among commercial and energy-derived NAs and constrain comparisons. Despite differences in exposures, fish and invertebrates were relatively sensitive to both commercial and energy-derived NA sources (based on laboratory measurements and peer-reviewed data) and could be appropriate sentinel species for risk evaluations. PMID:27016812

  7. Effects of plants on the removal of hexavalent chromium in wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangping; Jaffé, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two wetland plants, Typha latifolia L. (cattail) and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud (common reed), on the fate of Cr(VI) in wetland sediments was investigated using greenhouse bench-scale microcosm experiments. The removal of Cr(VI) was monitored based on the vertical profiles of aqueous Cr(VI) in the sediments. The Cr(VI) removal rates were estimated taking into account plant transpiration, which was found to significantly concentrate dissolved species in the sediments. After correcting for evapotranspiration, the actual Cr(VI) removal rates were significantly higher than would be inferred from uncorrected profiles. On average, the Cr(VI) removal rates were 0.005 to 0.017 mg L(-1) d(-1), 0.0003 to 0.08 mg L(-1) d(-1), and 0.004 to 0.13 mg L(-1) d(-1) for the control, T. latifolia, and P. australis microcosms, respectively. The fate of the removed Cr(VI) was examined by determining the quantity and chemical speciation of the Cr in the sediment and plant materials. Chromium(III) was the dominant form of Cr in both the sediment and plants, and precipitation of Cr(III) in the sediment was the major pathway responsible for the disappearance of aqueous Cr(VI) from the pore water. Incubation results showed that abiotic reduction was the primary mechanism underlying Cr(VI) removal in the microcosm sediments. Organic compounds produced by plants, including root exudates and mineralization products of dead roots, are thought to be the factor that is either directly or indirectly responsible for the gap between Cr(VI) removal efficiencies in the sediments of the vegetated and unvegetated microcosms.

  8. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat

    PubMed Central

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  9. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    PubMed

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district. PMID:26591889

  10. Transpositional reactivation of two LTR retrotransposons in rice-Zizania recombinant inbred lines (RILs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Tian, Qin; Ma, Yi-Qiao; Wu, Ying; Miao, Gao-Jian; Ma, Yan; Cao, Dong-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Chunjing; Pang, Jingsong; Liu, Bao

    2010-12-01

    Hybridization is prevalent in plants, which plays important roles in genome evolution. Apart from direct transfer and recombinatory generation of genetic variations by hybridization, de novo genetic instabilities can be induced by the process per se. One mechanism by which such de novo genetic variability can be generated by interspecific hybridization is transpositional reactivation of quiescent parental transposable elements (TEs) in the nascent hybrids. We have reported previously that introgressive hybridization between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Zizania latifolia Griseb had induced rampant mobilization of three TEs, a copia-like LTR retrotransposon Tos17, a MITE mPing and a class II TE belonging to the hAT superfamily, Dart/nDart. In this study, we further found that two additional LTR retrotransposons, a gypsy-like (named RIRE2) and a copia-like (named Copia076), were also transpositionally reactivated in three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice and Z. latifolia. Novel bands of these two retroelements appeared in the RILs relative to their rice parental line (cv. Matsumae) in Southern blot, suggestive of retrotransposition, which was substantiated by transposon display (TD) and locus-specific PCR amplification for insertion sites. Both elements were found to be transcribed but at variable levels in the leaf tissue of the parental line and the RILs, suggesting that transcriptional control was probably not a mechanism for their transpositional activity in the RILs. Expression analysis of four genes adjacent to de novo insertions by Copia076 revealed marked difference in the transcript abundance for each of the genes between the RILs and their rice parental line, but the alterations in expression appeared unrelated with the retroelement insertions. PMID:21166796

  11. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat.

    PubMed

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17-21 mm, MIC: 7.12-62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 15.62-31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 12.62-62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20-22 mm, MIC: 3-15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21-25 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14-20 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93-0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds.

  12. Impact of elevated CO₂ and N addition on bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh ecosystem with various types of plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seon-Young; Ding, Weixing; Kang, Hojeong

    2015-06-01

    The individual effects of either elevated CO2 or N deposition on soil microbial communities have been widely studied, but limited information is available regarding the responses of the bacteria, fungi, and archaea communities to both elevated CO2 and N in wetland ecosystems with different types of plants. Using a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR), we compared communities of bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh microcosm with one of seven macrophytes, Typha latifolia, Phragmites japonica, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Scirpus lacustris, Juncus effusus, Phragmites australis, or Zizania latifolia, after exposing them to eCO2 and/or amended N for 110 days. Overall, our results showed that the elevated CO2 and N may affect the bacterial and archaeal communities, while they may not affect the fungal community in terms of both diversity and abundance. The effects of elevated CO2 and N on microbial community vary depending on the plant types, and each microbial community shows different responses to the elevated CO2 and N. In particular, elevated CO2 might force a shift in the archaeal community irrespective of the plant type, and the effect of elevated CO2 was enhanced when combined with the N effect. This study indicates that elevated CO2 and N addition could lead to changes in the community structures of bacteria and archaea. Our results also suggest that the fungal group is less sensitive to external changes, while the bacterial and archaeal groups are more sensitive to them. Finally, the characteristics of the plant type and relevant physicochemical factors induced by the elevated CO2 and N may be important key factors structuring the microbial community's response to environmental change, which implies the need for a more comprehensive approach to understanding the pattern of the wetland response to climate change.

  13. Changes in leaf δ13C and δ15N for three Mediterranean tree species in relation to soil water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2008-11-01

    A rain exclusion experiment simulating drought conditions expected in Mediterranean areas for the following decades (15% decrease in soil moisture) was conducted in a Mediterranean holm oak forest to study the response of leaf δ13C, δ15N, and N concentrations to the predicted climatic changes for the coming decades. Plant material was sampled in 2000, 2003, 2004, and 2005 in eight plots: four of them were control plots and the other four plots received the rain exclusion treatment. Although there was a negative relationship between δ13C and soil moisture, for each species and year, the rain exclusion treatment did not have any significant effect on δ13C, and therefore on the intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) of the three dominant species: Phillyrea latifolia, Arbutus unedo, and Quercus ilex. On the other hand, rain exclusion clearly increased the δ15N values in the three species studied, probably indicating higher N losses at the soil level leading to a 15N enrichment of the available N. It suggested that rain exclusion exerted a greater effect on the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle than on the carbon assimilation process. δ15N values were inversely correlated with summer soil moisture in Q. ilex and A. unedo, but no relationship was observed in P. latifolia. This latter species showed the lowest iWUE values, but it was the only species with no decrease in annual basal increment in response to the rain exclusion treatment, and it also had the highest resistance to the hot and dry conditions projected for the Mediterranean basin in the coming decades. The different strategies to resist rain exclusion conditions of these species could induce changes in their competitive ability and future distribution. The losses of N from the ecosystem may further limit plant growth and ecosystem functioning.

  14. Xylem hydraulic properties of roots and stems of nine Mediterranean woody species.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Prat, Ester; Oliveras, Imma; Piñol, Josep

    2002-09-01

    We studied the hydraulic architecture and water relations of nine co-occurring woody species in a Spanish evergreen oak forest over the course of a dry season. Our main objectives were to: (1) test the existence of a trade-off between hydraulic conductivity and security in the xylem, and (2) establish the safety margins at which the species operated in relation to hydraulic failure, and compare these safety margins between species and tissues (roots vs. stems). Our results showed that the relationship between specific hydraulic conductivity (K s) and resistance to cavitation followed a power function with exponent ≈-2, consistent with the existence of a trade-off between conductivity and security in the xylem, and also consistent with a linear relationship between vessel diameter and the size of inter-vessel pores. The diameter of xylem conduits, K s and vulnerability to xylem embolism were always higher in roots than in stems of the same species. Safety margins from hydraulic failure were narrower in roots than in stems. Among species, the water potential (Ψ) at which 50% of conductivity was lost due to embolism ranged between -0.9 and <-8 MPa for roots and between -2.0 and <-8 MPa for stems. Vulnerability to xylem embolism followed a pattern of: Quercus ilex=Acer monspessulanum=Arbutus unedo=Sorbus torminalis=Cistus laurifolius>Cistus albidus=Ilex aquifolium>Phillyrea latifolia>Juniperus oxycedrus. Gas exchange and seasonal Ψ minima were in general correlated with resistance to xylem embolism. Hydraulic safety margins differed markedly among species, with some of them (J. oxycedrus, I. aquifolium, P. latifolia) showing a xylem overly resistant to cavitation. We hypothesize that this overly resistant xylem may be related to the shape of the relationship between K s and security we have found. PMID:24599365

  15. Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in three Mediterranean woody species following long-term experimental drought.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Teresa; Galiano, Lucía; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Stored non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) have been proposed as a key determinant of drought resistance in plants. However, the evidence for this role is controversial, as it comes mostly from observational, short-term studies. Here, we take advantage of a long-term experimental throughfall reduction to elucidate the response of NSC to increased drought 14 years after the beginning of the treatment in three Mediterranean resprouter trees (Quercus ilex L., Arbutus unedo L. and Phillyrea latifolia L.). In addition, we selected 20 Q. ilex individuals outside the experimental plots to directly assess the relationship between defoliation and NSC at the individual level. We measured the seasonal course of NSC concentrations in leaves, branches and lignotuber in late winter, late spring, summer, and autumn 2012. Total concentrations of NSC were highest in the lignotuber for all species. In the long-term drought experiment we found significant depletion in concentrations of total NSC in treatment plots only in the lignotuber of A. unedo. At the same time, A. unedo was the only species showing a significant reduction in BAI under the drought treatment during the 14 years of the experiment. By contrast, Q. ilex just reduced stem growth only during the first 4 years of treatment and P. latifolia remained unaffected over the whole study period. However, we found a clear association between the concentrations of NSC and defoliation in Q. ilex individuals sampled outside the experimental plots, with lower total concentrations of NSC and lower proportion of starch in defoliated individuals. Taken together, our results suggest that stabilizing processes, probably at the stand level, may have been operating in the long-term to mitigate any impact of drought on NSC levels, and highlight the necessity to incorporate long-term experimental studies of plant responses to drought. PMID:24130568

  16. Seasonal variation of temperature response of respiration in invasive Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) and two co-occurring native understory shrubs in a northeastern US deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Schuster, W S F; Griffin, Kevin L

    2007-10-01

    In the understory of a closed forest, plant growth is limited by light availability, and early leafing is proposed to be an important mechanism of plant invasion by providing a spring C "subsidy" when high light is available. However, studies on respiration, another important process determining plant net C gain, are rare in understory invasive plants. In this study, leaf properties and the temperature response of leaf respiration were compared between invasive Berberis thunbergii, an early leafing understory shrub, and two native shrubs, Kalmia latifolia, a broadleaf evergreen and Vaccinium corymbosum, a late-leafing deciduous species, in an oak-dominated deciduous forest. The seasonal trend of the basal respiration rates (R(0)) and the temperature response coefficient (E(0)), were different among the three shrubs and species-specific negative correlations were observed between R(0) and E(0). All three shrubs showed significant correlation between respiration rate on an area basis (20 degrees C) and leaf N on an area basis. The relationship was attributed to the variation of both leaf N on a mass basis and leaf mass per area (LMA) in B. thunbergii, but to LMA only in K. latifolia and V. corymbosum. After modeling leaf respiration throughout 2004, B. thunbergii displayed much higher annual leaf respiration (mass based) than the two native shrubs, indicating a higher cost per unit of biomass investment. Thus, respiratory properties alone were not likely to lead to C balance advantage of B. thunbergii. Future studies on whole plant C budgets and leaf construction cost are needed to address the C balance advantage in early leafing understory shrubs like B. thunbergii.

  17. Extensions to Dynamic System Simulation of Fissile Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Bernardin, John David; Kimpland, Robert Herbert; Spernjak, Dusan

    2015-08-24

    Previous reports have documented the results of applying dynamic system simulation (DSS) techniques to model a variety of fissile solution systems. The SUPO (Super Power) aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) was chosen as the benchmark for comparison of model results to experimental data for steadystate operation.1 Subsequently, DSS was applied to additional AHR to verify results obtained for SUPO and extend modeling to prompt critical excursions, ramp reactivity insertions of various magnitudes and rate, and boiling operations in SILENE and KEWB (Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler).2 Additional models for pressurized cores (HRE: Homogeneous Reactor Experiment), annular core geometries, and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADAHR) were developed and results reported.3 The focus of each of these models is core dynamics; neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, radiolytic gas generation and transport are coupled to examine the time-based evolution of these systems from start-up through transition to steady-state. A common characteristic of these models is the assumption that (a) core cooling system inlet temperature and flow and (b) plenum gas inlet pressure and flow are held constant; no external (to core) component operations that may result in dynamic change to these parameters are considered. This report discusses extension of models to include explicit reference to cooling structures and radiolytic gas handling. The accelerator-driven subcritical generic system model described in References 3 and 4 is used as a basis for this extension.

  18. Dietary Effects of Four Phytoecdysteroids on Growth and Development of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; LaFont, René

    2010-01-01

    Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects. PMID:20575744

  19. Scale dependence of sex ratio in wild plant populations: implications for social selection.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Brian J; Augat, Malcolm E; Taylor, Douglas R; Brodie, Edmund D

    2016-03-01

    Social context refers to the composition of an individual's social interactants, including potential mates. In spatially structured populations, social context can vary among individuals within populations, generating the opportunity for social selection to drive differences in fitness functions among individuals at a fine spatial scale. In sexually polymorphic plants, the local sex ratio varies at a fine scale and thus has the potential to generate this opportunity. We measured the spatial distribution of two wild populations of the gynodioecious plant Silene vulgaris and show that there is fine-scale heterogeneity in the local distribution of the sexes within these populations. We demonstrate that the largest variance in sex ratio is among nearest neighbors. This variance is greatly reduced as the spatial scale of social interactions increases. These patterns suggest the sex of neighbors has the potential to generate fine-scale differences in selection differentials among individuals. One of the most important determinants of social interactions in plants is the behavior of pollinators. These results suggest that the potential for selection arising from sex ratio will be greatest when pollen is shared among nearest neighbors. Future studies incorporating the movement of pollinators may reveal whether and how this fine-scale variance in sex ratio affects the fitness of individuals in these populations. PMID:26865952

  20. Paleobiology of the Sand Beneath the Valders Diamicton at Valders, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, L.J.; Miller, N.G.; Baker, R.G.; Curry, B. Brandon; Mickelson, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Previously undescribed pollen, plant macrofossils, molluscs, and ostracodes were recovered from a 2.5-m-thick glaciolacustrine unit of silty sand and clay at Valders, Wisconsin. The interstadial sediment was deposited about 12,200 14C yr B.P. after retreat of the Green Bay lobe that deposited diamicton of the Horicon Formation, and before advance of the Lake Michigan lobe that deposited the red-brown diamicton of the Valders Member of the Kewaunee Formation. Fluctuations of abundance of Candona subtriangulata, Cytherissa lacustris, and three other species define four ostracode biozones in the lower 1.7 m, suggesting an open lake environment that oscillated in depth and proximity to glacial ice. Pollen is dominated by Picea and Artemisia, but the low percentages of many other types of longdistance origin suggest that the terrestrial vegetation was open and far from the forest border. The upper part of the sediment, a massive sand deposited in either a shallow pond or a sluggish stream, contains a local concentration of plant macrofossils. The interpretation of a cold open environment is supported by the plant macrofossils of more than 20 species, dominated by those of open mineral soils (Arenaria rubella, Cerastium alpinum type, Silene acaulis, Sibbaldia procumbens, Dryas integrifolia, Vaccinium uliginosum var. alpinum, Armeria maritima, etc.) that in North America occur largely in the tundra and open tundra-forest ecotone of northern Canada. Ice-wedge casts occur in the sand. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  1. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    PubMed

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  2. Natural and planted flora of the log mountain surface - mined demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.L.; Wade, G.L.; Straw, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A descriptive study of the naturally invading and planted flora was conducted during 1984-1985 on a 14- and 21-year-old contour surface mine the 14.2 ha Log Mountain Demonstration Area (LMDA), in Bell County, Kentucky. Six habitats are designated from areas created from coal mining; the 1963 bench, 1970 bench, bench highwalls, mine outslopes, mine seeps, and coal haul-telephone microwave tower road. Twenty-four of 25 woody and herbaceous species (11 indigenous, 13 non-indigenous) have persisted from plantings by personnel of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. We recommend 11 native and exotic woody and herbaceous species for planting on coal surface-mined areas. An annotated list of vascular plants comprises 360 taxa (286 indigenous, 74 non-indigenous) in 224 genera from 82 families. Taxa consist of 1 Lycopodiophyta, 1 Equisetophyta, 8 Polypodiophyta, 7 Pinophyta, and 343 Magnoliophyta. The most species-rich families are the Asteraceae (64), Poaceae (39), Fabaceae (20), Cyperaceae (16), Rosaceae (13), and Lamiaceae (11). A total of 155 Bell County distribution records were documented. Three threatened Kentucky species (Gentiana decora, Liparis loeselii, Silene ovata) were present in refugial habitats created by surface mining. The high species richness has resulted from native and naturalized invading species from the environs, native and exotic planted species, and species from the remnant seed bank. Forest vegetation is a complex mosaic of natural and semi-natural plant communities on the unplanted and planted areas of LMDA.

  3. Detoxification of arsenic by phytochelatins in plants.

    PubMed

    Schmöger, M E; Oven, M; Grill, E

    2000-03-01

    As is a ubiquitous element present in the atmosphere as well as in the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Arsenite and arsenate are the major forms of As intoxication, and these anions are readily taken up by plants. Both anions efficiently induce the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) ([gamma-glutamate-cysteine](n)-glycine) in vivo and in vitro. The rapid induction of the metal-binding PCs has been observed in cell suspension cultures of Rauvolfia serpentina, in seedlings of Arabidopsis, and in enzyme preparations of Silene vulgaris upon challenge to arsenicals. The rate of PC formation in enzyme preparations was lower compared with Cd-induced biosynthesis, but was accompanied by a prolonged induction phase that resulted finally in higher peptide levels. An approximately 3:1 ratio of the sulfhydryl groups from PCs to As is compatible with reported As-glutathione complexes. The identity of the As-induced PCs and of reconstituted metal-peptide complexes has unequivocally been demonstrated by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Gel filtration experiments and inhibitor studies also indicate a complexation and detoxification of As by the induced PCs.

  4. Dietary effects of four phytoecdysteroids on growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; Lafont, René

    2010-01-01

    Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects.

  5. Simulated global change: contrasting short and medium term growth and reproductive responses of a common alpine/Arctic cushion plant to experimental warming and nutrient enhancement.

    PubMed

    Alatalo, Juha M; Little, Chelsea J

    2014-01-01

    Cushion plants are important components of alpine and Arctic plant communities around the world. They fulfill important roles as facilitators, nurse plants and foundation species across trophic levels for vascular plants, arthropods and soil microorganisms, the importance of these functions increasing with the relative severity of the environment. Here we report results from one of the few experimental studies simulating global change impacts on cushion plants; a factorial experiment with warming and nutrient enhancement that was applied to an alpine population of the common nurse plant, Silene acaulis, in sub-arctic Sweden. Experimental perturbations had significant short-term impacts on both stem elongation and leaf length. S. acaulis responded quickly by increasing stem elongation and (to a lesser extent) leaf length in the warming, nutrient, and the combined warming and nutrient enhancements. Cover and biomass also initially increased in response to the perturbations. However, after the initial positive short-term responses, S. acaulis cover declined in the manipulations, with the nutrient and combined warming and nutrient treatments having largest negative impact. No clear patterns were found for fruit production. Our results show that S. acaulis living in harsh environments has potential to react quickly when experiencing years with favorable conditions, and is more responsive to nutrient enhancement than to warming in terms of vegetative growth. While these conditions have an initial positive impact, populations experiencing longer-term increased nutrient levels will likely be negatively affected.

  6. LLNL Results from CALIBAN-PROSPERO Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Experiments in September 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Lobaugh, M. L.; Hickman, D. P.; Wong, C. W.; Wysong, A. R.; Merritt, M. J.; Heinrichs, D. P.; Topper, J. D.

    2015-05-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses thin neutron activation foils, sulfur, and threshold energy shielding to determine neutron component doses and the total dose from neutrons in the event of a nuclear criticality accident. The dosimeter also uses a DOELAP accredited Panasonic UD-810 (Panasonic Industrial Devices Sales Company of America, 2 Riverfront Plaza, Newark, NJ 07102, U.S.A.) thermoluminescent dosimetery system (TLD) for determining the gamma component of the total dose. LLNL has participated in three international intercomparisons of nuclear accident dosimeters. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an exercise at the French Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission- CEA) Research Center at Valduc utilizing the SILENE reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison at CEA Valduc, this time with exposures at the CALIBAN reactor (Hickman et al. 2011). This paper discusses LLNL’s results of a third intercomparison hosted by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN) with exposures at two CEA Valduc reactors (CALIBAN and PROSPERO) in September 2014. Comparison results between the three participating facilities is presented elsewhere (Chevallier 2015; Duluc 2015).

  7. PNNL Results from 2010 CALIBAN Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2011-10-28

    This document reports the results of the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on September 20-23, 2010. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique (CEA) Valduc Center near Dijon, France on September 20-23, 2010. The intercomparison exercise was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the lead Laboratory. PNNL was one of six invited DOE Laboratory participants. The other participating Laboratories were: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The goals of PNNL's participation in the intercomparison exercise were to test and validate the procedures and algorithm currently used for the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeters (PNADs) on the metallic reactor, CALIBAN, to test exposures to PNADs from the side and from behind a phantom, and to test PNADs that were taken from a historical batch of Hanford PNADs that had varying degrees of degradation of the bare indium foil. Similar testing of the PNADs was done on the Valduc SILENE test reactor in 2009 (Hill and Conrady, 2010). The CALIBAN results are reported here.

  8. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. PMID:17369267

  9. Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jürgen; Ladinig, Ursula; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproductive shoot, ice propagated throughout that entire shoot, but not into neighboring shoots. However, anatomical ice barriers within cushions were not detected. The naturally occurring temperature gradient within the cushion appeared to interrupt ice propagation thermally. Consequently, every reproductive shoot needed an autonomous ice nucleation event to initiate freezing. Ice nucleation was not only influenced by minimum temperatures but also by the duration of exposure. At moderate subzero exposure temperatures (-4.3 to -7.7 °C) the number of frozen inflorescences increased exponentially. Due to efficient supercooling, single reproductive shoots remained unfrozen down to -17.4 °C (cooling rate 6 K h⁻¹). Hence, the observed freezing pattern may be advantageous for frost survival of individual inflorescences and reproductive success of high alpine cushion plants, when during episodic summer frosts damage can be avoided by supercooling.

  10. Conservative and compensatory evolution in oxidative phosphorylation complexes of angiosperms with highly divergent rates of mitochondrial genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Whitehill, Nicholas S; Snow, Christopher D; Sloan, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial gene products are critical for eukaryotic cell function. Nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial-targeted proteins (N-mt genes) experience elevated rates of evolution, which has often been interpreted as evidence of nuclear compensation in response to elevated mitochondrial mutation rates. However, N-mt genes may be under relaxed functional constraints, which could also explain observed increases in their evolutionary rate. To disentangle these hypotheses, we examined patterns of sequence and structural evolution in nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded oxidative phosphorylation proteins from species in the angiosperm genus Silene with vastly different mitochondrial mutation rates. We found correlated increases in N-mt gene evolution in species with fast-evolving mitochondrial DNA. Structural modeling revealed an overrepresentation of N-mt substitutions at positions that directly contact mutated residues in mitochondrial-encoded proteins, despite overall patterns of conservative structural evolution. These findings support the hypothesis that selection for compensatory changes in response to mitochondrial mutations contributes to the elevated rate of evolution in N-mt genes. We discuss these results in light of theories implicating mitochondrial mutation rates and mitonuclear coevolution as drivers of speciation and suggest comparative and experimental approaches that could take advantage of heterogeneity in rates of mtDNA evolution across eukaryotes to evaluate such theories.

  11. Palaeobotanical evidence for warm summers in the East Siberian Arctic during the last cold stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienast, Frank; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Siegert, Christine; Tarasov, Pavel

    2005-05-01

    Plant macrofossils from the "Mamontovy Khayata" permafrost sequence (71°60'N, 129°25'E) on the Bykovsky Peninsula reflect climate and plant biodiversity in west Beringia during the last cold stage. 70 AMS and 20 conventional 14C dates suggest sediment accumulation between about 60,000 and 7500 14C yr B.P. The plant remains prove that during the last cold-stage arctic species ( Minuartia arctica, Draba spp., Kobresia myosuroides) coexisted with aquatic ( Potamogeton vaginatus, Callitriche hermaphroditica), littoral ( Ranunculus reptans, Rumex maritimus), meadow ( Hordeum brevisubulatum, Puccinellia tenuiflora) and steppe taxa ( Alyssum obovatum, Silene repens, Koeleria cristata, Linum perenne). The reconstructed vegetation composition is similar to modern vegetation mosaics in central and northeast Yakutian relict steppe areas. Thus, productive meadow and steppe communities played an important role in the Siberian Arctic vegetation during the late Pleistocene and could have served as food resource for large populations of herbivores. The floristic composition reflects an extremely continental, arid climate with winters colder and summers distinctly warmer than at present. Holocene macrofossil assemblages indicate a successive paludification possibly connected with marine transgression, increased oceanic influence and atmospheric humidity. Although some steppe taxa were still present in the early Holocene, they disappeared completely before ˜2900 14C yr B.P.

  12. Influence of Environmental Changes on Physiology and Development of Polar Vascular Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giełwanowska, Irena; Pastorczyk, Marta; Kellmann-Sopyła, Wioleta

    2011-01-01

    Polar vascular plants native to the Arctic and the Antarctic geobotanical zone have been growing and reproducing effectively under difficult environmental conditions, colonizing frozen ground areas formerly covered by ice. Our macroscopic observations and microscopic studies conducted by means of a light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) concerning the anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative and generative tissue in Cerastium arcticum, Colobanthus quitensis, Silene involucrata, plants from Caryophyllaceae and Deschampsia antarctica, Poa annua and Poa arctica, from Poaceae family. In the studies, special attention was paid to plants coming from diversity habitats where stress factors operated with clearly different intensity. In all examinations plants, differences in anatomy were considerable. In Deschampsia antarctica the adaxial epidermis of hairgrass leaves from a humid microhabitat, bulliform cells differentiated. Mesophyll was composed of cells of irregular shapes and resembled aerenchyma. The ultrastructural observations of mesophyll in all plants showed tight adherence of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, surface deformations of these organelles and formation of characteristic outgrowths and pocket concavities filled with cytoplasm with vesicles and organelles by chloroplasts. In reproduction biology of examined Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae plants growing in natural conditions, in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn showed that this plant develops two types of bisexual flowers. Almost all ovules developed and formed seeds with a completely differentiated embryo both under natural conditions in the Arctic and the Antarctic and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn.

  13. Influence of Environmental Changes on Physiology and Development of Polar Vascular Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giełwanowska, Irena; Pastorczyk, Marta; Kellmann-Sopyła, Wioleta

    2011-01-01

    Polar vascular plants native to the Arctic and the Antarctic geobotanical zone have been growing and reproducing effectively under difficult environmental conditions, colonizing frozen ground areas formerly covered by ice. Our macroscopic observations and microscopic studies conducted by means of a light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) concerning the anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative and generative tissue in Cerastium arcticum, Colobanthus quitensis, Silene involucrata, plants from Caryophyllaceae and Deschampsia antarctica, Poa annua and Poa arctica, from Poaceae family. In the studies, special attention was paid to plants coming from diversity habitats where stress factors operated with clearly different intensity. In all examinations plants, differences in anatomy were considerable. In Deschampsia antarctica the adaxial epidermis of hairgrass leaves from a humid microhabitat, bulliform cells differentiated. Mesophyll was composed of cells of irregular shapes and resembled aerenchyma. The ultrastructural observations of mesophyll in all plants showed tight adherence of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, surface deformations of these organelles and formation of characteristic outgrowths and pocket concavities filled with cytoplasm with vesicles and organelles by chloroplasts. In reproduction biology of examined Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae plants growing in natural conditions, in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn showed that this plant develops two types of bisexual flowers. Almost all ovules developed and formed seeds with a completely differentiated embryo both under natural conditions in the Arctic and the Antarctic and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn.

  14. Ecological implications of reduced pollen deposition in alpine plants: a case study using a dominant cushion plant species

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Anya; Hooper, Robyn; Molenda, Olivia; Lortie, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive assurance hypothesis states that self-incompatible female plants must produce twice the number of seeds relative to their self-compatible hermaphroditic counterparts to persist in gynodioecious populations. This is a viable life-history strategy, provided that pollination rates are sufficiently high. However, reduced pollination rates in alpine plants are likely due to climate induced plant-pollinator mismatches and general declines in pollinators. Using a gynodioecious population of the dominant plant Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae), we tested the reproductive assurance hypothesis and also the stress gradient hypothesis with a series of pollinator exclusion trials and extensive measurements of subsequent reproductive output (gender ratio, plant size, percent fruit-set, fruit weight, seeds per fruit, total seeds, seed weight, and seed germination). The reproductive assurance hypothesis was supported with female plants being more sensitive to and less likely to be viable under reductions in pollination rates. These findings are the first to show that the stress gradient hypothesis is also supported under a gradient of pollen supply instead of environmental limitations. Beneficiary abundance was negatively correlated to percent fruit-set under current pollen supply, but became positive under reduced pollen supply suggesting that there are important plant-plant-pollinator interactions related to reproduction in these alpine plant species. PMID:25075305

  15. Paleobiology of the Sand Beneath the Valders Diamicton at Valders, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Louis J.; Miller, Norton G.; Baker, Richard G.; Curry, B. Brandon; Mickelson, David M.

    1998-03-01

    Previously undescribed pollen, plant macrofossils, molluscs, and ostracodes were recovered from a 2.5-m-thick glaciolacustrine unit of silty sand and clay at Valders, Wisconsin. The interstadial sediment was deposited about 12,200 14C yr B.P. after retreat of the Green Bay lobe that deposited diamicton of the Horicon Formation, and before advance of the Lake Michigan lobe that deposited the red-brown diamicton of the Valders Member of the Kewaunee Formation. Fluctuations of abundance of Candona subtriangulata, Cytherissa lacustris,and three other species define four ostracode biozones in the lower 1.7 m, suggesting an open lake environment that oscillated in depth and proximity to glacial ice. Pollen is dominated by Piceaand Artemisia,but the low percentages of many other types of long-distance origin suggest that the terrestrial vegetation was open and far from the forest border. The upper part of the sediment, a massive sand deposited in either a shallow pond or a sluggish stream, contains a local concentration of plant macrofossils. The interpretation of a cold open environment is supported by the plant macrofossils of more than 20 species, dominated by those of open mineral soils ( Arenaria rubella, Cerastium alpinumtype, Silene acaulis, Sibbaldia procumbens, Dryas integrifolia, Vaccinium uliginosumvar. alpinum, Armeria maritima,etc.) that in North America occur largely in the tundra and open tundra-forest ecotone of northern Canada. Ice-wedge casts occur in the sand.

  16. Post-floral Erection of Stalks Provides Insight into the Evolution of Fruit Orientation and Its Effects on Seed Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yang; Zhou, Zhuo; Sha, Wen; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    That stalks reorient after flowering to face upwards is a common phenomenon in many flowering plants, indicating the potential importance of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. But this idea has not been subject to an empirical test. We examined this hypothesis by analysing the evolutionary correlation between fruit orientation and other characters and by investigating the effects of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. We found that 1) in a sub-alpine plant community, upward fruit orientation strongly correlates with fruits that act as seed containers, which are often of dry type and are dispersed by non-animal vectors; 2) as exemplified by the Campanulaceae s. str., fruit orientation strongly correlates with dehiscence position. Upwardly-oriented capsules dehisce at the apex, whereas pendent ones dehisce at the base, in both cases ensuring that seeds are released from an upright position; 3) in manipulation experiments on Silene chungtienensis, upward fruits (the natural state) exhibit much greater dispersal distances and more dispersive pattern than pendent ones, and have a more even distribution of dispersal direction than horizontal ones. Our results suggest that fruit orientation may have important function in seed dispersal, which may be the reason why the phenomenon that stalk erection after flowering occurs widely. PMID:26832830

  17. In situ replication techniques: II. Quantitative methodologies for replicate materials.

    PubMed

    Kusy, R P; Whitley, J Q

    1985-01-01

    Because replicate materials have requirements different from those of recording or impression materials, quantitative methodologies were sought using commercial impression materials. Two satisfactory objective techniques resulted, a laser-scattering and a capillary flow test. Using high-resolution gratings to stimulate tooth detail (less than 1 micron), the reproduction quality of 36 two-stage replicas was determined in diffraction, reflection, and in an unblazed state. Using precision bore glass tubes (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mm diameters) to simulate the high-energy surface of enamel, the flow characteristics of nine elastomers (the first stage replicates) and four epoxies (the second stage replicates) were determined at isobaric conditions. Because the laser spot size was relatively large (0.6 mm) and the pressure differential was small (25 mm Hg), both the global resolution and the low shear rate characteristics could be measured. Of the commercial materials tested, Reprosil Light had the best combination of fluidity and resolution, regardless of which positive material was used. Although Permagum Low, Silene Wash, and Xantopren Blue scored high in one of the two tests, none of these materials could compare to Reprosil Light within the context described herein.

  18. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    PubMed

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L.

  19. Initial investigation into computer scoring of candidate essays for personnel selection.

    PubMed

    Campion, Michael C; Campion, Michael A; Campion, Emily D; Reider, Matthew H

    2016-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 101(7) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2016-32115-001). In the article the affiliations for Emily D. Campion and Matthew H. Reider were originally incorrect. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Emerging advancements including the exponentially growing availability of computer-collected data and increasingly sophisticated statistical software have led to a "Big Data Movement" wherein organizations have begun attempting to use large-scale data analysis to improve their effectiveness. Yet, little is known regarding how organizations can leverage these advancements to develop more effective personnel selection procedures, especially when the data are unstructured (text-based). Drawing on literature on natural language processing, we critically examine the possibility of leveraging advances in text mining and predictive modeling computer software programs as a surrogate for human raters in a selection context. We explain how to "train" a computer program to emulate a human rater when scoring accomplishment records. We then examine the reliability of the computer's scores, provide preliminary evidence of their construct validity, demonstrate that this practice does not produce scores that disadvantage minority groups, illustrate the positive financial impact of adopting this practice in an organization (N ∼ 46,000 candidates), and discuss implementation issues. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of using computer scoring to address the adverse impact-validity dilemma. We suggest that it may provide a cost-effective means of using predictors that have comparable validity but have previously been too expensive for large-scale screening. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077525

  20. [Empathy in the nurse practitioners of medical area].

    PubMed

    Facco, Simona; Cirio, Luigi; Galante, Jenni; Dimonte, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Introduzione. Attualmente sono pochi gli studi che indagano la capacità empatica nella popolazione infermieristica. Obiettivo di questo studio è analizzare la capacità empatica degli infermieri che prestano servizio in area medica in relazione a genere, età, formazione e anzianità di servizio. Materiali e metodi. Lo studio è di tipo descrittivo-osservazionale, su un campione di 60 infermieri. Lo strumento utilizzato per la valutazione dell’empatia è la scala di valutazione JSPE (versione HP) costituita da 20 item, in cui gli intervistati indicano il loro accordo o disaccordo con una scala Likert a 7 punti. Il range di valori possibili è da 20 a 140: il punteggio più alto corrisponde a una maggiore capacità empatica. Il questionario ha dimostrato la validità e l'affidabilità della versione italiana del JSPE con un coefficiente alfa di Cronbach di 0,85. Il punteggio Il livello di significatività statistica accettato è pari a P ≤ 0,05. Risultati. La media della capacità empatica dei professionisti intervistati è risultata di 104/140. Dai dati analizzati, emerge che con l’aumentare degli anni di servizio alla professione si verifica una diminuzione dell’empatia così come il permanere nello stesso reparto provoca una diminuzione empatica. Inoltre è emersa una maggiore empatia degli infermieri della neurologia rispetto alla medicina generale. Conclusioni. Lo studio evidenzia come i professionisti abbiano necessità di incrementare la capacità empatica soprattutto col trascorrere degli anni di esercizio alla professione. Probabilmente come meccanismo di difesa, il professionista tende a proteggersi dal coinvolgimento emotivo, favorendo le attività di natura più tecnico-gestuale, piuttosto che relazionale.

  1. Hot wire chemical vapor deposition chemistry in the gas phase and on the catalyst surface with organosilicon compounds.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yujun

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), also referred to as catalytic CVD (Cat-CVD), has been used to produce Si-containing thin films, nanomaterials, and functional polymer coatings that have found wide applications in microelectronic and photovoltaic devices, in automobiles, and in biotechnology. The success of HWCVD is largely due to its various advantages, including high deposition rate, low substrate temperatures, lack of plasma-induced damage, and large-area uniformity. Film growth in HWCVD is induced by reactive species generated from primary decomposition on the metal wire or from secondary reactions in the gas phase. In order to achieve a rational and efficient optimization of the process, it is essential to identify the reactive species and to understand the chemical kinetics that govern the production of these precursor species for film growth. In this Account, we report recent progress in unraveling the complex gas-phase reaction chemistry in the HWCVD growth of silicon carbide thin films using organosilicon compounds as single-source precursors. We have demonstrated that laser ionization mass spectrometry is a powerful diagnostic tool for studying the gas-phase reaction chemistry when combined with the methods of isotope labeling and chemical trapping. The four methyl-substituted silane molecules, belonging to open-chain alkylsilanes, dissociatively adsorb on W and Ta filaments to produce methyl radical and H2 molecule. Under the typical deposition pressures, with increasing number of methyl substitution, the dominant chemistry occurring in the gas phase switches from silylene/silene reactions to free-radical short chain reactions. This change in dominant reaction intermediates from silylene/silene to methyl radicals explains the observation from thin film deposition that silicon carbide films become more C-rich with a decreasing number of Si-H bonds in the four precursor molecules. In the case of cyclic monosilacyclobutanes, we have

  2. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    PubMed

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  3. Performance of a sub-surface flow constructed wetland in polishing pre-treated wastewater-a tropical case study.

    PubMed

    Kaseva, M E

    2004-02-01

    This paper reports on the performance of three units of a sub-surface horizontal flow constructed wetland (CW) pilot plant in polishing effluent from the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor plant. Studies on the use of UASB for on-site wastewater pre-treatment were initiated in Tanzania for the first time in 1993, while initial research works on the application of CW for polishing effluent from UASB, the results of which are reported in this paper began in 1999. In this study the UASB reactor plant received and pre-treated part of the wastewater from the student's hostels at the University College of Lands and Architectural Studies in Tanzania. Out of the three units, unit B was planted with Phragmites mauritianus, unit C with Typha latifolia and A was used as a control. Both P.mauritianus and T.latifolia have been extensively researched in Europe and USA as suitable species of vegetation in CW. However, very limited studies on the suitability of these wetland plants have been reported under tropical climate. The studied parameters were chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate (NO(3)-N), nitrite (NO(2)-N), ammonium (NH(4)-N), faecal coliforms (FC), total coliforms (TC), pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO). The study was carried out at an average hydraulic retention time of 1.93 days (1.85 in unit A, 1.96 in unit B and 1.99 in unit C) obtained as a ratio of the volume of wastewater in the wetland and the volumetric flow rate of wastewater through the wetland unit while taking into consideration the porosity of the media. Better performance for the vegetated units B and C were obtained compared to the control unit A. Nutrients were least removed in all units (NH(4)-N 11.2%, 25.2% and 23% in units A, B and C, respectively, NO(3)-N 32.2%, 40.3% and 44.3% for units A, B and C, respectively, and NO(2)-N 23.9%, 38.5% and 23.1% for units A, B and C, respectively). The COD removal rate was 33.6%, 56.3% and 60.7% for units A, B and C, respectively. The study

  4. Decomposition dynamics of mixed litter in a seasonally flooded forest near the Orinoco river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianoni, Alessia; Chacón, Noemí; Méndez, Carlos L.; Flores, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the decomposition of a litter mixture in the seasonally flooded forest of a tributary of the Orinoco river. This mixture was prepared using three litter species, based on the litter fall rate observed over a complete hydro-period (2012-2013). The mixture loading ratio was 0.46 of Pouteria orinocoensis (Sapotaceae), 0.38 of Alibertia latifolia (Rubiaceae) and 0.16 of Acosmium nitens (Fabaceae). The initial chemical composition of each single litter species was also determined. Litterbags (20 × 20 cm, 2 mm opening) containing either each single species or the mixture, were deployed on the flooded forest soil and sampled after 30, 240, 270, 300 and 330 days. There were differences in initial total N and P concentrations, with A. nitens (AN) showing the highest nutrient concentrations (%NAN = 1.86 ± 0.19; %PAN = 0.058 ± 0.008) and P. orinocoensis (PO) and A. latifolia (AL) the lowest (%NPO = 0.92 ± 0.06; %NAL = 1.04 ± 0.04; %PPO = 0.029 ± 0.005; %PAL = 0.032 ± 0.001). Litter from AN showed the greatest mass loss (55%) and fastest decomposition rate (k = 0.00185 ± 0.00028) while litter from AL and the mixture showed the smallest mass loss (24% and 27% respectively) and the slowest decomposition rate (kAL = 0.00078 ± 0.00012 and kMIX = 0.00077 ± 0.00006). Decomposition rates were significantly and positively correlated with initial N (r = 0.556, p < 0.05) and P concentrations (r = 0.482, p < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between the expected decomposition rate and the observed decomposition rate of the mixture (additive response). To test the nature of the additivity, an enhancement factor (f) on decomposition rates for each single species was calculated. The species with the highest and smallest value of f were AN and AL, respectively. The fact that two out of the three species had values significantly different from 1, suggests that the additivity detected in our mixture was a consequence of the counterbalancing of

  5. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    PubMed

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  6. [Current diagnostic-therapeutic trends in treatment of pediatric appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Malnati, R; Capasso, G; Stagni, S; Bua, L; Albisetti, A; Erenbourg, L; Paesano, P L

    1994-03-01

    Acute appendicitis is the first cause of emergency surgery in children. Actually, emergency abdominal sonography has evolved in differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children to differentiate it from other causes of acute abdomen as mesenteric lymphoadenitis, acute right pyelonephritis, acute diverticulitis in Meckel's diverticulum, intestinal intussusception, regional enterits, primary peritonitis, anaphylactoid purpura of Henoch-Schonlein. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the usefulness of abdominal sonography in diagnosing acute appendicitis in our current series of pediatric patients. We have operated 102 patients afflicted by appendicitis admitted to the pediatric department of Ospedale San Raffaele, Milano in a period of 5 years and operated on for appendectomy. In the last 2 years 36 patients were evaluated with abdominal sonography. This diagnostic tool showed in 34 (94.4%) a liquid effusion, sometimes thick of the right iliac fossa. In 2 patients the appendix had thickened layers, was edematous and the lumen was clearly filled with debris. Abdominal sonography has given a clear cut picture of the acute inflammatory process of the appendix. None of these patients has suffered from septic or obstructive complications. Mean duration of hospital stay was 6.35 days (3-15 days). Differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis can be extremely variable, from simple, paradigmatic situations to the most intriguing ones. This concept is well emphasized by William Silen when he says that "differential diagnosis of acute appendicits is an encyclopedic compendium of every abdominal disease that causes pain" in the 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Regeneration of whole fertile plants from 30,000-y-old fruit tissue buried in Siberian permafrost.

    PubMed

    Yashina, Svetlana; Gubin, Stanislav; Maksimovich, Stanislav; Yashina, Alexandra; Gakhova, Edith; Gilichinsky, David

    2012-03-01

    Whole, fertile plants of Silene stenophylla Ledeb. (Caryophyllaceae) have been uniquely regenerated from maternal, immature fruit tissue of Late Pleistocene age using in vitro tissue culture and clonal micropropagation. The fruits were excavated in northeastern Siberia from fossil squirrel burrows buried at a depth of 38 m in undisturbed and never thawed Late Pleistocene permafrost sediments with a temperature of -7 °C. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating showed fruits to be 31,800 ± 300 y old. The total γ-radiation dose accumulated by the fruits during this time was calculated as 0.07 kGy; this is the maximal reported dose after which tissues remain viable and seeds still germinate. Regenerated plants were brought to flowering and fruiting and they set viable seeds. At present, plants of S. stenophylla are the most ancient, viable, multicellular, living organisms. Morphophysiological studies comparing regenerated and extant plants obtained from modern seeds of the same species in the same region revealed that they were distinct phenotypes of S. stenophylla. The first generation cultivated from seeds obtained from regenerated plants progressed through all developmental stages and had the same morphological features as parent plants. The investigation showed high cryoresistance of plant placental tissue in permafrost. This natural cryopreservation of plant tissue over many thousands of years demonstrates a role for permafrost as a depository for an ancient gene pool, i.e., preexisting life, which hypothetically has long since vanished from the earth's surface, a potential source of ancient germplasm, and a laboratory for the study of rates of microevolution.

  8. Large entropic effects on the thermochemistry of silicon nanodusty plasma constituents.

    PubMed

    Seal, Prasenjit; Truhlar, Donald G

    2014-02-19

    Determination of the thermodynamic properties of reactor constituents is the first step in designing control strategies for plasma-mediated deposition processes and is also a key fundamental issue in physical chemistry. In this work, a recently proposed multistructural statistical thermodynamic method is used to show the importance of multiple structures and torsional anharmonicity in determining the thermodynamic properties of silicon hydride clusters, which are important both in plasmas and in thermally driven systems. It includes five different categories of silicon hydride clusters and radicals, including silanes, silyl radicals, and silenes. We employed a statistical mechanical approach, namely the recently developed multistructural (MS) anharmonicity method, in combination with density functional theory to calculate the partition functions, which in turn are used to estimate thermodynamic quantities, namely Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity, for all of the systems considered. The calculations are performed using all of the conformational structures of each molecule or radical by employing the multistructural quasiharmonic approximation (MS-QH) and also by including torsional potential anharmonicity (MS-T). For those cases where group additivity (GA) results are available, the thermodynamic quantities obtained from our MS-T calculations differ considerably due to the fact that the GA method is based on single-structure data for isomers of each stoichiometry, and hence lack multistructural effects; whereas we find that multistructural effects are very important in silicon hydride systems. Our results also indicate that the entropic effect on the thermochemistry is huge and is dominated by multistructural effects. The entropic effect of multiple structures is also expected to be important for other kinds of chain molecules, and its effect on nucleation kinetics is expected to be large.

  9. Soil seed-bank composition reveals the land-use history of calcareous grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlík, Petr; Poschlod, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We compared soil seed banks and vegetation of recent (established on abandoned arable fields) and ancient (continuously managed as pastures at least since 1830) calcareous grasslands if there is any impact of former arable field use. The study was carried out in two regions of Southern Germany with well-preserved dry grassland vegetation: the western Jurassic mountains (Kaltes Feld) and the climatically drier eastern part of Southern Germany (Kallmünz). Total number of species in the seed bank was similar in both regions, but species composition partly differed, reflecting phytogeographical differences between the regions. The total number of emerged seedlings showed a large disparity (5457 compared to 2523 seedlings/m2 in Kaltes Feld and Kallmünz, respectively). Though there were differences in seed bank composition and size, we found a uniform pattern of plant traits (affiliation to phytosociological groups, Raunkiaer plant life-forms and seed longevity), which depended on the age of the grassland. The main conclusion is that seed banks in contemporary calcareous grasslands still reflect the history of former land use - in this case arable cultivation, even though it occurred a long time ago (up to 150 years). Indicators of former arable fields are germinable seeds of weeds which have persisted in the soil to the present. By contrast, weedy species are completely absent from the seed banks of ancient grasslands. Soil seed banks of recent grasslands may be of substantial conservation importance because they may store seeds of rare and endangered weed species such as Kickxia spuria, Silene noctiflora and Stachys annua, the majority of which have already gone extinct from the current vegetation of the study sites.

  10. Population admixture, biological invasions and the balance between local adaptation and inbreeding depression.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Koen J F; Macel, Mirka; Wolfe, Lorne M; Biere, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    When previously isolated populations meet and mix, the resulting admixed population can benefit from several genetic advantages, including increased genetic variation, the creation of novel genotypes and the masking of deleterious mutations. These admixture benefits are thought to play an important role in biological invasions. In contrast, populations in their native range often remain differentiated and frequently suffer from inbreeding depression owing to isolation. While the advantages of admixture are evident for introduced populations that experienced recent bottlenecks or that face novel selection pressures, it is less obvious why native range populations do not similarly benefit from admixture. Here we argue that a temporary loss of local adaptation in recent invaders fundamentally alters the fitness consequences of admixture. In native populations, selection against dilution of the locally adapted gene pool inhibits unconstrained admixture and reinforces population isolation, with some level of inbreeding depression as an expected consequence. We show that admixture is selected against despite significant inbreeding depression because the benefits of local adaptation are greater than the cost of inbreeding. In contrast, introduced populations that have not yet established a pattern of local adaptation can freely reap the benefits of admixture. There can be strong selection for admixture because it instantly lifts the inbreeding depression that had built up in isolated parental populations. Recent work in Silene suggests that reduced inbreeding depression associated with post-introduction admixture may contribute to enhanced fitness of invasive populations. We hypothesize that in locally adapted populations, the benefits of local adaptation are balanced against an inbreeding cost that could develop in part owing to the isolating effect of local adaptation itself. The inbreeding cost can be revealed in admixing populations during recent invasions.

  11. SEX-DETector: A Probabilistic Approach to Study Sex Chromosomes in Non-Model Organisms.

    PubMed

    Muyle, Aline; Käfer, Jos; Zemp, Niklaus; Mousset, Sylvain; Picard, Franck; Marais, Gabriel Ab

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic framework to infer autosomal and sex-linked genes from RNA-seq data of a cross for any sex chromosome type (XY, ZW, and UV). Sex chromosomes (especially the non-recombining and repeat-dense Y, W, U, and V) are notoriously difficult to sequence. Strategies have been developed to obtain partially assembled sex chromosome sequences. Most of them remain difficult to apply to numerous non-model organisms, either because they require a reference genome, or because they are designed for evolutionarily old systems. Sequencing a cross (parents and progeny) by RNA-seq to study the segregation of alleles and infer sex-linked genes is a cost-efficient strategy, which also provides expression level estimates. However, the lack of a proper statistical framework has limited a broader application of this approach. Tests on empirical Silene data show that our method identifies 20-35% more sex-linked genes than existing pipelines, while making reliable inferences for downstream analyses. Approximately 12 individuals are needed for optimal results based on simulations. For species with an unknown sex-determination system, the method can assess the presence and type (XY vs. ZW) of sex chromosomes through a model comparison strategy. The method is particularly well optimized for sex chromosomes of young or intermediate age, which are expected in thousands of yet unstudied lineages. Any organisms, including non-model ones for which nothing is known a priori, that can be bred in the lab, are suitable for our method. SEX-DETector and its implementation in a Galaxy workflow are made freely available. PMID:27492231

  12. Miniaturized mitogenome of the parasitic plant Viscum scurruloideum is extremely divergent and dynamic and has lost all nad genes

    PubMed Central

    Skippington, Elizabeth; Barkman, Todd J.; Rice, Danny W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the enormous diversity among parasitic angiosperms in form and structure, life-history strategies, and plastid genomes, little is known about the diversity of their mitogenomes. We report the sequence of the wonderfully bizarre mitogenome of the hemiparasitic aerial mistletoe Viscum scurruloideum. This genome is only 66 kb in size, making it the smallest known angiosperm mitogenome by a factor of more than three and the smallest land plant mitogenome. Accompanying this size reduction is exceptional reduction of gene content. Much of this reduction arises from the unexpected loss of respiratory complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), universally present in all 300+ other angiosperms examined, where it is encoded by nine mitochondrial and many nuclear nad genes. Loss of complex I in a multicellular organism is unprecedented. We explore the potential relationship between this loss in Viscum and its parasitic lifestyle. Despite its small size, the Viscum mitogenome is unusually rich in recombinationally active repeats, possessing unparalleled levels of predicted sublimons resulting from recombination across short repeats. Many mitochondrial gene products exhibit extraordinary levels of divergence in Viscum, indicative of highly relaxed if not positive selection. In addition, all Viscum mitochondrial protein genes have experienced a dramatic acceleration in synonymous substitution rates, consistent with the hypothesis of genomic streamlining in response to a high mutation rate but completely opposite to the pattern seen for the high-rate but enormous mitogenomes of Silene. In sum, the Viscum mitogenome possesses a unique constellation of extremely unusual features, a subset of which may be related to its parasitic lifestyle. PMID:26100885

  13. Stress Memory and the Inevitable Effects of Drought: A Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fleta-Soriano, Eva; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Plants grow and develop by adjusting their physiology to changes in their environment. Changes in the abiotic environment occur over years, seasons, and days, but also over minutes and even seconds. In this ever-changing environment, plants may adjust their structure and function rapidly to optimize growth and reproduction. Plant responses to reiterated drought (i.e., repeated cycles of drought) differ from those to single incidences of drought; in fact, in nature, plants are usually exposed to repeated cycles of drought that differ in duration and intensity. Nowadays, there is increased interest in better understanding mechanisms of plant response to reiterated drought due, at least in part, to the discovery of epigenomic changes that trigger drought stress memory in plants. Beyond epigenomic changes, there are, however, other aspects that should be considered in the study of plant responses to reiterated drought: from changes in other “omics” approaches (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), to changes in plant structure; all of which may help us to better understand plant stress memory and its underlying mechanisms. Here, we present an example in which reiterated drought affects the pigment composition of leaves in the ornamental plant Silene dioica and discuss the importance of structural changes (in this case in the photosynthetic apparatus) for the plant response to reiterated drought; they represent a stress imprint that can affect plant response to subsequent stress episodes. Emphasis is placed on the importance of considering structural changes, in addition to physiological adjustments at the “omics” level, to understand stress memory in plants better. PMID:26913046

  14. Experimental hybridization and backcrossing reveal forces of reproductive isolation in Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization and reproductive isolation are central to the origin and maintenance of species, and especially for sympatric species, gene flow is often inhibited through barriers that depend upon mating compatibility factors. The anther-smut fungi (genus Microbotryum) serve as models for speciation in the face of sympatry, and previous studies have tested for but not detected assortative mating. In addition, post-mating barriers are indicated by reduced fitness of hybrids, but sources of those barriers (i.e. ecological maladaptation or genetic incompatibilities) have not yet been detected. Here, backcrossing experiments, specifically controlling for the fungal species origins of the mating compatibility factors, were used to investigate reproductive isolation in the recently-derived species Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and Microbotryum silenes-dioicae. Results Assortative mating was detected during backcrossing and was manifested by the preferential conjugation of the hybrid-produced gametes with non-hybrid gametes containing mating compatibility factors from the same parental species. Patterns of post-mating performance supported either a level of extrinsic isolation mechanism, where backcross progeny with a higher proportion of the pathogen genome adapted to the particular host environment were favored, or an infection advantage attributed to greater genetic contribution to the hybrid from the M. lychnidis-dioicae genome. Conclusion The use of controlled backcrossing experiments reveals significant species-specific mating type effects on conjugations between recently-derived sister species, which are likely to play important roles in both maintaining species separation and the nature of hybrids lineages that emerge in sympatry between Microbotryum species. PMID:24112452

  15. Unravelling genetics at the top: mountain islands or isolated belts?

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, Alfredo; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Widmer, Alex; Escudero, Adrian; Iriondo, José María

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims In mountain plant populations, local adaptation has been described as one of the main responses to climate warming, allowing plants to persist under stressful conditions. This is especially the case for marginal populations at their lowest elevation, as they are highly vulnerable. Adequate levels of genetic diversity are required for selection to take place, while high levels of altitudinal gene flow are seen as a major limiting factor potentially precluding local adaptation processes. Thus, a compromise between genetic diversity and gene flow seems necessary to guarantee persistence under oncoming conditions. It is therefore critical to determine if gene flow occurs preferentially between mountains at similar altitudinal belts, promoting local adaptation at the lowest populations, or conversely along altitude within each mountain. Methods Microsatellite markers were used to unravel genetic diversity and population structure, inbreeding and gene flow of populations at two nearby altitudinal gradients of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean high-mountain cushion plant. Key Results Genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients were similar in all populations. Substantial gene flow was found both along altitudinal gradients and horizontally within each elevation belt, although greater values were obtained along altitudinal gradients. Gene flow may be responsible for the homogeneous levels of genetic diversity found among populations. Bayesian cluster analyses also suggested that shifts along altitudinal gradients are the most plausible scenario. Conclusions Past population shifts associated with glaciations and interglacial periods in temperate mountains may partially explain current distributions of genetic diversity and population structure. In spite of the predominance of gene flow along the altitudinal gradients, local genetic differentiation of one of the lower populations together with the detection of one outlier locus might support the existence

  16. Steps towards verification and validation of the Fetch code for Level 2 analysis, design, and optimization of aqueous homogeneous reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, E. T.; Pain, C. C.; Eaton, M. D.; Gomes, J. L. M. A.; Goddard, A. J. H.; Gorman, G.; Tollit, B.; Buchan, A. G.; Cooling, C. M.; Angelo, P. L.

    2012-07-01

    Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Group (B and W) has identified aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) as a technology well suited to produce the medical isotope molybdenum 99 (Mo-99). AHRs have never been specifically designed or built for this specialized purpose. However, AHRs have a proven history of being safe research reactors. In fact, in 1958, AHRs had 'a longer history of operation than any other type of research reactor using enriched fuel' and had 'experimentally demonstrated to be among the safest of all various type of research reactor now in use [1].' While AHRs have been modeled effectively using simplified 'Level 1' tools, the complex interactions between fluids, neutronics, and solid structures are important (but not necessarily safety significant). These interactions require a 'Level 2' modeling tool. Imperial College London (ICL) has developed such a tool: Finite Element Transient Criticality (FETCH). FETCH couples the radiation transport code EVENT with the computational fluid dynamics code (Fluidity), the result is a code capable of modeling sub-critical, critical, and super-critical solutions in both two-and three-dimensions. Using FETCH, ICL researchers and B and W engineers have studied many fissioning solution systems include the Tokaimura criticality accident, the Y12 accident, SILENE, TRACY, and SUPO. These modeling efforts will ultimately be incorporated into FETCH'S extensive automated verification and validation (V and V) test suite expanding FETCH'S area of applicability to include all relevant physics associated with AHRs. These efforts parallel B and W's engineering effort to design and optimize an AHR to produce Mo99. (authors)

  17. Investigation of the effects of radiolytic-gas bubbles on the long-term operation of solution reactors for medical-isotope production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto Mantecon, Francisco Javier

    One of the most common and important medical radioisotopes is 99Mo, which is currently produced using the target irradiation technology in heterogeneous nuclear reactors. The medical isotope 99Mo can also be produced from uranium fission using aqueous homogeneous solution reactors. In solution reactors, 99Mo is generated directly in the fuel solution, resulting in potential advantages when compared with the target irradiation process in heterogeneous reactors, such as lower reactor power, less waste heat, and reduction by a factor of about 100 in the generation of spent fuel. The commercial production of medical isotopes in solution reactors requires steady-state operation at about 200 kW. At this power regime, the formation of radiolytic-gas bubbles creates a void volume in the fuel solution that introduces a negative coefficient of reactivity, resulting in power reduction and instabilities that may impede reactor operation for medical-isotope production. A model has been developed considering that reactivity effects are due to the increase in the fuel-solution temperature and the formation of radiolytic-gas bubbles. The model has been validated against experimental results from the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranyl fluoride Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA), and the SILENE uranyl nitrate solution reactor, commissioned at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in Valduc, France. The model shows the feasibility of solution reactors for the commercial production of medical isotopes and reveals some of the important parameters to consider in their design, including the fuel-solution type, 235U enrichment, uranium concentration, reactor vessel geometry, and neutron reflectors surrounding the reactor vessel. The work presented herein indicates that steady-state operation at 200 kW can be achieved with a solution reactor consisting of 120 L of uranyl nitrate solution enriched up to 20% with 235U and a uranium concentration of 145 kg/m3 in a graphite

  18. Regeneration of whole fertile plants from 30,000-y-old fruit tissue buried in Siberian permafrost

    PubMed Central

    Yashina, Svetlana; Gubin, Stanislav; Maksimovich, Stanislav; Yashina, Alexandra; Gakhova, Edith; Gilichinsky, David

    2012-01-01

    Whole, fertile plants of Silene stenophylla Ledeb. (Caryophyllaceae) have been uniquely regenerated from maternal, immature fruit tissue of Late Pleistocene age using in vitro tissue culture and clonal micropropagation. The fruits were excavated in northeastern Siberia from fossil squirrel burrows buried at a depth of 38 m in undisturbed and never thawed Late Pleistocene permafrost sediments with a temperature of −7 °C. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating showed fruits to be 31,800 ± 300 y old. The total γ-radiation dose accumulated by the fruits during this time was calculated as 0.07 kGy; this is the maximal reported dose after which tissues remain viable and seeds still germinate. Regenerated plants were brought to flowering and fruiting and they set viable seeds. At present, plants of S. stenophylla are the most ancient, viable, multicellular, living organisms. Morphophysiological studies comparing regenerated and extant plants obtained from modern seeds of the same species in the same region revealed that they were distinct phenotypes of S. stenophylla. The first generation cultivated from seeds obtained from regenerated plants progressed through all developmental stages and had the same morphological features as parent plants. The investigation showed high cryoresistance of plant placental tissue in permafrost. This natural cryopreservation of plant tissue over many thousands of years demonstrates a role for permafrost as a depository for an ancient gene pool, i.e., preexisting life, which hypothetically has long since vanished from the earth's surface, a potential source of ancient germplasm, and a laboratory for the study of rates of microevolution. PMID:22355102

  19. Status and limiting factors of two rare plant species in dry montane communities of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2012-01-01

    Silene hawaiiensis had a stable population structure at the Mauna Loa study area, but its population structure at the Kīlauea study site was flat to declining. Mortality of adult plants was low on Mauna Loa (6.5%), but was greater than 30% at the Kīlauea Crater Rim site. Among regularly monitored plants at the Kīlauea site, losses were observed in all size classes between 2006 and 2008. Natural seedling recruitment was observed in stand structure plots at both sites between 2006 and 2007, but numbers of seedlings were low and did not compensate for losses of adult plants. Reproductive phenology was annual with buds and flowers observed in summer and fall, and fruit formed in the fall and winter. The production of immature fruit capsules from buds and flowers was high (51.2%) and tagged immature fruit became mature fruit at a high rate of 66.7%. Floral visitation rates were very low in timed observations and only three insect species were identified visiting S. hawaiiensis flowers: native yellow-faced bees Hylaeus difficilis and H. volcanicus, and the alien hover fly Allograpta exotica. A seed dispersal experiment at the Kīlauea Crater Rim site demonstrated that wind dispersed seeds could travel at least 40 m from S. hawaiiensis plants with mature open capsules. Seed germination rates varied from 7.0 to 73.0% in greenhouse trials. Mortality of planted seedlings at Kahuku was not significantly greater outside ungulate exclosures than inside, but growth in height and production of reproductive structures was significantly greater in protected areas inside exclosures. In the current study, the seedling stage was the most vulnerable part of the life cycle for both P. stachyoides and S. hawaiiensis, and low seedling recruitment appeared to be the most important limiting factor for these species

  20. A Dynamical Phyllotaxis Model to Determine Floral Organ Number

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Miho S.; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    How organisms determine particular organ numbers is a fundamental key to the development of precise body structures; however, the developmental mechanisms underlying organ-number determination are unclear. In many eudicot plants, the primordia of sepals and petals (the floral organs) first arise sequentially at the edge of a circular, undifferentiated region called the floral meristem, and later transition into a concentric arrangement called a whorl, which includes four or five organs. The properties controlling the transition to whorls comprising particular numbers of organs is little explored. We propose a development-based model of floral organ-number determination, improving upon earlier models of plant phyllotaxis that assumed two developmental processes: the sequential initiation of primordia in the least crowded space around the meristem and the constant growth of the tip of the stem. By introducing mutual repulsion among primordia into the growth process, we numerically and analytically show that the whorled arrangement emerges spontaneously from the sequential initiation of primordia. Moreover, by allowing the strength of the inhibition exerted by each primordium to decrease as the primordium ages, we show that pentamerous whorls, in which the angular and radial positions of the primordia are consistent with those observed in sepal and petal primordia in Silene coeli-rosa, Caryophyllaceae, become the dominant arrangement. The organ number within the outmost whorl, corresponding to the sepals, takes a value of four or five in a much wider parameter space than that in which it takes a value of six or seven. These results suggest that mutual repulsion among primordia during growth and a temporal decrease in the strength of the inhibition during initiation are required for the development of the tetramerous and pentamerous whorls common in eudicots. PMID:25950739

  1. Angular dependence of a simple accident dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, R. T.; Romero, L. L.; Olsher, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    A simple dosimeter made of a sulfur tablet, bare and cadmium covered indium foils and a cadmium covered copper foil has been modeled using MCNP5. Studies of the model without phantom or other confounding factors have shown that the cross sections and fluence-to-dose factors generated by the Monte Carlo method agree with those generated by analytic expressions for the high energy component. The threshold cross sections for the detectors on a phantom were calculated. The resulting doses assigned agree well with exposures made to three critical assemblies. In this study the angular dependence on a phantom is studied and compared with measurements taken on the GODIVA reactor. The dosimeter positions on the phantom are facing the source, on the back and the side. In previous papers the modeling of a simple dosimeter made of a sulfur tablet, bare and cadmium covered indium foils and a cadmium covered copper foil has been modeled using MCNP5. The conclusion made was that most of the neutron dose from criticality assemblies results from the high energy neutron fluences determined by the sulfur and indium detectors. The results using doses measured from the GODIVA, SHEBA, and bare and lead shielded SILENE reactors confirmed this. The angular dependence of an accident dosemeter is of interest in evaluating the exposure of personnel. To investigate this effect accident dosemeters were placed on a phantom and exposed to the GODIVA reactor at phantom orientations of 0{sup o}, 45{sup o}, 90{sup o}, 135{sup o}, and 180{sup o} to the assembly center line.

  2. SEX-DETector: A Probabilistic Approach to Study Sex Chromosomes in Non-Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Muyle, Aline; Käfer, Jos; Zemp, Niklaus; Mousset, Sylvain; Picard, Franck; Marais, Gabriel AB

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic framework to infer autosomal and sex-linked genes from RNA-seq data of a cross for any sex chromosome type (XY, ZW, and UV). Sex chromosomes (especially the non-recombining and repeat-dense Y, W, U, and V) are notoriously difficult to sequence. Strategies have been developed to obtain partially assembled sex chromosome sequences. Most of them remain difficult to apply to numerous non-model organisms, either because they require a reference genome, or because they are designed for evolutionarily old systems. Sequencing a cross (parents and progeny) by RNA-seq to study the segregation of alleles and infer sex-linked genes is a cost-efficient strategy, which also provides expression level estimates. However, the lack of a proper statistical framework has limited a broader application of this approach. Tests on empirical Silene data show that our method identifies 20–35% more sex-linked genes than existing pipelines, while making reliable inferences for downstream analyses. Approximately 12 individuals are needed for optimal results based on simulations. For species with an unknown sex-determination system, the method can assess the presence and type (XY vs. ZW) of sex chromosomes through a model comparison strategy. The method is particularly well optimized for sex chromosomes of young or intermediate age, which are expected in thousands of yet unstudied lineages. Any organisms, including non-model ones for which nothing is known a priori, that can be bred in the lab, are suitable for our method. SEX-DETector and its implementation in a Galaxy workflow are made freely available. PMID:27492231

  3. SEX-DETector: A Probabilistic Approach to Study Sex Chromosomes in Non-Model Organisms.

    PubMed

    Muyle, Aline; Käfer, Jos; Zemp, Niklaus; Mousset, Sylvain; Picard, Franck; Marais, Gabriel Ab

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic framework to infer autosomal and sex-linked genes from RNA-seq data of a cross for any sex chromosome type (XY, ZW, and UV). Sex chromosomes (especially the non-recombining and repeat-dense Y, W, U, and V) are notoriously difficult to sequence. Strategies have been developed to obtain partially assembled sex chromosome sequences. Most of them remain difficult to apply to numerous non-model organisms, either because they require a reference genome, or because they are designed for evolutionarily old systems. Sequencing a cross (parents and progeny) by RNA-seq to study the segregation of alleles and infer sex-linked genes is a cost-efficient strategy, which also provides expression level estimates. However, the lack of a proper statistical framework has limited a broader application of this approach. Tests on empirical Silene data show that our method identifies 20-35% more sex-linked genes than existing pipelines, while making reliable inferences for downstream analyses. Approximately 12 individuals are needed for optimal results based on simulations. For species with an unknown sex-determination system, the method can assess the presence and type (XY vs. ZW) of sex chromosomes through a model comparison strategy. The method is particularly well optimized for sex chromosomes of young or intermediate age, which are expected in thousands of yet unstudied lineages. Any organisms, including non-model ones for which nothing is known a priori, that can be bred in the lab, are suitable for our method. SEX-DETector and its implementation in a Galaxy workflow are made freely available.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Initial Gaia Source List (IGSL) (Smart, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, R. L.; Nicastro, L.

    2013-11-01

    The IGSL is a compilation catalog produced for the Gaia mission. We have combined data from the following catalogs or datasets to produce a homogenous list of positons, proper motions, photometry in a blue and red band and estimates of the magnitudes in the Gaia G and G_RVS bands. Included Catalogs: Tycho2, LQRF, UCAC4, SDSS-DR9, PPMXL, GSC23, GEPC, OGLE, Sky2000, 2MASS. Note that in compiling the various entries we did not consider the individual flags. Overall, we think this catalog is reliable but there will be errors, mismatches and duplicates. The user should use this catalog with that in mind, it is fine for statistical studies that has some way to remove obviously incorrect entries but it should only be used with care for individual objects. The source catalogs used to produce the IGSL are: * The Gaia Ecliptic Pole Catalog, version 3.0 (GEPC) Altmann & Bastian 2009, "Ecliptic Poles Catalogue Version 1.1" ESA Document GAIA-C3-TN-ARI-MA-002 URL http://www.rssd.esa.int/llink/livelink/open/2885828 * GSC2.3: GSC2 version 2.3, Lasker et al. 2008AJ....136..735L (I/305) * an excerpt of the 4th version of the Gaia Initial QSO Catalog (GIQC) as compiled by the GWP-S-335-13000, formed by Alexandre H. Andrei, Christophe Barache, Dario N. da Silva Neto, Francois Taris, Geraldine Bourda, Jean-Francois Le Campion, Jean Souchay, J.J. Pereira Osorio, Julio I. Bueno de Camargo, Marcelo Assafin, Roberto Vieira Martins, Sebastien Bouquillon, Sebastien Lambert, Sonia Anton, Patrick Charlot * OGLE: Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment version III (Szymaski et al., 2011, Cat. J/AcA/61/83) * PPMXL: Positions and Proper Motions "Extra Large" Catalog, Roeser et al. (2010, Cat. I/317) * SDSS: Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 9, Cat. V/139 * UCAC4: Zacharias et al., 2012, Cat. I/322 * Tycho-2, Hoeg et al., 2000, Cat. I/259 (1 data file).

  5. Obituary: Martin F. McCarthy (1923-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyne, George; Rubin, Vera

    2011-12-01

    Martin F. McCarthy, S.J., astronomer at the Vatican Observatory from 1958 until his retirement in 1999, died peacefully on 5 February at the age of 86 years at the Jesuit Campion Health Center in Weston, Massachusetts where he had resided since his retirement. McCarthy received his doctorate in astronomy from Georgetown University, Washington, DC in 1951. The study of carbon stars, stars whose atmospheres contain more carbon than oxygen, was a major interest for McCarthy. Carbon stars were originally discovered and studied in the 1860s by Fr. Secchi, the eminent Jesuit astronomer. Interestingly, Fr. Secchi spent 1848-50 at Georgetown University in Washington, where Martin McCarthy would receive his PhD degree 101 years later. Upon completion of his seminary studies in theology, he carried out post-doctoral research at Warner and Swasey Observatory, Lick Observatory, the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and Yerkes Observatory until he began his career at the Vatican Observatory where he served as a key figure in the Observatory's transition to the world of modern research. He also brought the Observatory onto the international stage through his collaborations in research at, among other institutes, Palomar Observatory, Lowell Observatory, Las Campanas Observatories, the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory and the Carnegie Institute of Washington. He served on the Executive Council of the Italian Astronomical Society (1969-1971), was chair of the National Committee of the Vatican to the International Astronomical Union (IAU) from 1979 until his retirement and was President of IAU Commission 25 Stellar Photometry and Polarimetry (1976-1979). During his career he published more than 120 research papers. He was a natural teacher, who enjoyed explaining and talking science to students and visitors. Among his many contributions to the growth of the Vatican Observatory, he was responsible in 1986 for the beginning of the series of the Vatican Observatory Summer

  6. Long waiting lists and health care spending: the example of cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Silvia; Benvenuto, Chiara; Casagranda, Biagio; Dobrinja, Chiara; Piccinni, Giuseppe; de Manzini, Nicolò

    2014-03-28

    Lo scopo dello studio è stato valutare l’incidenza di complicanze correlate alla calcolosi della colecisti in pazienti in lista d’attesa per l’intervento di colecistectomia e quantificare le implicazioni economiche di quest’attesa in termini di costi sanitari relativi agli esami ematochimici, strumentali, alla degenza, all’intervento chirurgico e alle terapie somministrate. La popolazione oggetto dello studio è stata di 86 pazienti, 39 uomini e 47 donne, inseriti in lista d’attesa per intervento chirurgico di colecistectomia in un periodo compreso fra aprile 2007 e aprile 2010. Di tali pazienti sono stati raccolti dati anagrafici, la durata del tempo d’attesa, dettagli sugli accessi in PS ed eventuali ricoveri durante l’attesa, esami e terapie eseguite, il tipo di intervento chirurgico effettuato e i giorni di degenza. È stato fatto uno studio comparativo di natura economica tra tre gruppi di pazienti: A: asintomatici durante l’attesa, B: complicati ma non operati in urgenza, C: complicati e operati in regime d’urgenza. Utilizzando il tariffario regionale delle prestazioni di assistenza specialistica ambulatoriale e quello delle prestazioni di assistenza ospedaliera per acuti erogate in regime di ricovero diurno abbiamo stimato che un singolo paziente complicato ma non operato in regime d’urgenza abbia determinato un ingente spesa per il sistema sanitario ( gruppo B: circa 3513,2 €) circa 1.9 volte in più se paragonata a un paziente che durante l’attesa non abbia sviluppato complicanze ( gruppo A: circa 1.849,4 €) o 1.36 volte in più di un paziente precocemente operato in regime d’urgenza (gruppo c: circa 2.584,6 €). Nel nostro limitato, ma a nostro parere esplicativo, campione abbiamo stimato i costi specifici legati alla lunghezza delle liste d’attesa pari a circa 26.112 €. In questo periodo di crisi economica, che ha portato numerosi tagli anche al sistema sanitario, questo significativo ammontare di denaro, a nostro

  7. Long waiting lists and health care spending The example of cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Silvia; Benvenuto, Chiara; Casagranda, Biagio; Dobrinja, Chiara; Piccinni, Giuseppe; de Manzini, Nicolò

    2015-01-01

    Lo scopo dello studio è stato valutare l’incidenza di complicanze correlate alla calcolosi della colecisti in pazienti in lista d’attesa per l’intervento di colecistectomia e quantificare le implicazioni economiche di quest’attesa in termini di costi sanitari relativi agli esami ematochimici, strumentali, alla degenza, all’intervento chirurgico e alle terapie somministrate. La popolazione oggetto dello studio è stata di 86 pazienti, 39 uomini e 47 donne, inseriti in lista d’attesa per intervento chirurgico di colecistectomia in un periodo compreso fra aprile 2007 e aprile 2010. Di tali pazienti sono stati raccolti dati anagrafici, la durata del tempo d’attesa, dettagli sugli accessi in PS ed eventuali ricoveri durante l’attesa, esami e terapie eseguite, il tipo di intervento chirurgico effettuato e i giorni di degenza. È stato fatto uno studio comparativo di natura economica tra tre gruppi di pazienti: A: asintomatici durante l’attesa, B: complicati ma non operati in urgenza, C: complicati e operati in regime d’urgenza. Utilizzando il tariffario regionale delle prestazioni di assistenza specialistica ambulatoriale e quello delle prestazioni di assistenza ospedaliera per acuti erogate in regime di ricovero diurno abbiamo stimato che un singolo paziente complicato ma non operato in regime d’urgenza abbia determinato un ingente spesa per il sistema sanitario ( gruppo B: circa 3513,2 €) circa 1.9 volte in più se paragonata a un paziente che durante l’attesa non abbia sviluppato complicanze ( gruppo A: circa 1.849,4 €) o 1.36 volte in più di un paziente precocemente operato in regime d’urgenza (gruppo c: circa 2.584,6 €). Nel nostro limitato, ma a nostro parere esplicativo, campione abbiamo stimato i costi specifici legati alla lunghezza delle liste d’attesa pari a circa 26.112 €. In questo periodo di crisi economica, che ha portato numerosi tagli anche al sistema sanitario, questo significativo ammontare di denaro, a nostro

  8. Long waiting lists and health care spending The example of cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Silvia; Benvenuto, Chiara; Casagranda, Biagio; Dobrinja, Chiara; Piccinni, Giuseppe; de Manzini, Nicolò

    2014-05-01

    Lo scopo dello studio è stato valutare l’incidenza di complicanze correlate alla calcolosi della colecisti in pazienti in lista d’attesa per l’intervento di colecistectomia e quantificare le implicazioni economiche di quest’attesa in termini di costi sanitari relativi agli esami ematochimici, strumentali, alla degenza, all’intervento chirurgico e alle terapie somministrate. La popolazione oggetto dello studio è stata di 86 pazienti, 39 uomini e 47 donne, inseriti in lista d’attesa per intervento chirurgico di colecistectomia in un periodo compreso fra aprile 2007 e aprile 2010. Di tali pazienti sono stati raccolti dati anagrafici, la durata del tempo d’attesa, dettagli sugli accessi in PS ed eventuali ricoveri durante l’attesa, esami e terapie eseguite, il tipo di intervento chirurgico effettuato e i giorni di degenza. È stato fatto uno studio comparativo di natura economica tra tre gruppi di pazienti: A: asintomatici durante l’attesa, B: complicati ma non operati in urgenza, C: complicati e operati in regime d’urgenza. Utilizzando il tariffario regionale delle prestazioni di assistenza specialistica ambulatoriale e quello delle prestazioni di assistenza ospedaliera per acuti erogate in regime di ricovero diurno abbiamo stimato che un singolo paziente complicato ma non operato in regime d’urgenza abbia determinato un ingente spesa per il sistema sanitario ( gruppo B: circa 3513,2 €) circa 1.9 volte in più se paragonata a un paziente che durante l’attesa non abbia sviluppato complicanze ( gruppo A: circa 1.849,4 €) o 1.36 volte in più di un paziente precocemente operato in regime d’urgenza (gruppo c: circa 2.584,6 €). Nel nostro limitato, ma a nostro parere esplicativo, campione abbiamo stimato i costi specifici legati alla lunghezza delle liste d’attesa pari a circa 26.112 €. In questo periodo di crisi economica, che ha portato numerosi tagli anche al sistema sanitario, questo significativo ammontare di denaro, a nostro

  9. Simulation of metabolism-based herb-drug interaction: towards safe and efficacious use of NIPRD-AM1

    PubMed Central

    Adzu, Bulus; Mustapha, Kudirat Bola; Masimirembwa, Collen; Obodozie, Obiageri; Kirim, Rukaiyatu Abdullahi; Gamaniel, Karniyus Shingu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of NIPRD-AM1 on CYP3A4 in order to generate clinically significant data for its safe and efficacious use. Materials and Methods: NIPRD-AM1 is a phytomedicine developed from aqueous root extracts of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The effect of NIPRD-AM1 on CYP3A4 was measured with and without the addition of NIPRD-AM1, by testing different concentrations of the product at 37 °C in reactive mixtures with ketoconazole (2.5 µM) as the positive control. Results: Results showed a very low IC50 value of 0.01 mg/ml similar to that of ketoconazole (0.016 mg/ml). Conclusion: Metabolic processes of NIPRD-AM1 are likely to inhibit CYP3A4, with potential implication on drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates. This is a promising approach for guidance towards the safe and efficacious use of NIPRD-AM1. PMID:25050275

  10. Structural correlates of imbibitional injury in Typha pollen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.; Hoekstra, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Typha latifolia pollen was examined as a function of pollen moisture content and incubation temperature, in order to identify possible lesions induced by imbibitional chilling. A syndrome of structural traits was found which characterizes damaged grains. Compared to viable grains, the protoplast of damaged pollen has a higher proportion of its volume occupied by vesicles, and less volume occupied by cytoplasm. Damaged grains also tend to have dilated cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum, larger starch grains and lipid bodies, poorly preserved mitochondria and membranes, and, sometimes, numerous electron-dense globules associated with membranes. The percentage of grains exhibiting this damage syndrome correlates closely with the number of ungerminated grains in most samples, regardless of moisture content or incubation temperature. Injury due to rapid imbibition from the dry state or to imbibitional chilling appear to be similar structurally, regardless of whether the stresses are imposed singly or together. The injury is not confined to one cell component (e.g., mitochondria), but may involve a generalized disruption of membranes. These results suggest that similar stress responses are elicited by imbibition from the dry state and by imbibitional chilling.

  11. Deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase is not a rate-determining enzyme for essential oil production in spike lavender.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) is an economically important aromatic plant producing essential oils, whose components (mostly monoterpenes) are mainly synthesized through the plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) synthase (DXS), that catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, plays a crucial role in monoterpene precursors biosynthesis in spike lavender. To date, however, it is not known whether the DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), that catalyzes the conversion of DXP into MEP, is also a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in spike lavender. To investigate it, we generated transgenic spike lavender plants constitutively expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana DXR gene. Although two out of the seven transgenic T0 plants analyzed accumulated more essential oils than the controls, this is hardly imputable to the DXR transgene effect since a clear correlation between transcript accumulation and monoterpene production could not be established. Furthermore, these increased essential oil phenotypes were not maintained in their respective T1 progenies. Similar results were obtained when total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in both T0 transgenic plants and their progenies were analyzed. Our results then demonstrate that DXR enzyme does not play a crucial role in the synthesis of plastidial monoterpene precursors, suggesting that the control flux of the MEP pathway in spike lavender is primarily exerted by the DXS enzyme. PMID:25151124

  12. [Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia. PMID:27088973

  14. The Environmental Plasticity of Diverse Body Color Caused by Extremely Long Photoperiods and High Temperature in Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Haichen; Shi, Qihao; Shakeel, Muhammad; Kuang, Jing; Li, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia). This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53 and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis. PMID:27672370

  15. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  16. Using constructed wetlands to treat biochemical oxygen demand and ammonia associated with a refinery effluent.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, G M; Gillespie, W B; Rodgers, J H

    2000-02-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for tertiary treatment of a petroleum refinery effluent. Specific performance objectives were to decrease 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and ammonia by at least 50% and to reduce toxicity associated with this effluent. Two bench-scale wetlands (replicates) were constructed in a greenhouse to provide tertiary treatment of effluent samples shipped from the refinery to the study site. Integrated wetland features included Typha latifolia Linnaeus planted in low organic (0.2%), sandy sediment, 48-h nominal hydraulic retention time, and 15-cm overlying water depth. Targeted constituents and aqueous toxicity were monitored in wetland inflows and outflows for 3 months. Following a 2 to 3-week stabilization period, effective and consistent removal of BOD(5) and ammonia (as NH(3)-N) from the effluent was observed. Average BOD(5) removal was 80%, while NH(3)-N decreased by an average of 95%. Survival of Pimephales promelas Rafinesque and Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard (7-day, static, renewal exposures) increased by more than 50% and 20%, respectively. Reproduction of C. dubia increased from zero in undiluted wetland inflow to 50% of controls in undiluted wetland outflow. This study demonstrated the potential for constructed wetlands to decrease BOD(5), ammonia, and toxicity in this refinery effluent.

  17. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  18. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar. PMID:21374054

  19. Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer.

    PubMed

    Talluto, Matthew V; Benkman, Craig W

    2014-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

  20. Drought tolerance and growth in populations of a wide-ranging tree species indicate climate change risks for the boreal north.

    PubMed

    Montwé, David; Isaac-Renton, Miriam; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2016-02-01

    Choosing drought-tolerant planting stock in reforestation programs may help adapt forests to climate change. To inform such reforestation strategies, we test lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud. var latifolia Englm.) population response to drought and infer potential benefits of a northward transfer of seeds from drier, southern environments. The objective is addressed by combining dendroecological growth analysis with long-term genetic field trials. Over 500 trees originating from 23 populations across western North America were destructively sampled in three experimental sites in southern British Columbia, representing a climate warming scenario. Growth after 32 years from provenances transferred southward or northward over long distances was significantly lower than growth of local populations. All populations were affected by a severe natural drought event in 2002. The provenances from the most southern locations showed the highest drought tolerance but low productivity. Local provenances were productive and drought tolerant. Provenances from the boreal north showed lower productivity and less drought tolerance on southern test sites than all other sources, implying that maladaptation to drought may prevent boreal populations from taking full advantage of more favorable growing conditions under projected climate change. PMID:26463121

  1. Variation in carbon availability, defense chemistry and susceptibility to fungal invasion along the stems of mature trees.

    PubMed

    Goodsman, Devin W; Lusebrink, Inka; Landhäusser, Simon M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Lieffers, Victor J

    2013-01-01

    If carbon (C) sinks withdraw carbohydrates as they are transported along tree stems, carbohydrate availability may depend on local sink strength and distance from sources. Defenses, including monoterpenes--a major component of resin--limit the invasibility of pines. Since carbohydrate reserves fund monoterpene synthesis, we hypothesized that monoterpene concentrations in pine stems would decrease from the crown to the lower stem, and susceptibility to fungal infection would increase. Here, we measured carbohydrate and monoterpene concentrations along the stems of lodgepole pine trees (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) before inoculating with a blue-stain fungus at different heights. After 6 wk, we assessed tree responses to fungal infection based on lesion length and carbohydrate mobilization. Concentrations of carbohydrates and monoterpenes in the phloem before inoculation decreased with distance from the crown, whereas lesion lengths after inoculation increased. However, trees mobilized sugars in response to fungal infection such that carbohydrate reserves near lesions were similar at all heights. Despite C mobilization, the lower stem was more vulnerable than the upper stem. Consistent with predictions based on sink-source relationships, vulnerability occurred where carbohydrates were less available, and likely resulted from C withdrawal by sinks higher in the supply chain. PMID:23157572

  2. Climatic influences on the growth of subalpine trees in the Colorado Front Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villalba, Ricardo; Veblen, Thomas T.; Ogden, John

    1994-01-01

    We examined variations in tree growth responses to climatic variations among different tree species and habitat types in the subalpine zone of the Colorado Front Range. We constructed 25 tree ring site chronologies (11 of Picea engelmannii, 9 of Abies lasiocarpa, 4 of Pinus contorta var. latifolia, and 1 of Pinus flexilis) from a series of subalpine habitats ranging from xeric to wet. To establish tree growth responses to climatic variation, we used correlation and response function analyses to compare variations in ring widths with monthly temperature and precipitation records. At the driest sites, growth of Picea and Abies tracked climatic variation similarly. At mesic and wet sites, however, these species differed in their responses to climatic variation. The responses of Pinus contorta, sampled over a narrower range of habitat types, differed from those of Picea and Abies but did not differ among sites. Steep environmental gradients in the subalpine zone of the Front Range accounted for most of the observed differences in growth responses to climatic variation. Even at adjacent sites that differ only slightly in topographic position, tree growth responses to climatic variation were distinct. Interspecific differences in response to climatic variations generally were less important than site differences. Intersite differences in tree growth responses to climatic variation can be used as indicators of environmental differences among subalpine habitats.

  3. Consistency and variation in phenotypic selection exerted by a community of seed predators.

    PubMed

    Benkman, Craig W; Smith, Julie W; Maier, Monika; Hansen, Leif; Talluto, Matt V

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic selection that is sustained over time underlies both anagenesis and cladogenesis, but the conditions that lead to such selection and what causes variation in selection are not well known. We measured the selection exerted by three species of predispersal seed predators of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the South Hills, Idaho, and found that net selection on different cone and seed traits exerted by red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and cone borer moths (Eucosma recissoriana) over 10 years of seed crops was similar to that measured in another mountain range. We also found that the strength of selection increased as seed predation increased, which provides a mechanism for the correlation between the escalation of seed defenses and the density of seed predators. Red crossbills consume the most seeds and selection they exert accounts for much of the selection experienced by lodgepole pine, providing additional support for a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine in the South Hills. The third seed predator, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), consumed less than one-sixth as many seeds as crossbills. Across the northern Rocky Mountains, woodpecker abundance and therefore selective impact appears limited by the elevated seed defenses of lodgepole pine. PMID:23289569

  4. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya

    2014-02-01

    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size. PMID:24400902

  5. Climatic influences on the growth of subalpine trees in the Colorado front range

    SciTech Connect

    Villalba, R.; Veblen, T.T. ); Ogden, J. )

    1994-07-01

    We examined variations in tree growth responses to climatic variations among different tree species and habitat types in the subalpine zone of the Colorado Front Range. We constructed 25 tree ring site chronologies (11 of Picea engelmannii, 9 of Abies lasiocarpa, 4 of Pinus contorta var. latifolia, and 1 of Pinusflexilis) from a series of subalpine habitats ranging from xeric to wet. To establish tree growth responses to climatic variation, we used correlation and response function analyses to compare variations in ring widths with monthly temperature and precipitation records. At the driest sites, growth of Picea and Abies tracked climatic variation similarly. At mesic and wet sites, however, these species differed in their responses to climatic variation. The responses of Pinus contorta, sampled over a narrower range of habitat types, differed from those of Picea and Abies but did not differ among sites. Steep environmental gradients in the subalpine zone of the Front Range accounted for most of the observed differences in growth responses to climatic variation. Even at adjacent sites that differ only slightly in topographic position, tree growth responses to climatic variation were distinct. Interspecific differences in response to climatic variations generally were less important than site differences. Intersite differences in tree growth responses to climatic variation can be used as indicators of environmental differences among subalpine habitats. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins.

    PubMed

    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L

    2012-04-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates. PMID:22507014

  7. The impact of phloem nutrients on overwintering mountain pine beetles and their fungal symbionts.

    PubMed

    Goodsman, Devin W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Lieffers, Victor J

    2012-06-01

    In the low nutrient environment of conifer bark, subcortical beetles often carry symbiotic fungi that concentrate nutrients in host tissues. Although bark beetles are known to benefit from these symbioses, whether this is because they survive better in nutrient-rich phloem is unknown. After manipulating phloem nutrition by fertilizing lodgepole pine trees (Pinus contorta Douglas var. latifolia), we found bolts from fertilized trees to contain more living individuals, and especially more pupae and teneral adults than bolts from unfertilized trees at our southern site. At our northern site, we found that a larger proportion of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) larvae built pupal chambers in bolts from fertilized trees than in bolts from unfertilized trees. The symbiotic fungi of the mountain pine beetle also responded to fertilization. Two mutualistic fungi of bark beetles, Grosmannia clavigera (Rob.-Jeffr. & R. W. Davidson) Zipfel, Z. W. de Beer, & M. J. Wingf. and Leptographium longiclavatum Lee, S., J. J. Kim, & C. Breuil, doubled the nitrogen concentrations near the point of infection in the phloem of fertilized trees. These fungi were less capable of concentrating nitrogen in unfertilized trees. Thus, the fungal symbionts of mountain pine beetle enhance phloem nutrition and likely mediate the beneficial effects of fertilization on the survival and development of mountain pine beetle larvae. PMID:22732605

  8. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine.

    PubMed

    Progar, R A; Blackford, D C; Cluck, D R; Costello, S; Dunning, L B; Eager, T; Jorgensen, C L; Munson, A S; Steed, B; Rinella, M J

    2013-02-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine. The success of verbenone treatments has varied greatly in previous studies because of differences in study duration, beetle population size, tree size, or other factors. To determine the ability of verbenone to protect lodgepole pine over long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks, we applied verbenone treatments annually for 3 to 7 yr at five western United States sites. At one site, an outbreak did not develop; at two sites