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Sample records for campos basin heranca

  1. Geology of petroleum in Campos basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, E.M.

    1984-04-01

    A schematic model of oil generation, migration, accumulation, and alteration is presented for the Campos basin, a sedimentary province covering an area of nearly 31,000 km/sup 2/ (12,000 mi/sup 2/) offshore southeastern Brazil, where an estimated 1 billion m/sup 3/ (6.3 billion bbl) of oil in place has been discovered since 1974. Source rocks for this oil belong to the Lower Cretaceous Lagoa Feia Formation; oil generation probably started in the Miocene. At that time, a series of local windows opened in the regional evaporite seal at the top of the Lagoa Feia Formation and focused the upward escape of hydrocarbons, mainly along halokinetic fault surfaces. Reservoirs of Albian, Late Cretaceous, and Tertiary age were charged and their porosities enhanced by natural fracturing, solution, and/or grain rearrangement. Original oil (postulated range of 30/sup 0/-35/sup 0/ API gravity) underwent differentiation by migration, reflected in relative enrichment of aromatics and of the light /sup 12/C stable carbon isotope. Alteration of oil by water occurs if one of the two fluids in contact is allochthonous; bacterial alteration is important in low-temperature regimes. Oil entrapment is helped by hydrodynamic conditions, with the intake area of the Paraiba do Sul river delta supposedly playing an important part. Lopatin-type plots gave the first clue for establishing this model, which takes into account a large number of facts about the basin, such as well and seismic information, clay diagenesis, water and petroleum geochemistry, pressure data, and their geologic field relationships.

  2. [Life and work at the petroleum industry in Campos Basin].

    PubMed

    Leite, Rose Mery dos Santos Costa

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we detach the subject of confinement as a central axle in the activity at maritime oil platforms of Campos Basin, in north region of the Rio de Janeiro state. This work reality that determines for offshore workers, as they are known, a rupture between two different moments in there lives: the period of fourteen days in the sea and the life in land per twenty one days. We adopt as material empiricist, the research carried out on this universe, detaching here the way as these professionals understand the conditions of confined work in which they are submitted.

  3. Salt tectonics and oil accumulation in Campos basin, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, A.M.F.; Pereira, M.J.; Mohriak, W.U.; Gaglianone, P.C.; Trinidade, L.A.F.

    1985-02-01

    Salt tectonics were responsible for the development of optimum conditions for accumulation of large hydrocarbon reserves in Campos basin. The salt movements, triggered by basin tilting and differential loading, initially formed low-relief salt pillows that controlled the porous facies of the shallow-water Macae limestones. The continuous evolution of halokinetic processes produced growth faults, rollover crests, and faulted anticlines. Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstones were channelized in the downthrown blocks of growth faults. Salt-collapse, residual, and relief-inversion features were formed in areas where the salt was sufficiently thick. The oil, generated in the Neocomian shales of Lagoa Feia Formation, migrated to upper formations through normal faults associated with the rift phase, stratigraphic conduits such as porous rocks and regional unconformities, and gaps created by salt flowage in the Aptian evaporite section. Oil migration to the post-salt rocks was favored by active growth faults and by the presence of a regional unconformity developed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and covered by turbidite sheet sands. The oils underwent progressive alteration along their paths to the post-salt reservoirs. Oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations suggest that the hydrocarbons trapped in many diverse plays, although affected by bacterial degradation and water washing, belong to only one oil family. The oil degradation was probably enhanced by meteoric water invasions during Tertiary low stands of sea level in areas close to the paleocoastline. These phenomena resulted in large amounts of oil becoming heavier and enriched in sulfur, resins, asphaltenes, and cycloparaffins.

  4. Three-Dimensional Oil Dispersion Model in Campos basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Bernardo Lopes Almeida de; Netto, Theodoro Antoun; Assad, Luiz Paulo de Freitas

    2017-02-22

    This paper presents the physical and mathematical formulation of a three-dimensional oil dispersion model that calculates the trajectory from the seafloor to the sea surface, its assumptions and constraints. It was developed by researchers that are familiar with oil spill dispersion and mathematical analysis. Oil dispersion is calculated through two computational routines. The first calculates the vertical dispersion along the water column and resamples the droplets when the oil reaches the surface. The second calculates the surface displacement of the spill. This model is based on the Eulerian Approach, and it uses numerical solution schemes in time and in space to solve the equation for advective-diffusive transport. A case study based on an actual accident that happened in the Campos Basin, in Rio de Janeiro State, considering the instant spill of 1.000 m(3) was used to evaluate the proposed model. After calculating the vertical transport, it was estimated that the area covered by the oil spill on the surface was about 35.685 m². After calculating the dispersion at the surface, the plume area was estimated as 20% of the initial area, resulting in a final area of 28.548 m².

  5. Four new species of Polycirrus Grube, 1850 (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carrerette, Orlemir; Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Polycirrus were collected at the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, during a survey coordinated by CENPES/PETROBRAS under the scope of the project, "Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin". These species are P. nonatoi sp. nov., P. papillosus sp. nov., P. breviuncinatus sp. nov., and P. habitats sp. nov. All these species are herein described and compared with the morphologically most similar congeners. In addition, a key is provided for the identification of the species of Polycirrus which have been originally described for the Brazilian coast.

  6. The Linguado, Carapeba, Vermelho, and Marimba giant oil fields, Campos basin, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stank, C.V.; Esteves, F.R.; Martins, C.C.; Cruz, W.M.; Da Silva Barroso, A.; Horschutz, P.M.C. )

    1990-09-01

    About 40 hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in the Campos basin in the period 1978-1984, including four giant fields in shallow to moderate water depths. The Linguado oil field is located on the extreme south of the producing area of the Campos basin. The pool was discovered in May 1978. The reservoir rocks occur between 1,700 and 3,000 m, and are constituted by fractured Neocomian basalts, Barremian pelecypod coquinas, Albian oolitic calcarenites, and, secondarily, by some Cretaceous turbidite sandstones. The main reservoir is formed by coquinas, which contain 76% of the total recoverable oil volume estimated at 104.6 million bbl. The field is located on a regional high and the accumulation is strongly controlled by stratigraphic and diagenetic factors. High-quality oil is produced through a floating producing system (FPS), and the cumulative oil production amounts to 63.8 million bbl. The Carapeba and Vermelho oil fields are situated in the northern limit of the Campos basin producing area and, together with the smaller Pargo field, make up the so-called Northeast Pole of Campos basin. Carapeba field was discovered in February 1982, and has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 127.8 million bbl. Production comes mainly from two Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstone reservoirs. The Vermelho field in December 1982, and its main reservoir is formed by a massive Eocene turbidite sandstone. The estimated recoverable oil volume amounts to 119.7 million bbl. Both Carapeba and Vermelho fields are structural traps associated with the development of subtle anticlines caused by salt movements. The fields are gradually being put on stream through five fixed platforms installed in water depths ranging from 70 to 90 m. The Marimba field, discovered in March 1984, drilled in a water depth of 383 m, is considered the first deep-water oil strike in the Campos basin. The field has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 115 million bbl of good-quality oil.

  7. Petroleum geology of Campos Basin, Brazil: A successful case history of deep water exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, M.R.; Lugon, H.A.F.; Beraldo, W.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Campos Basin, the most prolific Brazilian basin, produces almost 400,000 bbl of oil per day and contains 70% of the national reserves. The basin is located on the southeastern coast of Brazil, covering a prospectable area of 100,000 km{sup 2} Campos is a passive continental margin basin originated by the breakup of Pangea and the rifting of the South American and African plates in the Early Cretaceous. The basin's sedimentary section encompasses three megasequences: nonmarine, transitional, and marine, ranging in age from Neocomian to Holocene. Hydrocarbon generation is related to nonmarine organic-rich shales and marls, and hydrocarbon entrapment assumes ascendent migration along fault planes and through salt gaps toward reservoirs ranging in age from Neocomian to Tertiary (mainly turbiditic sandstones). The first onshore stratigraphic well was drilled based on gravity surveys in 1958. The acquisition of new geophysical data, mainly seismic reflection data, followed after 1968. The first offshore well was drilled in 1971, and in 1974, the first oil field, Garopua, was discovered. Giant hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in water depths ranging from 400 to 1,800 m since 1984. As of mid-1989, 35 offshore oil fields have been discovered, 760 million bbl of oil, and 490 bcf of gas have been produced. The basin oil and equivalent gas reserves are estimated in 6.0 billion bbl, 60% of which is located in the deep-water giant oil fields.

  8. Cheirimedon foscae sp. nov. (Amphipoda: Lysianassidae: Tryphosinae) from the deep sea Campos Basin, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Silvana Gomes L; Serejo, Cristiana S

    2014-10-15

    A new species of lysianassid amphipod belonging to the genus Cheirimedon was collected on the continental slope of the Campos Basin, the largest oil reserve in Brazilian waters. This is the first record of the genus Cheirimedon from the Atlantic Ocean, which was previously restricted to the Antarctic and Tasmanian sea. The new species is fully illustrated and compared with related species. Additionally, a world key to the Cheirimedon species is provided. 

  9. Paleogene-Neogene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoecological inferences from northern Campos Basin, Brazil (well Campos-01)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Thamara Daniel; Cooper, Maurice Kevin Edward; Rios-Netto, Aristóteles de Moraes

    2016-11-01

    Quantitative analyses of calcareous nannofossils were performed on 50 ditch-cuttings samples from a well drilled in the northern Campos Basin, Brazil. Nine zones and two subzones were recognised in the Paleogene-Neogene section. The absence of zones NN9-NN7 (earliest late-latest middle Miocene), NP25-NP21 (Oligocene) and NP18-NP1 (earliest late Eocene-Paleocene) implies the occurrence of three stratigraphic breaks/unconformities within the studied interval. Nannofossil assemblages present suggest an open-ocean depositional environment under oligotrophic-surface water conditions for the Miocene section of the well. Hughesius spp. and Umbilicosphaera spp., here named the ;small dark; group, were recognised as an index of high nutrient concentration. We suggest that small coccolith/nannolith size is a better indicator of eutrophic condition than taxonomic affinity. Morphometric analysis of specimens of Sphenolithus belemnos and Sphenolithus disbelemnos showed that size tends to decrease within the highstand system tract. The influx of nutrients associated with the highstand could explain this size reduction and may also support our hypothesis that small specimens are indicative of high nutrient concentrations in the surface water.

  10. Lagoa Feia Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Campos basin, offshore Brazil - Rift-Valley-Stage Lacustrine carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Petrobras, T.; Carozzi, A.V.

    1985-02-01

    The Lagoa Feia Formation, buried in excess of 3000 m, is the exploration frontier of the prolific Campos basin. It contains the source beds of all the basin's oil in addition to having its own potential carbonate reservoirs. The faulted margins of the basin fed a system of alluvial fans, sand flats, and mud flats. Alternating dry and rainy period regulated the size and nature of contemporaneous basinal alkaline lakes. Dry periods corresponded to contracted playa lakes with ostracod carbonates and euxinic shales; rainy periods corresponded to expanded pluvial lakes with pelecypod banks. Subaqueous intrusions of basaltic magma generated hyaloclastites with kerolitic ooids and hyalotuffs. Petrographic analysis reveals 5 diagenetic stages: (1) syndepositional alteration of lithoclasts to trioctahedral smectites; (2) early dolomitization, early silicification, and cementation by bladed-rim calcite and zeolites; (3) freshwater-vadose dissolution of bioclasts and lithoclasts, freshwater-phreatic sparite cementation, and neomorphism; (4) mixed saline-freshwater silicification; and (5) burial with compaction, late dolomitization, and partial conversion of smectites to illite. Pelecypod limestones with primary interparticle, secondary intraparticle, moldic, and moldic-enlarged porosities are the potential reservoirs. Ideal conditions for porosity generation and preservation were subaerial exposure followed by rapid lake expansion and burial.

  11. Microfacies, depositional models and diagenesis of Lagoa Feia Formation (lower cretaceous), Campos Basin, offshore Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertani, R. T.

    The Lagoa Feia Formation consists of the sediments deposited during the rift valley stage of the Campos Basin, varying from 200m to more than 1500m in thickness. In this unit seventeen microfacies were recognized, grouped into four main sequences, respectively dominated by terrigenous supplies, ostracods, pelecypods, and basic volcaniclastics. The vertical sequence of microfacies and the associations of syndepositional diagenetic minerals were used to reconstruct the general environment of deposition. Five diagenetic stages were recognized. Pelecypod rich microfacies present the highest potential for development of intraparticle and moldic secondary porosity. Two types of fabric selective porosity were experimentally developed in low porosity samples under simulated burial conditions. Intercrystal microporosity was formed by preferential dissolution of micrite size calcite compared to coarse calcite crystals of sparite and neomorphosed bioclasts, and intraparticle porosity was developed in pelecypod shells by selective dissolution of neomorphic calcite compared to sparite cement.

  12. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  13. Shear-strength signatures of mass movements, continental slope of Campos Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowsmann, R. O.; da Costa, A. M.; Amaral, C. S.

    2003-04-01

    Downhole shear-strength profiles, obtained from cone-penetrometer and lab tests were tied to sedimentary facies from adjacent continuous cores. The geotechnical response of mass-transport deposits was investigated. In the Campos Basin, sediments have evacuated from the upper continental slope and have accumulated as folded deposits on the middle slope. Sediment removal is recognised by an abrupt step-like increase in shear-strength at the level of the unconformity. The folded deposits are characterised by a belly-shaped increase in shear-strength coinciding with a zone of intense lamination within the deposit, induced by internal shearing and fluid loss (strain hardening). In contrast, highly disintegrated muddy debris-flow deposits are indistinguishable, in terms of shear-strength, from normal hemipelagic slope sediments. Debris-flow tongues emanating from canyon mouths, which contain a significant amount of more consolidated mud clasts can however be differentiated from in situ sediments by their serrated signature and higher shear-strength.

  14. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Campos Basin, including two new species and a new record.

    PubMed

    Franco, Natália Bizzo; Rizzo, Alexandra E

    2016-05-24

    Members of the marine polychaete family Nephtyidae are commonly found in soft substrates. Their most distinctive characteristic is the presence of interramal branchiae located between the notopodia and neuropodia. In the present study, five species of Nephtyidae: Aglaophamus fabrun sp. nov., Aglaophamus juvenalis (Kinberg, 1866), Inermonephtys inermis (Ehlers, 1887), Inermonephtys soldius sp. nov. and Nephtys squamosa Ehlers, 1887 were found in the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, including two new species and a new record for the Brazilian coast. Aglaophamus fabrun sp. nov. has a proboscis with 10 pairs of distal papillae and approximately 20 subdistal papillae in rows, with 3-5 papillae in each row; and lacks an unpaired median papilla; the prostomium has a pair of eyes and a characteristic pigmentation pattern. Inermonephtys soldius sp. nov. has interramal branchiae starting from parapodium 5, and basal papillae starting on chaetiger 6. Inermonephtys inermis is a new record for the Brazilian coast. Descriptions, comments and a key to species of Nephtyidae recorded from Brazil are provided.

  15. [Work-related accidents on oil drilling platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, C M; Souza, C A; Machado, J M; Porto, M F

    2001-01-01

    The offshore oil industry is characterized by complex systems in relation to technology and organization of work. Working conditions are hazardous, resulting in accidents and even occasional full-scale catastrophes. This article is the result of a study on work-related accidents in the offshore platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State. The primary objective was to provide technical back-up for both workers' representative organizations and public authorities. As a methodology, we attempt to go beyond the immediate causes of accidents and emphasize underlying causes related to organizational and managerial aspects. The sources were used in such a way as to permit classification in relation to the type of incident, technological system, operation, and immediate and underlying causes. The results show the aggravation of safety conditions and the immediate need for public authorities and the offshore oil industry in Brazil to change the methods used to investigate accidents in order to identify the main causes in the organizational and managerial structure of companies.

  16. The family Caprellidae (Amphipoda: Caprelloidea: Caprellidae) from Campos Basin, Southwestern Atlantic, with a key of species occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Fábio Da Motta; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2015-08-21

    Caprellid material of the present study was collected between 25-3000 m depth from the Campos Basin area, Southwestern Atlantic. As a result, Deutella incerta was found as a new record to the Southwestern Atlantic and two new species are described: Liropus guerragarciai sp. nov. and Mayerella sittropiae sp. nov. Besides, Paracaprella pusilla is herein redescribed as a common component of the Campos Basin amphipod community. Caprellids are a diverse and abundant group that can be found among algae and general biological substrates of the continental shelf area. As more deep sea samples are coming into light, they are turning out to be also a common component in this habitat. Including the present data, there are 25 caprellid species recorded in Brazil, being four of them restricted to the slope areas and 14 endemic to the Brazilian coast. A key to the Caprellidae species from Brazil is provided.

  17. Application of MSS/LANDSAT images to the structural study of recent sedimentary areas: Campos Sedimentary Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    Visual and computer aided interpretation of MSS/LANDSAT data identified linear and circular features which represent the ""reflexes'' of the crystalline basement structures in the Cenozoic sediments of the emergent part of the Campos Sedimentary Basin.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community in hypersaline petroleum produced water from the Campos Basin.

    PubMed

    Piubeli, Francine; Grossman, Matthew J; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Durrant, Lucia R

    2014-10-01

    In this work the archaea and eubacteria community of a hypersaline produced water from the Campos Basin that had been transported and discharged to an onshore storage facility was evaluated by 16S recombinant RNA (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The produced water had a hypersaline salt content of 10 (w/v), had a carbon oxygen demand (COD) of 4,300 mg/l and contains phenol and other aromatic compounds. The high salt and COD content and the presence of toxic phenolic compounds present a problem for conventional discharge to open seawater. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the COD and phenolic content could be largely removed under aerobic conditions, without dilution, by either addition of phenol degrading Haloarchaea or the addition of nutrients alone. In this study our goal was to characterize the microbial community to gain further insight into the persistence of reservoir community members in the produced water and the potential for bioremediation of COD and toxic contaminants. Members of the archaea community were consistent with previously identified communities from mesothermic reservoirs. All identified archaea were located within the phylum Euryarchaeota, with 98 % being identified as methanogens while 2 % could not be affiliated with any known genus. Of the identified archaea, 37 % were identified as members of the strictly carbon-dioxide-reducing genus Methanoplanus and 59 % as members of the acetoclastic genus Methanosaeta. No Haloarchaea were detected, consistent with the need to add these organisms for COD and aromatic removal. Marinobacter and Halomonas dominated the eubacterial community. The presence of these genera is consistent with the ability to stimulate COD and aromatic removal with nutrient addition. In addition, anaerobic members of the phyla Thermotogae, Firmicutes, and unclassified eubacteria were identified and may represent reservoir organisms associated with the conversion hydrocarbons to methane.

  19. Continuous Mantle Exhumation at the Outer Continental Margin of the Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo Basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, P. V.; Severino, M. G.; Rigoti, C. A.; Magnavita, L. P.; Oliveira, J. B.; Viana, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The interpretation of 12,000 km of very deep (PSTM to 16 sec., PSDM to 25 km) 2D seismic sections, coupled with gravimetric and magnetometric modeling line-by-line, and the integration of the results with the regional data bank of Petrobras, all together viewed in terms of the recent tectonic models developed for the rupturing and separation of mega-plates, led to a regional (500,000 km2), first-time ever, 3D-view of the deep structure underlying the prolific sedimentary basins of Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo in southeastern Brazil. The three basins are situated onto a continental margin that narrows gradually, from south to north, from a very wide (Santos), through an intermediate (Campos), and then to a narrow (Espírito Santo) passive margin. The seismic sections shows very well the dual rheological behavior of the continental crust, consisting of a deeper and plastic lower crust (with numerous short and strong reflections that display sub-horizontal ductile flow) and a shallower and brittle upper crust (represented by a mostly transparent and faulted seismic facies topped by the sedimentary sections of the rift and thermal subsidence phases). The crustal structure of the Santos Basin shows a zonation from west to east of alternating bands of NE-SW-trending thin (plastic basement terrains) and thick (resistant basement terrains) stretched continental crust. In vertical section this zonation is displayed as a series of necking zones, leading to a highly irregular, low to moderate crustal taper. Such zonation is less developed in the Campos Basin, where the crustal taper is moderate and regular, and practically non-existent in the Espírito Santo Basin, where the crustal taper is high. The most outstanding crustal feature shared in common by the three basins is the exhumation of mantle between the tip of the hyper-extended continental crust and the tabular-shaped oceanic crust. Although the crustal taper varies significantly from basin to basin their

  20. Influence of urban area on the water quality of the Campo River basin, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, K Q; Lima, S B; Passig, F H; Gusmão, L K; Souza, D C; Kreutz, C; Belini, A D; Arantes, E J

    2015-12-01

    The Campo River basin is located on the third plateau of the Paraná State or trap plateau of Paraná, at the middle portion between the rivers Ivaí and Piquiri, southern Brazil, between the coordinates 23° 53 and 24° 10' South Latitude and 52° 15' and 52° 31' West Longitude. The basin has 384 Km² area, being 247 km² in the municipality of Campo Mourão and 137 km² in the municipality of Peabiru, in Paraná State. The Campo River is a left bank tributary of the Mourão River, which flows into the Ivaí River. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Km 119 River and the Campo River, tributaries of the Mourão River, with monthly collection of water samples to determine pH, temperature, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms, total solids, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and total phosphorus. The results obtained were compared with the indices established by the environmental legislation and applied in the determination of the Water Quality Index (WQI) used by the Water Institute of Paraná State, regulating environmental agency. Poor water quality in these rivers presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the public system. Results of organic matter, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus were higher than the limits established by Resolution CONAMA 357/2005 to river class 2, specially at downstream of the Km 119 River and the Campo River, due to the significant influence of the urban anthropic activity by the lack of tertiary treatment and also rural by the lack of basic sanitation in this area. Results of WQI of Km 119 River and do Campo River indicated that water quality can be classified as average in 71% and good in 29% of the sites evaluated.

  1. Microgloma Sanders & Allen, 1973 (Nuculanidae) and Pristigloma Dall, 1900 (Pristiglomidae) (Pelecypoda) in the Campos Basin off Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benaim, Natalia Pereira; Absalão, Ricardo Silva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As a secondary result of oil prospecting in Brazil, samples from the Campos Basin continental slope became available. In these samples, specimens of the genera Microgloma Sanders & Allen, 1973 and Pristigloma Dall, 1900 were found. This contribution provides the southernmost record of the genus Microgloma, the first record of Microgloma mirmidina (Dautzenberg & Fischer 1897) from the western Atlantic, the descriptions of Microgloma macaron sp. n. and Microgloma nhanduti sp. n.as new species, and the shallowest record of Pristigloma alba Sanders & Allen 1973. PMID:22287903

  2. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g-1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g-1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g-1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g-1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however, in the

  3. Shelf-fed turbidite system model and its application to the Oligocene deposits of the Campos Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, W.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Despite the large number of models involving the genesis and sedimentary facies of deep-water sandstones, none of these models adequately explain the origin and evolution of the extremely clean, widespread (over 6000 km[sup 2]), predominantly massive, thick (over 150 m), blanket-like sandstones deposited in the deep-water environment of the Campos Basin during the Oligocene. Consequently, to explain this sandstone, the author proposes a shelf-fed turbidite system model, which is strongly based on the Campos Basin data set. The basic framework necessary for the development of a shelf-fed turbidite system includes (1) deposition of a large volume of clastics during the buildup of a shelf-sand-rich unit, which later constitutes the main source of sediment for the system, (2) localized tectonic pulses that modify the outer shelf declivity and trigger mass flows; and (3) a relative fall of sea level, which causes the subaqueous exposure of the shelf sediments to reworking in a shallow, high-energy marine environment. These three basic elements are equally important for shelf-fed turbidity system development, but relative sea level position controls the development of the progradational, aggradational, and retrogradational depositional phases within the system. Submarine canyons commonly are scoured during all three phases on the outer shelf and lower slope environments. The shelf-fed turbidite system model may apply to other sedimentary basins, principally to those of the Atlantic-continental margins that have a thick evaporite sublayer. Halokinesis can provide the necessary room for the shelf sedimentary-unit buildup, the tectonic pulses that trigger the flows, and even localized relative sea level oscillations that can accelerate or abort any one of the depositional phases of the system. 25 refs., 26 figs.

  4. Infrared inspection applied to offshore platforms: Petrobras experience at Campos Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdini, Edson A.; Veratti, Attilio B.

    2002-03-01

    Bacia de Campos (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) is one of the biggest offshore petroleum fields in the world today. In June 2001, Bacia de Campos, having more than 490 oil wells, 34 offshore platforms and 7 modified ships in operation, reached 1,3 million barrels/day. If compared to OPEP countries only nine of them got an average production higher than 1 million barrels/day in 2000, which means it can be placed on the 10th position in the rank of oil producers. In this context this work aims not only to show the results achieved within the introduction of thermographic inspections in offshore oil production (platforms and ships), but also the financial results (ROI - Return of Investment) considering the use of this particular technique. Bacia de Campos got a ROI around 7 million dollars in the last 4 years, which means a hundred times higher than the total cost of thermographic services in the same period. As far as we know this is one of the best results already reported in the world. We also present the methodology applied to analyze thermal anomalies in electrical components and data management software, including advanced Digital Reports sent via Internet.

  5. Style and pattern of salt diapirs due to thin-skinned gravitational gliding, Campos and Santos basins, offshore Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demercian, S.; Szatmari, P.; Cobbold, P. R.

    1993-12-01

    Portions of seismic lines and a structure-contour map illustrate the patterns and shapes of salt diapirs and related structures in the Campos and Santos areas, off the Atlantic coast of Brazil. We interpret the structures both kinematically and mechanically, drawing on our experience with similar salt structures worldwide, with the results of recent physical modelling and with geometric restorations in section and in plan. Salt diapirs and related structures have a variety of structural styles, distributed in domains and provinces. Near the coast, there is an upper domain, 100-200 km wide, with a suite of structures that we attribute to horizontal downdip extension: these are salt rollers, in the footwalls of listric normal growth faults; salt walls of triangular cross section, beneath intersecting conjugate normal faults; turtle anticlines; and salt welds. Downslope extension started in the Albian and has continued to the present day. In the Campos area, from simple line balancing, the accumulated downslope displacement is about 100 km. Seawards of this, there is a lower domain, 100-400 km wide, with a different suite of structures, that we attribute to downdip contraction: these are growth folds of various wavelengths, in sedimentary sequences of various thicknesses; asymmetric salt walls, emplaced above reverse faults; deep basins, wedged down between conjugate reverse faults; and salt tongues above thrusts. For Campos, we estimate the total downslope contraction, accumulated since the Albian, to be about 100 km. From the balance between extension and contraction, we infer that the thin-skinned salt tectonics are gravitationally driven and independent of any basement tectonics. The structure-contour map on the top of the salt shows that structural style is variable also along strike. Seismic sections along regional contours indicate differing amounts of strain. On this basis, we distinguish five provinces, separated by NW-SE-trending lines. For the Northern

  6. Productive reorganization, outsourcing, and work relations in the offshore oil industry in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Marcelo; Alvarez, Denise; Athayde, Milton; Suarez, José Diego; Pereira, Renata; Soares, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between the intensive use of outsourcing and labor organizations on offshore oil platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The theoretical and methodological framework applied in our research is based on Ergonomics of Activity and the Psychodynamics of Work, from an ergological perspective. In addition to the more general trend of increasing precariousness, we highlight the potential loss of formal and informal knowledge resulting from the fragmentation of work collectives, as we consider the cohesion of these collectives to be a crucial element contributing to reliability in process operations. Increasing precariousness of work contributes to this fragmentation and one of its main causes is the uncontrolled increase in outsourcing of work. This situation has had nefarious consequences for workers' health and safety, suggesting that those who have adopted outsourcing as a labor management tool have failed to consider these harmful consequences as rigorously as necessary.

  7. Well-log signatures of alluvial-lacustrine reservoirs and source rocks, Lagoa-Feia Formations, Lower Cretaceous, Campos Basin, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahao, D.; Warme, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Campos basin is situated in offshore southeastern Brazil. The Lagoa Feia is the basal formation in the stratigraphic sequence of the basin, and was deposited during rifting in an evolving complex of lakes of different sizes and chemical characteristics, overlying and closely associated with rift volcanism. The stratigraphic sequence is dominated by lacustrine limestones and shales (some of them organic-rich), and volcaniclastic conglomerates deposited on alluvial fans. The sequence is capped by marine evaporites. In the Lagoa Feia Formation, complex lithologies make reservoirs and source rocks unsuitable for conventional well-log interpretation. To solve this problem, cores were studied and the observed characteristics related to log responses. The results have been extended through the entire basin for other wells where those facies were not cored. The reservoir facies in the Lagoa Feia Formation are restricted to levels of pure pelecypod shells (''coquinas''). Resistivity, sonic, neutron, density, and gamma-ray logs were used in this work to show how petrophysical properties are derived for the unconventional reservoirs existing in this formation. The same suite of logs was used to develop methods to define geochemical characteristics where source rock data are sparse in the organic-rich lacustrine shales of the Lagoa Feia Formation. These shales are the main source rocks for all the oil discovered to date in the Campos basin.

  8. Major controlling factors on hydrocarbon generation and leakage in South Atlantic conjugate margins: A comparative study of Colorado, Orange, Campos and Lower Congo basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcano, Gabriela; Anka, Zahie; di Primio, Rolando

    2013-09-01

    We present a supra-regional comparative study of the major internal and external factors controlling source rock (SR) maturation and hydrocarbon (HC) generation and leakage in two pairs of conjugate margins across the South Atlantic: the Brazil (Campos Basin)-Angola (Lower Congo Basin) margins located in the "central segment", and the Argentina (Colorado Basin)-South Africa (Orange Basin) in the "southern segment". Our approach is based on the analysis and integration of borehole data, 1D numerical modeling, 2D seismic reflection data, and published reports. Coupling of modeling results, sedimentation rate calculation and seal-bypass system analysis reveal that: (1) oil window is reached by syn-rift SRs in the southern segment during the Early to Late Cretaceous when thermal subsidence is still active, while in the central segment they reach it in Late-Cretaceous-Neogene during a salt remobilization phase, and (2) early HC generation from post-rift SRs in the southern segment and from all SRs in the central segment appears to be controlled mainly by episodes of increased sedimentation rates. The latter seems to be associated with the Andes uplift history for the western South Atlantic basins (Campos and Colorado) and to a possibly climate-driven response for the eastern South Atlantic basins (Orange and Lower Congo). Additionally, we observe that the effect of volcanism on SR maturation in the southern segment is very local. The comparison of Cretaceous mass transport deposit (MTD) episodes with HC peak of generation and paleo-leakage indicators in the southern segment revealed the possible causal effect that HC generation and leakage have over MTD development. Interestingly, Paleogene leakage indicators, which were identified in the Argentina-South Africa conjugate margins, occur contemporaneously to low sedimentation rate periods. Nonetheless, present-day leakage indicators which were also identified in both pairs of conjugate margins might be related to seal

  9. Rift brittle deformation of SE-Brazilian continental margin: Kinematic analysis of onshore structures relative to the transfer and accommodation zones of southern Campos Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastano, Vítor Lamy Mesiano; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Araújo, Mário Neto Cavalcanti de; Inocêncio, Leonardo Campos

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution drone-supported mapping and traditional field work were used to refine the hierarchy and kinematics of rift-related faults in the basement rocks and Early Cretaceous mafic dikes onshore of the Campos Basin, SE-Brazil. Two sets of structures were identified. The most significant fault set is NE-SW oriented with predominantly normal displacement. At mesoscale, this fault set is arranged in a rhombic pattern, interpreted here as a breached relay ramp system. The rhombic pattern is a penetrative fabric from the thin-section to regional scale. The second-order set of structures is an E-W/ESE-WNW system of normal faults with sinistral component. These E-W structures are oriented parallel with regional intrabasinal transfer zones associated with the earliest stages of Campos Basin's rift system. The crosscutting relationship between the two fault sets and tholeiitic dikes implies that the NE-SW fault set is the older feature, but remained active until the final stages of rifting in this region as the second-order fault set is older than the tholeiitic dikes. Paleostresses estimated from fault slip inversion method indicated that extension was originally NW-SE, with formation of the E-W transfer, followed by ESE-WNW oblique opening associated with a relay ramp system and related accommodation zones.

  10. Comparing 3d and 2d computational modeling of an oil well blowout using MOHID platform - A case study in the Campos Basin.

    PubMed

    Paiva, P M; Lugon Junior, J; Barreto, A N; Silva, J A F; Silva Neto, A J

    2017-10-01

    The oil well blowout releases hydrocarbons into the marine environment as an oil droplets and gas bubbles dispersion. The oil trajectory is strongly influenced by physical, chemical and biological processes. In general, the ocean oil drift studies are based on a two-dimensional approach, whereas the whole oil from a well blowout can be represented by a surface oil leak in the same geographical coordinates. This work is a case study, where MOHID software is used at the Campos Basin region, in which the Lagrangian results of the surface oil leaks were confronted to their well blowout scenarios in different conditions of depth, seasonality (summer and winter), and use of dispersants at the source of the leak. The research results reinforced the importance of the three-dimensional approach to the scenario of deep and ultra-deep waters, especially for cases in which the dispersant injection into the source of the leak was considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hamacantha (Hamacantha) boomerang sp. nov. from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin, SW Atlantic, and redescription of H. (H.) schmidtii (Carter, 1882) (Hamacanthidae, Poecilosclerida, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Castello-Branco, Cristiana

    2014-01-08

    There are 22 species of Hamacantha registered from all over the world, and frequently from deep-waters, only two of which had previously been reported from the SW Atlantic. Here we describe a third species for this area, Hamacantha (H.) boomerang sp. nov., collected from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin (off Rio de Janeiro state). We found oxeas 271-630 µm long, diancistras in three size classes, 125-155, 45-69 and 20-29 µm, and toxas, 58-82 µm. This is the only Hamacantha combining oxeas and toxas, but the latter are very rare. The species approaches the Caribbean H. (H.) schmidtii (Carter, 1882), where we observed oxeas 390-495 µm long, and diancistras in three size classes, 109-124,  44-54 and 26-41 μm, however toxas appear to be absent. Both species are clearly distinct by micrometric values, as well as the overall morphology of the smaller diancistras, distinct from the intermediate category in the new species, but quite similar in H. (H.) schmidtii. Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula approaches the new species very closely in microsclere dimensions and morphology, but is set apart by its styloid and smaller megascleres.

  12. Effects of non-aqueous fluids-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Fernanda L; Silva, Janete; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Pulgati, Fernando H

    2010-08-01

    This paper assesses the effects of non-aqueous fluids (NAF)-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, off the southeast Brazilian coast, Rio de Janeiro State. Samples were taken with a 0.25-m2 box corer from surrounding two oil and gas wells on three monitoring cruises: before drilling, three months after drilling, and 22 months after drilling. Statistical methodologies used Bayesian geostatistical and analysis of variance models to evaluate the effects of the NAF-associated drill cuttings discharge and to define the impact area. The results indicated that marked variations were not observed in the number of families between cruises, though there were changes in the fauna composition. The changes seen in biological descriptors in both control and background situation areas were not considered significant, showing a temporal homogeneity in means. The impact area presented changes in biological descriptors of communities and trophic structure during the three cruises and such changes were correlated to chemical and physical variables related to the drilling activities, as a result of the mix of drill cuttings and sediment and the anoxic conditions established in the substrate. In that area, three months after drilling, a decrease in diversity and an increase in density, motile deposit-feeders and Pol/Crp ratio, and dominance of opportunistic organisms, such as the capitellid Capitella sp., were observed and, 22 months after drilling, an increase of diversity, reduction of dominance of capitellid polychaete, changes in the fauna composition, and a dominance of opportunistic burrowing and tube-building organisms were observed, indicating an ecological succession process.

  13. Concentrations and isotope ratios of mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Beatriz Ferreira; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Almeida, Marcelo Gomes; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) may originate from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The measurement of spatial and temporal variations of Hg isotope ratios in sediments may enable source identification and tracking of environmental processes. In this study we establish the distribution of mercury concentrations and mercury isotope ratios in surface sediments of three transects along the continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil. The shelf showed on average lower total Hg concentrations (9.2 ± 5.3 ng g(-1)) than the slope (24.6 ± 8.8 ng g(-1)). MMHg average concentrations of shelf 0.15 ± 0.12 ng g(-1) and slope 0.13 ± 0.06 ng g(-1) were not significantly different. Distinct differences in Hg isotope ratio signatures were observed, suggesting that the two regions were impacted by different sources of Hg. The shelf showed more negative δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values ranging from -0.59 to -2.19‰ and from -0.76 to 0.08‰, respectively. In contrast, the slope exhibited δ(202)Hg values from -0.29 to -1.82‰ and Δ(199)Hg values from -0.23 to 0.09‰. Mercury found on the shelf, especially along the "D" and "I" transects, is depleted in heavy isotopes resulting in more negative δ(202)Hg compared to the slope. Isotope ratios observed in the "D" and "I" shelf region are similar to Hg ratios commonly associated with plants and vegetation and very comparable to those detected in the estuary and adjoining mangrove forest, which suggests that Hg exported from rivers may be the dominating source of Hg in near coastal regions along the northern part of the shelf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of an oil drilling operation on the trace metal concentrations in offshore bottom sediments of the Campos Basin oil field, SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, C E; Lacerda, L D; Ovalle, A R C; Souza, C M M; Gobo, A A R; Santos, D O

    2002-07-01

    The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ba, V, Sn and As in offshore bottom sediments from the Bacia de Campos oil field, SE Brazil, were measured at the beginning and at 7 months after completion of the drilling operation. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher closer to the drilling site compared to stations far from the site. Average concentrations of Al, Cu, and in particular of Ni, were significantly higher at the end of the drilling operation than at the beginning. Comparison between drilling area sediments with control sediments of the continental platform, however, showed no significant difference in trace metal concentrations. Under the operation conditions of this drilling event, the results show that while changes in some trace metal concentrations do occur during drilling operations, they are not significantly large to be distinguished from natural variability of the local background concentrations.

  15. BASINS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is a multipurpose environmental analysis system designed to help regional, state, and local agencies perform watershed- and water quality-based studies.

  16. [The Medical School of Campo Santana].

    PubMed

    Botelho, L da S

    1995-04-01

    The Medical School of Campo Santana was built on the site where the bullring once stood. It replaced the Medical-Surgical School of Lisbon, in the vicinity of S. José Hospital, which was in a state of impending ruin. Despite this concern, construction was slow and only twenty years after laying the first stone was it possible to begin lectures in this new building. It is a majestic edifice with contributions by the best artists of the era: panels by Veloso Salgado in the Actos Room, tiles by Jorge Colaço in Passos Perdidos, and paintings by Colombano in the Council Room. Reference is made to some historical events which took place in this building. With the transfer of medical studies to Santa Marta Hospital, the Medical School of Campo Santana suffered a period of neglect which ended with the founding of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Lisbon in 1977.

  17. The IR facility of Campo Imperatore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Paola, Andrea

    The AZT-24 telescope is currently the most advanced telescope working at the Campo Imperatore Observatory and the only one with infrared instrumentation available on the italian soil. It is a 1.1m Ritchey-Cretien telescope equipped with a near infrared camera (1/2.5 μm) with the standard broad band filters (J,H,K,K'), some narrow band filters and grisms for low resolution spectroscopy. AZT-24 is controlled by an automatic software that allows remote operations and makes easier the survey programs by performing unattended observations on sequences of targets. At Campo Imperatore, AZT-24 is joined by an optical instrument, the Schmidt telescope, that widens the wavelength coverage accessible from one single site from 0.35 to 2.5 μm. The most relevant scientific results obtained during the two years of operation will be shortly illustrated.

  18. Campo de velocidade peculiar na teoria linear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, N.

    2003-08-01

    Aglomerados e superaglomerados de galáxias são responsáveis pela chamada velocidade peculiar (movimentos relativos à expansão pura do universo) das galáxias. A amplitude destas perturbações depende da densidade de matéria do universo e do contraste de densidade no interior do volume onde está localizada a galáxia. Em 1980, Peebles introduziu o fator "f", que relaciona a amplitude das perturbações da velocidade com o campo gravitacional peculiar, no contexto da teoria linear. No presente trabalho obtemos uma solução geral analítica para o fator "f" de Peebles do campo de velocidades peculiares, em termos de funções hipergeométricas, válida para qualquer geometria do universo. Como um teste de nossa solução, os resultados encontrados originalmente por Peebles em 1980 e os resultados mais gerais encontrados por O. Lahav e colaboradores em 1991, são reobtidos.

  19. Petroleum exploration plays of the onshore Douala/Kribi Campo of Cameroon, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Seme Abomo, R.

    1996-08-01

    Generally, rifting and drifting phases characterize the Douala/Kribi Campo Formation. The rifting phase resulted from a progressive northward plate tectonic evolution, which extended from Late Jurassic to Neocomian-Turonian time, involving both an extensional process and strike-slip movements along fracture zones. The drifting phase was established during the Albian period, with the first marine incursion in the basin. During this phase, sedimentation was controlled by such factors as sea level variations, drainage systems and climate. Consequently, the onshore sector of the Douala/Kribi-Campo Basin can be subdivided into two major areas with different petroleum exploration plays. The southern area in which the rifting phase has thick Albo-Aptian sediments of terrigenous and clastics nature. These were deposited in coalescing fan deltas, locations of which were controlled by collapsed and tilted blocks. Trangressive deposits of the drifting phase overlie the erosional surface. In the northern area, the rifting phase consists of a system of horsts and grabens of Aptian time. The drifting phase consists of shelf sandstones and Upper Cretaceous turbiditic deposits.

  20. Caloris Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-07

    Caloris Basin on Mercury, is one of the largest basins in the solar system, its diameter exceeds 1300 kilometers and is in many ways similar to the great Imbrium basin on the Moon. This image is from NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft which launched in 1974.

  1. Faulted hybrid joints: an example from the Campo de Dalias (Betic Cordilleras, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Rodríguez-Fernández, Luís. Roberto; González-Lodeiro, Francisco

    2004-11-01

    The development of hybrid and faulted joints has not been studied in detail in natural outcrops. This field study in the Campo de Dalias (Betic Cordilleras) establishes the distinctive features of these structures as compared with those predicted by theoretical studies. Hybrid joints appear as two sets of vertical joints forming variable angles, but generally about 25°, with opening directions orthogonal to joint planes. Their development requires low differential stresses with a tensile minimum stress. The main criteria that indicate the existence of faulted joints are: (1) the presence of subvertical fault planes with oblique slip forming a complex pattern of dextral and sinistral faults developed under a single stress regime; (2) faults with similar geometries as joints in the same outcrop, showing an inconsistent cross-cutting relationship; and (3) the development of small basins with variable polarity of asymmetric wedge filling. A permutation in stress orientation since the Tortonian in the Campo de Dalias was responsible for the development of a faulted hybrid joint system, with a constant ENE-WSW extension trend and a switch of σ1 between NNW-SSE and vertical.

  2. 76 FR 6153 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project on the Campo Indian Reservation, San... the proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project (Proposed Action) to be located on the Campo Indian... Landfill Project (Proposed Action). There is no Federal action of amended lease and amended...

  3. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Edwin Campos

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

  4. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Campos

    2013-05-23

    Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

  5. Colonial Memory and the Crime of Rhetoric: Pedro Albizu Campos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Albizu Campos was a Harvard-educated Puerto Rican politician who was sentenced to eighty years of imprisonment for what he said--sedition. He was called "el Maestro," a powerful speaker, with thousands gathering to listen to his deliberative rhetoric for freedom. He urged the people to reclaim their cultural history and national…

  6. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, R. G.; FernandezNiello, J. O.; Reedy, R. C.; Fifield, L. K.; diTada, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, and Ni-59 were measured in the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite. Our results led us to conclude that the pre-atmospheric radius might have been approximately 2 m. Comparisons with other big bodies are also presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Colonial Memory and the Crime of Rhetoric: Pedro Albizu Campos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Albizu Campos was a Harvard-educated Puerto Rican politician who was sentenced to eighty years of imprisonment for what he said--sedition. He was called "el Maestro," a powerful speaker, with thousands gathering to listen to his deliberative rhetoric for freedom. He urged the people to reclaim their cultural history and national…

  8. Morphotectonic setting of maar lakes in the Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (Central Spain, SW Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Serrano, A.; Vegas, J.; García-Cortés, A.; Galán, L.; Gallardo-Millán, J. L.; Martín-Alfageme, S.; Rubio, F. M.; Ibarra, P. I.; Granda, A.; Pérez-González, A.; García-Lobón, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    In the Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (CCVF, Central Spain), the eruption of Pliocene-Pleistocene maar craters into two clearly distinct types of pre-volcanic rocks allows the observation and comparison of hard-substrate and soft-substrate maar lakes. Hard-substrate maars formed when phreatomagmatic processes affected the jointed, Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks (hard substrate), giving rise to funnel-like maar lake basins. Soft-substrate maars resulted from phreatomagmatic volcanic processes affecting poorly-consolidated Pliocene sediments, forming bowl-like maar lake basins. Pre-volcanic bedrock determined the post-eruptive lacustrine architecture in the craters and favored a higher preservation of hard-substrate maars in comparison to soft-substrate maars. This is because the hard-substrate maars, surrounded by a deep stable crater wall, are more capable of collecting sediments in their basins. These sediments could be preserved for longer than similar deposits in broad, shallow maars with a soft substrate. Ancient soft-substrate maars do not usually preserve their original morphology well and can be identified only by their lacustrine deposits. Carbonate lacustrine/palustrine deposits surrounding a bowl-like depression are the remnants of this second type of maar lake, and allow reconstruction of the original morphology of ancient soft-substrate maar craters. Geophysical (electrical tomography ground surveys) and geomorphologic-geologic mapping techniques were combined with fieldwork and facies analysis in order to locate and accurately characterize the Pliocene-Pleistocene soft-substrate maar volcanic structures of the CCVF.

  9. BASINS Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Although BASINS has been in use for the past 10 years, there has been limited modeling guidance on its applications for complex environmental problems, such as modeling impacts of hydro modification on water quantity and quality.

  10. Basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, I. )

    1989-01-01

    The exploration for oil is a high-risk game. Worldwide drilling success is around 5-10%, the average cost of drilling is around $1000 a foot, and the average well is now around 15,000 feet deep. Over the years, two fundamental avenues of attack have been developed: methods designed to locate oil in situ from direct measurement ahead of the drill and methods focusing on the dynamic evolution of a sedimentary basin in relation to the timing of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation to provide an assessment of which areas in a basin might be the most prospective for oil accumulations today. This volume addresses the problem of quantitative basin analysis in relation to oil accumulations. Emphasis is placed on the uncertainties and resolution limits of basin analysis given constraints derived from surface and downhole data and the sensitivity to model input parameters and assumptions.

  11. Callisto basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This picture of a multi=ring basin on Callisto was taken the morning of March 6, 1979, from a distance of about 200,000 km. The complicated circular structure seen at left center is similar to the large circular impact basins that dominate the surface of the Earth's moon and also the planet Mercury. The inner parts of these basins are generally surrounded by radially lineated ejecta and several concentric mountainous ring structures that are thought to form during the impact event. This multi-ring basin on Callisto consists of light floored central basin some 300 k m in diameter surrounded by at least eight to ten discontinuous rhythmically spaced ridges. No radially lineated ejecta can be seen. The ring structures on Moon and Mercury have been likened to ripples produced on a pond by a rock striking the water. The great number of rings observed around this basin on Callisto is consistent with its low planetary density and probable low internal strength. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  12. Ergonomics, safety, and resilience in the helicopter offshore transportation system of Campos Basin.

    PubMed

    Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert J; Borges, Marcos R S; de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation of personnel to offshore oil platforms is one of the major hazards of this kind of endeavor. Pilot performance is a key factor in the safety of the transportation system. This study seeks to identify the ergonomic factors present in pilots' activities that may in some way compromise or enhance their performance, the constraints and affordances which they are subject to; and where possible to link these to their associated risk factors. Methodology adopted in this project studies work in its context. It is a merging of Activity Analysis (Guerin et al. 2001) of European tradition with Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA - www.ctaresource.com) articulated with the recent approaches to cognitive systems engineering developed by Professors David Woods and Erik Hollnagel. Fifty-five hours of field interviews provided the input for analysis. Sixteen ergonomic constraints were identified, some cognitive, some physical, all considered relevant by the research subjects and expert advisers. Although the safety record of the personnel transportation system studied is considered acceptable, there is low hanging fruit to be picked which can help improve the system's safety.

  13. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  14. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  15. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker (Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S; Macedo, Regina H

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker (Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  16. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  17. Volcanism-sedimentation interaction in the Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (Spain): a magnetostratigraphic and geochronological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Hernández, Antonio; López-Moro, Francisco Javier; Gallardo-Millán, José Luis; Martín-Serrano, Ángel; Gómez-Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the influence of Cenozoic volcanism of the Campo de Calatrava volcanic field on the sedimentation of two small continental basins in Spain (Argamasilla and Calzada-Moral basins). The volcanism in this area was mainly monogenetic, according to the small-volume volcanic edifices of scoria cones that were generated and the occurrence of tuff rings and maars. A sedimentological analysis of the volcaniclastic deposits led to the identification of facies close to the vents, low-density (dilute) pyroclastic surges, secondary volcanic deposits and typical maar deposits. Whole-rock K/Ar dating, together with palaeomagnetic constraints, yielded an age of 3.11-3.22 Ma for the onset of maar formation, the deposition finished in the Late Gauss-Early Matuyana. Using both techniques and previous paleontological data allowed it to be inferred that the maar formation and the re-sedimentation stage that occurred in Argamasilla and Calzada-Moral basins were roughly coeval. The occurrence of syn-eruption volcaniclastic deposits with small thicknesses that were separated by longer inter-eruption periods, where fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation was prevalent, together with the presence of small-volume volcanic edifices indicated that there were short periods of volcanic activity in this area. The volcanic activity was strongly controlled by previous basement faults that favoured magma feeding, and the faults also controlled the location of volcanoes themselves. The occurrence of the volcanoes in the continental basins led to the creation of shallow lakes that were related to the maar formation and the modification of sedimentological intra-basinal features, specifically, valley slope and sediment load.

  18. Riparian woody vegetation history in the campos region, southeastern South America, during two time windows: late Pleistocene and late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourelle, Dominique; Prieto, Aldo R.; García-Rodríguez, Felipe

    2017-07-01

    A detailed palynological record from Laguna Formosa (northeastern campos region, 31°S; 54°W) documents the dynamic balance between grasslands and riparian forests during the late Pleistocene (14,570 to 13,500 cal yr BP) and late Holocene (3280 cal yr BP to the present). Modern pollen-vegetation relationships and the woody pollen dispersal capacity analyses were used to improve the vegetation reconstruction. Grasslands were regionally dominant throughout the record. However, at 14,570 cal yr BP hydrophilous taxa reflect the development of riparian hydrophilous shrublands along freshwater bodies, promoting the fixation of the riverbanks, maintaining shallow, calm and clear water conditions under a relatively wet and not so cool climate. This is the first evidence of woody riparian vegetation development along freshwater bodies for the lowlands of the northern campos during the late glacial period. At 3280 cal yr BP riparian forests consisted of both hydrophilous and mesophilous woody taxa. Since 2270 cal yr BP woody vegetation gradually increased, accompanied by the incorporation of other taxa by 940 cal yr BP, and achieving a composition similar to that of the contemporary time at ca. 540 cal yr BP. The increased woody vegetation since ca. 2270 cal yr BP, and the more frequent and intense flooding events between 1800 and 1200 cal yr BP, could be related to higher precipitation over La Plata Drainage Basin, related with the high ENSO amplitude. In addition, pollen from taxa that currently no longer develops in the study area suggests connections between southern Brazil and Uruguay, and between the campos and the Chaco phytogeographic province.

  19. IR and Optical Observations of GRB from Campo Imperatore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speziali, R.; D'Alessio, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Paola, A. Di; Burderi, L.; Fiore, F.; Israel, G.; Lorenzetti, D.; Pedichini, F.; Stella, L.; Vitali, F.

    In this poster we present a description of the Campo Imperatore Observatory facilities, suitable for very fast reaction to GRB triggers and multiwavelength observations. Two complementary instruments are available in the Observatory: the AZT-24 (1.1m Ritchey Cretien equipped with the NIR camera SWIRCAM), one of the few IR telescope working in the northern emisphere, and a Schmidt telescope (60/90/180 cm, equipped with a 2Kx2K back illuminated CCD). The IR detection of the GRB 000926, obtained with the AZT-24, is also reported.

  20. Chronology of Neogene sedimentation, stratigraphy, and tectonism in the Campo de Talampaya region, La Rioja Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malizia, Daniel C.; Reynolds, James H.; Tabbutt, Kenneth D.

    1995-05-01

    Chronostratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and tectonic analysis of a 2320 m thick Neogene continental section was conducted along the southern limit of the Campo de Talampaya. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and fission track ages were used to develop a relatively precise geochronology. The strata record a period of mixed evaporitic and terrigenous elastic sedimentation (˜20-6.1 Ma) that persisted in the distal Bermejo Basin during eastward migration of the Precordillera fold-thrust belt. A critical transition of depositional environments and a change from western to eastern source areas occurred between 12.9 and 12.3 Ma. The saline mud-flat environment of the Río Mañero Formation, derived from a western source and characterized by fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and evaporites, yielded to a short period of playa lake deposition. This was soon overwhelmed by deposition of the Desencuentro Formation, composed of sandstones and mudstones with an eastern source area and deposited in a sand-flat/mud-flat environment. We propose that this stratigraphic transition resulted from initiation of uplift of the Sierra de Velasco, a range of the Sierras Pampeanas, located ˜65 km to the east-northeast of the section. Basement clasts, probably derived from the Sierra de Velasco, are found in conglomeratic lenses beginning in the lower part of the Desencuentro Formation. The modern Campo de Talampaya basin formed after deposition of the top of the Alto de San Nicolás paleomagnetic section (6.1 Ma) when west-verging reverse faults uplifted the Sierra Morada and Sierra de los Tarjados. All strata in the section were tilted eastward during these culminating uplift events.

  1. Deep seismic reflection profiling of sedimentary basins offshore Brazil: Geological objectives and preliminary results in the Sergipe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohriak, Webster Ueipass; Lira Rabelo, JoséHenrique; De Matos, Renato Darros; De Barros, Mozart C.

    1995-12-01

    The first deep seismic reflection profiles offshore Brazil were acquired in Campos Basin and processed to 10 s TWT in 1984. Starting in 1989, Petrobrás acquired an extensive data set of deep seismic profiles using special acquisition equipment capable of effectively penetrating through the sedimentary layers and imaging the whole crustal architecture. These deep (18 s TWT) seismic reflection profiles extend across the Atlantic-type marginal basins, from the platform to the deepwater province, presently considered frontier regions for petroleum exploration. This work addresses the geological objectives of a deep seismic profile in the Sergipe Basin and discusses the results obtained by integrating regional seismic, gravity and magnetic data. When combined, these data provide evidence that deep seismic reflectors observed in the Sergipe Basin are related to intracrustal-upper mantle structures rather than sedimentary features. The deep seismic reflection profile in the Sergipe Basin also suggests that, rather than a non-volcanic passive margin, the deepwater extension of this basin is marked by several magmatic structures, including thick wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors and volcanic plugs. These magmatic features are associated with basinforming processes resulting from lithospheric extension during the breakup of Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous and subsequent emplacement of oceanic crust. These results are compared to the crustal scale structures observed in the Campos Basin, in the southeastern margin of Brazil. The interpretation of the deep structure of these basins indicates that final separation between the South American and African plates formed passive margins characterized by different patterns of crustal attenuation underlying the rift blocks.

  2. Quantitative finger dermatoglyphics in a Spanish population (Tierra de Campos).

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Portabales, D

    1986-09-01

    This study deals with the finger ridge counts and the distribution of their frequencies drawn from a Spanish sample consisting of 833 school-children (417 males and 416 females), which has been collected from the geographical area of Tierra de Campos. Paired t-test and Student-t-test were used to explore bimanual and sexual differences, respectively. The results showed: a bimanual asymmetry marked by significantly higher right hand ridge count for thumb and index pairs in both males and females, ridge counts of males are always higher than the corresponding values of females; the differences being significant excepting for right and left index and for left ring-finger. The frequency distribution of TFRC was slightly, but significantly, different from normality only in males, as Kolmogorov test showed. A great homogeneity between values for TFRC of males and females from Tierra de Campos and those of the available Spanish and Portuguese populations has been found, the values being high not only in the variation ranges of the Spanish and Portuguese populations, but also in the ranges reported for other European populations.

  3. The Campo Imperatore Near Earth Object Survey (CINEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boattini, Andrea; D'Abramo, Germano; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Carusi, Andrea; di Paola, Andrea; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Jedicke, Robert; Harris, Alan W.; Dotto, Elisabetta; de Luise, Fiore; Perna, Davide; Leoni, Riccardo

    2007-06-01

    The Campo Imperatore Near Earth Object Survey (CINEOS) is an Italian survey dedicated to the search and follow-up of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). It is operated with the 90 cm f/3 Schmidt telescope at the Campo Imperatore of the Rome Astronomical Observatory (INAF-OAR) as a joint project with the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale and Fisica Cosmica (INAF-IASF) in Rome. Since the end of 2001 CINEOS has covered about 4,250 sq. deg to 20th magnitude in the course of about 160 nights. This effort led to the discovery of 7 Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), 1 comet (167P/CINEOS; a member of the Centaur group) and a few other unusual objects including 2004 XH50 with a unique comet-like orbit. CINEOS has also contributed almost 2,200 preliminary designations and over 30,000 detections to the Minor Planet Center. About 20% of the survey effort was carried out at low solar elongations (LSE), although no object with an orbit interior (Inner Earth Objects, IEO class) or nearly interior to the Earth (Aten class) was found. The work at LSE was, however, very important to test survey strategies implemented with larger telescopes. We also provide the results of a CINEOS simulation on a reliable NEO population model based on the results of two larger scale surveys, Spacewatch and LINEAR.

  4. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  5. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  6. ``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

    2012-09-01

    In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

  7. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1

    ScienceCinema

    Edwin Campos

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

  8. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Campos

    2013-05-08

    Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

  9. 76 FR 29261 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Wind Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Campo Wind Energy Project, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION... necessary for preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Campo Shu'luuk Wind Project... San Diego, California. Construction of the Shu'luuk Wind Project within the Campo Reservation is...

  10. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby

  11. BASINS Tutorials and Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A series of lectures and exercises on how to use BASINS for water quality modeling and watershed assessment. The lectures follow sequentially. Companion exercises are provided for users to practice different BASINS water quality modeling techniques.

  12. BASINS Technical Notes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in BASINS. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in BASINS.

  13. Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-29

    The Los Angeles Basin is bordered on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains. Other smaller basins are separated by smaller mountain ranges, like the Verdugo Hills, and the Santa Monica Mountains in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  14. The petroleum habitat in the post-rift sequences in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    De Figueiredo, A.M.F.D.; Fernandes, G.J.F.; Guimaraes, P.T.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The post-rift sedimentary strata of the Brazilian coastal basins are made of two main sequences: the evaporite and carbonatic Albian-Aptian sequence, and the open-marine Late Albian to Recent sequence, both related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. More than 40 billion barrels of oil-equivalent in place has been found in these sequences, mostly in siliciclastic reservoirs above and below the Aptian salt beds. The productive basins are Campos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe-Alagoas, Potiguar, Ceara, and Santos, but the first one is responsible for more than 60% of the original oil in place discovered in these basins. The hydrocarbon origin, migration, and accumulation models in these sequences are discussed and exemplified by some giant oil fields of Campos and Sergipe-Alagoas basins, where oil is trapped in Aptian conglomerates, Albian carbonates, and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary turbidite sandstones. The cumulative production in these sequences reaches 958.6 million barrels and the proved exploitable reserve amounts reach 2.7 billion barrels of oil-equivalent. Petrobras' exploratory forecast indicates that the post-rift sequences are the most prolific ones in the Brazilian marginal basins. The oil-equivalent that is expected to be discovered, particularly in deep water areas, where giant oil fields (as the Marlim field) have been found, exceeds the amount that has been discovered until now.

  15. Devonian shelf basin, Michigan basin, Alpena region

    SciTech Connect

    Gutschick, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    This biostratigraphic study involves the Devonian paleogeography-paleoecology-paleobathymetry of the transition from carbonate platform shelf margin to basinal sedimentation for the northern part of the Michigan basin in the Alpena region. Shelf-basin analysis is based on lithofacies, rock colors, concretion, biostratigraphy, paleoecology of faunas - especially microfaunas and trace fossils - stratified water column, eustasy, and application of Walther's Law. Field observations were made on Partridge Point along Lake Huron, where type sections of the Middle Devonian Thunder Bay Limestone and Late Devonian Squaw Bay Limestone are exposed; and the Antrim black shale at Paxton quarry. The Thunder Bay Limestone evolved as a carbonate platform, subtidal shelf-margin aerobic environment dominated by sessile benthic coralline organisms and shelly fauna, but not reef framework. The Squaw Bay Limestone is transitional shelf to basin, with aspects of slope environment and deeper water off-platform, pelagic organic biostromal molluscan-conodont carbonate deposited during the onset of a stratified water column (dysaerobic benthos-polychaete. agglutinated tubes, sulfides) and pycnocline. The Antrim Shale, in an exceptional black shale exposure in the Paxton quarry, represents deep-water basinal deposition whose bottom waters lacked oxygen. Faunas (conodonts, styliolines, radiolarians) and floras (tasmanitids, calamitids, palynomorphs) are from the aerobic pelagic realm, as indicated from concretions and shale fossil evidence. A benthos is lacking, except for bioturbation from organisms introduced by entrained oxygenated distal turbidite dispersion into the barren bottom black muds. Basinal hydrocarbon source rocks are abundant and updip carbonate reservoirs rim the basin. The Antrim Shale sequence contains the interval of Frasnian-Famennian faunal extinction.

  16. Manual de métodos de campo para el monitoreo de aves terrestres

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; Geoffrey R. Geupel; Peter Pyle; Thomas E. Martin; David F DeSante; Borja Milá

    1996-01-01

    El presente manual es una recopilación de métodos de campo para la determinación de índices de abundancia y datos demográficos de poblaciones de aves terrestres en una amplia variedad de hábitats. Está dirigido a biólogos, técnicos de campo, e investigadores de cualquier parte del Continente Americano. Los métodos descritos incluyen cuatro tipos de censos...

  17. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  18. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. )

    1993-02-01

    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.

  19. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  20. Great Basin aspen ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Dale L. Bartos

    2008-01-01

    The health of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Great Basin is of growing concern. The following provides an overview of aspen decline and die-off in areas within and adjacent to the Great Basin and suggests possible directions for research and management.

  1. Ground-water in the Teresina-Campo Maior area, Piaui, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Suszczynski, Edison F.

    1972-01-01

    The Teresina-Campo Maior area lies in a presently developing farming and grazing region near the margin of drought-prone northeast Brazil where irrigated farming offers the best potential for economic development. The area comprises 9,700 square kilometers largely of catinga-covered tabular uplands which are drained by the perennial Rio Parnatba. The climate is hot and humid most of the year but with distinct wet and dry seasons. Temperature extremes range from 20?C to 39?C and the annum rainfall averages 1,200 millimeters. The area's ground-water reservoir is contained chiefly in sandstone aquifers of six westward-dipping sedimentary rock formations, all part of the Maranhao sedimentary basin. The youngest of these formations, namely the Piaut (Pennsylvarian), Poti (Mississippian), Longa (Upper Devonian), and Cabecas (Middle Devoniar), contain the principal aquifers. Precipitation is the primary source of recharge to these aquifers and is more than sufficient to replenish current withdrawals from wells. Underlying the principal aquifers are the untapped Pimenteiras and Serra Grande Formations (both Lower Devonian) which in areas adjacent to the report area are moderately good to excellent water producers. These aquifers are recharged principally by lateral inflow from the east. Water also occurs in the alluvial deposits (Quaternary) underlying the flood plain of the Rio Parnatba but recurrent and uncontrolled flooding at present (1966) precludes their development. Of little economic importance, because they lie above the zone of saturation, are the thin erosional remnants of the Pastos Bons (Upper Triassic), Matuca, and Pedra de Fogo (both Permian) Formations. There are in the report area about 200 drilled wells most of which are pumped with power-driven engines. The wells range from 40 to 500 meters deep but most do not exceed 150 meters, and practically all are completed open hole. Yields range from 500 liters per day for 6-inch-diameter domestic wells to 240

  2. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  3. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  4. 75 FR 8986 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Please include your name, return address, and the caption ``DSEIS, Campo Solid Waste Management Project... of constructing and operating a solid waste disposal facility. The solid waste disposal facility... facilities. The proposed Class III (non-hazardous) solid waste landfill would occupy approximately 400...

  5. 78 FR 34373 - Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Campo Verde Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  7. South American sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  8. Construction at Turn Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Precast concrete poles are being driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin; later filled with concrete. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  9. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  10. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Precast concrete poles are being driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  11. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the 300,000-pound core booster aboard the modified Pegasus barge. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  12. BASINS Framework and Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  13. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core booster aboard the barge Pegasus. Construction workers with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. work to shore up the turn basin area. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the 300,000-pound core booster aboard the modified Pegasus barge. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  14. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  15. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-30

    At NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cement is poured as part of a construction project to upgrade the turn basin wharf. The work includes driving multiple precast concrete piles to a depth of about 70 feet to accommodate arrival of the core stage for the agency's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. When the stage for NASA's SLS departs the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, it will be shipped by the agency's modified barge to the Launch Complex 39 turn basin.

  16. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  17. Periodogram Analysis on Solar Activities Based on El Campo Solar Radar Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ye; Zhi-ning, Qu; Min, Wang; Guan-nan, Gao; Jun, Lin; Zhi-chun, Duan

    2016-10-01

    Solar radar can transmit radar waves toward the Sun actively at a specific waveband and receive the reflected waves. By analyzing the echoes, we can obtain the information of motion, magnetic field, and other properties of the solar atmosphere. The El Campo solar radar has done regular observations on the solar corona for 8 years from 1961 to 1969, to trace the variation of solar activities. We have made a periodicity analysis on the obtained data with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram algorithm, and found that there are the 200 day and 540 day periods existed in the variation of the measured solar radar cross section. In addition, we have selected the larger radar cross sections (≥ 20σ⊙) to compare with the Dst indexes. Finally, we have summarized the El Campo solar radar experiment and give a prospect for the future development of the solar radar observation.

  18. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  19. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  20. The Campos Sales Chondrite: A New Fall from Ceara State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, V. W.; Costa, T. V. V.; Araujo, M. A. B.; Michel-Levy, M. Christophe; Dreher, A. M.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    1995-09-01

    The Campos Sales meteorite shower fell at 10:00 PM (local time) on January 31, 1991 and was observed by many local inhabitants. The fall was accompanied by a loud sound and bright flash, causing astonishment among the witnesses. The site of the fall is a grain field near the small town of Campos Sales situated in the southwest of the state of Cear , Brazil (7 02' S, 40 10' W). The total weight of the recovered material is estimated to be 23.68 Kg. Thirty-five crust-covered pieces, weighing 21.30 Kg total, ranged from 3g to 3.49 Kg each, and 300 smaller fragments totalled 2.38 Kg. Preliminary mineralogical and microprobe studies indicate that Campos Sales is a lightly shocked L chondrite with many chondrules dispersed in mineral debris. The olivine is Fa 25.0 and orthopyroxene is Fs 21.4 Wo 1.6. Neumann bands in the kamacite (6.2 - 6.5% Ni and 0.4 - 0.7% Co) and cracks in the olivine are the main shock features. Clear and cloudy taenite, plessite and monocrystalline troilite are also present. The available analyses are still insufficient to allow for a precise definition of the degree of equilibration. Thus, a petrological classification of types L4 or L5 is suggested. More detailed analyses are in progress and will be published elsewhere.

  1. Incidence of finger pattern types and pattern intensity in a Spanish population (Tierra de Campos).

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Portabales, D

    1985-09-01

    The incidence of finger pattern types and the pattern intensity distribution in a Spanish sample (417 males and 416 females) drawn from the geographical area of Tierra de Campos have been studied. Sexual and bilateral differences for both dermatoglyphic traits were explored by means of chi 2-test and Mann-Whitney U-test, showing significant differences in all cases, excepting the sexual difference between left hands for pattern intensity. Kolmogorov test for distribution normality showed that pattern intensity was not normally distributed, being the distributions right skewed because of the low frequency of classes with fewer triradii. The results obtained in Tierra de Campos were compared with those observed in other Spanish and Portuguese populations, showing more heterogeneity in the pattern types than in pattern intensity. This could imply that arches account for the main source of variation between populations. Moreover, pattern type frequencies and pattern intensity in Tierra de Campos are, as expected, within the variation ranges of Southeuropean-Mediterranean populations and Caucasians as a whole, although the incidence of radial loops is located in the lower extremes of the corresponding variation ranges.

  2. Mineral nutrition of campos rupestres plant species on contrasting nutrient-impoverished soil types.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rafael S; Galvão, Hugo C; de Campos, Mariana C R; Eller, Cleiton B; Pearse, Stuart J; Lambers, Hans

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, the campos rupestres occur over the Brazilian shield, and are characterized by acidic nutrient-impoverished soils, which are particularly low in phosphorus (P). Despite recognition of the campos rupestres as a global biodiversity hotspot, little is known about the diversity of P-acquisition strategies and other aspects of plant mineral nutrition in this region. To explore nutrient-acquisition strategies and assess aspects of plant P nutrition, we measured leaf P and nitrogen (N) concentrations, characterized root morphology and determined the percentage arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of 50 dominant species in six communities, representing a gradient of soil P availability. Leaf manganese (Mn) concentration was measured as a proxy for carboxylate-releasing strategies. Communities on the most P-impoverished soils had the highest proportion of nonmycorrhizal (NM) species, the lowest percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, and the greatest diversity of root specializations. The large spectrum of leaf P concentration and variation in root morphologies show high functional diversity for nutritional strategies. Higher leaf Mn concentrations were observed in NM compared with AM species, indicating that carboxylate-releasing P-mobilizing strategies are likely to be present in NM species. The soils of the campos rupestres are similar to the most P-impoverished soils in the world. The prevalence of NM strategies indicates a strong global functional convergence in plant mineral nutrition strategies among severely P-impoverished ecosystems. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  4. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  5. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Equipment is staged and a crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  6. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Tammy Kelly, in the center, site manager, with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. talks with construction workers. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  7. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. In the foreground is Tammy Kelly, site manager, with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  8. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  9. Colby Fire over LA Basin

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... NASA Spacecraft Sees Dispersion of Smoke and Ash Across LA Basin from Colby Fire     ... evacuations of about 2,000 people, and sent smoke and ash across the Los Angeles Basin, prompting an air quality alert by public ...

  10. BASINS User Information and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides links to guidance on how to use BASINS, including the User’s Manual, tutorials and training, technical notes, case studies, and publications that highlight the use of BASINS in various watershed analyses.

  11. BASINS Climate Assessment Tool Tutorials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The BASINS Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) provides a flexible set of capabilities for exploring the potential effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality using different watershed models in BASINS.

  12. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-30

    Across from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cement is poured as part of a construction project to upgrade the turn basin wharf. The work includes driving multiple precast concrete piles to a depth of about 70 feet to accommodate arrival of the core stage for the agency's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. When the stage for NASA's SLS departs the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, it will be shipped by the agency's modified barge to the Launch Complex 39 turn basin.

  13. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-30

    Across from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cement trucks stand by to support a construction project to upgrade the turn basin wharf. The work includes driving multiple precast concrete piles to a depth of about 70 feet to accommodate arrival of the core stage for the agency's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. When the stage for NASA's SLS departs the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, it will be shipped by the agency's modified barge to the Launch Complex 39 turn basin.

  14. Taunton River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    This report presents in tabular form selected records of wells, test wells, and borings collected during a study of the basin from 1966 to 1968 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, and during earlier studies. This report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic ground-water information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report will complement an interpretative report on the Taunton River basin to be released at a later date.

  15. Floor of Hellas Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-18

    With a diameter of roughly 2,000 km 1,243 miles and a depth of over 7 km more than 4 miles, the Hellas Basin, shown in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft, is the largest impact feature on Mars.

  16. America's Caribbean Basin Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasten, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Nearly all of the countries that have succeeded in their development over the past 30 years have done so on the strength of market-oriented policies and vigorous participation in the international economy. Aid must be complemented by trade and investment. The Caribbean Basin Initiative puts these principles into practice. (RM)

  17. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  18. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  19. Cenozoic basin development in Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-04-01

    Four distinct generations of Cenozoic basins have developed in Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) as a result of collisional or strike-slip interactions between the North America and Caribbean plates. First generation basins formed when the north-facing Hispaniola arc collided with the Bahama platform in the middle Eocene; because of large post-Eocene vertical movements, these basins are preserved locally in widely separated areas but contain several kilometers of arc and ophiolite-derived clastic marine sediments, probably deposited in thrust-loaded, flexure-type basins. Second generation basins, of which only one is exposed at the surface, formed during west-northwesterly strike-slip displacement of southern Cuba and northern Hispaniola relative to central Hispaniola during the middle to late Oligocene; deposition occurred along a 5-km (3-mi) wide fault-angle depression and consisted of about 2 km (1 mi) of submarine fan deposits. Third generation basins developed during post-Oligocene convergent strike-slip displacement across a restraining bend formed in central Hispaniola; the southern 2 basins are fairly symmetrical, thrust-bounded ramp valleys, and the third is an asymmetrical fault-angle basin. Fourth generation basins are pull-aparts formed during post-Miocene divergent strike-slip motion along a fault zone across southern Hispaniola. As in other Caribbean areas, good source rocks are present in all generations of basins, but suitable reservoir rocks are scarce. Proven reservoirs are late Neogene shallow marine and fluvial sandstones in third generation basins.

  20. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  1. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011

  2. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  3. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  4. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Pérez de León, Adalberto Angel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Dos Santos Júnior, Alceu Gonçalves; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B.) microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B.) microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG) strain of R. (B.) microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B.) microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B.) microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul.

  5. Fatal coccidiosis by Isospora icterus (Upton & Whitaker, 2000) in captive Campo Troupial (Icterus jamacaii) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marcus V R; Vilela, Daniel A da R; Andrade, Emily A G; Galvão, Carolina Z; de Resende, José S; Junior, Francisco C F; Andery, Danielle A; Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred Sales; Martins, Nelson R S

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of coccidiosis by Isospora icterus (I. icterus, Upton & Whitaker, 2000) in captive Campo Troupial (Icterus jamacaii) (Gmelin, 1788) at the Wild Animals Triage Center (IBAMA, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) is described. Clinical history and the necropsy findings documented diarrhea with diffuse necrotic enteritis. Sporulated oocysts (n = 100) had a bilayered wall, were subspherical, and measured 30.1 (27.5-32.5) microm in length and 28.5 (26.2-30.0) microm in width. A polar body but no micropyle was present and the length/width ratio was 1.1 (1.00-1.2). Each oocyst contained two ellipsoidal sporocysts measuring 17.6 (15.0-20.0) microm in length and 12.9 (12.5-15.0) microm in width, with a length/width ratio of 1.4 (1.2-1.5), and with Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies. Each sporocyst contained four sporozoites with granular sporocyst residuum. Oocysts were compatible with those from I. icterus, previously described in Campo Troupial.

  6. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  7. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  8. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  9. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  10. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  11. All About That Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-25

    This mosaic of Caloris basin is an enhanced-color composite overlain on a monochrome mosaic featured in a previous post. The color mosaic is made up of WAC images obtained when both the spacecraft and the Sun were overhead, conditions best for discerning variations in albedo, or brightness. The monochrome mosaic is made up of WAC and NAC images obtained at off-vertical Sun angles (i.e., high incidence angles) and with visible shadows so as to reveal clearly the topographic form of geologic features. The combination of the two datasets allows the correlation of geologic features with their color properties. In portions of the scene, color differences from image to image are apparent. Ongoing calibration efforts by the MESSENGER team strive to minimize these differences. Caloris basin has been flooded by lavas that appear orange in this mosaic. Post-flooding craters have excavated material from beneath the surface. The larger of these craters have exposed low-reflectance material (blue in this mosaic) from beneath the surface lavas, likely giving a glimpse of the original basin floor material. Analysis of these craters yields an estimate of the thickness of the volcanic layer: 2.5-3.5 km (1.6-2.2 mi.). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19216

  12. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  13. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  14. The aquatic and semiaquatic biota in Miocene amber from the Campo LA Granja mine (Chiapas, Mexico): Paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Sánchez, María de Lourdes; Hegna, Thomas A.; Schaaf, Peter; Pérez, Liseth; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2015-10-01

    Amber from the Campo La Granja mine in Chiapas, Mexico, is distinct from other sources of amber in Chiapas. Campo La Granja amber has distinct layers created by successive flows of resin with thin layers of sand on most surfaces. Aquatic and semi-aquatic arthropods are commonly found. Together these pieces of evidence suggest an estuarine environment similar to modern mangrove communities. The aquatic crustaceans are the most intriguing aspect of the biota. A large number of ostracods have been found in the amber-many with their carapaces open, suggesting that they were alive and submerged in water at the time of entombment. The only known examples of brachyuran crabs preserved in amber are found in the Campo La Granja amber. Amphipods, copepods, isopods, and tanaids are also members of the crustacean fauna preserved in amber.

  15. [The focus of human trypanosomiasis in Campo (Cameroon). History and endemic situation in 1998].

    PubMed

    Penchenier, L; Grébaut, P; Eboó Eyenga, V; Bodo, J M; Njiokou, F; Binzouli, J J; Simarro, P; Soula, G; Herder, S; Laveissière, C

    1999-07-01

    For the first time in the last thirteen years, the human sleeping sickness focus at Campo, spanning the Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea border areas, has been prospected. The screening was carried out simultaneously on both sides of the border. This focus has been known since the beginning of the century but, contrary to what took place in other well-known foci in bordering countries south of Cameroon, either in the 1920s or the 1980s--there has never been an epidemic outbreak in that area. Such an epidemiological situation makes this focus particularly interesting. Though still active, trypanosomiasis is not very manifest. According to passive screening carried out in recent years, the estimated prevalence ranges between 0.2 and 0.5%. For this screening, 5,255 persons were examined on the Cameroonian side of the focus (90.6% of the census population). The serological screenings were carried out with the CATT 1.3, which is the CATT generally used in screening, and with the latex CATT which associates LiTat 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6. The search for trypanosomes was made by testing the lymph nod juice in presence of adenopathy and in the blood by Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC), the mini anion exchange centrifugation (mAEC), as well as the in vitro culture using the kit for in vitro isolation of trypanosomes (KIVI) for individuals suspected to be serologically positive. 16 patients were identified in Cameroon but none in Equatorial Guinea. The results show that the Campo focus is active only on the Cameroonian side, centred on the village of Ipono with a limited prevalence (0.3%). The persisting epidemic is most likely to be associated with the presence of pigs carrying the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense which was identified during the study in Ipono. The strain that we isolated was studied by isoenzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate. Its zymodeme is the same as that of the human strain isolated in Campo. With the collected epidemiological data, a concerted medical and

  16. Seismic exploration in Raton basin

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.K.; Rose, P.R.

    1985-05-01

    Exploration in the Raton basin has delineated complex mountain-front structure in the asymmetric basin, and defined possible basin-centered gas. Exploration has included subsurface and surface geology, remote sensing, and seismic reflection. The Raton basin is a north-south-trending structural basin straddling the Colorado-New Mexico boundary. It is bounded on the west by the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, on the north and northeast by the Wet Mountains and Apishapa arch, and the Sierra Grande uplift on the south and southeast. The basin is asymmetric with transcurrent faulting and thrusting associated with the steeper western flank of the basin. Rocks range from Devonian-Mississippian overlying Precambrian basement to Miocene volcanics associated with the Spanish Peaks. Principal targets include the Entrada, Dakota, Codell, and Trinidad Sandstones and the Purgatoire and Raton Formations. Seismic data include explosive and Vibroseis data. Data quality is good in the basin center and is fair in the thrusted areas. Correlations are difficult from line to line. However, a strike line in the disturbed area would probably be more disrupted by out-of-the-plane reflections than the dip lines would be. Significant stratigraphic changes are seen in both the Trinidad and Dakota intervals. Integrated seismic and geological studies are keys to exploration in the basin. Subsequent work will rely heavily on improved seismic information.

  17. Multiple types of human papillomavirus in cervical samples in women in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tozetti, Inês Aparecida; Scapulatempo, Ilzia Doraci Lins; Kawski, Vicky Liege; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Levi, José Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    We analyzed 87 cervical samples from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, with a PGMY/GP+ nested PCR system. Positive samples were typed using E7 type-specific primer pairs for HPV 6/11, 16, 18, 45 and 66. Eighteen samples (22%) were infected with HPV6/11, 18 samples (22%) with HPV66, 13 samples (15.9%) with HPV45, 8 samples (9.8%) with HPV18 and 7 samples (8.5%) with HPV16. Seventeen samples (20.7%) were infected by two HPV types, and five samples (6.1%) by three HPV types. We conclude that infection with multiple types is present at a high frequency in our population and that there is a relation between some types and cytological finds.

  18. Radiogenic Xenon-129 in Silicate Inclusions in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshik, A.; Kurat, G.; Pravdivtseva, O.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Iron meteorites present a challenge for the I-Xe dating technique because it is usually the inclusions, not metal, that contain radiogenic xenon and iodine. Silicate inclusions are frequent in only types IAB and IIE, and earlier studies of irons have demonstrated that I-Xe system can survive intact in these inclusions preserving valuable age information. Our previous studies of the I-Xe record in pyroxene grains from Toluca iron suggested an intriguing relationship between apparent I-Xe ages and (Mg+Fe)/Fe ratios. The I-Xe system in K-feldspar inclusions from Colomera (IIE) had the fingerprint of slow cooling, with an indicated cooling rate of 2-4 C/Ma. Here we present studies of the iodine-xenon system in a silicate-graphite-metal (SiGrMet) inclusion of the IA Campo del Cielo iron meteorite from the collection of the Museum of Natural History in Vienna.

  19. Glacial changes and glacier mass balance at Gran Campo Nevado, Chile during recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Schnirch, M.; Kilian, R.; Acuña, C.; Casassa, G.

    2003-04-01

    Within the framework of the program Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) a glacier inventory of the Peninsula Muñoz Gamero in the southernmost Andes of Chile (53°S) has been generated using aerial photopgrahy and Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. The Peninsula is partly covered by the ice cap of the Gran Campo Nevado (GCN), including several outlet glaciers plus some minor glaciers and firn fields. All together the ice covered areas sum up to 260 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonia Icefield and the Strait of Magallan. Its almost unique location in a zone affected year-round by the westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the west-wind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. A digital elevation model (DEM) was created for the area, using aerial imagery from 1942, 1984, and 1998 and a Chilean topographic map (1: 100 000). All information was incorporated into a GIS together with satellite imagery from 1986 and 2001. Delineation of glacier inflow from the central plateau of Gran Campo Nevado was accomplished using an automatic module for watershed delineation within the GIS. The GIS served to outline the extent of the present glaciation of the peninsula, as well as to evaluate the derived historic information. The comparison of historic and recent imagery reveals a dramatic glacier retreat during the last 60 years. Some of the outlet glaciers lost more than 20% of their total area during this period. In February and March 2000 a automatic weather station (AWS) was run on a nameless outlet glacier, inofficially Glaciar Lengua, of the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap. From the computed energy balance, it was possible to derive degree-day factors for the Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby AWS at fjord coast (Bahia Bahamondes) we computed ablation for the summer seasons of 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. Ablation at 450 m a.s.l. sums up to about 7 m in 1999/2000, 5.5 m in 2000

  20. Radiogenic Xenon-129 in Silicate Inclusions in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshik, A.; Kurat, G.; Pravdivtseva, O.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Iron meteorites present a challenge for the I-Xe dating technique because it is usually the inclusions, not metal, that contain radiogenic xenon and iodine. Silicate inclusions are frequent in only types IAB and IIE, and earlier studies of irons have demonstrated that I-Xe system can survive intact in these inclusions preserving valuable age information. Our previous studies of the I-Xe record in pyroxene grains from Toluca iron suggested an intriguing relationship between apparent I-Xe ages and (Mg+Fe)/Fe ratios. The I-Xe system in K-feldspar inclusions from Colomera (IIE) had the fingerprint of slow cooling, with an indicated cooling rate of 2-4 C/Ma. Here we present studies of the iodine-xenon system in a silicate-graphite-metal (SiGrMet) inclusion of the IA Campo del Cielo iron meteorite from the collection of the Museum of Natural History in Vienna.

  1. Discovering research value in the Campo del Cielo, Argentina, meteorite craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, William A.; Renard, Marc L.

    1996-07-01

    The Campo del Cielo meteorite crater field in Argentina contains at least 20 small meteorite craters, but a recent review of the field data and a remote sensing study suggest that there may be more. The fall occurred ˜4000 years ago into a uniform loessy soil, and the craters are well enough preserved so that some of their parameters of impact can be determined after excavation. The craters were formed by multi-ton fragments of a type IA meteoroid with abundant silicate inclusions. Relative to the horizontal, the angle of infall was ˜9°. Reflecting the low angle of infall, the crater field is elongated with apparent dimensions of 3 × 18.5 km. The largest craters are near the center of this ellipse. This suggests that when the parent meteoroid broke apart, the resulting fragments diverged from the original trajectory in inverse relation to their masses and did not undergo size sorting due to atmospheric deceleration. The major axis of the crater field as we know it extends along N63°E, but the azimuths of infall determined by excavation of Craters 9 and 10 are N83.5°E and N75.5°E, respectively. This suggests that the major axis of the crater field is not yet well determined. The three or four largest craters appear to have been formed by impacts that disrupted the projectiles, scattering fragments around the outsides of the craters and leaving no large masses within them; these are relatively symmetrical in shape. Other craters are elongated features with multi-ton masses preserved within them and no fragmentation products outside. There are two ways in which field research on the Campo del Cielo crater field is found to be useful. (1) Studies exist that have been used to interpret impact craters on planetary surfaces other than the Earth. This occurrence of a swarm of projectiles impacting at known angles and similar velocities into a uniform target material provides an excellent field site at which to test the applicability of those studies. (2) Individual

  2. Fotometría CCD en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; Seggewiss, W.; Ostrov, P.; Solivella, G. R.

    La región de Vela-Puppis contiene varios cúmulos cuyo estudio puede brindarnos información acerca de la cinemática y el estado evolutivo de la población estelar en las zonas externas del disco galáctico. A través de observaciones CCD en los filtros UBV en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58 (α2000= 8h 14m 41s, δ2000=-31o 57'), se han determinado por primera vez los parámetros fundamentales de este cúmulo tales como distancia, enrojecimiento y edad. Se analiza también la estructura de su secuencia principal y la presencia de gigantes y binarias.

  3. High carbon monoxide concentrations during the rainy season in Campo Grande, in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boian, C; Kirchhoff, V W J H

    2006-10-01

    This work describes an event of unusually large mixing ratios of carbon monoxide, CO, observed during a typical rainy season time period in central Brazil, when concentrations are expected to be at low levels. CO measurements were performed in Campo Grande (20.02 degrees S; 54.5 degrees W), from July 2001 to October 2002, covering entire periods of the dry and wet seasons. From January to June, average CO was 131 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). During November/December, average CO is about 180 ppbv. On November 13, 521.9 and 565.6 ppbv were observed. It is shown that for this special event, in which there was practically no fire activity at or near the site, air parcels reaching the site were enriched with fire products from regions much further north, near the equatorial region, where the fire activity is delayed in time, compared to central Brazil.

  4. Heterogeneity, Transmissive Properties and Diagenesis of Reefal Carbonates at the Campos Site (Mallorca, Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garing, C.; Pezard, P. A.; Gouze, P.; Loggia, D.; Maria-Sube, Y.; Hebert, V.; Henry, G.; Barry, S.; Lods, G.; Leprovost, R.; Le Borgne, T.; Camoin, G.; Lapointe, P.

    2008-12-01

    In order to develop a strategy for the quantitative analysis and description of fluid flow and salt transport in coastal carbonate aquifers, a new test site has been developed since 2003 in the context of the ALIANCE EC project (2002-2005). The site samples a Miocene reef drilled to 100 m-depth or more near Campos, in the SE part of Mallorca 6 km away from the coast. A salt wedge running more than 15 inland is cut, with a transition found at 60 to 80 m depth in the reference hole. With lagoonal and platform-like structures at the top, karstified reefal constructions in the middle and slope deposits at the base, the geological structure of the site is that expected for a Miocene reef. Somewhat similar structures are exposed along the coast 15 km to the SW, with a 100 m-high cliff at Cap Blanc. A total of 12 boreholes have been drilled, 7 of them entirely cored, in a field 114 by 87 m at surface. Core and thins sections analyses, petrophysical characterization from core plugs, downhole geophysical measurement and images, and hydrogeological experiments underline the heterogeneity of the formation, with a major impact on fluid flow and the location of the fluid transition zone. Since 2006, new downhole methods have been deployed (i) to further characterize the structure in terms of permeability and dispersivity, (ii) to study how the freshwater/saltwater interface is related to geology and pore space heterogeneities, (iii) to initiate a long-term hydrodynamic, geochemical and geophysical downhole monitoring of the transition zone in relation to climatological or anthropogenic boundary conditions. In particular, the chemical and geophysical data document ongoing dissolution- precipitation processes within the freshwater/saltwater transition zone. Together with that recrystallized in the past, the Campos experimental site provides a unique laboratory to study diagenetic processes in carbonates in the context of a saline wedge and particularly that of island

  5. Venezuela Basin crustal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J. B.; Stoffa, P. L.; Buhl, P.; Truchan, M.

    1981-09-01

    Velocity-depth profiles derived from six two-ship expanding spread experiments, in combination with other geophysical data, define the characteristics of two distinct types of Venezuela Basin crust and the boundary between them. Each two-ship common midpoint reflection/refraction profile is automatically transformed into the τ-p plane, `picked' and interpreted to provide V(Z) functions with appropriate confidence bounds. The results, together with gravity, magnetic, and near-vertical incidence reflection data, reveal a 50,000 km2 triangle of Venezuela Basin crust which resembles normal oceanic crust in a magnetic quiet zone. North and west of this triangle lies the previously defined, thick `Caribbean' crust, having two distinct layers above the M discontinuity. Acoustic basement there appears unusually smooth due to extensive basaltic sills and flows which were cored at Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 146/149(sills), and 150 (flows); also, depths to mantle are greater than normal. Interpretations of near-vertical and wide-angle reflection data show that the extra crustal thickness is due not only to the emplacement of the flows but also to the crust below being somewhat thicker than normal. The boundary between the two crustal areas has a NE-SW trend which parallels the dominant structural and magnetic lineations.This boundary coincides in position, though not in trend, with the previously defined `central Venezuela Basin fault zone'. Further study is required to determine whether this boundary is of tectonic origin or if it represents a change in style of crustal production.

  6. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  7. Evolution of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hellinger, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    Simple extensional models that involve stretching by listric faulting in the brittle upper crust and plastic flow in the lower lithosphere have been shown to account for the subsidence history of various sedimentary basins, continental shelves, and the Central graben in the North Sea. In this paper, the authors present a simplified analysis of the two-layer extensional model for the elementary case in which extension is instantaneous, the crust is thinned by a different amount from the subcrustal lithosphere, the effects of radioactivity and dike intrusion are ignored, and local isostatic compensation is assumed at all times. The authors show how the thinning parameters can be obtained from the subsidence data through the use of a simple and powerful method of data analysis. The authors show that conservation of mass during a process of non-uniform extension implies that much greater thicknesses of sediment can be deposited in a young basin than in the case of uniform extension of both crust and subcrustal lithosphere. Further, the authors show that such an extensional process produces significant uplift of the flanks of a graben and that, as a result of erosion of the uplifted areas, the effective area of the basin can be increased as much as 25 to 30%, depending on the rate of erosion, compared to the area that would have been created by a process of uniform extension. Finally, the authors consider the forces of uplift on the flanks in the situation where the crust is treated as a thin elastic plate floating on a fluid upper mantle, the graben is bounded by two major normal faults, and there is subcrustal thinning under the flanks. The authors show that such normal faults produce uplift of the flanks and that this uplift can be significantly increased by the subcrustal thinning.

  8. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-01-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity of scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings--rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types--depositional and diagenetic--with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement. Ramp reservoirs were almost always found in Zone Y, while shelf reservoirs were most common in the grainstone shoals associated with rim or island-crest facies, or their dolomitized equivalents. Reservoirs associated with basinal evaporites were also depositional or diagenetic. Depositional reservoirs were almost all related to topography present during deposition of the carbonates in the basin, often immediately preceding or just beginning evaporitic conditions in the basin.

  9. Potentials and limits to basin stability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Paul; Menck, Peter J.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Stability assessment methods for dynamical systems have recently been complemented by basin stability and derived measures, i.e. probabilistic statements whether systems remain in a basin of attraction given a distribution of perturbations. Their application requires numerical estimation via Monte Carlo sampling and integration of differential equations. Here, we analyse the applicability of basin stability to systems with basin geometries that are challenging for this numerical method, having fractal basin boundaries and riddled or intermingled basins of attraction. We find that numerical basin stability estimation is still meaningful for fractal boundaries but reaches its limits for riddled basins with holes.

  10. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  11. New Light on Old Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. A.; Collins, M. J. S.

    2011-03-01

    Great resolution and homogeneity of LRO WAC mosaics and LOLA altimetry suggest that Moscoviense sits in an older basin, explaining its thin crust and mare lavas, Orientale and SPA overlap older basins, and Wilhelms and McCauley were right about Imbrium.

  12. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-02-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity or scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings - rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types - depositional and diagenetic - with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement.

  13. Circluation of the Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, E.

    2016-02-01

    The tropical South Pacific is a highly studied area and its circulation is characterized by large gyres that extend from just north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to the equator, as well as several Western Boundary Currents (WBCs). The flow, however, is complicated by the extensive island chains and persistent breaks that result along the bounding walls. The largest gyre lies east of the Tonga-Kermadec Ridge, which is the eastern boundary of the Lau Basin. The Lau Basin is a back-arc basin that is situated between the remaining Lau Ridge volcanic arc on the west and the Tofua arc to the east. Since the basin sits on top of a Wadati-Benioff zone, it is seismically active on a regular basis. The basin itself is trapezoidally shaped, stretching from 15S to about 37S and centered around the antimeridian. Though there has been ample research into the geomorphology and the geochemistry of the basin, there has been very little comment on the circulation of the basin and the origin of the waters found within. From ARGO float data, unexploited hydrographic data, established repeat transects, and process model runs this question is being explored. The basic flow pattern in the Lau Basin consists of chaotic, topographically affected flow in the interior and a short northward boundary current along the northern edge of the Lau- Colville Ridge.

  14. Mineralogy of Inclusions in the Campo Del Cielo and Mont Dieu Irons and Segregation of Partial Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, H.; Ishii, T.; Otsuki, M.

    2001-03-01

    To find partial melt segregation, we studied two new irons. Segregations of albite and chromite were found in Campo del Cielo and ameboidal FeS in Mont Dieu with the same shape as in IIE irons together with minor Cr diopside and Na,K-rich glass.

  15. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  16. Upper Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  17. Techniques of remote sensing applied to the environmental analysis of part of an aquifer located in the São José dos Campos Region sp, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Mariana Affonseca; Dos Anjos, Célio Eustáquio

    2003-05-01

    The anthropogenic activity on the surface can modify and introduce new mechanisms of recharging the groundwater system, modifying the tax, the frequency and the quality of recharge of underground waters. The understanding of these mechanisms and the correct evaluation of such modifications are fundamental in determining the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. The groundwater flow of the South Paraíba Compartment, in the region of São José dos Campos, São Paulo, is directly related to structural features of the Taubaté Basin and, therefore, the analysis of its behaviour enhances the understanding of tectonic structure. The methodology adopted for this work consists in pre-processing and processing of the satellite images, visual interpretation of HSI products, field work and data integration. The derivation of the main structural features was based on visual analysis of the texture elements of drainage, and the relief in sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Statistical analysis of the feature densities and the metric-geometric relations between the analysed elements have been conducted. The crystalline rocks, on which the sediments were laying, conditions and controls the structural arrangement of sedimentary formations. The formation of the South Paraíba Grabén is associated with Cenozoic distensive movement which reactivated old features of crust weakness and generated previous cycles with normal characteristics. The environmental analysis is based on the integration of the existing methodology to characterise vulnerability of an universal pollutant and density fracture zone. The digital integration was processed using GIS (Geographic Information System) to delineate five defined vulnerability classes. The hydrogeological settings were analysed in each thematic map and, using fuzzy logic, an index for each different vulnerability class was compiled. Evidence maps could be combined in a series of steps using map algebra.

  18. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  19. Las fulguraciones como manifestación de reconexión en el campo magnético solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagalá, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Démoulin, P.

    Las fulguraciones solares son fenómenos transitorios de liberación de energía que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnéticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagnético, y acelerar partículas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicación de los abrillantamientos en Hα de diversas fulguraciones está relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las líneas del campo magnético de la región, como se espera por las teorías de reconexión en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Démoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magnético coronal se extrapola del campo fotosférico observado suponiendo una configuración libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drástico en la conectividad de las líneas de campo (límites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magnético se reconectará con más probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producirá allíla liberación de energía proveniente del campo magnético. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Démoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en Hα. Allídonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, éstas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las líneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orígenes fotosféricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexión magnética en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

  20. 3D model of Campo de Dalías basement from H/V spectral ratio of ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Seivane, Helena; Luzón, Francisco; Navarro, Manuel; Molina, Luis; Aranda, Carolina; Piña-Flores, José; Navarro, Francisco; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Vidal, Francisco; Posadas, Antonio M.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Campo de Dalías is a large coastal plain in the southeastern mountain front of the Betic Cordillera (SE of the Iberian Peninsula), being one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. This area has a population of about 213.000 inhabitants, with a high growth rate during the last decades due to the development of intensive agricultural activities. Seismic risk assessment and hydrogeological issues are major topics of interest for this area, relaying on the knowledge of the geophysical properties of the basin. A passive seismic survey has been conducted throughout the basin. We have recorded ambient noise at 340 sites located approximately on the vertexes of a 1000 x 1000 m square grid, as well as around a set of deep boreholes reaching the Triassic basement. These broad-band records, of at least 45 minutes long each, have been analyzed by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method (H/V). The spectral analysis shows clear H/V peaks with periods ranging from 0.3 s to 4 s, approximately, associated to relevant contrasts in S-wave velocity (Vs) at depth. Simulations based on the diffuse field approach (Sánchez-Sesma et al. 2011) show that long periods are explained by the effect of several hundred meters of soft sedimentary rocks (mainly Miocene marls). Well-developed high-frequency secondary peaks have been found in some specific zones (e.g. N of Roquetas de Mar town). Then, fundamental frequencies and basement depths at borehole sites have been fitted by means of a power law, which can be applied down to 900 - 970m. Larger depths are estimated by extrapolation. This relationship has been used to map the basement (main Vs contrast) throughout the plain. The prospected basement model describes well the main structural features of this smoothly folded region, namely, the El Ejido Synform and the Guardias Viejas Antiform, with ENE-WSW-trend. These features are shifted toward the south in comparison with Pedrera et al. (2015). The homogeneous

  1. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  2. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  3. Land use change and ecosystem service provision in Pampas and Campos grasslands of southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modernel, P.; Rossing, W. A. H.; Corbeels, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.

    2016-11-01

    New livestock production models need to simultaneously meet the increasing global demand for meat and preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Since the 16th century beef cattle has been produced on the Pampas and Campos native grasslands in southern South America, with only small amounts of external inputs. We synthesised 242 references from peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 1945 and mid-2015 and analysed secondary data to examine the evidence on the ecosystem services provided by this grassland biodiversity hotspot and the way they are affected by land use changes and their drivers. The analysis followed the requirements of systematic review from the PRISMA statement (Moher et al 2009 Acad. Clin. Ann. Intern. Med. 151 264-9). The Pampas and Campos provide feed for 43 million heads of cattle and 14 million sheep. The biome is habitat of 4000 native plant species, 300 species of birds, 29 species of mammals, 49 species of reptiles and 35 species of amphibians. The soils of the region stock 5% of the soil organic carbon of Latin America on 3% of its area. Driven by high prices of soybean, the soybean area increased by 210% between 2000 and 2010, at the expense of 2 million ha (5%) of native grassland, mostly in the Pampas. Intensification of livestock production was apparent in two spatially distinct forms. In subregions where cropping increased, intensification of livestock production was reflected in an increased use of grains for feed as part of feedlots. In subregions dominated by native grasslands, stocking rates increased. The review showed that land use change and grazing regimes with low forage allowances were predominantly associated with negative effects on ecosystem service provision by reducing soil organic carbon stocks and the diversity of plants, birds and mammals, and by increasing soil erosion. We found little quantitative information on changes in the ecosystem services water provision, nutrient cycling and erosion control

  4. Isidis Basin Ejecta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-02

    This scene is a jumbled mess. There are blocks and smears of many different rocks types that appear to have been dumped into a pile. That's probably about what happened, as ejecta from the Isidis impact basin to the east. This pile of old rocks is an island surrounded by younger lava flows from Syrtis Major. The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 27.4 centimeters (10.8 inches) per pixel (with 1 x 1 binning); objects on the order of 82 centimeters (32.2 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21553

  5. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  6. Reconstructing vanished ocean basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Sdrolias, M.; Gaina, C.

    2006-05-01

    The large-scale patterns of mantle convection are mainly dependent on the history of subduction. Therefore some of the primary constraints for subduction models are given by of the location of subduction zones through time, and of the convergence vectors and age of subducted lithosphere. This requires the complete reconstruction of ocean floor through time, including the main ocean basins, back-arc basins, and now subducted ocean crust, and tying these kinematic models to geodynamic simulations. We reconstruct paleo- oceans by creating "synthetic plates", the locations and geometry of which is established on the basis of preserved ocean crust (magnetic lineations and fracture zones), geological data, paleogeography, and the rules of plate tectonics. We use a merged moving hotspot (Late Cretaceous-present) and palaeomagnetic/fixed hotspot (Early Cretaceous) reference frame, coupled with reconstructed spreading histories of the Pacific, Phoenix and Farallon plates and the plates involved in the Tethys oceanic domain. Based on this approach we have created a set of global oceanic paleo-isochrons and paleo-oceanic age grids. The grids also provide the first complete global set of paleo-basement depth maps, including now subducted ocean floor, for the last 130 million years based on a depth-age relationship. We show that the mid-Cretaceous sealevel highstand was primarily caused by two main factors: (1) the "supercontinent breakup effect", which resulted in the creation of the mid-Atlantic and Indian Ocean ridges at the expense of subducting old ocean floor in the Tethys and (2) by a changing age-area distribution of Pacific ocean floor through time, resulting from the subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi, Pacific-Phoenix and Pacific-Farallon ridges. These grids provide model constraints for subduction dynamics through time and represent a framework for backtracking biogeographic and sediment data from ocean drilling and for constraining the opening/closing of oceanic

  7. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  8. Controls of asymmetrical opening on rift and sag basins of South Atlantic conjugate margins: Insights from gravity transects and mapping using grids of seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, P.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    A recent model by Brune et al. (2014) explains the asymmetrical, conjugate margins of the South Atlantic as the result of passive rift migration with sequential normal faulting during early continental breakup. The onset of continental rifting in the South Atlantic began in the Valanginian about 138 Ma. Flood basalts - originating from the eruption of the Tristan Da Cunha plume on both conjugate margins - have been dated between 138-128 Ma and indicating a transition from passive rifting controlled by plate motions to active rifting controlled by a mantle plume. Using seven 2D gravity transects ranging from 200-1000 km in length, we identify variations in crustal thickness and depth to Moho for conjugate margins in Brazil and Angola. Low pass filters applied to a regional satellite derived gravity grid reveal now inactive, sequential normal faults. The modeled gravity transects refine the extent of hyperextended continental crust and allow for the identification of hanging-wall/ footwall relationships. For the Santos-Namibe conjugate margin, we propose that the Santos basin is the footwall of an asymmetrical rift system spanning a 200-km-wide zone and that the Namibe basin is the hanging wall with a 125-km-wide rift. For the Campos-Benguela conjugate margin 400 km to the north, we propose the Campos basin is the hanging wall with a 150-km-wide rift zone. Well data shows that a thicker carbonate sag basin (135- 325 m) and overlying salt basin (up to 2 km) are associated with the footwall blocks of Kwanza and Santos while thinner carbonate sag basins (15-75 m) and overlying salt (up to 1.5 km) are associated with hanging wall blocks in accord with model predictions for early opening.

  9. The Amazon basin in transition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  10. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  11. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  12. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the facility includes all emissions associated with wells owned or operated by a single company in a specific hydrocarbon producing basin (as defined by the geologic provinces published by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists). This layer is limited to the contiguous United States.

  13. Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian campo rupestre vegetation, with special reference to crepuscular bees.

    PubMed

    Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome.

  14. Variation of surface ozone in Campo Grande, Brazil: meteorological effect analysis and prediction.

    PubMed

    Pires, J C M; Souza, A; Pavão, H G; Martins, F G

    2014-09-01

    The effect of meteorological variables on surface ozone (O3) concentrations was analysed based on temporal variation of linear correlation and artificial neural network (ANN) models defined by genetic algorithms (GAs). ANN models were also used to predict the daily average concentration of this air pollutant in Campo Grande, Brazil. Three methodologies were applied using GAs, two of them considering threshold models. In these models, the variables selected to define different regimes were daily average O3 concentration, relative humidity and solar radiation. The threshold model that considers two O3 regimes was the one that correctly describes the effect of important meteorological variables in O3 behaviour, presenting also a good predictive performance. Solar radiation, relative humidity and rainfall were considered significant for both O3 regimes; however, wind speed (dispersion effect) was only significant for high concentrations. According to this model, high O3 concentrations corresponded to high solar radiation, low relative humidity and wind speed. This model showed to be a powerful tool to interpret the O3 behaviour, being useful to define policy strategies for human health protection regarding air pollution.

  15. Structural control on the directional amplification of seismic noise (Campo Imperatore, central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pischiutta, M.; Fondriest, M.; Demurtas, M.; Magnoni, F.; Di Toro, G.; Rovelli, A.

    2017-08-01

    Seismic signals propagating across a fault may yield information on the internal structure of the fault zone. Here we have assessed the amplification of seismic noise (i.e., ambient vibrations generated by natural or anthropogenic disturbances) across the Vado di Corno Fault (Campo Imperatore, central Italy). The fault zone is considered as an exhumed analogue of the normal faults activated during the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake sequence. Detailed structural geological survey of the footwall block revealed that the fault zone is highly anisotropic and is affected by a complex network of faults and fractures with dominant WNW-ESE strike. We measured seismic noise with portable seismometers along a ∼500 m long transect perpendicular to the average fault strike. Seismic signals were processed calculating the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios and performing wavefield polarization analyses. We found a predominant NE-SW to NNE-SSW (i.e., ca. perpendicular to the average strike of the fault-fracture network) amplification of the horizontal component of the seismic waves. Numerical simulations of earthquake-induced ground motions ruled out the role of topography in controlling the polarization and the amplitude of the waves. Therefore, the higher seismic noise amplitude observed in the fault-perpendicular direction was related to the measured fracture network and the resulting stiffness anisotropy of the rock mass. These observations open new perspectives in using measures of ambient seismic noise, which are fast and inexpensive, to estimate the dominant orientation of fracture networks within fault zones.

  16. Analysis of working conditions focusing on biological risk: firefighters in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Contrera-Moreno, Luciana; de Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Pinto, Alexandra Maria Almeida Carvalho; Salas, Frederico Reis Pouso; Stief, Alcione Cavalheiros Faro

    2012-01-01

    Firefighters are exposed to a wide range of risks, among them, biological risk. The objective was to analyze working conditions of firefighters in the city of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, focusing on risk conditions of exposure to biological material. Three hundred and seven (307) firefighters were interviewed for data collection and observed for ergonomic job analysis (AET). 63.5% of the firefighters suffered some kind of job related accident with blood or body fluids. Statistically significant association was found between having suffered accidents at work and incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE). About AET regarding the biological risks, 57.1% of all patients had blood or secretions, which corresponds in average to 16.0% of the total work time, based on a working day of 24 h. Besides biological risks, other stressing factors were identified: emergency and complexity of decision, high responsibility regarding patients and environment, and conflicts. Health promotion and accident prevention actions must be emphasized as measures to minimize these risks.

  17. Selecting a proper design period for heliostat field layout optimization using Campo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafifar, Mohammad; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, different approaches are considered to calculate the cosine factor which is utilized in Campo code to expand the heliostat field layout and maximize its annual thermal output. Furthermore, three heliostat fields containing different number of mirrors are taken into consideration. Cosine factor is determined by considering instantaneous and time-average approaches. For instantaneous method, different design days and design hours are selected. For the time average method, daily time average, monthly time average, seasonally time average, and yearly time averaged cosine factor determinations are considered. Results indicate that instantaneous methods are more appropriate for small scale heliostat field optimization. Consequently, it is proposed to consider the design period as the second design variable to ensure the best outcome. For medium and large scale heliostat fields, selecting an appropriate design period is more important. Therefore, it is more reliable to select one of the recommended time average methods to optimize the field layout. Optimum annual weighted efficiency for heliostat fields (small, medium, and large) containing 350, 1460, and 3450 mirrors are 66.14%, 60.87%, and 54.04%, respectively.

  18. Comparison of four meteorite penetration funnels in the Campo del Cielo crater field, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesconi, Mario A.; Wright, Shawn P.; Spagnuolo, Mauro; Jacob, Robert; Cerrutti, Carlos; Garcia, Luciana; Fernandez, Evangelina; Cassidy, William A.

    2011-07-01

    More craters may be discovered in the future, but as it is currently known, the Campo del Cielo crater field is 18 km long by 4 km at its widest point. Such a distribution of craters suggests that the parent meteoroid entered and traversed the atmosphere at a very low angle relative to horizontal. The crater field contains at least 20 small craters produced by the larger fragments of the parent meteoroid. Four of these are explosion analog craters and the rest are penetration funnels. During four field seasons, we have constructed topographic and magnetic maps of four of the penetration funnels as found, and then dug trenches across them to learn their original structures and recover meteorites preserved within them. Structures of these penetration funnels indicate very low angles of impact, i.e., 9-16° relative to horizontal. This supports the idea that the parent meteoroid traversed the atmosphere at a low angle. Data given here for the four penetration funnels include projectile masses, lengths, widths, depths, and estimates of impact angles and azimuths. One of the penetration funnels described here (No. 6) can almost be classified as an explosion analog crater.

  19. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  20. Gravity Anomaly Intersects Moon Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    A linear gravity anomaly intersecting the Crisium basin on the nearside of the moon has been revealed by NASA GRAIL mission. The GRAIL gravity gradient data are shown at left, with the location of the anomaly indicated.

  1. Large Double-ringed Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-05

    Taken about 40 minutes before NASA Mariner 10 made its close approach to Mercury on Sept. 21,1974, this picture shows a large double-ringed basin center of picture located in the planet south polar region

  2. Andean Altiplano, Amazon Basin burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view is centered over Lake Poopo, Bolivia, in the central Andean Altiplano, (20.0S, 65.0W) with a view looking northeast into the lower elevations of Bolivia and Brazil. Extensive dry seasonal burning in the Amazon Basin produces a thick haze which is trapped in the lower atmosphere by a stable air layer. The clarity difference in the scene is caused by the Andes Mountains extending above the haze into cleaner upper atmosphere air. Amazon Basin burning

  3. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR ASYNCHRONOUS BASINS

    PubMed Central

    Dinwoodie, Ian H

    2016-01-01

    For a Boolean network we consider asynchronous updates and define the exclusive asynchronous basin of attraction for any steady state or cyclic attractor. An algorithm based on commutative algebra is presented to compute the exclusive basin. Finally its use for targeting desirable attractors by selective intervention on network nodes is illustrated with two examples, one cell signalling network and one sensor network measuring human mobility. PMID:28154501

  4. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  5. Relación entre la orientación de Nebulosas Planetarias y el campo magnético galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.

    Un estudio detallado de las orientaciones diferenciales de nebulosas planetarias en todo el cielo sugiere fuertemente una relación con la dirección de los campos magnéticos de origen galáctico, determinados en la polarización de estrellas de campo. Esto da consistencia a la hipótesis de que la orientación de las nebulosas planetarias ovaladas es inducida, al menos parcialmente, por el campo magnético general de la Vía Láctea.

  6. Bright Basin on Tethys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-27

    With the expanded range of colors visible to Cassini's cameras, differences in materials and their textures become apparent that are subtle or unseen in natural color views. Here, the giant impact basin Odysseus on Saturn's moon Tethys stands out brightly from the rest of the illuminated icy crescent. This distinct coloration may result from differences in either the composition or structure of the terrain exposed by the giant impact. Odysseus (280 miles, or 450 kilometers, across) is one of the largest impact craters on Saturn's icy moons, and may have significantly altered the geologic history of Tethys. Tethys' dark side (at right) is faintly illuminated by reflected light from Saturn. Images taken using ultraviolet, green and infrared spectral filters were combined to create this color view. North on Tethys (660 miles or 1,062 kilometers across) is up in this view. The view was acquired on May 9, 2015 at a distance of approximately 186,000 miles (300,000 kilometers) from Tethys. Image scale is 1.1 mile (1.8 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18329

  7. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  8. Estudio de la envoltura fría en presencia de un campo magnético en estrellas tempranas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Platzeck, A. M.

    En el estudio de la distribución espacial de la densidad en torno a estrellas tempranas, al menos en dos coordenadas, se consideran en general ``escenarios" cualitativos. Existen sólo dos modelos calculados a partir de la ecuación de conservación de momento: el de Poeckert y Marlborough (Astroph. Journal 220, 940, 1978) y el de Ringuelet e Iglesias (Astroph. Journal 369, 463, 1991). El primero es isotermo considerando campo gravitatorio y fuerza centrífuga. El segundo, resuelve un caso no isotermo en equilibrio hidrostático teniendo en cuenta los campos gravitatorios, de radiación y magnético. En esta comunicación presentamos el análisis, que se deriva de los resultados de Ringuelet e Iglesias para el caso hidrostático, de la estructura de líneas de campo magnético. A continuación estudiamos la forma en que se modifica la distribución espacial de la densidad en la envoltura fría, cuando se tiene en cuenta el movimiento del plasma.

  9. A geometria do campo magnético na região da nuvem Lupus 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, F. P.; Franco, G. A. P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentaremos os resultados de uma investigação polarimétrica na região de formação estelar junto à nuvem escura Lupus 1. Esse estudo baseia-se em polarimétria CCD obtida na banda R, e cobre Lupus 1, bem como a área vizinha a essa nuvem contendo a cavidade em 100 mm IRAS. Os dados observacionais foram coletados com o telescópio IAG de 60 cm do Observatório do Pico dos Dias (LNA/MCT - Brasópolis - MG). Nossa primeira análise mostra que uma variação da orientação do campo magnético através da região pode produzir padrões complexos de polarização cuja geometria do campo não pode ser facilmente determinada. Os padrões de polarização são inconsistentes com um campo magnético estritamente uniforme e unidimensional em larga escala. Comparação com a emissão em 100 mm mostra que localmente os vetores de polarização exibem um forte alinhamento com a orientação dos padrões observados em infravermelho.

  10. Diversity in bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) community in "campos rupestres", Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Pereira, Vivane; Santos, Gilberto M M

    2006-01-01

    Hymenoptera such as bees and social wasps are regular floral visitors in "campos rupestres" vegetation. A community of bees and social wasps was studied during floral visitation in an area of "campos rupestres", at Chapada Diamantina, BA, Brazil, from September 2001 to April 2002. The community was described in relation to diversity, evenness, and dominance rank, considering the individuals abundance (H' = 2.14/ J' = 0.55) and biomass (H' = 2.34/ J' = 0.60). Thirty nine bee (588 individuals/ 15.742 g) and 11 social wasp species (52 individuals/ 2.156 g) were collected, being the first report of social wasps for the Brazilian "campos rupestres". The main species regarding number of individuals were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Apis mellifera L., Frieseomelitta francoi (Moure), and Bombus brevivillus Franklin. About 48% of the species were represented by a single individual. There was an inversion in the dominance rank when the species biomass was considered. B. brevivillus, A. mellifera, T spinipes, and other species represented by 15 individuals or less, such as the social wasps Synoeca cyanea (Olivier), Polistes canadensis (L.) and Myschocyttarus drewseni (Saussure), and the bees Eufriesea nigrohirta (Friese), Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Megachile (Pseudocentron) sp.l were the predominant species. The use of biomass in diversity analysis permitted to detect differences in the relative contribution of species in hierarchy dominance. The comparison between bee faunas from different areas indicates a large similarity of the sampled fauna in Palmeiras (Bahia State) with neighboring ecosystems, although with low values of similarity.

  11. Reproductive phenology of an herbaceous-subshrub layer of a Savannah (Campo Sujo) in the Cerrado Biosphere Reserve I, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, C B R; Felfili, J M

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the phenological events in the herbaceous and subshrub layer in relation to rainfall and the dispersion syndromes of the species at a Campo Sujo community in the Agua Limpa Farm (FAL), Brasília-DF. Campo Sujo is a grassland Savannah with a few scattered shrubs and small trees. The climate is Aw by Köppen classification with a mean annual precipitation of 1500 mm. Herbaceus species with three to ten individuals were monitored totalling 519 individuals of 61 species. The individuals were observed quarterly from October 1999 to February 2001. An accidental fire happened in the area two months before the beginning of this study and stimulated flowering and fruiting of the studied species. Flowering at the community level was distributed all over the study period with a concentration of flowering species in the rainy season. The pattern of fruiting was similar to the flowering, with most species maturing their diaspore from the middle to the end of the rainy season. The correlation between anemochoric species producing mature fruits and precipitation was significant and inverse. Anemochoric and autochoric species are dominant at the herbaceous-subshrub layer of the Campo Sujo and they determine the phenological pattern of the community.

  12. Geochemical and geophysical monitoring activities in Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; López-Díaz, Rubén; Calvo, Marta; Albert, Helena; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    The Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (CCVF) or Spanish Central Volcanic Zone is located in central continental Spain (Ciudad Real province) and covers about 5000 km2. It includes around 240 eruptive centers, mainly monogenetic basaltic cones but also explosive maar structures. According to K-Ar geochronology, its main activity phase occurred during Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs (between 5 and 1.7 Ma) and involved alkaline to ultraalkaline magmas, although an older ultrapotassic phase is dated around 8.7-6.4 Ma. However, some recent works have proposed Holocene ages for some of the volcanic products, opening the possibility of considering the CCVF "active" according to international standards. Responding to this situation, the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) has initiated geochemical and geophysical monitoring activities in the CCVF. Here, we describe these ongoing efforts and we report results about groundwater geochemistry at several natural highly-gaseous springs in the area (hervideros), as well as soil temperature, CO2 diffuse flux from the soil and electrical self-potential data mapped on a small degassing structure called La Sima. In order to analyze microseismicity or any seismic anomaly in the CCVF, a seismic station has also been installed close to this degassing structure. Physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, Eh and electric conductivity) were measured in situ in four springs and samples were taken in order to analyze major ions and trace elements. Total composition of dissolved gases and helium isotopic ratios were also determined. To complete soil temperature, self-potential and gas prospections performed in La Sima, soil gases were sampled at the bottom of the structure at a depth of 20 cm. Analysis of the total gas composition found 957400 ppm of CO2. Low values of O2 and N2 were also detected (5600 and 24800 ppm respectively).

  13. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  14. Floor of Hellas Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With a diameter of roughly 2000 km and a depth of over 7 km, the Hellas Basin is the largest impact feature on Mars. Because of its great depth, there is significantly more atmosphere to peer through in order to see its floor, reducing the quality of the images taken from orbit. This THEMIS image straddles a scarp between the Hellas floor and an accumulation of material at least a half kilometer thick that covers much of the floor. The southern half of the image contains some of this material. Strange ovoid landforms are present here that give the appearance of flow. It is possible that water ice or even liquid water was present in the deposits and somehow responsible for the observed landscape. The floor of Hellas remains a poorly understood portion of the planet that should benefit from the analysis of new THEMIS data.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  15. Hydrogeologic framework of sedimentary deposits in six structural basins, Yakima River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, M.A.; Vaccaro, J.J.; Watkins, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework was delineated for the ground-water flow system of the sedimentary deposits in six structural basins in the Yakima River Basin, Washington. The six basins delineated, from north to south are: Roslyn, Kittitas, Selah, Yakima, Toppenish, and Benton. Extent and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units and total basin sediment thickness were mapped for each basin. Interpretations were based on information from about 4,700 well records using geochemical, geophysical, geologist's or driller's logs, and from the surficial geology and previously constructed maps and well interpretations. The sedimentary deposits were thickest in the Kittitas Basin reaching a depth of greater than 2,000 ft, followed by successively thinner sedimentary deposits in the Selah basin with about 1,900 ft, Yakima Basin with about 1,800 ft, Toppenish Basin with about 1,200 ft, Benton basin with about 870 ft and Roslyn Basin with about 700 ft.

  16. Inversion of Extensional Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    The evolution of extensional sedimentary basins is governed by the surrounding stress field and can, therefore, be expected to be highly sensitive to variations in these stresses. Important changes in basin geometry are to be expected in the case of an even short-lived reversal from extension to compression. We investigate the evolu- tion of fold and thrust structures which form in compression after extension, when basin forming processes have come to a complete stop. To this purpose, we use a two- dimensional, viscoplastic model and start our experiments from a pre-existing exten- sional geometry. We illustrate the sensitivity of the evolving structures to inherited extensional geometry, sedimentary and erosional processes, and material properties. One series of our model experiments involves the upper- to middle crust only in order to achieve a high detail in the basin area. We find that our results agree with examples from nature and analogue studies in, among others, the uplift and rotation of syn-rift sediments, the propagation of shear zones into the post-rift sediments and, in specific cases, the development of back-thrusts or basement short-cut faults. We test the out- come of these models by performing a second series of model simulations in which basins on a continental margin are inverted through their progressive approach of a subduction zone. These latter models are on the scale of the whole upper mantle.

  17. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  18. Testing for Basins of Wada

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Yorke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has theWada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries. PMID:26553444

  19. Testing for Basins of Wada.

    PubMed

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A

    2015-11-10

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has the Wada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries.

  20. Dynamic reorganization of river basins.

    PubMed

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-03-07

    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  1. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  2. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frex, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  3. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  4. Vertical Analysis of Martian Drainage Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; OHara, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed a vertical analysis of drainage basins on Mars that were computationally extracted from DEMs based on the MOLA data. Longitudinal profiles of main streams are calculated and the slope-area relation is established for 20 basins coming from assorted martian locations. An identical analysis is done for 19 terrestrial river basins. Our results show that, in comparison to terrestrial basins, martian basins have more linear longitudinal profiles, more frequent existence of knickpoints, predominance of asymmetric location of the main stream in the basin, and smaller values of concavity exponent. This suggests a limited role for surface runoff on the global scale. However, two basins extracted from the slopes of martian volcanoes show a strong similarity to terrestrial basins, indicating a possible local role for the process of surface runoff.

  5. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  6. H-Area Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  7. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21,...

  8. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  9. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  10. Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin Coalition

    Treesearch

    Sarah Kotchian

    1999-01-01

    In June 1994, one hundred people gathered for the first Uniting the Basin Conference in El Paso to discuss the state of their basin and to explore ways to improve its sustainability for future generations. One of the recommendations of that conference was the formation of an international non-governmental coalition of groups throughout the Basin to share information...

  11. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

  12. 5. Basin assessment and watershed analysis

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Basin assessment is an important component of the President's Forest Plan, yet it has received little attention. Basin assessments are intended both to guide watershed analyses by specifying types of issues and interactions that need to be understood, and, eventually, to integrate the results of watershed analyses occurring within a river basin....

  13. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

  14. K Basins Groundwater Monitoring Task, K Basins Closure Project: Report for July, August, and September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Robert E.

    2006-12-08

    This report provides information on groundwater monitoring at the K Basins during July, August, and September 2006. Conditions remain very similar to those reported in the previous quarterly report, with no evidence in monitoring results to suggest groundwater impact from current loss of basin water to the ground. The K Basins monitoring network will be modified in the coming quarters as a consequence of remedial action at KE Basin, i.e., removal of sludge and basin demolition.

  15. Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Mbida Mbida, Jean Arthur; Ebo'o Eyenga, Vincent; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Njiokou, Flobert; Grébaut, Pascal

    2014-08-16

    The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview

  16. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Treesearch

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  17. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  18. Fire and the Great Basin

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Fire regimes in Great Basin ecosystems have changed significantly since settlement of the region in the mid- to late 1800s. The following provides an overview of the nature and consequences of altered fire regimes, factors influencing the changes, and research and management questions that need to be addressed to maintain sustainable ecosystems.

  19. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  20. Tectonic development of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Prouty, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The general form of the Michigan basin and surrounding frame structures - the Findlay, Kankakee, and Wisconsin arches - was inherited from the Precambrian. An ongoing study has provided new information on present basin configuration and the evolution of intrabasinal structures during the Paleozoic. This study involves: (1) isopach, structure contour, depocenter, and lithofacies map preparation; (2) diagenetic and epigenetic dolomitization processes and patterns; (3) Landsat imagery and lineament interpretation; (4) recognition of shearing mechanics and the resulting shear faulting and folding; and (5) the recognition of radial faults in contrast to shear faults. Monitoring of the above throughout the Paleozoic indicates that tectonic events within the basin were episodic in nature. Stresses are recognized as external and, through Fourier analysis of lineaments (shear faults), may be demonstrated as from the southeast, probably the Appalachian mobile belt. Shear faults are seated in Precambrian rocks, although they are probably not of that age. The faults occur with accompanying shear folds in rocks possibly as early as the Late Ordovician or Middle Silurian, but definitely by the Middle Devonian with the principal faulting and folding during the post-Osage Mississippian. Local shifting of the depocenter within the general Saginaw Bay area occurred during the early Paleozoic with a major shift westward to the present central basin position accompanied by the development of the present north-northwest ellipticity of the basin during the post-Osage, pre-Meramecian Mississippian. Barrier separation of the West Michigan Lagoon occurred in the Middle Ordovician and Middle and Late Devonian. Radial structures can be demonstrated in at least the Upper Silurian and Upper Devonian.

  1. Predicting the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royden, L.

    2011-12-01

    From ~30 Ma onwards, the evolution of the Mediterranean region has been dominated by the rapid migration of thin-skinned thrust-belts. Thrust belt migration has been accommodated by the opening of "back arc type" basins within the upper plate of the thrust belts. Migration of these thrust belts is associated with the migration of subduction systems where subduction and thrusting are driven largely by negative slab buoyancy. Where the subducting slab has large negative buoyancy, thrust belt migration is commonly rapid. Where buoyant continental lithosphere enters the subduction system, subduction ceases quickly. Hence the large-scale tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean basin is largely pre-conditioned by its paleogeography. This can be quantitatively illustrated for the Hellenic subduction system where the post Eocene evolution of the Hellenic thrust belt can be ascribed to the buoyancy of the lithosphere subducted. Entry of the Ionian oceanic lithosphere into a slow-moving trench at 10-15 Ma explains the increase in subduction rate along the central part of the trench, to ~35 mm/yr at present, while subduction rates along strike to the northeast, where continental/transitional crust is subducted, remain less than ~10 mm/yr. Using quantitative modeling of the Hellenic subduction system in post Eocene time, it is possible to approximate how this thrust belt, and the active subduction belt of the eastern Mediterranean, will evolve over the next 10 m.y. This exercise suggests that the large-scale evolution of the eastern Mediterranean basin will be strikingly similar to that of the western Mediterranean basin from 20-0 Ma. This highlights the common dynamic mechanism that shapes the large scale deformation and morphology of the Mediterranean basin.

  2. Seismically triggered turbidites in small margin basins: Alfonso Basin, Western Gulf of California and Santa Monica Basin, California Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsline, D. S.; De Diego, T.; Nava-Sanchez, E. H.

    2000-09-01

    Box cores and gravity cores collected in Santa Monica Basin, California Continental Borderland, and in Alfonso Basin, western Gulf of California, contain turbidites, some of which can be traced over much of the respective basin floors. In Santa Monica Basin, at least six of these basin-wide flows have been deposited over the past four to five centuries. In Alfonso Basin, 9-10 basin-wide turbidites have been deposited over the past few millenia. Both Santa Monica and Alfonso Basins have anoxic conditions over the deep basin floors, which inhibit bioturbation and preserve primary laminations. These deposits have been dated using the 210Pb and AMS 14C methods, and varve counting so it is therefore possible to date the turbidites. Those that were deposited during historic time can be matched with major floods or earthquakes in the region. In Santa Monica Basin, turbidity currents can be generated directly from decadal major flood discharges, or by centennial slope failures triggered by major earthquake shocks. The flood-generated turbidites are typically a fifth or less of the volume of the earthquake-generated turbidites. In Alfonso Basin, the tributary coastal canyon discharges are small and have a high proportion of coarse-grained sand, which is trapped on the shelves, and cannot directly supply turbidite volumes of basin-wide magnitude. Thus the turbidites seen in that basin floor are probably produced by slope failures of silty clay deposits which were seismically generated. The distribution of the dated turbidites, and a slip face in one box core from the landward slope, indicates a source on the landward depositional slope of the fault-bounded basin. Similar discontinuities of the same age have been reported on the eastern side of the Gulf in the Guaymas area. In ancient basins, the criteria that may distinguish seismo-turbidites are areal extent and volume where those factors can be estimated. Basin-wide turbidites are probably seismically triggered. If

  3. Automated basin delineation from digital terrain data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, D.; Dozier, J.; Frew, J.

    1983-01-01

    While digital terrain grids are now in wide use, accurate delineation of drainage basins from these data is difficult to efficiently automate. A recursive order N solution to this problem is presented. The algorithm is fast because no point in the basin is checked more than once, and no points outside the basin are considered. Two applications for terrain analysis and one for remote sensing are given to illustrate the method, on a basin with high relief in the Sierra Nevada. This technique for automated basin delineation will enhance the utility of digital terrain analysis for hydrologic modeling and remote sensing.

  4. Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, H.W. ); Forgotson, J.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

  5. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to

  6. Modelling Forearc Basin Formation and Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean; Gerya, Taras; Strasser, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Comparison of synthetic stratigraphy of forearc basins as generated in coupled plate subduction and accretionary wedge models to the stratal patterns observed for forearc basins in nature, could be used to ascertain the dynamic consistency of the interpreted deformational history of the wedge. Additionally, it could help us understand the emergence of stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins as an interplay between sedimentary flux and wedge dynamics. Here we present a simple methodology to generate synthetic stratigraphy by emplacing isochronal surfaces during the evolution of the wedge. We use a dynamic 2D, high-resolution, thermo-mechanical, subduction model coupled to an adaptive irregular surface grid to model the free surface. In this model, we track basin stratigraphy developing in the wedge top basins atop the accretionary prism by emplacing lines of Lagrangian markers at discrete times along the upper surface of the model, which subsequently are buried, transported, and deformed according to the velocity field generated in the model. We conduct numerical experiments to identify the stratigraphic signatures of different forearc basin formation mechanisms. We also study the impact of hinterland and trench sedimentation on the wedge evolution and its impact on forearc basin formation. Forearc basins that form on top of the overriding plate remain passive to the deformation history of the wedge. Forearc basins formed as negative alpha basins remain mostly undeformed. Forearc basins that form due to wedge stabilization exhibit landward tilting of strata with time. We also find that trench sedimentation enhances the landward tilting of the basin by shifting deformation landwards and potentially triggering out-of-sequence-thrust emergence/reactivation. Predicted stratigraphic features in our numerical models agree well with stratigraphic patterns observed in different types of forearc basins in the Nankai Trough, Sunda Strait and Lombok Basin offshore Japan, Java

  7. Formation of lunar basin rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, C.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The origin of the multiple concentric rings that characterize lunar impact basins, and the probable depth and diameter of the transient crater have been widely debated. As an alternative to prevailing "megaterrace" hypotheses, we propose that the outer scarps or mountain rings that delineate the topographic rims of basins-the Cordilleran at Orientale, the Apennine at Imbrium, and the Altai at Nectaris-define the transient cavities, enlarged relatively little by slumping, and thus are analogous to the rim crests of craters like Copernicus; inner rings are uplifted rims of craters nested within the transient cavity. The magnitude of slumping that occurs on all scarps is insufficient to produce major inner rings from the outer. These conclusions are based largely on the observed gradational sequence in lunar central uplifts:. from simple peaks through somewhat annular clusters of peaks, peak and ring combinations and double ring basins, culminating in multiring structures that may also include peaks. In contrast, belts of slump terraces are not gradational with inner rings. Terrestrial analogs suggest two possible mechanisms for producing rings. In some cases, peaks may expand into rings as material is ejected from their cores, as apparently occurred at Gosses Bluff, Australia. A second process, differential excavation of lithologically diverse layers, has produced nested experimental craters and is, we suspect, instrumental in the formation of terrestrial ringed impact craters. Peak expansion could produce double-ring structures in homogeneous materials, but differential excavation is probably required to produce multiring and peak-in-ring configurations in large lunar impact structures. Our interpretation of the representative lunar multiring basin Orientale is consistent with formation of three rings in three layers detected seismically in part of the Moon-the Cordillera (basin-bounding) ring in the upper crust, the composite Montes Rook ring in the underlying

  8. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  9. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  10. CLEAR LAKE BASIN 2000 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    LAKE COUNTY SANITATION DISTRICT

    2003-03-31

    The following is a final report for the Clear Lake Basin 2000 project. All of the major project construction work was complete and this phase generally included final details and testing. Most of the work was electrical. Erosion control activities were underway to prepare for the rainy season. System testing including pump stations, electrical and computer control systems was conducted. Most of the project focus from November onward was completing punch list items.

  11. Tectonic classification of Cenozoic Iberian foreland basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vicente, G.; Cloetingh, S.; Van Wees, J. D.; Cunha, P. P.

    2011-04-01

    The Iberian microcontinent stands out because of its intense Alpine intraplate deformation. This is reflected in a large number of Cenozoic basins of very different sizes. Most of the contacts between topographic highs and basins are thrust or strike-slip faults. All these basins seem to have undergone a common sedimentary evolution, comprising four stages: initiation of sedimentation, intense syn-tectonic infilling, change from endorheic to exorheic drainage, and accelerated erosion related to fluvial incision. This simple evolutionary model shows a migration from East to West, in which basins are still tectonically active at the Atlantic margin of Iberia. This common evolution is also found in a series of geometrical characteristics, such as the ratio r of length of strike-slip fault and length of thrust fault, that are very similar in both types of basin border settings. Thrust-related basins are mainly associated with segmented pop-downs, whereas the main basins have the characteristics of open-ramp basins. Strike-slip related basins are mostly transpressive structures, although small pull-apart basins are usual along the Vilariça and Messejana faults. For basin areas larger than 100-1000 km 2, a constant r value of 0.6 is found (including the Ebro, Duero, Madrid, Lower Tagus and Badajoz basins). Within the Iberian microcontinent, the total amount of Cenozoic contractional deformation was distributed between strike-slip and thrust faults with an r ratio close to 0.6. However, for small basins this parameter seems to depend on the type of fault, range or deformation belt (pure strike-slip, transtension, transpression, and pop-up) independently of its local tectonic development.

  12. Geology of interior cratonic sag basins

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, M.W.; Eidel, J.J.; Kolata, D.R.; Oltz, D.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Interior cratonic sag basins are thick accumulations of sediment, generally more or less oval in shape, located entirely in the interiors of continental masses. Some are single-cycle basins and others are characterized by repeated sag cycles or are complex polyhistory basins. Many appear to have developed over ancient rift systems. Interior cratonic sag basins are typified by a dominance of flexural over fault-controlled subsidence, and a low ratio of sediment volume to surface area of the basin. The Baltic, Carpentaria, Illinois, Michigan, Parana, Paris, and Williston basins are examples of interior cratonic sag basins. Tectonics played a dominant role in controlling the shapes and the geometries of the juxtaposed packets of sedimentary sequences. While the mechanics of tectonic control are not clear, evidence suggests that the movements are apparently related to convergence of lithospheric plates and collision and breakup of continents. Whatever the cause, tectonic movements controlled the freeboard of continents, altering base level and initiating new tectono-sedimentologic regimes. Sag basins situated in low latitudes during their development commonly were sites of thick carbonates (e.g., Illinois, Michigan, Williston, and Paris basins). In contrast, siliciclastic sedimentation characterized basins that formed in higher latitudes (e.g., Parana and Carpentaria basins). Highly productive sag basins are characterized by widespread, mature, organic-rich source rocks, large structures, and good seals. Nonproductive basins have one or more of the following characteristics: immature source rocks, leaky plumbing, freshwater flushing, and/or complex geology due to numerous intrusions that inhibit mapping of plays.

  13. Basin stability for chimera states.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-05-25

    Chimera states, namely complex spatiotemporal patterns that consist of coexisting domains of spatially coherent and incoherent dynamics, are investigated in a network of coupled identical oscillators. These intriguing spatiotemporal patterns were first reported in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators, and it was shown that such mixed type behavior occurs only for specific initial conditions in nonlocally and globally coupled networks. The influence of initial conditions on chimera states has remained a fundamental problem since their discovery. In this report, we investigate the robustness of chimera states together with incoherent and coherent states in dependence on the initial conditions. For this, we use the basin stability method which is related to the volume of the basin of attraction, and we consider nonlocally and globally coupled time-delayed Mackey-Glass oscillators as example. Previously, it was shown that the existence of chimera states can be characterized by mean phase velocity and a statistical measure, such as the strength of incoherence, by using well prepared initial conditions. Here we show further how the coexistence of different dynamical states can be identified and quantified by means of the basin stability measure over a wide range of the parameter space.

  14. Biogeochemistry of a Suburban Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Blumberg, J.

    2002-12-01

    A long-term research effort was recently established in the Lamprey River basin in southeastern New Hampshire. The watershed is largely forested, and has significant amounts of wetlands due to the relatively low topographic relief. Human population growth is rapid, resulting in conversion of forest and agricultural land to housing tracts. The primary focus of the project will be to examine the relationships between land use, land cover and water quality as the watershed continues to increase in population density. A secondary emphasis will be to examine the interactions between hydrologic flow paths, climatic variability, and biogeochemical processes that drive groundwater and surface water quality in the basin. Our initial work has quantified landscape attributes and related them to water quality. Results to date show that small tributary streams are relatively high in nitrogen relative to the main stem of the Lamprey; that human population density drives nitrate concentrations in the basin; and that DOC flux is predicted well by the model of Aitkenhead and McDowell that links DOC flux to watershed C:N ratio.

  15. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568

  16. Great Basin geoscience data base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  17. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  18. Exergetic efficiency of basin type solar still

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layek, Apurba

    2017-06-01

    Simplicity of solar distillation system makes it very attractive, but the yield as well as the thermal efficiency is very low. Different types of absorbing materials e.g. black ink, black dye solution in basin water and black toner on water surface were used to evaluate their effect on the yield. As the absorbing material absorbs more solar radiation and increases basin water temperature, increases yield as well as energy efficiency. To enhance the thermal performance, and to have the insight of thermal losses; exergetic analysis of solar still is done. The maximum energy efficiency obtained for basin water having these absorber material on basin water are about 41.3 %, 43.42 % and 45.79 %, while exergetic efficiency values are 5.91%, 6.34 % and 7.10 % respectively. Exergy destruction from basin liner is the highest compared to that from basin water and glazing.

  19. Biological science in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The Great Basin is an expanse of desert and high moun-tains situated between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of the western United States. The most explicit description of the Great Basin is that area in the West where surface waters drain inland. In other words, the Great Basin is comprised of many separate drainage areas - each with no outlet. What at first glance may appear as only a barren landscape, the Great Basin upon closer inspection reveals island mountains, sagebrush seas, and intermittent aquatic habitats, all teeming with an incredible number and variety of plants and animals. Biologists at the USGS are studying many different species and ecosystems in the Great Basin in order to provide information about this landscape for policy and land-management decision-making. The following stories represent a few of the many projects the USGS is conducting in the Great Basin.

  20. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  1. Light-toned Mounds in Gorgonum Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-29

    This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows Gorgonum Basin, one of several large basins within the Terra Sirenum region of Mars. Each basin has light-toned mounds, many of which contain clays. Scientists think that Terra Sirenum once had a large lake during an epoch called the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian, and each basin filled with sediments. The water within the lake may have altered these sediments to form the clays we now observe from orbit. Ma'adim Vallis, which drains into Gusev Crater where the Spirit rover landed, drained the water from this ancient lake. Why the basin floors exhibit mounds similar to chaos regions on Mars is unknown, but could be the result of collapse and subsequent erosion within the basins. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21767

  2. Thermal evolution of sedimentary basins in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, Mark J.; Howell, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The complex tectonic collage of Alaska is reflected in the conjunction of rocks of widely varying thermal maturity. Indicators of the level of thermal maturity of rocks exposed at the surface, such as vitrinite reflectance and conodont color alteration index, can help constrain the tectonic evolution of such complex regions and, when combined with petrographic, modern heat flow, thermogeochronologic, and isotopic data, allow for the detailed evaluation of a region?s burial and uplift history. We have collected and assembled nearly 10,000 vitrinite-reflectance and conodont-color-alteration index values from the literature, previous U.S. Geological Survey investigations, and our own studies in Alaska. This database allows for the first synthesis of thermal maturity on a broadly regional scale. Post-accretionary sedimentary basins in Alaska show wide variability in terms of thermal maturity. The Tertiary interior basins, as well as some of the forearc and backarc basins associated with the Aleutian Arc, are presently at their greatest depth of burial, with immature rocks exposed at the surface. Other basins, such as some backarc basins on the Alaska Peninsula, show higher thermal maturities, indicating modest uplift, perhaps in conjunction with higher geothermal gradients related to the arc itself. Cretaceous ?flysch? basins, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk basin, are at much higher thermal maturity, reflecting great amounts of uplift perhaps associated with compressional regimes generated through terrane accretion. Many sedimentary basins in Alaska, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk and Colville basins, show higher thermal maturity at basin margins, perhaps reflecting greater uplift of the margins in response to isostatic unloading, owing to erosion of the hinterland adjacent to the basin or to compressional stresses adjacent to basin margins.

  3. Sandakan basin prospects rise following modern reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T. )

    1993-05-10

    Borneo is fringed by six large Neogene deltaic basins, all but one producing substantial hydrocarbons. The Sandakan basin off Northeast Borneo is the exception, but the latest exploration results suggest that it will not remain so. The paper describes its complex history; its exploration history; exploration results; stratigraphy; and geologic structures and traps. The Sandakan basin is conservatively estimated to contain 1 billion bbl of oil and 3tcf of gas.

  4. Time, Weather and Empires: The Campos Rodrigues Observatory in Lourenço Marques, Mozambique (1905-1930).

    PubMed

    Raposo, Pedro M P

    2015-07-01

    In 1905 the Campos Rodrigues Observatory (CRO) was founded in Lourenço Marques (nowadays Maputo), the capital of Mozambique, by then part of the Portuguese overseas empire. In this paper the inception and early history of the CRO are analysed in the broader context of the interwoven history of the Portuguese and British empires in Africa, and specifically with respect to the scientific relations between Mozambique and South Africa. The equipment, personnel, practices and networks involved in the inception and early development of the CRO are brought into focus in order to illustrate the problems and strategies that shaped the establishment and functioning of this observatory, which was conceived essentially as a symbol of imperial stamina and colonial prowess. It is suggested that by providing a focal point for the development of scientific relations between Mozambique and South Africa, the CRO served both Portuguese ambitions for recognition as an imperial power and the emergence of South African nationalism.

  5. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents.

  6. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  8. Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1984-04-01

    The southern Permian basin is underlain by the NNW-trending Central Basin disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware basin to its west, and the shallower Midland basin to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde basin-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the West Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland basin. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian basin proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central Basin platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian basin lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.

  9. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  10. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  11. Seismic Characterization of the Jakarta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipta, A.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Masturyono, M.; Rudyanto, A.; Irsyam, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jakarta, Indonesia, is home to more than 10 million people. Many of these people live in seismically non-resilient structures in an area that historical records suggest is prone to earthquake shaking. The city lies in a sedimentary basin composed of Quaternary alluvium that experiences rapid subsidence (26 cm/year) due to groundwater extraction. Forecasts of how much subsidence may occur in the future are dependent on the thickness of the basin. However, basin geometry and sediment thickness are poorly known. In term of seismic hazard, thick loose sediment can lead to high amplification of seismic waves, of the kind that led to widespread damage in Mexico city during the Michoacan Earthquake of 1985. In order to characterize basin structure, a temporary seismograph deployment was undertaken in Jakarta in Oct 2013- Jan 2014. A total of 96 seismic instrument were deployed throughout Jakarta were deployed throughout Jakarta at 3-5 km spacing. Ambient noise tomography was applied to obtain models of the subsurface velocity structure. Important key, low velocity anomalies at short period (<8s) correspond to the main sedimentary sub-basins thought to be present based on geological interpretations of shallow stratigraphy in the Jakarta Basin. The result shows that at a depth of 300 m, shear-wave velocity in the northern part (600 m/s) of the basin is lower than that in the southern part. The most prominent low velocity structure appears in the northwest of the basin, down to a depth of 800 m, with velocity as low as 1200 m/s. This very low velocity indicates the thickness of sediment and the variability of basin geometry. Waveform computation using SPECFEM2D shows that amplification due to basin geometry occurs at the basin edge and the thick sediment leads to amplification at the basin center. Computation also shows the longer shaking duration occurrs at the basin edge and center of the basin. The nest step will be validating the basin model using earthquake events

  12. Basin-scale relations via conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.; Guertin, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A rainfall-runoff model is used in conjunction with a probabilistic description of the input to this model to obtain simple regression-like relations for basin runoff in terms of basin and storm characteristics. These relations, similar to those sought in regionalization studies, are computed by evaluating the conditional distribution of model output given basin and storm characteristics. This method of conditioning provides a general way of examining model sensitivity to various components of model input. The resulting relations may be expected to resemble corresponding relations obtained by regionalization using actual runoff to the extent that the rainfall-runoff model and the model input specification are physically realistic. The probabilistic description of model input is an extension of so-called "random-model" of channel networks and involves postulating an ensemble of basins and associated probability distributions that mimic the variability of basin characteristics seen in nature. Application is made to small basins in the State of Wyoming. Parameters of the input variable distribution are estimated using data from Wyoming, and basin-scale relations are estimated both, parametrically and nonparametrically using model-generated runoff from simulated basins. Resulting basin-scale relations involving annual flood quantiles are in reasonable agreement with those presented in a previous regionalization study, but error estimates are smaller than those in the previous study, an artifact of the simplicity of the rainfall-runoff model used in this paper. We also obtain relations for peak of the instantaneous unit hydrograph which agree fairly well with theoretical relations given in the literature. Finally, we explore the issues of sensitivity of basin-scale, relations and error estimates to parameterization of the model input probability distribution and of how this sensitivity is related to making inferences about a particular ungaged basin. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  14. Stratigraphic Signatures of Forearc Basin Formation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannu, U.; Ueda, K.; Gerya, T.; Willett, S.; Strasser, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forearc basins are loci of active sedimentation above the landward portion of accretionary prisms. Although these basins typically remain separated from the frontal prism by a forearc high, their evolution has a significant impact on the structure and deformation of the entire wedge. Formation of forearc basins has been proposed as a consequence of changes in wedge stability due to an increase of slab dip in subduction zones. Another hypothesis attributes this to higher hinterland sedimentation, which causes the rear of the wedge to stabilize and eventually develop a forearc basin. Basin stratigraphic architecture, revealed by high-resolution reflection seismic data and borehole data allows interpretation of structural development of the accretionary prism and associated basins with the goal of determining the underlying driving mechanism(s) of basin formation. In this study we supplement data interpretation with thermo-mechanical numerical models including high-resolution isochronal surface tracking to visualize the developing stratigraphy of basins that develop in subduction zone and wedge dynamic models. We use a dynamic 2D thermo mechanical model incorporating surface processes, strain weakening and sediment subduction. The model is a modification of I2VIS model, which is based on conservative, fully staggered finite differences and a non-diffusive marker- in-cell technique capable of modelling mantle convection. In the model different driving mechanisms for basin formation can be explored. Stratigraphic simulations obtained by isochronal surface tracking are compared to reflection pattern and stratigraphy of seismic and borehole data, respectively. Initial results from a model roughly representing the Nankai Trough Subduction Zone offshore Japan are compared to available seismic and Integrated Ocean Drilling (IODP) data. A calibrated model predicting forearc basin stratigraphy will be used to discern the underlying process of basins formation and wedge

  15. Antigenic and immunogenic spectrum of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain O1 Campos against representative viruses of topotypes that circulated in Asia over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Galdo Novo, S; Malirat, V; Maradei, E D; Espinoza, A M; Smitsaart, E; Pedemonte, A R; Mattion, N; Bergmann, I E

    2017-04-25

    Identifying vaccine strains to control outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus that could spread to new regions is essential for contingency plans. This is the first report on the antigenic/immunogenic relationships of the South American O1/Campos vaccine strain with representative isolates of the three currently active Asian type O topotypes. Virus neutralization tests using O1/Campos post-vaccination sera derived from cattle and pigs predicted for both species acceptable cross-protection, even after single vaccination, established by r1 values and by expectancy of protection using monovalent or polyvalent vaccines. The results indicate that effective oil vaccines containing the O1/Campos strain can be used against Asian isolates, expanding the scope of O1/Campos strain included in vaccine banks to control emergencies caused by Asian viruses, even on single-dose vaccination, and to cover the need of effective vaccines in Asia during systematic vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district, central Brazil: structural and Sm-Nd data to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Barros Neto, Leonel de Souza

    2002-12-01

    Structural analysis coupled with Sm-Nd isotope data and a detailed description of the geology of the Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district (Goiás State, Central Brazil) constrain the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt. The area is composed of tectonic slices of Archean-Paleoproterozoic gneiss, a Meso-Neoproterozoic metavolcanic sedimentary sequence called the Santa Terezinha sequence, and crustal-derived intrusive rocks such as mylonitic (ortho)gneiss and a syntectonic porphyry granite. It underwent a Neoproterozoic greenschist facies polyphase ductile deformation (D 1-D 3). Structures indicate an event of rotational deformation along a typical frontal ramp dipping gently to the west (i.e. an event of simple shear with top to ESE relative regional movement due to a subhorizontal WNW-ESE compression). A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 577±77 Ma for the intrusive rocks constrains the timing of at least part of the deformation/metamorphism in the area. Primary and metamorphic planar structures (mainly D 1-D 2) strike SW-NE and dip at low to moderate angles to the NW in the northern part of the area. However, they gradually rotate to SSE in the central SE part, where the Peixe River synclinorium is developed. This synclinorium is also the nest of the D 2 sheath folds that control emerald ore shoots. The Santa Cruz dome is a basement-cored, major elliptic structure in the SW of the area. The Santa Terezinha sequence represents a back-arc basin that received input from the Neoproterozoic Goiás magmatic arc to the west and the São Francisco ancient continental margin to the east. The basal and upper sections of this sequence correlate, respectively, with other passive margin and back-arc sequences of the Brası´lia belt.

  17. Exhumation, cooling and deformation history of the necking zone of the fossil Adriatic rifted margin: the Campo/Grosina section (S-Switzerland and N-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Benoît; Mohn, Geoffroy; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Manatschal, Gianreto; Beltrando, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Austroalpine units in SE Switzerland and N-Italy preserve remnants of the fossil Adriatic rifted margin. Notably the Campo-Grosina units represent the necking zone where major crustal thinning was accommodated during the Jurassic rifting. This contribution aims to unravel the complex tectonic evolution recorded in these units from the late Carboniferous - early Permian to the Jurassic rifting. The cooling and exhumation of the Campo and overlying Grosina units, separated by the Eita shear zone are explored by the acquisition of 40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, muscovite and biotite. New geochronological data on the Grosina unit present 40Ar/39Ar ages between 273 and 261 Ma for muscovite and between 248 and 246 Ma for biotite. The Campo unit shows clearly younger ages between 210 and 177 Ma on hornblende, between 186 and 176 Ma on muscovite and between 174 and 171 Ma on biotite. Numerous data were discarded due to frequent excess 40Ar on amphiboles, probably associated to the emplacement of the Sondalo gabbro with a high 40Ar/36Ar ratio in Permian times. These new ages, together with a compilation of existing ages obtained with different chronometers (U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar) and performed on different lithologies from both the Campo and the Grosina units allow an estimation of the cooling rates for these units to be done. The new results show that both the Campo and the Grosina units underwent a cooling rate around 10°C/Ma in Permian time. The Grosina unit, being in a shallower crustal level, did not record the Jurassic cooling, reaching up to 50°C/Ma in the Campo unit. The notable difference in cooling rates between the Permian and the Jurassic events attests of a cooling without being associated to an exhumation in Permian times, whereas the Campo unit cooled rapidly in Jurassic times, due to an exhumation and an emplacement in shallow crustal levels. The latter tectonic event was likely caused by shearing along the Eita or other greenschist facies

  18. Thermal regimes of Malaysian sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul Halim, M.F. )

    1994-07-01

    Properly corrected and calibrated thermal data are important in estimating source-rock maturation, diagenetics, evolution of reservoirs, pressure regimes, and hydrodynamics. Geothermal gradient, thermal conductivity, and heat flow have been determined for the sedimentary succession penetrated by exploratory wells in Malaysia. Geothermal gradient and heat-flow maps show that the highest average values are in the Malay Basin. The values in the Sarawak basin are intermediate between those of the Malay basin and the Sabah Basin, which contains the lowest average values. Temperature data were analyzed from more than 400 wells. An important parameter that was studied in detail is the circulation time. The correct circulation time is essential in determining the correct geothermal gradient of a well. It was found that the most suitable circulation time for the Sabah Basin is 20 hr, 30 hr for the Sarawak Basin and 40 hr for the Malay Basin. Values of thermal conductivity, determined from measurement and calibrated calculations, were grouped according to depositional units and cycles in each basin.

  19. Scientific Review of Great Basin Wildfire Issues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  20. Scientific review of great basin wildfire issues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  1. African sedimentary basins - Tectonic controls on prospectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bunter, M.A.G.; Crossley, R.; Hammill, M.; Jones, P.W.; Morgan, R.K.; Needham, D.T.; Spaargaren, F.A. )

    1991-03-01

    An important prerequisite for the evaluation of any sedimentary basin is the understanding of its regional tectonic setting. This is especially so in the underexplored regions of Africa. The majority of African sedimentary basins developed in an extensional setting although some have undergone subsequent compressional or transpressional deformation. The geometry and evolution of these basins is often influenced by basement structure. The extensional phase of basin development controls not only the distribution of syn-rift sediments but also the magnitude of post-rift regional subsidence and the preservation or removal of pre-rift sediments. This has important consequences for exploration models of syn-rift and pre-rift source rocks and reservoirs. Post-rift basin inversion and uplift provide crucial controls on the preservation of mature source rocks and quality of reservoirs. The distribution, nature, timing, and possible mechanisms of this uplift in Africa will be addressed. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of African basis appears to be highly variable although the limited exploration of some regions makes the exact extent of this variability unclear. Basins considered potentially prospective range from late Precambrian to Tertiary in age. The various tectonic controls outlined above, and criteria for the evaluation of underexplored areas, will be demonstrated by reference to basins studied by The Robertson Group. Examples described include basins from Bagon, Angola, Namibia, East Africa, Tertiary Rift and Karoo Rifts, and North Africa (Sudan, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco).

  2. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  3. Frontier sedimentary basins of New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum-prospective basins of New Zealand began to form by mid-Cretaceous rifting of crustal elements previously assembled at the Gondwana continental margin. During the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic New Zealand separated from Australia and Antarctica by sea-floor spreading. An overall transgression in widely recorded in this post-rift phase, with decreasing clastic sediment supply as land area and relief were reduced. Mid-Cenozoic initiation of the modern plate boundary has resulted in uplift of mountain ranges, subsidence and filling of troughs, progradation of the shelf, and common reactivation or eversion of older structures. Petroleum potential of less explored basins can be compared to the productive Taranki basin. Source rocks are coal-rich deposits of the rift phase, also developed in Great South, Canterbury/Chatham, Western Southland, West Coast, and Northland basins. A different source contributes to oil and gas seeps on the East Coast, a continental margin during Late Cretaceous. The main reservoirs of Taranaki are early Cenozoic coastal and fluvial sands, also present in Great South, Canterbury, and West Coast and possibly other basins. Other Taranaki reservoirs include mid-Cenozoic limestone and Miocene turbidites, which are widespread in most other basins. Pliocene limestones have excellent reservoir potential on the East Coast. Late Cenozoic tectonics, essential to trap development and significant for maturation in Taranaki, have created similar structures in basins near the plate boundary but are less significant in the development of Great South, eastern Canterbury/Chatham, and Northland basins.

  4. Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program

    Treesearch

    Doug Duncan; Robert W. Clarkson

    2013-01-01

    The Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program was established to conserve native fishes and manage against nonnative fishes in response to several Endangered Species Act biological opinions between the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Central Arizona Project (CAP) water transfers to the Gila River basin. Populations of some Gila...

  5. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section 401.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel...

  6. Construction of sediment budgets for drainage basins

    Treesearch

    William E. Dietrich; Thomas Dunne; Neil F. Humphrey; Leslie M. Reid

    1982-01-01

    Abstract - A sediment budget for a drainage basin is a quantitative statement of the rates of production, transport, and discharge of detritus. To construct a sediment budget for a drainage basin, one must integrate the temporal and spatial variations of transport and storage processes. This requires: recognition and quantification of transport processes, recognition...

  7. Oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Roohi, M.; Aburawi, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    Sirte Basin is an asymmetrical cratonic basin, situated in the north-central part of Libya. It covers an area of over 350,000km{sup 2} and is one of the most prolific oil-producing basins in the world. Sirte Basin is divided into large NW-SE trending sub-parallel platforms and troughs bounded by deep seated syndepositional normal faults. A very unique combination of thick sediments with rich source rocks in the troughs vs. thinner sediments with prolific reservoir rocks on the platforms accounts for the productivity of the basin. Analysis of oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin will certainly help to discover the remaining reserves, and this can only be achieved if the important parameter of structural configuration of the basin at the time of oil migration is known. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the time of oil migration, to define the structural picture of the 4 Basin during the time of migration and to delineate the most probable connecting routes between the hydrocarbon kitchens and the oil fields.

  8. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  9. Surface ozone in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    Treesearch

    Joel D. Burley; Sandra Theiss; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Alan Gertler; Susan Schilling; Barbara Zielinska

    2015-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) concentrations were measured in and around the Lake Tahoe Basin using both active monitors (2010) and passive samplers (2002, 2010). The 2010 data from active monitors indicate average summertime diurnal maxima of approximately 50–55 ppb. Some site-to-site variability is observed within the Basin during the well-mixed hours of...

  10. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  11. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  12. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  13. Reorientation of icy satellites by impact basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Matsuyama, I.

    2007-10-01

    Large impact basins are present on many of the icy satellites of the outer solar system. Assuming that their present-day topography is uncompensated, such basins can cause significant poleward reorientations for slow-rotating satellites. This reorientation may have been accompanied by transient large-amplitude wobble. The largest basins on Tethys, Rhea and Titania are predicted to have caused reorientations of roughly 4°, 7° and 12°, respectively, resulting in global tectonic stresses up to ~0.5 MPa. The potential anomalies associated with the basins can be up to one-third of those expected for a hydrostatic, tidally- and rotationally-deformed body, and may complicate interpretation of the satellite interior structure. Pluto and Charon, because of their slow rotation, are also likely to have undergone reorientation of 10-20° if they possess impact basins of comparable sizes to those of the Saturnian satellites.

  14. Hydrological research basins and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, V. M.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.

    The role and relative importance of experimental and representative basins in pre-dieting anthropogenic effects on water resources and the environment was the goal of the International Conference on Hydrological Research Basins and the Environment, held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, September 24-28, 1990. About 70 persons, almost exclusively from Europe, attended the meeting, which was organized by the Committee of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins and the National Committee of the Netherlands for the International Hydrological Program of Unesco.During the conference, the 3rd General Meeting of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins was held. This network of basins, covering nine countries in Europe, organizes periodic meetings and tries to enhance the compatibility of observations and methods of analysis, and to implement research projects of common interest.

  15. Petroleum geochemistry of the Zala Basin, Hungary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, J.L.; Koncz, I.

    1994-01-01

    The Zala basin is a subbasin within the Pannonian basin. Geochemical study of oils and rocks in the basin indicate that two, and possibly three, genetic oil types are present in the basin. Miocene source rocks, previously believed to be the predominant source rock, have expelled minor amounts of hydrocarbons. The main source rock is the Upper Triassic (Rhaetian) Kossen Marl Formation or its stratigraphic equivalent. Knowledge of the geochemical characteristics of oils derived from these Upper Triassic source rocks and understanding of the source rock distribution and maturation history are important for recognizing Triassic oil-source bed relationships and for further exploration in other basins in Hungary and other parts of Europe where Triassic source rocks are present. -from Authors

  16. Determination of the Relationship between Hydrologic Processes and Basin Morphometry - The Lamos Basin (Mersin, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Ümit; Güler, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the relationship between hydrologic processes and basin morphometry in the Lamos Basin, which is located at the northern part of the Mersin (SE Turkey). The morphometric parameters of the basin was derived from the 1:25K scale topographic map sheets that were digitized using ArcGIS 9.3.1 geographic information system (GIS) software. Morphometric parameters considered in this study include basin area, basin length, basin perimeter length, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, basin relief, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, bifurcation ratio, form factor, elongation ratio, overland flow length, relief ratio, and hypsometric integral. The results have shown that there are 1252 individual stream reaches with a total length of 1414.1 km in the Lamos basin, which covers an area of 1358 km2 and has a length of 103 km in the N-S direction. Furthermore, the basin has a medium drainage density of 1.04 1/km with a stream frequency and drainage texture values of 0.92 and 4.33, respectively. The basin can be classified as elongated because of the low values of elongation ratio (0.48) and form factor (0.12). The hypsometric integral of the basin (0.58) indicates that it is in the youth period and thus reasonably sensitive to erosion. The values of drainage texture, drainage density, and stream frequency indicate that the Lamos basin is moderately well drained, therefore overland flow in the basin is not expected to be so quick. Thus, in case of occurrence of sudden peak flows, sensitivity to the land sliding and erosion may increase further. As a result, it is suggested that human activities in the basin should be limited in areas in fairly close proximity to the present day stream network to prevent or reduce the risk to life and property.

  17. Thermal state of the Arkoma Basin and the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngmin

    1999-12-01

    One of the most fundamental physical processes that affects virtually all geologic phenomena in sedimentary basins is the flow of heat from the Earth's interiors. The Arkoma Basin and the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma, are a prolific producer of both oil and natural gas. Both basins also have important geologic phenomena. Understanding the thermal state of the these basins is crucial to understanding the timing and extent of hydrocarbon generation, the genesis of Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits, and the origin of overpressures in the Anadarko Basin. In chapter one, heat flow and heat production in the Arkoma basin and Oklahoma Platform are discussed. Results of this study are not generally supportive of theories which invoke topographically driven regional groundwater flow from the Arkoma Basin in Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian time (˜290 Ma) to explain the genesis of geologic phenomena. In chapter 2, different types of thermal conductivity temperature corrections that are commonly applied in terrestrial heat flow studies are evaluated. The invariance of the relative rankings with respect to rock porosity suggests the rankings may be valid with respect to in situ conditions. Chapter three addresses heat flow and thermal history of the Anadarko Basin and the western Oklahoma Platform. We found no evidence for heat flow to increase significantly from the Anadarko Basin in the south to the Oklahoma Platform to the north. In chapter four, overpressures in the Anadarko Basin, southwestern Oklahoma are discussed. Using scale analyses and a simple numerical model, we evaluated two endmember hypotheses (compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation) as possible causes of overpressuring. Geopressure models which invoke compaction disequilibrium do not appear to apply to the Anadarko Basin. The Anadarko Basin belongs to a group of cratonic basins which are tectonically quiescent and are characterized by the association of abnormal pressures with natural gas

  18. New Classification of Impact Basins and Its Implications for Basin Evolution on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, J.; Liu, J.; Guo, D.

    2016-12-01

    Large impact basins, the comprehensive results of internal and external dynamic geological processes, are the principal topographic features on the Moon. Study on evolution of those large impact basins provides important clues for understanding early history of the Moon. However, to classify the impact basins before anyone can link their characteristics to basin evolution, discrepancies occur among different classification systems, of which some did not to consider the effect of filled basalt [1] or some did not to consider the category of non-mascon basins [2, 3]. In order to clarify the ambiguous basin types caused by different classifications, we re-examined impact basins ≥ 200 km in diameter (66 in total; excluding SPA basin) using the GRAIL geophysical data, LRO DEM data and LP geochemical data from NASA Planetary Data System. We chose two major category labels: mascon or not [1, 2, 3] and the basin floor is covered by basalt/basaltic materials or not [4, 5]; plus, we considered topographic signatures as the clue of timescale. As a result, the 66 impact basins were classified into four categories: Type I (20), mascon basins with basalt or basaltic materials and most of them show well-preserved topography signature; Type II (28), mascon basins without basalt or basaltic materials, most of them are located on the farside with preserved topography signature; Type III (11), non-mascon basins with basalt or basaltic materials, most basins of this type are dated as Pre-Nectarian except for Van de Graaff basin and showing severely degraded topography; Type IV (6), non-mascon basins without basalt or basaltic materials, all basins of this type are dated as Pre-Nectarian with severely degraded topography. This new classification scheme can be easily applied to various lunar basins and help us to locate important information about early environment or thermal state of the Moon by comparison study of regional geological evolution of different basin types. References [1

  19. Plio-Pleistocene drainage development in an inverted sedimentary basin: Vera basin, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin

    2008-08-01

    The Vera basin is one of a series of interconnected Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins located within the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (southeast Spain). Since the Pliocene the Vera basin has been subjected to low uplift rates (11-21 m Ma - 1 ) and inverted via compressive tectonics that are related to the ongoing oblique collision between the African and Iberian plates. Within this paper the sedimentary and geomorphic response to basin inversion is explored. Sedimentary processes and environments are established for key stratigraphic units of the Pliocene/Plio-Pleistocene basin fill and Pleistocene dissectional landscape. These data are subsequently utilised to reconstruct an evolving basin palaeogeography. Fault and uplift data are employed to discuss the role of tectonically driven basin inversion for controlling the resultant palaeogeographic changes and associated patterns of drainage development. During the Early-Mid Pliocene the Vera basin was characterised by shallow marine shelf conditions (Cuevas Formation). A major palaeogeographic reorganisation occurred during the Mid-Late Pliocene. Strike-slip movement along the eastern basin margin, coupled with uplift and basin emergence created a protected, partially enclosed marine embayment that was conducive for Gilbert-type fan-delta sedimentation from fluvial inputs along the northern and eastern basin margins (Espíritu Santo Formation). The Vera basin then became fully continental and internally drained through the development of a consequent drainage network that formed following the withdrawal of marine conditions during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Alluvial fans developed along the northern and western basin margins, grading to a bajada and terminating in a playa lake in central basin areas (Salmerón Formation). During the Early-Mid Pleistocene a switch from basin infilling to dissection took place, recorded by alluvial fan incision, a switch to braided river sedimentation and

  20. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadena-González, Ana Lucía; Sørensen, Marten; Theilade, Ida

    2013-04-11

    Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyacá, Colombia and to assess the importance of native and introduced plants to healers, amateur healers and local people. As local healers including amateur healers have no history of introduced species our working hypotheses (H(1-2)) were that H(1): native and introduced medicinal plant species are of equal importance and H(2): healers and amateur healers do not differentiate in their preferences between native and introduced medicinal plant species. Ten villages were included in the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used including questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, in- depth interviews, and open talks. Voucher specimens were collected in home gardens and during field walks. For data analysis, we calculated use value indices and Jaccard index and tested for the above hypothesis using Spearman rank-correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests. Eighty medicinal plant species were described by locals as the most frequently used. Of these, 78 species were taxonomically identified, distributed within 41 families and 74 genera, which included 35 native species and 43 introduced. The highest valued families were: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae. The species ranked highest according to their Use Values, in both municipalities, were Mentha suaveolens Ehrh., Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers relied most on the

  1. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyacá, Colombia and to assess the importance of native and introduced plants to healers, amateur healers and local people. As local healers including amateur healers have no history of introduced species our working hypotheses (H1-2) were that H1: native and introduced medicinal plant species are of equal importance and H2: healers and amateur healers do not differentiate in their preferences between native and introduced medicinal plant species. Methods Ten villages were included in the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used including questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, in- depth interviews, and open talks. Voucher specimens were collected in home gardens and during field walks. For data analysis, we calculated use value indices and Jaccard index and tested for the above hypothesis using Spearman rank-correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests. Results Eighty medicinal plant species were described by locals as the most frequently used. Of these, 78 species were taxonomically identified, distributed within 41 families and 74 genera, which included 35 native species and 43 introduced. The highest valued families were: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae. The species ranked highest according to their Use Values, in both municipalities, were Mentha suaveolens Ehrh., Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers

  2. Lunar Multiring Basins and the Cratering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Mark A.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1999-06-01

    Numerous studies of the lunar gravity field have concluded that the lunar Moho is substantially uplifted beneath the young multiring basins. This uplift is presumably due to the excavation of large quantities of crustal material during the cratering process and subsequent rebound of the impact basin floor. Using a new dual-layered crustal thickness model of the Moon, the excavation cavities of some nearside multiring basins (Grimaldi and larger, and younger than Tranquillitatis) were reconstructed by restoring the uplifted Moho to its preimpact location. The farside South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin was also considered due to its importance in deciphering lunar evolution. Restoring the Moho to its preimpact position beneath these basins resulted in a roughly parabolic depression from which the depth and diameter of the excavation cavity could be determined. Using these reconstructed excavation cavities, the basin-forming process was investigated. Excavation cavity diameters were generally found to be on the small side of most previous estimates (for Orientale the modeled excavation cavity lies within the Inner Rook Ring). Additionally, with the exception of the three largest basins (Serenitatis, Imbrium, and South Pole-Aitken) the depth/diameter ratios of the excavation cavities were found to be 0.115±0.005, a value consistent with theoretical and experimental results for impact craters orders of magnitude smaller in size. The three largest basins, however, appear to have significantly shallower depths of excavation compared to this trend. It is possible that this may reflect a different physical process of crater formation (e.g., nonproportional scaling), special impact conditions, or postimpact modification processes. The crustal thickness model also shows that each basin is surrounded by an annulus of thickened crust. We interpret this thickened crust as representing thick basin ejecta deposits, and we show that the radial variation in the thickness of these

  3. Bedrock geology and chemistry of rivers basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Miller, M. W.

    2003-04-01

    The lack of modern quantitative estimates of the Earth’s surface geology, one of the key parameters influencing river and ocean chemistry, is striking. While some attempts have been made to quantify the lithologic composition of bedrock in individual river basins (e.g., Reeder et al., 1972; Amiotte-Suchet et al., 2002), the geologic age distribution of bedrock in river basins has not been investigated. We have therefore initiated a project aimed at generating a worldwide dataset on the bedrock lithology and age distribution of river basins, using the latest digital geologic maps and modern geographic information system technology. To date we have completed analysis of the digital geologic maps North America. These data have been used in conjunction with digital river basin polygons (Revenga et al., 1998, World Resources Institute) to compute the lithologic composition and geologic age structure of major river basins in North America. The lithologic composition of 14 large river basins range from predominantly igneous rocks dominated (Frazer, Columbia), to those dominated by sedimentary rocks (Brazos, Susquehanna, Mississippi), to basins with an equal mix of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary bedrock (Thelon). Subdividing sedimentary rocks into marine and continental rocks reveals that continental sediments account for no more than 25% of sedimentary rocks in these river basins (e.g., Nelson, Colorado, Mississippi). A further subdivision of igneous rocks into intrusive and volcanic rocks reveals the entire range of igneous composition, from basins dominated by intrusive rocks (Hudson, Mackenzie, Nelson) to those dominated by volcanic rocks (Susquehanna, Colorado, Frazer, Columbia). We are currently analyzing the age distribution of major lithologic units in each river basin. In cases where detailed hydrochemical data is available for major tributaries we will expand the analysis to sub-basins (e.g., Frazer, Mississippi). Basins smaller than about 40,000 km^2

  4. Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

  5. Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. The major activities undertaken during this report period were: procurement of 17 cooperative lease agreements with private landowners, design and layout of 8.6 miles of riparian exclosure fence and 3.0 miles of instream structures, development of five fencing contracts and six instream work contracts. Results include implementation of 10 miles of fencing and 3 miles of instream work. Other activities undertaken during this report period are: data collection from 90 habitat monitoring transects, collection and summarization of temperature data, photopoint establishment, coordination with numerous agencies and tribes and education of all age groups on habitat improvement and protection. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    We evaluated Management Questions (Core and Integrated) for each species and community for the Wyoming Basin REA. Core Management Questions address primary management issues, including (1) where is the Conservation Element, and what are its key ecological attributes (characteristics of species and communities that may affect their long-term persistence or viability); (2) what and where are the Change Agents; and (3) how do the Change Agents affect the key ecological attributes? Integrated Management Questions synthesize the Core Management Questions as follows: (1) where are the areas with high landscape-level ecological values; (2) where are the areas with high landscape-level risks; and (3) where are the potential areas for conservation, restoration, and development? The associated maps and key findings for each Management Question are summarized for each Conservation Element in individual chapters. Additional chapters on landscape intactness and an REA synthesis are included.

  7. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  8. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  9. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  10. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  11. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    We evaluated Management Questions (Core and Integrated) for each species and community for the Wyoming Basin REA. Core Management Questions address primary management issues, including (1) where is the Conservation Element, and what are its key ecological attributes (characteristics of species and communities that may affect their long-term persistence or viability); (2) what and where are the Change Agents; and (3) how do the Change Agents affect the key ecological attributes? Integrated Management Questions synthesize the Core Management Questions as follows: (1) where are the areas with high landscape-level ecological values; (2) where are the areas with high landscape-level risks; and (3) where are the potential areas for conservation, restoration, and development? The associated maps and key findings for each Management Question are summarized for each Conservation Element in individual chapters. Additional chapters on landscape intactness and an REA synthesis are included.

  12. Gladden Pull-Apart Basin, offshore Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Morrice, S. )

    1993-02-01

    The junction of the American and Caribbean plates in Belize has created a complex structural setting for oil and gas exploration. Recent seismic offshore Belize has been used to identify three structural provinces, from west to east: a shallow thrust zone, a narrow upthrown wrench faulted zone and a deeper extensional basin, named the Gladden Pull-Apart Basin. Hydrocarbon leakage from recent fault movement appears to have depleted the shallow structures to the west, but the pull-apart basin has a thick sequence of low-frequency clay-dominated sealing rocks with the potential to preserve hydrocarbon accumulations in Cretaceous carbonate banks. These buried carbonate are of the same age and depositional environment of Mexico's Golden Lane/Tabasco Reforma carbonate banks which are world class giant fields. The Belize and Mexican carbonate banks are within the same Cretaceous depositional basin, the Peten Basin. Seismic interpretations in offshore Belize have been integrated with gravity and magnetic surveys. This provides additional support for the deep extensional basin. The location of the thick Cretaceous carbonate banks is better interpreted with the integration of these three geophysical tools. Airborne geochemical surveys were used to detect the presence of oil seeps on the east and west basin margins.

  13. Petroleum potential of the Reggane Basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Hamel, M.; Mohamedi, A.; Lounissi, R. )

    1990-05-01

    The intracratonic Reggane basin is located on the Saharan platform, southwest of Algeria. The basin covers an area of approximately 140,000 km{sup 2}, extending between the Eglab shield in the south and the Ougarta ranges in the north. Although exploration started in the early 1950s, only a few wells were drilled in this basin. Gas was discovered with a number of oil shows. The sedimentary fill, mainly Paleozoic shales and sandstones, has a thickness exceeding 5,000 m in the central part of the basin. The reservoirs are Cambrian-Ordovician, Siegenian, Emsian, Tournaisian, and Visean sandstones with prospective petrophysical characteristics. Silurian Upper Devonian and, to a lesser extent Carboniferous shales are the main source rocks. An integrated study was done to assess the hydrocarbon potential of this basin. Tectonic evolution source rocks and reservoirs distribution maturation analyses followed by kinetic modeling, and hydrogeological conditions were studied. Results indicate that gas accumulations could be expected in the central and deeper part of the basin, and oil reservoirs could be discovered on the basin edge.

  14. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  15. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  16. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics.

  17. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  18. Thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, S.A.; Gallardo, J.D.; Carter, L.C.; Blackwell, D.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Heat flow, bottom-hole temperature (BHT), and thermal conductivity data are used to evaluate the present thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin. Heat flow values decrease from 54-62 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the northern part of the basin to 39-53 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the southern portion of the basin. The variation in the regional conductive heat flow is controlled by basin geometry and by the distribution of radiogenic elements in the basement. The heat flow, thermal conductivity, and lithologic information were combined to construct a 3-D model of the temperature structure of the Anadarko basin. The highest temperatures sedimentary rocks older than Pennsylvanian are offset 35 km north-northwest of the deepest part of the basin. This offset is related to the regional increase in heat flow to the north and to the presence of high thermal conductivity granite wash adjacent to the Wichita Mountains. A plot of the temperature difference between the equilibrium temperatures estimated from the model and the measured BHTs as a function of depth is remarkably similar to the published correction curve for BHTs for wells in Oklahoma. Vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission-track (FT) data are used to estimate the paleogeothermal conditions in the basin. Published vitrinite reflectance values are consistent with a past geographic temperature distribution comparable to the observed distribution with the maximum values offset from the basin axis. FT analysis of sandstones from wells in the southeastern portion of the basin indicates that subsurface temperatures were at least 30C higher than at present, suggest the possibility of substantial erosion in this area.

  19. Report card--Murray-Darling Basin--2001.

    PubMed

    Goss, K

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing deterioration of the riverine environments of the Murray-Darling Basin led the Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council to introduce a Cap in 1995 to halt the growth in diversions of water for consumptive use. This initiative recognised the finite nature of water resources in the Basin and sought to introduce a balance between off-stream use of water and protection of the riverine environment. But the cap is only one step, albeit a fundamental one, in restoring the Basin's rivers--it is a "stake in the ground". Parties to the Murray-Darling Basin Initiative recognise the need to reverse decades of creeping decline if the Basin's rivers and riverine environments are to return to a more ecologically sustainable condition. In the last 12 months, Council and Commission have taken far-reaching decisions designed to restore the Basin's Rivers. Many of these decisions, even 10 years ago, would have been unimaginable. The Report Card will explain the need for a number of recent decisions that will impact on the future of the Basin's rivers. For example, Council's decision to establish an Environmental Manager function in the Office of the Commission was made in the context of the recently agreed Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) Policy, and supporting Sustainable Rivers Audit. The role of targets and accountabilities under the ICM Policy will also be discussed. The Report Card will also present a snapshot of the state of the Basin's rivers and the actions being taken at a range of scales and locations in response to identified problems. Because some of the key initiatives are still in development, this Report Card will set the scene by describing where our attention is being focused and why.

  20. Revised morphology of Pycnonemosaurus nevesi Kellner & Campos, 2002 (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) and its phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, Rafael

    2017-06-09

    Abelisaurid theropods were most abundant in the Gondwana during the Cretaceous Period. Pycnonemosaurus nevesi Kellner & Campos, 2002 was the first abelisaurid dinosaur described from the Bauru Group (Brazil, Upper Cretaceous). Nevertheless, its initial description was based on the comparison of a restricted number of remains with other abelisaurids. In this paper, I present a new description of the morphology of Pycnonemosaurus nevesi, including three new caudal transverse processes and a discussion of several new characteristics based on perspectives derived from recently described abelisauroids. Pycnonemosaurus nevesi differs from other abelisaurids based on the following features: a pubis with a small rounded foot and a ventrally-bowed anterior distal end; posterior caudal vertebrae with a hook-shaped transverse process that has an anterodistal expansion that is short and bowed; a strong and massive tibia with a well-developed lateral malleolus that is ventrally expanded. The unfused sutures represent signs of skeletal immaturity, but the specific ontogenetic stage is still uncertain. The current phylogenetic analysis suggests strongly relationship within Pycnonemosaurus and the most-derived abelisaurids (e.g Carnotaurus and Aucasaurus).

  1. [Characteristics of Family Health Program users sample in Campo Bom (RS), Brazil during the year of 2006].

    PubMed

    de Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia; Algayer, Andressa Regina

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to describe the characteristics of Family Health Program (FHP) users sample in a Basic Health Unit (BHU) in Campo Bom, southern of Brazil. Based on data collected from the handbook of the first 200 patients attended in a specific BHU in January 2006, we analyzed sex, age, average number of medical and nursing consultations in the last twelve months and the reasons for requiring a BHU attendance. In this sample, 68% were female. Children represented 30.5% of the sample and 35.5% of the patients self-declared as married. In addition to that, 59% had not finished basic school. Almost half (42%) of the citizens presented some chronic disease as a complaint to go to a BUH and 17% were looking for preventive health care. In 2005, 17% of the sample had, at least, one nursing consulting and 46.5% of these had from one to four medical consultations. Chronicle diseases and its symptoms or complications represented a significant percentage of the sample and might be associated to the demands for BHU health assistance. Data collected shows the necessity of more investments to prevent complications and/or incapability. Based on a deep understanding of BHU patients' profile, family health teams can improve effectiveness of their health promotion actions focusing on community demands.

  2. Monitoring the fall of large atmospheric ice conglomerations: a multianalytical approach to the study of the Mejorada del Campo megacryometeor.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Francisco Alamilla; Alegre, José Ma Ramiro; Cordero Pérez, José Carlos; Martín Redondo, Ma Paz; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Fernández Sampedro, Ma Teresa; Menor-Salván, César; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; López-Vera, Fernando; Rodríguez-Losada, José A; Martinez-Frias, Jesus

    2008-04-01

    Certain local atmospheric anomalies, such as the formation of unusually large ice conglomerations (megacryometeors), have been proposed to be a potential natural hazard for people and aviation, as well as geoindicators for fingerprinting larger-scale atmospheric environmental changes. On March 13th 2007, at approximately 10:15 am, an ice chunk weighing about 10 kg fell from the clear-sky and crashed through the roof (around 15 m) of an industrial storage house in Mejorada del Campo, a town located 20 km east from Madrid. The megacryometeor monitoring follow-up and the original investigation presented here includes, for the first time, both logistic and scientific collaboration between the Laboratory of the Environment, Criminalistic Service (SECRIM, the Spanish "Guardia Civil") and academic and scientific institutions (universities and the Spanish National Research Council). We propose that the management procedure of the incident, along with the detailed scientific research and combination of analytical methodologies in different laboratories, can serve as a protocol model for other similar events.

  3. Morphophysiological differences in leaves of Lavoisiera campos-portoana (Melastomataceae) enhance higher drought tolerance in water shortage events.

    PubMed

    França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; Prados, Lucas Martins Zimmer; de Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Ranieri, Bernardo Dourado; Vale, Fernando Henrique Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Lavoisiera campos-portoana Barreto (Melastomataceae) has two kinds of leaves, pubescent and glabrous, and branches may have one or both types of leaves at the same moment. The plant is endemic to high altitude rocky fields in Brazil where rainfall is very seasonal. We predicted that these two leaf types are adaptations to different regimes of water availability. In experimental conditions of drought stress, we measured relative water content (RWC), photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence and osmotic potential, and we counted stomates and measured stomatal conductance on both sides of leaves and compared these between the two leaf types. Stomatal conductance and electron transport rate at a given photosynthetic photon flux were greater in pubescent leaves than in glabrous leaves, and both declined during drought stress. Excessive photon flux density in glabrous leaves was greater during stress and after rehydration. Photosynthetic pigment content and RWC did not change between leaves, and values reduced during the stress period. Both types of leaves showed osmotic adjustment capacity, which occurred earlier in glabrous ones. These morphophysiological differences highlight the adaptation strategies of this plant to withstand drought, since the glabrous portion of the plant presents a preventive behavior, while the pubescent portion only shows the same responses in more advanced stages of drought stress.

  4. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of an inverted extensional basin: the Cameros Basin (north of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodeo Salè, Silvia; Guimerà, Joan; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José

    2014-09-01

    The Cameros Basin is a part of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift. It is an extensional basin formed during the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, in the Mesozoic Iberian Rift context, and it was inverted in the Cenozoic as a result of the Alpine contraction. This work aims to reconstruct the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basin during the Mesozoic, using new and revised field, geophysical and subsurface data. The construction of a basin-wide balanced section with partial restorations herein offers new insights into the geometry of the syn-rift deposits. Field data, seismic lines and oil well data were used to identify the main structures of the basin and the basin-forming mechanisms. Mapping and cross-sectional data indicate the marked thickness variation of the depositional sequences across the basin, suggesting that the extension of the depositional area varied during the syn-rift stage and that the depocentres migrated towards the north. From field observation and seismic line interpretation, an onlap of the depositional sequences to the north, over the marine Jurassic substratum, can be deduced. In the last few decades, the structure and geometry of the basin have been strongly debated. The structure and geometry of the basin infill reconstructed herein strongly support the interpretation of the Cameros Basin as an extensional-ramp synclinal basin formed on a blind south-dipping extensional ramp. The gradual hanging-wall displacement to the south shifted the depocentres to the north over time, thus increasing the basin in size northwards, with onlap geometry on the pre-rift substratum. The basin was inverted by means of a main thrust located in a detachment located in the Upper Triassic beds (Keuper), which branched in depth with the Mesozoic extensional fault flat. The reconstruction of the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Cameros Basin proposed herein represents a synthesis and an integration of previous studies of the structure and geometry of the

  5. Flexural Origin of the Puget Basins: Implications for the Seattle Fault and Puget Basin Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, R. S.; Symons, N. P.

    2001-12-01

    At least five distinct basins of varying depth, including the Seattle basin, form a semi-circular ring around the eastern Olympic Mts. Although the Seattle basin has been postulated to result from a northward vergent thrust on the Seattle fault, other basins have a less clear relationship to faulting. A purely thrust origin for the Seattle basin requires uplift, which is not observed, south of the Seattle fault to isostatically balance the large mass deficiency of the Seattle basin. High-resolution P-wave velocity imaging of the Puget region using earthquakes, data from the recent SHIPS experiments, and data from earlier explosion experiments shows that the Puget basins are underlain by approximately 15 km of "tectonically" strong Crescent formation (part of the Coast Range Terrain - CRT). Low velocity core rocks of the eastern Olympics are emplaced beneath the CRT in a radial pattern that mirrors the pattern of the Puget basins, strongly suggesting that the basins are genetically related to the Olympic structure. A model of basin formation that is consistent with gravity and seismic data, and that explains the observed radial pattern is elastic flexural down-warp in response to uplift and subsequent erosion of the CRT in the central Olympic Mts. The CRT is now erosionally removed from the Olympic core, exposing the underlying accretionary wedge complex. The available information on timing of the Olympic uplift generally agrees with the inferred timing of basin subsidence. Since the "lever arm" which forced the basins downward is removed by erosion from the eastern Olympics, basin subsidence has probably stopped, and isostatic rebound of the Seattle and other basins should play a role in current tectonics. Relative uplift of the Seattle basin, consistent with isostatic rebound, explains the north-side-up mechanism of the June 1997 M 4.9 earthquake near Bremerton, the north-side-up pattern of faults trenched on southern Bainbridge Island, and possibly the uplift of

  6. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K Basins pending a decision on

  7. Prediction of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harff, J.E.; Davis, J.C.; Eiserbeck, W.

    1993-01-01

    To estimate the undiscovered hydrocarbon potential of sedimentary basins, quantitative play assessments specific for each location in a region may be obtained using geostatistical methods combined with the theory of classification of geological objects, a methodology referred to as regionalization. The technique relies on process modeling and measured borehole data as well as probabilistic methods to exploit the relationship between geology (the "predictor") and known hydrocarbon productivity (the "target") to define prospective stratigraphic intervals within a basin. It is demonstrated in case studies from the oil-producing region of the western Kansas Pennsylvanian Shelf and the gas-bearing Rotliegend sediments of the Northeast German Basin. ?? 1993 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M; Arima, Eugenio Y; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R; d'Horta, Fernando M; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A; Ribas, Camila C; Norgaard, Richard B; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C

    2017-06-14

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  9. Two basins explored in Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.M.

    1996-04-29

    Exploration companies are exploring two tracts in separate basins of the Dominican Republic. Drilling is under way or planned in the eastern Cibao basin in the northeastern part of the country, where Petrolera Once Once SA holds a 1,001,287 ha concession, and the Azua-Bani basin in the southwester, where Mobil-Murfin holds a 2,266,197 ha concession. About 75 wells have been drilled onshore in Dominican Republic, but commercial production has not been established. This paper summarizes the exploration history and geology of the area.

  10. Stratigraphy of the Caloris basin, Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, J.F.; Guest, J.E.; Schaber, G.G.; Trask, N.J.; Greeley, R.

    1981-01-01

    The 1300-km-diameter Caloris impact basin is surrounded by well-defined ejecta units that can be recognized from more than 1000 km, radially outward from the basin edge. A formal rock stratigraphic nomenclature is proposed for the Caloris ejecta units, which are collectively called the Caloris Group. Each of the individual formations within the Group are described and compared to similar rock units associated with the lunar Imbrium and Orientale basins. A crater degradation chronology, linked the the Caloris event, is also proposed to assist in stratigraphic correlation on a Mercury-wide basis. ?? 1981.

  11. YARD NO. 3 BASINS (GRAVING DOCKS), VIEW TO EASTNORTHEAST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    YARD NO. 3 BASINS (GRAVING DOCKS), VIEW TO EAST-NORTHEAST AT THE SOUTH END OF THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2, LOOKING ACROSS SOUTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western... Office, 314 6th Avenue, Brookings, SD. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's proposed Project is to...

  13. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... potential environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric...: (202) 690-0649, or e-mail: lauren.mcgee @wdc.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's...

  14. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for...://www.usda.gov/rus/water/ees/eis.htm . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Basin Electric's proposed Project is...

  15. Prediction method of sediment discharge from forested basin

    Treesearch

    Kazutoki Abe; Ushio Kurokawa; Robert R. Ziemer

    2000-01-01

    An estimation model for sediment discharge from a forested basin using Universal Soil Loss Equation and delivery ratio was developed. Study basins are North fork and South fork in Caspar Creek, north California, where Forest Service, USDA has been using water and sediment discharge from both basins since 1962. The whole basin is covered with the forest, mainly...

  16. Discharge forecasts in mountain basins based on satellite snow cover mapping. [Dinwoody Creek Basin, Wyoming and the Dischma Basin, Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, J.; Rango, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A snow runoff model developed for European mountain basins was used with LANDSAT imagery and air temperature data to simulate runoff in the Rocky Mountains under conditions of large elevation range and moderate cloud cover (cloud cover of 40% or less during LANDSAT passes 70% of the time during a snowmelt season). Favorable results were obtained for basins with area not exceeding serval hundred square kilometers and with a significant component of subsurface runoff.

  17. A tale of two stormwater basins: Nutrient cycling in grassed stormwater detention versus bioretention basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, L. E.; Walter, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient cycling performance was compared in a grassed detention basin and a bioretention basin that was amended with compost, mulch, and diverse plantings. We monitored dissolved nutrients in basin inflows and outflows as well as emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from basin soils during 2014 and 2015. Though these basins are intended to improve storm runoff quality, the bioretention basin was a source of nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). SRP and DOC leaching was driven by high P and C content of the bioretention soil media and nitrate leaching was driven by the low C:N of added compost. Emissions of N2O and CH4 were low from both basins, though there were periodically high N2O emission rates at both sites. CO2 emissions were greater from the bioretention basin, where soil C content was greater. Based on these results, bioretention basin design should minimize organic matter (OM) additions to soil media and choose OM with high C:N (>20) and low P content in order to minimize availability of excess nutrients for leaching or GHG production.

  18. BASIN STRUCTURE FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA, CRAZY MOUNTAINS BASIN, MONTANA

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Taylor

    2003-08-01

    Some 140 miles of multichannel seismic reflection data, acquired commercially in the 1970's, were reprocessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in late 2000 and early 2001 to interpret the subsurface geology of the Crazy Mountains Basin, an asymmetric Laramide foreland basin located in south-central Montana. The seismic data indicate that the northwestern basin margin is controlled by a thrust fault that places basement rocks over a thick (22,000 feet) sequence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks to the south. From the deep basin trough, Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks slope gently upward to the south and southeast. The northern boundary of the basin, which is not imaged well by the seismic data, appears to be folded over a basement ridge rather than being truncated against a fault plane. Seismic data along the basin margin to the south indicate that several fault controlled basement highs may have been created by thin-skinned tectonics where a series of shallow thrust faults cut Precambrian, Paleozoic, and early Mesozoic rocks, whereas, in contrast, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata are folded. The data are further interpreted to indicate that this fault-bounded asymmetric basin contains several structures that possibly could trap hydrocarbons, provided source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are present. In addition, faults in the deep basin trough may have created enough fracturing to enhance porosity, thus developing ''sweet spots'' for hydrocarbons in basin-centered continuous gas accumulations.

  19. Death of a carbonate basin: The Niagara-Salina transition in the Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Leibold, A.W.; Howell, P.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The A-O Carbonate in the Michigan basin comprises a sequence of laminated calcite/anhydrite layers intercalated with bedded halite at the transition between normal marine Niagaran carbonates and lower Salina Group evaporites. The carbonate/anhydrite interbeds represent freshing events during initial evaporative concentration of the Michigan basin. Recent drilling in the Michigan basin delineates two distinct regions of A-O Carbonate development: a 5 to 10 m thick sequence of six 'laminites' found throughout most of the western and northern basin and a 10 to 25 m thick sequence in the southeastern basin containing both thicker 'laminates' and thicker salt interbeds. Additionally, potash deposits of the overlying A-1 evaporite unit are restricted to the northern and western basin regions. The distribution of evaporite facies in these two regions is adequately explained by a source of basin recharge in the southeast-perhaps the 'Clinton Inlet' of earlier workers. This situation suggest either that: (1) the source of basin recharge is alternately supplying preconcentrated brine and more normal marine water, or (2) that the basin received at least two distinct sources of water during A-O deposition.

  20. Superposition of tectonic structures leading elongated intramontane basin: the Alhabia basin (Internal Zones, Betic Cordillera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Martos, Manuel; Galindo-Zaldivar, Jesús; Martínez-Moreno, Francisco José; Calvo-Rayo, Raquel; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The relief of the Betic Cordillera was formed since the late Serravallian inducing the development of intramontane basins. The Alhabia basin, situated in the central part of the Internal Zones, is located at the intersection of the Alpujarran Corridor, the Tabernas basin, both trending E-W, and the NW-SE oriented Gádor-Almería basin. The geometry of the basin has been constrained by new gravity data. The basin is limited to the North by the Sierra de Filabres and Sierra Nevada antiforms that started to develop in Serravallian times under N-S shortening and to the south by Sierra Alhamilla and Sierra de Gádor antiforms. Plate convergence in the region rotated counter-clockwise in Tortonian times favouring the formation of E-W dextral faults. In this setting, NE-SW extension, orthogonal to the shortening direction, was accommodated by normal faults on the SW edge of Sierra Alhamilla. The Alhabia basin shows a cross-shaped depocentre in the zone of synform and fault intersection. This field example serves to constrain recent counter-clockwise stress rotation during the latest stages of Neogene-Quaternary basin evolution in the Betic Cordillera Internal Zones and underlines the importance of studying the basins' deep structure and its relation with the tectonic structures interactions.

  1. VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) SHOWING THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2. BASSWOOD BUOY TENDER AND THREE SMALL VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASIN NO. 1. LARGER VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASINS TO THE EAST, SEEN IN BACKGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. [Strategic health planning based on determinants: case of the municipality of Campo Bom, Rio Grande do Sul State. A methodological proposal for the decentralized management].

    PubMed

    González, Martín Maximino León

    2009-10-01

    With the purpose to analyze the health strategic planning model based on determinants experienced in the municipality of Campo Bom, Rio Grande do Sul State, it was conducted an observational, qualitative study, of documental analysis as well as an evaluation of new process technologies in local health administration. This study contains an analysis of the methodological coherency and applicability of this model, based on the revision of the elaborated plans. The plans presented at Campo Bom case shows the possibility of integration and applicability at local level, of a health strategic planning model oriented to the new health concepts considering elements of different theoretical developments that enables the response to the most common local needs and situations. It was identified evolutional stages of health planning and analyzed integrative elements of the model and limitations of its application, pointing to the need of support the deepening on the study and the development of the field.

  3. Snow Water Equivalent for Tuolumne River Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-02

    NASA Airborne Snow Observatory measurements of snow water equivalent top image and snow albedo, or reflectivity bottom image for the Tuolumne River Basin in California Sierra Nevada on April 21, 2013.

  4. Program Updates - San Antonio River Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page will house updates for this urban waters partnership location. As projects progress, status updates can be posted here to reflect the ongoing work by partners in San Antonio working on the San Antonio River Basin.

  5. Tidal frequency estimation for closed basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eades, J. B., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A method was developed for determining the fundamental tidal frequencies for closed basins of water, by means of an eigenvalue analysis. The mathematical model employed, was the Laplace tidal equations.

  6. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.

    1994-09-23

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation.

  7. Fishes of the White River basin, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Lydy, Michael J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

  8. K-Basins S/RIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.J.

    1995-09-22

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document(S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility

  9. Climate change and the Great Basin

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  10. K-Basins S/RIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES{ampersand}H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility.

  11. Pacific Basin Communication Study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. L.; Hurd, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Users' meeting summary report, chronology of visits, economic data for forum countries, techniques used in the study, communication choices, existing resources in the Pacific Basin, and warc 79 region 3 rules and regulations were presented in volume 2.

  12. Large Circular Basin Flooded and then Cratered

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-05

    As NASA Mariner 10 passed by Mercury on its second encounter with the planet on Sept. 21, 1974, this picture of a large circular 350 kilometer, 220 mile diameter basin was obtained near the morning terminator.

  13. Southern rim of Isidis Planitia basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    This scene from NASA Mars Odyssey shows the contrasting morphologies of the relatively rough highland terrain in the lower portion of the image and the relatively smooth materials at top of the southern rim of the Isidis Planitia basin.

  14. Overflow of Radioactive Water from K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-06

    This report documents the dose calculations for the postulated K Basin overflow accident using current methods to model the environmental doses for radioactive releases into the Columbia River and the air.

  15. Hydro Impact Basin Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    August 9, 2011 -- Ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The HIB expands NASA's capability to test and certify future spacecraft for wa...

  16. Surveyor Map of Enceladus Geyser Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-28

    On this polar stereographic map of Enceladus south polar terrain, all 100 geysers have been plotted whose source locations have been determined in NASA Cassini imaging survey of the moon geyser basin.

  17. Petroleum potential of the Libyan sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hammuda, O.S.; Sbeta, A.M.

    1988-08-01

    Contrary to prevailing opinion, all Libyan sedimentary basins and the Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar platform contain prolific petroleum accumulations with very high prospectivity. A systematic review of the types of traps and pays in this central part of the southern Mediterranean province reveals great variability in reservoir and source rock characteristics. The reservoir rocks are of almost all geologic ages. The thick source rock sequences also vary in nature and organic content. The organic-rich facies have accumulated in intracratonic and passive margin basins or in marginal seas. Most of the oil discovered thus far in these basins is found in large structural traps. Future discoveries of stratigraphic traps or small structural traps will require intensified efforts and detailed studies using up-to-date multidisciplinary techniques in sedimentary tectonics, biostratigraphic facies analysis, and geochemical prospecting in order to develop a better understanding of these basins, thus improving their prospectivity.

  18. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  19. Assessment of undiscovered carboniferous coal-bed gas resources of the Appalachian Basin and Black Warrior Basin Provinces, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Milici, R.C.; Hatch, J.R.

    2004-09-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the Appalachian basin, which extends almost continuously from New York to Alabama. In general, the basin includes three structural subbasins: the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama and Mississippi. For assessment purposes, the Appalachian basin was divided into two assessment provinces: the Appalachian Basin Province from New York to Alabama, and the Black Warrior Basin Province in Alabama and Mississippi. By far, most of the coalbed methane produced in the entire Appalachian basin has come from the Black Warrior Basin Province. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    PubMed

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Basin-Scale Ocean Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Basin-Scale Ocean Prediction System Mr. Robert C. Rhodes phone: (228) 688-4704 fax: (228) 688-4759 email: rhodes@nrlssc.navy.mil Dr. Harley E...Hurlburt phone: (228) 688-4626 fax: (228) 688-4759 email: hurlburt@nrlssc.navy.mil Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Dynamics and Prediction ...satellite altimetry, sea surface temperature and in-situ data. OBJECTIVES The development and validation of global and basin-scale ocean prediction

  2. Evaporitic minibasins of the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kavak, Kaan

    2017-04-01

    The Oligo-Miocene Sivas basin (Turkey) was strongly affected by salt tectonics, best expressed in its central part. Halokinesis initiated from a main evaporite layer deposited during the Upper Eocene. Such evaporitic accumulations led to two generations of mini basins filled with continental to marine deposits, and nowadays separated by diapiric gypsum walls or welds. Some mini-basins developed above depleting diapirs, filled by more than 50 % of lacustrine to sebkhaic gypsiferous facies. These evaporitic mini-basins (EMB) developed during periods of limited fluvial input, when diapiric stems were outcropping with insignificant topographic reliefs. Chemical analyses (S, O and Sr) suggest that such evaporites were sourced from the recycling of adjacent salt structures. EMB development above diapirs can be explained by (i) high regional accommodation (Ribes et al., 2016), (ii) erosion of the diapiric crests by the fluvial system preceding evaporite deposition, (iii) deflation of some diapirs in a transtensive setting (Kergaravat, 2015), and (iv) fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites. EMB stand out from other siliciclastic mini-basins of the Sivas Basin by (i) their small dimension (< 1km), (ii) their teardrop encased shape and (iii) exacerbated internal halokinetic deformations. The latter specifically include large halokinetic wedges, mega-slumps or inverted mega-flaps. Comparison with siliciclastic mini-basins suggests that strong halokinesis of EMB was triggered by the ductile rheology of their evaporitic infilling. Additional filling and subsequent withdrawal of EMB may have been also increased by (i) the large amount of solutes provided by leaching of the outcropping diapiric structure together with the fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites and (iii) the high density of the gypsum and anhydrite compared to halite. The Great Kavir in Iran could display present day analogues relevant of early-stage EMB. Finally, although EMB have never been identified in

  3. Paraguay river basin response to seasonal rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krepper, Carlos M.; García, Norberto O.; Jones, Phil D.

    2006-07-01

    The use of river flow as a surrogate to study climatic variability implies the assumption that changes in rainfall are mirrored and likely amplified in streamflow. This is probably not completely true in large basins, particularly those that encompass different climatic regions, like the Paraguay river basin. Not all the signals present in precipitation are reflected in river flow and vice versa. The complex relationship between precipitation and streamflow could filter some signals and introduce new oscillatory modes in the discharge series. In this study the whole basin (1 095 000 km2) was divided into two sub-basins. The upper basin is upstream of the confluence with the River Apa and the lower basin is between the Apa river confluence and the Puerto Bermejo measuring station. The rainfall contribution shows a clear wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. A singular spectrum analysis (SSA) shows that there are trends in rainfall contributions over the upper and lower basins. Meanwhile, the lower basin only presents a near-decadal cycle (T 10 years). To determine the flow response to seasonal rainfall contributions, an SSA was applied to seasonal flow discharges at Puerto Bermejo. The seasonal flows, Q(t)O-M and Q(t)A-S, present high significant modes in the low-frequency band, like positive trends. In addition, Q(t)O-M presents a near-decadal mode, but only significant at the 77% level for short window lengths (M ≤ 15 years). Really, the Paraguay river flow is not a good surrogate to study precipitation variation. The low-frequency signals play an important role in the flow behaviour, especially during extreme events from the second half of the last century onwards.

  4. Ordovician chitinozoan zones of Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    Within the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US, Ordovician chitinozoans have been recovered in two major lithic facies; the western eugeosynclinal facies and the eastern miogeosynclinal facies. Chitinozoans recovered from these facies range in age from Arenig to Ashgill. Extensive collections from this area make possible the establishment of chitinozoan faunal interval zones from the Ordovician of this area. Selected species of biostratigraphic value include, in chronostratigraphic order, Lagenochitina ovoidea Benoit and Taugourdeau, 1961, Conochitina langei Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitinia poumoti Combaz and Penique, Desmochitina cf. nodosa Eisenack, 1931, Conochitina maclartii Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitina robusta Eisenack, 1959, Angochitina capitallata Eisenack, 1937, Sphaerochitina lepta Jenkins. 1970, and Ancyrochitina merga Jenkins, 1970. In many cases, these zones can be divided into additional sub-zones using chitinozoans and acritarchs. In all cases, these chitinozoan faunal zones are contrasted with established American graptolite zones of the area, as well as correlated with British standard graptolite zones. The composition of these faunas of the western US Great Basin is similar to that of the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico, to which direct comparisons have been made. There also appears to be a great similarity with the microfaunas and microfloras of the Ordovician of the Canning basin of western Australia. The Ordovician chitinozoan faunal interval zones established for the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US also appear to be applicable to the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico.

  5. Interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Dale E.; Hall, Stuart A.; Casey, John F.; Millegan, Patrick S.

    1993-10-01

    The Grenada Basin is a back arc basin located near the eastern border of the Caribbean Plate. The basin is bounded on the west by the north-south trending Aves Ridge (a remnant island arc) and on the east by the active Lesser Antilles island arc. Although this physiography suggests that east-west extension formed the basin, magnetic anomalies over the basin exhibit predominantly east-west trends. If the observed magnetic anomalies over the basin are produced by seafloor spreading, then the orientation of extension is complex. Extension in back arc basins is roughly normal to the trench, although some basins exhibit oblique extension. Present models for the formation of the Grenada Basin vary from north-south extension through northeast-southwest extension to east-west extension. An interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada Basin supports basin development by nearly east-west extension. Low amplitude magnetic anomaly trends subparallel to the island arc magnetic anomaly trends over the southern part of the basin and the results of forward three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic modeling are consistent with this conclusion. Late Cenozoic tectonic movements may have been responsible for disrupting the magnetic signature over the northern part of the basin. On the basis of our 3-D analysis, we attribute the prominent east-west trending anomalies of the Grenada Basin to fracture zones formed during seafloor spreading at low latitude. This east-west trend is not interpreted as indicating north-south extension of the basin.

  6. Thermal evolution of the Newark basin

    SciTech Connect

    Huntoon, J.E. ); Furlong, K.P. )

    1992-09-01

    A one-dimensional conductive thermal model is used to calculate the transient thermal history of the Newark basin, a Triassic-Jurassic continental rift basin in the eastern United States that formed during the separation of North America and Africa. The model accounts for deposition, erosion, igneous activity, lithology-dependent variations in thermal conductivity, depth-dependent radiogenic heat production, and changes in heat flow through time. A burial and erosion history for the Newark basin is constructed for the modeling, including changes in heat flow through time, emplacement of Jurassic lava flows at the surface, and emplacement of the Palisades still at depth. Vitrinite-reflectance values and apatite and zircon fission-track ages, for units of both Triassic and Jurassic age, are used to constrain the models. Use of two different data sets greatly limits the number and types of models that can reproduce the observed data. Modeling results indicate that initial formation of the Newark basin is not coincident in time with a thermal event. Elevated heat flow (on the order of 130 mW/m[sup 2] in the models) did affect the basin during its evolution, however, and was associated with igneous activity (at approximately 201-199.5 Ma in the models). Results of the modeling also indicate that the original sedimentary package in the Newark basin was approximately 2.5 km thicker than today.

  7. Evaluation of Junggar Basin in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.G.

    1996-06-01

    Junggar basin lies in the northwestern comer of China and has an area of about 130,000 km{sup 2}, in a compression tectonic regime, with about 14 suites of source-reservoir-seal assemblages developed from Carboniferous to Eogene. It is a prolific basin with a total hydrocarbon generation of 266.9 billion tons, an upside oil potential of 6.937 billion tons and a gas potential of 1,228.9 billion m{sup 3}. Due to its tuff surface conditions and remoteness, the exploration level is still very low: the proven geological reserve was calculated; the cumulative oil production was 0.123599434 billion tons by year-end 1994. There will be about 5.4 billion tons of oil yet to find in the entire basin. Right now, there are four blocks (Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4), in the basin, available for bidding. Geologic assessment of the basin indicates these four blocks are located in the favorable potential regions of the basin. Details supporting this evaluation are contained herein. The petroleum potential of each local structure or play depends on its position to certain hydrocarbon sources during geological history and its structural development history as well as fault growth history.

  8. The East Falcon Basin: Its Caribbean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Bartok, P.; Boesi, T.

    1996-08-01

    The East Falcon Basin has been described persistently in the context of the Maracaibo Basin tectonic framework. It is the objective of the present study to demonstrate that the Falcon Basin is, in effect, a Caribbean basin juxtaposed on South America and affected by Caribbean tectonics. The oldest rocks outcropping in the region are Late Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks rafted from northcentral Colombia, Middle Jurassic ophiolite complexes, sediments and metasediments and Cretaceous ophiolites transported by a melange of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary sediments. The south vergence of the Caribbean Nappe province has been documented and extends to the present limit of the Andean uplift and to the southern limit of the Coastal Range. The migrating foredeep that developed during the Paleocene-Eocene deposited dominantly basinal shales and thin sandstones. During the Oligocene the Caribbean faults of the Oca system and conjugates began with a dominantly transtensional regime becoming progressively transpressional by Miocene time. The facies development of the Oligocene-Miocene documents the tectonic history. Unique blocks remained as resistant blocks creating ramparts and modifying the basin configuration. During transpression northward-verging thrusting progressively migrated towards the present coastline. The most evident structures of the region are Caribbean in affinity and combined with the sedimentary history of the region can serve to unravel the complex Caribbean-South American plate interaction.

  9. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  10. The thermal environment of Cascadia Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Hautala, Susan L.; Bjorklund, Tor A.

    2012-07-01

    Located adjacent to the NE Pacific convergent boundary, Cascadia Basin has a global impact well beyond its small geographic size. Composed of young oceanic crust formed at the Juan de Fuca Ridge, igneous rocks underlying the basin are partially insulated from cooling of their initial heat of formation by a thick layer of pelagic and turbidite sediments derived from the adjacent North American margin. The igneous seafloor is eventually consumed at the Cascadia subduction zone, where interactions between the approaching oceanic crust and the North American continental margin are partially controlled by the thermal environment. Within Cascadia Basin, basement topographic relief varies dramatically, and sediments have a wide range of thickness and physical properties. This variation produces regional differences in heat flow and basement temperatures for seafloor even of similar age. Previous studies proposed a north-south thermal gradient within Cascadia Basin, with high geothermal flux and crustal temperatures measured in the heavily sedimented northern portion near Vancouver Island and lower than average heat flux and basement temperatures predicted for the central and southern portions of the basin. If confirmed, this prediction has implications for processes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, including the location of the "locked zone" of the megathrust fault. Although existing archival geophysical data in the central and southern basin are sparse, nonuniformly distributed, and derived from a wide range of historical sources, a substantial N-S geothermal gradient appears to be confirmed by our present compilation of combined water column and heat flow measurements.

  11. Lunar basin formation and highland stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Scott, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Multiring impact basins, formed after solidification of the lunar crust, account for most or all premare regional deposits and structures expressed in the lunar landscape and for major topographic and gravity variations. A fresh basin has two or more concentric mountain rings, a lineated ejecta blanket, and secondary impact craters. Crackled material on the floor may be impact melt. The ejecta blanket was emplaced at least partly as a ground-hugging flow and was probably hot. A suggested model of basin formation is that the center lifts up and the rings form by inward collapse during evisceration. The resulting basin is shallow and has a central uplift of the mantle. This results in a central gravity high and a ring low. Later flooding by mare basalt has since modified most near side basins. Highland deposits of plains, furrowed and pitted terrain, and various hills, domes, and craters that were interpreted before the Apollo missions as being volcanic can now be interpreted as being basin related.

  12. Seismic stratigraphy or Cape Sorell Basin, Tasmania

    SciTech Connect

    Bellow, T.L.

    1990-05-01

    Because large new exploration areas have become scarce, the Cape Sorell basin has become an increasingly attractive frontier area. Cape Sorell basin, located along the western passive continental margin of Tasmania formed as a result of the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland 95{plus minus}5 Ma. An extensional fault system trending west-northwest with dip-slip movement down to the south-southwest forms the northern boundary and a second fault system trending north-northwest with oblique slip down to the south-southwest creates the basin. Second order extensional faults within the basin have created wrench-type flower structures, which are potential migration pathways for hydrocarbons. Nine distinct depositional sequences identified within the Cape Sorell basin record the evolution of this passive continental margin. Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene sequences were deposited as the rifting ceased and clastic progradation over the rift terrain began. Relative lowering of sea level occurred during the Paleocene, resulting in extensive channeling of the Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene sequences. A subsequent rise in relative sea level resulted in canyon-fill deposition during the early Paleocene to early Eocene. During the Eocene, sedimentation sufficiently increased to produce a downlapping sediment progradation characterized by deltaic depositional environment. Although interrupted several times by changes in relative sea level and shifting sediment sources, deltaic deposition continued until the late Oligocene. As the rate of clastic sedimentation slowed, carbonate shelf deposition began and has typified the basin since late the Oligocene.

  13. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (<60 mW/m2) heat flow and geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  14. Paleogene retroarc flexural basin beneath the Neogene Pannonian Basin: A geodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, G.; Báldi, T.; Báldi-Beke, M.

    1993-11-01

    The Neogene (Middle Miocene-Recent) Pannonian Basin is superimposed on an earlier Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Early Miocene) basin complex as a result of back-arc extension. Although the stratigraphy of the latter is very well known due to raw material exploration, its formation and structural evolution is much less understood. A transtensional origin was generally proposed for the Paleogene Basin of Hungary, assuming an origin analogous to that of the overlying Neogene Pannonian Basin. We suggest an alternative geodynamic scenario for the development of the Paleogene basin complex, as we think that the observations are better understood in terms of a retroarc foredeep basin model. According to this, a flexural basin developed south of the backthrust inner West Carpathian units. The thrust load resulted in a generally deep, underfilled "flysch" basin during Middle Eocene-Early Oligocene times. In the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene predominantly shallow marine and continental deposition occurred indicating the gradual cessation of thrusting in the adjacent thrust-fold belt and the beginning of "molasse" sedimentation. Throughout the whole Paleogene, a shift can be observed of the bathyal, dominantly siliciclastic (in the axis of the foredeep) and neritic, partly carbonate (in the foreland flank of the foredeep) facies belts. This migration of the Middle Eocene-Early Miocene depocenters of the HPB (Hungarian Paleogene Basin) to the east-northeast in present-day coordinates is the result of two processes: (1) the advancement of backthrusting to the southeast; (2) along-strike shift of thrusting to the northeast. While a thin-skinned thrust front can be reconstructed for the Late Eocene (Buda Anticline), the Diósjenö-Hurbanovo line is interpreted as the result of a major thick-skinned thrusting event at the base of the NP24 zone ( $˜31 Ma). The subsidence pattern, the distinct depositional environments and the structural observations can be more easily integrated into a

  15. Estimating tectonic history through basin simulation-enhanced seismic inversion: Geoinformatics for sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tandon, K.; Tuncay, K.; Hubbard, K.; Comer, J.; Ortoleva, P.

    2004-01-01

    A data assimilation approach is demonstrated whereby seismic inversion is both automated and enhanced using a comprehensive numerical sedimentary basin simulator to study the physics and chemistry of sedimentary basin processes in response to geothermal gradient in much greater detail than previously attempted. The approach not only reduces costs by integrating the basin analysis and seismic inversion activities to understand the sedimentary basin evolution with respect to geodynamic parameters-but the technique also has the potential for serving as a geoinfomatics platform for understanding various physical and chemical processes operating at different scales within a sedimentary basin. Tectonic history has a first-order effect on the physical and chemical processes that govern the evolution of sedimentary basins. We demonstrate how such tectonic parameters may be estimated by minimizing the difference between observed seismic reflection data and synthetic ones constructed from the output of a reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) basin model. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the geothermal gradient. As thermal history strongly affects the rate of RTM processes operating in a sedimentary basin, variations in geothermal gradient history alter the present-day fluid pressure, effective stress, porosity, fracture statistics and hydrocarbon distribution. All these properties, in turn, affect the mechanical wave velocity and sediment density profiles for a sedimentary basin. The present-day state of the sedimentary basin is imaged by reflection seismology data to a high degree of resolution, but it does not give any indication of the processes that contributed to the evolution of the basin or causes for heterogeneities within the basin that are being imaged. Using texture and fluid properties predicted by our Basin RTM simulator, we generate synthetic seismograms. Linear correlation using power spectra as an error measure and an efficient quadratic

  16. Estimating tectonic history through basin simulation-enhanced seismic inversion: geoinfomatics for sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Kush; Tuncay, Kagan; Hubbard, Kyle; Comer, John; Ortoleva, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A data assimilation approach is demonstrated whereby seismic inversion is both automated and enhanced using a comprehensive numerical sedimentary basin simulator to study the physics and chemistry of sedimentary basin processes in response to geothermal gradient in much greater detail than previously attempted. The approach not only reduces costs by integrating the basin analysis and seismic inversion activities to understand the sedimentary basin evolution with respect to geodynamic parameters-but the technique also has the potential for serving as a geoinfomatics platform for understanding various physical and chemical processes operating at different scales within a sedimentary basin. Tectonic history has a first-order effect on the physical and chemical processes that govern the evolution of sedimentary basins. We demonstrate how such tectonic parameters may be estimated by minimizing the difference between observed seismic reflection data and synthetic ones constructed from the output of a reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) basin model. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the geothermal gradient. As thermal history strongly affects the rate of RTM processes operating in a sedimentary basin, variations in geothermal gradient history alter the present-day fluid pressure, effective stress, porosity, fracture statistics and hydrocarbon distribution. All these properties, in turn, affect the mechanical wave velocity and sediment density profiles for a sedimentary basin. The present-day state of the sedimentary basin is imaged by reflection seismology data to a high degree of resolution, but it does not give any indication of the processes that contributed to the evolution of the basin or causes for heterogeneities within the basin that are being imaged. Using texture and fluid properties predicted by our Basin RTM simulator, we generate synthetic seismograms. Linear correlation using power spectra as an error measure and an efficient quadratic

  17. Evapotranspiration estimation in pastures at the municipality of Campo Grande, Brazil, using SEBAL and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, R. G.; Leivas, J. F.; Alvarez, I. A.; Vicente, L. E.; Nogueira, S. F.; Hott, M. C.; Takemura, C. M.; Gomes, D.

    2011-12-01

    The knowledge of the total water loss by evapotranspiration is essential for plant growth and development assessments. Studies show that the success of the Brazilian livestock is directly linked to the fact that bovine cattle is reared in pastures, which enables low cost beef production. However, many factors influence the productive capacity of pastures and, consequently, beef production. Among these, there are variations in precipitation, causing periods of water deficit even during rainy seasons, which makes evapotranspiration a major factor in the diagnosis of climatic and environmental conditions of pasture areas. Remote sensing information has been used by several models and algorithms for obtaining parameters of the Earth's surface. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) is an algorithm for evapotranspiration estimation for large areas. It is processed by means of computational steps, which predict a full assessment of the solar radiation and energy on the Earth's surface. For that it uses data of sensors that collect wavelengths in the visible, reflective infrared and thermal bands. This study aimed at estimating actual daily evapotranspiration (ETdaily) in pasture areas at Embrapa Beef Cattle's Experimental Farm, located in the municipality of Campo Grande, Brazil, by means of the SEBAL algorithm and Landsat 5-TM images. For the scenes of May 9, June 28, July 7 and October 2, 2009, the ETdaily varied from 0.50 to 3.50 mm/day with an average of 1.85 mm/day for pasture areas. The application of the SEBAL algorithm proved itself adequate in extensive areas, and it is possible to use it for monitoring pasture conditions, thus contributing to making decisions that favor beef cattle production with environmental sustainability.

  18. Evapotranspiration estimation in pastures at the municipality of Campo Grande, Brazil, using SEBAL and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, R. G.; Leivas, J. F.; Hott, M. C.; Alvarez, I. A.; Vicente, L. E.; Nogueira, S. F.; Takemura, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The knowledge of the total water loss by evapotranspiration is essential for plant growth and development assessments. Studies show that the success of the Brazilian livestock is directly linked to the fact that bovine cattle is reared in pastures, which enables low cost beef production. However, many factors influence the productive capacity of pastures and, consequently, beef production. Among these, there are variations in precipitation, causing periods of water deficit even during rainy seasons, which makes evapotranspiration a major factor in the diagnosis of climatic and environmental conditions of pasture areas. Remote sensing information has been used by several models and algorithms for obtaining parameters of the Earth's surface. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) is an algorithm for evapotranspiration estimation for large areas. It is processed by means of computational steps, which predict a full assessment of the solar radiation and energy on the Earth's surface. For that it uses data of sensors that collect wavelengths in the visible, reflective infrared and thermal bands. This study aimed at estimating actual daily evapotranspiration (ETdaily) in pasture areas at Embrapa Beef Cattle's Experimental Farm, located in the municipality of Campo Grande, Brazil, by means of the SEBAL algorithm and Landsat 5-TM images. For the scenes of May 9, June 28, July 7 and October 2, 2009, the ETdaily varied from 0.50 to 3.50 mm d-1 with an average of 1.85 mm d-1 for pasture areas. The application of the SEBAL algorithm proved itself adequate in extensive areas, and it is possible to use it for monitoring pasture conditions, thus contributing to making decisions that favor beef cattle production with environmental sustainability.

  19. Directional Resonance and Wavefield Polarization in the Damage Zone of the Campo Imperatore Fault Zone (central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pischiutta, M.; Fondriest, M.; Demurtas, M.; Di Toro, G.; Rovelli, A.

    2014-12-01

    To infer the occurrence of directional amplification effects, we performed ambient noise measurements along a 200m transect crossing the Campo Imperatore fault zone (Central Italy), an exhumed analogue of the faults responsible of the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake sequence, We have recently found in several fault zones that ambient noise is not randomly polarized, but it is amplified on the horizontal plane along a specific site-dependent direction. The analysis repeated using earthquake signals revealed that S-coda waves and surface waves show the same polarization direction, independently of the earthquake backazimuth and focal mechanism. We have explained the observed directional amplifications in terms of fractured rocks in the fault damage zone, polarization being oriented orthogonally to fractures produced by the kinematic stress component. Therefore ground motion directional amplification could be related to the higher compliance of fractured rocks. In the other studies the fracture pattern was derived from numerical-analytical modeling based on the fault geometry and kinematics, or compared with the fast direction of shear wave obtained by seismic anisotropy analysis. The aim of this study is to compare observations with fracture measurements (strike, dip, dip-azimuth, spacing, later continuity, etc.) performed in the selected fault zone. We thus acquired ambient noise using 25 stations installed along a transect where detailed structural geological measurements were carried out. Ambient noise was recorded for around 1 hour, and was processed to compute the horizontal-to-vertical noise spectral ratio as a function of frequency and direction of motion. Wavefield polarization was investigated in the time-frequency domain as well. We found that, in spite of the complexity of the seismic data, the observed polarization pattern is generally oriented orthogonal to the measured dominant fracture system, confirming the existence of a high angle relation between ground

  20. Mesozoic evolution of the Amu Darya basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Marie-Françoise; Ershov, Andrey; Korotaev, Maxim; Mordvintsev, Dmitriy; Barrier, Eric; Sidorova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This study, granted by the Darius Programme, aims at proposing a model of tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Amu Darya basin since the Late Palaeozoic and to understand the relationship with the nearby basins. The Amu Darya basin, as its close eastern neighbour, the Afghan-Tajik basin, lies on the Turan platform, after the closure of the Turkestan Ocean during the Late Paleozoic. These two basins, spread on mainly lowlands of Turkmenistan, southwest Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and northern Afghanistan, are separated from one another by the South-Western Gissar meganticline, where series of the northern Amu Darya margin are outcropping. The evolution is closely controlled by several periods of crustal thinning (post-collision rifting and back-arc extension), with some marine incursions, coming in between accretions of continental blocks and collisions that succeeded from the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic (Eo-Cimmerian orogeny) to the Cenozoic times. These orogenies controlled the deposition of thick clastics sequences, and the collision of the Indian Plate with Eurasia strongly deformed the sedimentary cover of the Afghan-Tajik basin. The more than 7 km thick Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary succession of the Amu Darya basin, lies on a complex system of rifts and blocks. Their orientation and age (late Permian, Triassic?) are not well known because of deep burial. The north-eastern margin, with the Bukhara (upper margin) and Chardzhou steps, is NW oriented, parallel to the Paleozoic Turkestan suture. The orientation bends to W-E, in the part of the Gissar situated to the North of the Afghan-Tajik basin. This EW trending orientation prevails also in the south(-eastern) margin of the basin (series of North Afghanistan highs) and in the Murgab depression, the south-eastern deepest portion of the Amu Darya basin. It is in this area and in the eastern part of the Amu Darya basin that the Jurassic as well as the lower Cretaceous sediments are the thickest. The south-western part

  1. Active transtensional intracontinental basins: Walker Lane in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, Angela S.; Bursik, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The geometry and dimensions of sedimentary basins within the Walker Lane are a result of Plio-Pleistocene transtensive deformation and partial detachment of the Sierra Nevada crustal block from the North American plate. Distinct morpho-tectonic domains lie within this active transtensive zone. The northeast end of the Walker Lane is partly buried by active volcanism of the southern Cascades, and adjacent basins are filled or poorly developed. To the south, the basin sizes are moderate, 25–45km × 15–10 km, with narrow 8-12km wide mountain ranges mainly oriented N-S to NNE. These basins form subparallel arrays in discrete zones trending about 300° and have documented clockwise rotation. This is succeeded to the south by a releasing stepover domain ∼85-100km wide, where the basins are elongated E-W to ENE, small (∼15-30km long, 5-15km wide), and locally occupied by active volcanic centers. The southernmost part of the Walker Lane is structurally integrated, with high to extreme relief. Adjacent basins are elongate, 50-200km long and ∼5 -20km wide. Variations in transtensive basin orientations in the Walker Lane are largely attributable to variations in strain partitioning. Large basins in the Walker Lane have 2-6km displacement across basin bounding faults with up to 3 km of clastic accumulation based on gravity and drill hole data. The sedimentary deposits of the basins may include interbedded volcanic deposits with bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic associations. The basins may include lacustrine deposits that record a wide range of water chemistry from cold fresh water conditions to saline-evaporative

  2. On Restoring Sedimentary Basins for Post-Depositional Deformation - Paleozoic Basins of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, H.

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction and interpretation of sedimentary basins incorporated into folded and thrusted mountain belts is strongly limited by the style and intensity of shortening. This problem is exacerbated if deformation is polyphasic as is the case for the Paleozoic basins in the central Andes. Some of these have been deformed by folding and thrusting during at least 3 events in the Late Ordovician, the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic. A realistic reconstruction of the original basin dimensions and geometries from outcrops and maps appears to be almost impossible. We present results of a stepwise reconstruction of the Paleozoic basins of the central Andes by restoring basin areas and fills accounting for crustal shortening. The structurally most prominent feature of the central Andes is the Bolivian Orocline which accomodated shortening in the last 45 Ma on the order of between 300 and 500 km. In a first step basins were restored by accounting for Cenozoic rotation and shortening by deconvolving the basins using an enhanced version of the oroclinal bending model of Ariagada et al. (2008). Results were then restored stepwise for older deformation. Constraints on these subsequent steps are significantly poorer as values of shortening can be derived only from folds and thusts apparent in outcrops. The amount of shortening accomodated on unexposed and therefore unknown thrusts can not be quantified and is a significant source of error very likely leading to an underestimation of the amount of shortening. Accepting these limitations, basin restoration results in an increase in basin area by ≥100%. The volumes of stratigraphically controlled basin fills can now be redistributed over the wider, restored area, translating into smaller rates of accumulation and hence required subsidence. The restored rates conform to those of equivalent modern basin settings and permit a more realistic and actualistic analysis of subsidence drivers and the respective tectonic framework.

  3. Simulation of streamflow in small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, R.S.; Norris, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Coal mining operations in northwestern Colorado commonly are located in areas that have minimal available water-resource information. Drainage-basin models can be a method for extending water-resource information to include periods for which there are no records or to transfer the information to areas that have no streamflow-gaging stations. To evaluate the magnitude and variability of the components of the water balance in the small drainage basins monitored, and to provide some method for transfer of hydrologic data, the U.S. Geological Survey 's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used for small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin to simulate daily mean streamflow using daily precipitation and air-temperature data. The study area was divided into three hydrologic regions, and in each of these regions, three drainage basins were monitored. Two of the drainage basins in each region were used to calibrate the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model was not calibrated for the third drainage basin in each region; instead, parameter values were transferred from the model that was calibrated for the two drainage basins. For all of the drainage basins except one, period of record used for calibration and verification included water years 1976-81. Simulated annual volumes of streamflow for drainage basins used in calibration compared well with observed values; individual hydrographs indicated timing differences between the observed and simulated daily mean streamflow. Observed and simulated annual average streamflows compared well for the periods of record, but values of simulated high and low streamflows were different than observed values. Similar results were obtained when calibrated model parameter values were transferred to drainage basins that were uncalibrated. (USGS)

  4. Control of salt tectonics by young basement tectonics in Brazil`s offshore basins

    SciTech Connect

    Szatmari, P.; Mohriak, W.

    1995-08-01

    The Campos basin (offshore SE Brazil) is one of the most successful areas of oil exploration in South America. Discovered 20 years ago, its production (500,000 b/d) and reserves (2.9 billion barrels) are second only to Venezuela`s. This richness is due, to a large extent, to intense salt tectonics and the abundance of turbidites. Reactivated basement structures onshore provide a unique opportunity to understand the role of young basement tectonics in controlling salt tectonics and petroleum occurrence. The mountains of SE Brazil, over 1500 m high, formed by the reactivation of late Precambrian thrust and wrench zones under E-W compression, presumably caused by Mid-Atlantic ridge push. Coastal mountain ranges, up to 3000 m high, are limited to the segment of the Atlantic between the Vitoria-Trindade hotspot chain and the Rio Grande Rise. The coastal ranges formed as this segment of oceanic crust and adjacent continental margin were pushed WSW along a reactivated Precambrian wrench zone. To the north of this segment, salt tectonics is mostly due to basinward sliding on a tilted salt layer. Along the coastal ranges, to this is added basinward escape of the salt from beneath prograding sediments derived from the rising mountains. Extension above the salt tends to be compensated by compression farther basinward. Salt canopies, frequent in the Gulf of Mexico, occur only near the Abrolhos hotspot, where high temperatures during volcanic activity sharply reduced the viscosity of the salt.

  5. Hydrological extreme events with Mike Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Carvalho, S.; Fernandes, L.; Caramelo, L.; Alencoão, A.

    2012-04-01

    This work is part of a broader project which aims to develop an integrated system to model and simulate of the hydrological cycle processes at river basin scale. All these processes involved in the dynamics of a watershed, which play an important role in the proper management and sustainable use of water resources, are influenced by many factors (e.g. soil use, vegetation cover, weather and climate) being of particular importance, all aspects related to the occurrence, amount and the spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation. We focus our work on the use of the MIKE Basin model and apply it to the Corgo River basin, which is a tributary of the Douro river, located in the Portuguese region of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro. Different datasets were used to characterize and model the river basin catchment hydrological processes, namely temperature, precipitation and runoff registered in several weather/hydrometric stations from the Institute of Information System for Water Resources (http://snirh.pt/) as well as land use/soil occupation and topography maps. The MIKE BASIN model runs on a Geographic Information System (GIS) to perform hydrologic modeling at basin-scale. This software allows a set of multisectoral water demands (domestic and industrial water supply, irrigation, hydropower generation, among others) and provides simulation and visualization in both space and time. We start by using the topography, soil type, soil use and vegetation cover of the region. Then the model is calibrated and tested, comparing model runoff estimates with observed data. Finally, the model is used to simulate the river basin catchment behavior to the typical conditions of the hydrological extreme events namely, heavy precipitation and drought. We present the geologic, hydrologic and climatologic characterization of the Corgo river catchment, list the most important factors that control the water availability in the river basin, describe the MIKE BASIN model calibration process

  6. Hydrocarbon systems in the East Texas basin: A basin modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, W.A.; Hood, W.C. )

    1993-09-01

    The East Texas basin is a prolific mature hydrocarbon province, producing oil and gas from several reservoirs and a variety of trap types. Much of the liquid hydrocarbons discovered in the basin are trapped in structures related to movement of the underlying Louann Salt. By determining the structural evolution of the basin, a framework was constructed to model the generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Geochemical data indicate three major source horizons: the Smackover formation (Jurassic oil), shales in the Pearsal Group (Lower Cretaceous oil), and the Eagleford shale (Upper Cretaceous oil). The Jurassic source is mature throughout the basin and began to expel oil approximately 88 Ma. The distribution of Jurassic oil in Cretaceous reservoirs shows that vertical migration routes predominated. Lower Cretaceous source rocks are mature only in the deep, central part of the basin where expulsion began around 47 Ma Distribution of this oil type suggests that Lower Cretaceous source rocks occur only in localized areas of the East Texas basin. The Eagleford shale is immature in the main part of the basin, but it is mature south of the Angelina-Caldwell flexure, where is reached peak generation approximately 20 Ma. Lateral migration explains the distribution of this oil. Migration routes to the giant East Texas field may be 60 mi or more.

  7. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Partial Basin and Range Heat and Zones of Critical Stress Maps

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Interpolated maps of heat flow, temperature gradient, and quartz geothermometers are included as TIF files. Zones of critical stress map is also included as a TIF file. The zones are given a 5km diameter buffer. The study area is only a part of the Basin and Range, but it does includes the Tularosa Basin.

  8. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  9. Carboniferous clastic-wedge stratigraphy, sedimentology, and foreland basin evolution: Black Warrior basin, Alabama and Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Carboniferous clastic-wedge stratigraphy and sedimentology in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama and Mississippi indicate deposition in an evolving foreland basin flanking the Appalachian-Ouachita fold-thrust belt. The strata reflect specific responses to foreland basin subsidence, orogenic activity, sediment supply, and dispersal systems. Definition of the regional stratigraphy of the clastic wedge provides for interpretation of the foreland basin subsidence history by enabling quantitative reconstruction of regional compaction and subsidence profiles. Comparison of the interpreted subsidence history with model profiles of foreland basin subsidence (predicted from loading and flexure of continental lithosphere) allows evaluation of mechanical models in terms of observed clastic-wedge sedimentology and stratigraphy. Mechanical modeling of foreland basin subsidence predicts formation of a flexural bulge that migrates cratonward ahead of the subsiding foreland basin during loading. In the Black Warrior basin, local stratigraphic thins, pinch-outs, and areas of marine-reworked sediments suggest migration of the flexural bulge. Comparison of flexural bulge migration with thermal maturation history allows evaluation of timing of stratigraphic trapping mechanisms with respect to onset of hydrocarbon generation.

  10. A new survey of multiring impact basins on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Richard A.; Frey, Herbert V.

    1990-01-01

    Literature data on Martian multiring impact basins with diameters greater than 500 km are summarized, and evidence is found for eight new such basins. The pattern of changes of basin morphology with increasing basin size suggests three subclasses of multiring basins: (1) multiring basins with diameters up to about 1850 km, which are characterized by the Orientale type concentric structure and cumulative frequency power law slope of -0.75; (2) the Argyre-type basins (with diameters between 1850 and 3600 km, defined by rugged concentric annnuli and a power law slope of nearly -2.0; and (3) the Chryse-type basins (with diameters greater than 3600 km), which exhibit multiple concentric rings and very shallow topographic profiles. Multiring basins are found in all parts of Mars, including the northern lowlands, Tharsis, and surrounding highlands, and are associated with much of the subsequent resurfacing of cratered terrain.

  11. Precambrian shield and basement tectonics in sedimentary basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Touborg, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    This study focused on the use of (1) regional structural analysis of basement and Precambrian rocks surrounding a sedimentary basin, and (2) tracing basement structures into the sedimentary basin. The structural analysis of the Precambrian shield has a fundamental bearing on interpretation of overlying sedimentary cover rocks. This is expressed in the southern part of the Hudson's Bay basin and its southeastern arm, the Moose River basin. For instance, the rims of both basins are controlled by faults or graben structures. Approximately 13 major fault systems with strike lengths of 200-300 km (125-186 mi) or more can be traced from the exposed Precambrian shield into the basin in terms of lineament arrays and/or aeromagnetic and/or gravity signature. The data suggest reactivation of faults during basin sedimentation. This type of basement structural analysis in areas adjacent to sedimentary basins can provide a valuable interpretation base for subsequent seismic surveys and basin evaluation.

  12. Perspective of gas exploration in Ying-Qiong Basin

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hanyi; Zhongtiang Hu )

    1996-01-01

    The Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan Basin (Ying-Qiong Basin) in the northwest part of the South China Sea is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, which has fast-subsiding and thick sediments. The maximum Cenozoic sediments in the center part of the basin is 20,000 m. Six sets of source rocks with prevailing Type III kerogen were developed in the basin, which has a great potential for gas generation. Different types of reservoirs and traps, leading to different assemblages of source rocks, reservoirs, and cap rocks, form good gas pools. Abnormal high temperature and high pressure in the basin resulted in many mud diapirs and made the generation, migration, and accumulation of gas more colorful. Up to now, four gas fields have been discovered in the basin. A large number of anticlines and stratigraphic-lithologic traps in the basin provide an extensive area for gas exploration. The perspective of gas exploration in the basin is vast and bright.

  13. Perspective of gas exploration in Ying-Qiong Basin

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hanyi; Zhongtiang Hu

    1996-12-31

    The Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan Basin (Ying-Qiong Basin) in the northwest part of the South China Sea is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, which has fast-subsiding and thick sediments. The maximum Cenozoic sediments in the center part of the basin is 20,000 m. Six sets of source rocks with prevailing Type III kerogen were developed in the basin, which has a great potential for gas generation. Different types of reservoirs and traps, leading to different assemblages of source rocks, reservoirs, and cap rocks, form good gas pools. Abnormal high temperature and high pressure in the basin resulted in many mud diapirs and made the generation, migration, and accumulation of gas more colorful. Up to now, four gas fields have been discovered in the basin. A large number of anticlines and stratigraphic-lithologic traps in the basin provide an extensive area for gas exploration. The perspective of gas exploration in the basin is vast and bright.

  14. The long wavelength topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins, Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Sarah L.; Watters, Thomas R.; Robinson, Mark S.

    2005-11-01

    Topography derived from Mariner 10 stereo images is used to characterize the interior structure of two mercurian basins, Beethoven and Tolstoj. Beethoven and Tolstoj basins are shallow (~2.5 km and ~2 km deep, respectively) and relatively flat-floored. Beethoven basin has an interior topographic rise near the northwest margin. The topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins is similar to that of lunar mare-filled basins. Well-developed basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and arcuate graben associated with lunar mascons are absent in both Beethoven and Tolstoj basins. The lack of mascon tectonic features suggests that either 1) the mercurian basins have a relatively thin veneer of fill material, 2) Mercury's elastic lithosphere was too strong for significant lithospheric flexure and subsidence to occur, or 3) the basin fill material has little or no density contrast with the surrounding crust and thus exerts little net load on the mercurian lithosphere.

  15. On the soil moisture estimate at basin scale in Mediterranean basins with the ASAR sensor: the Mulargia basin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fois, Laura; Montaldo, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in water and energy exchanges between soil, vegetation and atmosphere. For water resources planning and managementthesoil moistureneeds to be accurately and spatially monitored, specially where the risk of desertification is high, such as Mediterranean basins. In this sense active remote sensors are very attractive for soil moisture monitoring. But Mediterranean basinsaretypicallycharacterized by strong topography and high spatial variability of physiographic properties, and only high spatial resolution sensorsare potentially able to monitor the strong soil moisture spatial variability.In this regard the Envisat ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor offers the attractive opportunity ofsoil moisture mapping at fine spatial and temporal resolutions(up to 30 m, every 30 days). We test the ASAR sensor for soil moisture estimate in an interesting Sardinian case study, the Mulargia basin withan area of about 70 sq.km. The position of the Sardinia island in the center of the western Mediterranean Sea basin, its low urbanization and human activity make Sardinia a perfect reference laboratory for Mediterranean hydrologic studies. The Mulargia basin is a typical Mediterranean basinin water-limited conditions, and is an experimental basin from 2003. For soil moisture mapping23 satellite ASAR imagery at single and dual polarization were acquired for the 2003-2004period.Satellite observationsmay bevalidated through spatially distributed soil moisture ground-truth data, collected over the whole basin using the TDR technique and the gravimetric method, in days with available radar images. The results show that ASAR sensor observations can be successfully used for soil moisture mapping at different seasons, both wet and dry, but an accurate calibration with field data is necessary. We detect a strong relationship between the soil moisture spatial variability and the physiographic properties of the basin, such as soil water storage capacity

  16. From stretching to mantle exhumation in a triangular backarc basin (Vavilov basin, Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, A.; Torrente, M. M.; Tesauro, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we describe the mode of extension of the Vavilov, a fossil backarc basin, triangle-shaped (approximately 240 km-wide and 200 km-long), located between Sardinia margin to the west and Campania margin to the east. We combine the analysis of recent geophysical and geological data, in order to investigate the relationship between the crustal/sedimentary structure and the tectonic evolution of both apex and bathyal parts of the basin. With this aim, we interpret a large data set of multichannel seismic reflection profiles and several well logs. We observe that the apex basin corresponds to a sediment-balanced basin, with a sedimentary infill recording the episodes of basin evolution. In contrast, the distal basin corresponds to an underfilled basin, characterized by localized volcanic activity and a thin sedimentary succession that covers the exhumed mantle. The basin architecture reveals the occurrence of rift and supradetachment basins in the Vavilov rift zone. We find that the rifting of the Vavilov triangular basin was synchronous from the apex to distal regions around a single Euler pole located in Latium, between 5.1 and 1.8 Ma. The kinematic evolution of the Vavilov basin occurred in two stages: initial pure shear mode (5.1-4.0 Ma) that produced high-angle normal faults and syn-sedimentary wedges, followed by simple shear mode (4.0-1.8 Ma) that caused supradetachment basins filled by a Transgressive-Regressive succession that documents high subsidence rates (1.22 mm/y) in the apex region. The final stage of extension in the distal region led to: (i) complete embrittlement of the crust; (ii) direct continuation of crustal faults to upper mantle depth; (iii) serpentinization and mantle exhumation. Based on constraints on the present-day crustal structure of the Vavilov basin, we obtain a stretching value (β = 3.5) and extension rates (3 cm/y) in the bathyal zone analogous to those reported for magma-poor rifted margins. We propose a synchronous

  17. Kandik basin stratigraphy, sedimentology, and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, T.J.; Howell, D.G.; Kauffman-Linam, L.; Boundy-Sanders, S.; Murray, R.W.; Jones, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    East-central Alaska's Kandik basin is a structural remnant of a larger Permian to Cretaceous basin. Permian shallow-water Tahkandit Limestone and Step Conglomerate at the base of the sequence rest unconformably on Paleozoic chert-pebble conglomerate, siliceous shale, and limestone. These Permian rocks are overlain by Triassic to Lower Cretaceous open-ocean Glenn Shale, which grades upward into Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) hummocky cross-bedded (outer shelf to upper slope) Keenan Quartzite. The quartzite grades upward into fine-grained north-northeast-flowing turbidites of the Biederman Argillite (undated). East-northeast-flowing pebbly turbidites of the Kathul Graywacke (undated) overlie Biederman strata. Locally, Cretaceous (Albian and younger) through Paleogene nonmarine rocks unconformably overlie the Kandik basin sequence. The Mesozoic part of the sequence is similar to that of Manley basin, northwest Yukon Territory, and much of the North Slope. East-directed flow for Kandik basin strata may require paleogeographic reconstructions involving local to large-scale palinspastic rotations or a western source of chert detritus. Deformation of the Mesozoic sequence in Kandik basin west of the US-Canada border shows northwest-southeast shortening. Shaly units are tightly folded with well-developed cleavage striking northeast. Strikes of beds swing from northeast to east in the extreme southwestern part of the basin, suggesting clockwise rotation. Thrust faults, reverse faults, and fold axes trend east to northeast; normal faults trend northwest. These relations are all consistent with, and probably are closely related to, right slip on the west-northwest-trending Tintina fault.

  18. Chlorofluorocarbon distributions in the deep Argentine Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.J. ); Weiss, R.F. ); Smethie, W.M. Jr. )

    1990-01-09

    The seawater concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) F-11 and F-12 were measured in the Argentine Basin during the Abyssal Boundary Current Studies (1986) and the South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment (1988-89) expeditions. In most regions of the basin, the CFC concentrations are above the detection limit (0.015 pmol/kg) in the entire water column. The main features of the F-11 and F-12 profiles in the deep waters of the Argentine Basin are concentration mixima at depths of 2 to 3 km and generally increasing concentrations towards the bottom. The mid-depth CFC minima are associated with the salinity maximum of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). The higher CFC concentrations at the seafloor are correlated with the colder temperatures of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The CFC concentrations in AABW are highest on the eastern portion of the basin along 47[degrees]S and along the southern and western boundaries. These distributions are consistent with a separation of the inflowing AABW into a cyclonic gyre in the eastern portion of the basin and a western boundary current which carries a detectable CFC singal as far noth as 17[degrees]S. Between CDW and AABW, there are local CFC maxima and minima which are not associated with extrema in other hydrographic properties. The local minima are found on a mean density of 46.07 [sigma][sub 4], which is the upper bound of the water entering the Argentine Basin from the Weddell Sea (Reid, Deep-Sea Res., 1989 submitted). The local CFC maxima are found at about the 46.00 [sigma][sub 4] isopycnal surface. Water of this density apparently is of circumpolar origin. The presence of these local CFC extrema in this density range carries information on the time-dependent vertical mixing in the deep Argentine Basin.

  19. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, K.A.; Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that (1) the major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks; and (2) ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between the major rivers. Their results suggest that contaminants entering the confined aquifer system may eventually migrate to the surface, discharging within major rivers, rather than remaining confined for long travel distances within the basin sediments.

  20. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin`s moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers.

  1. Quantifying mesoscale eddies in the Lofoten Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, R. P.; Johannessen, J. A.; Eldevik, T.; Nilsen, J. E. Ø.; Halo, I.

    2016-07-01

    The Lofoten Basin is the most eddy rich region in the Norwegian Sea. In this paper, the characteristics of these eddies are investigated from a comprehensive database of nearly two decades of satellite altimeter data (1995-2013) together with Argo profiling floats and surface drifter data. An automated method identified 1695/1666 individual anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies in the Lofoten Basin from more than 10,000 altimeter-based eddy observations. The eddies are found to be predominantly generated and residing locally. The spatial distributions of lifetime, occurrence, generation sites, size, intensity, and drift of the eddies are studied in detail. The anticyclonic eddies in the Lofoten Basin are the most long-lived eddies (>60 days), especially in the western part of the basin. We reveal two hotspots of eddy occurrence on either side of the Lofoten Basin. Furthermore, we infer a cyclonic drift of eddies in the western Lofoten Basin. Barotropic energy conversion rates reveals energy transfer from the slope current to the eddies during winter. An automated colocation of surface drifters trapped inside the altimeter-based eddies are used to corroborate the orbital speed of the anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Moreover, the vertical structure of the altimeter-based eddies is examined using colocated Argo profiling float profiles. Combination of altimetry, Argo floats, and surface drifter data is therefore considered to be a promising observation-based approach for further studies of the role of eddies in transport of heat and biomass from the slope current to the Lofoten Basin.

  2. Petroleum in the Junggar basin, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taner, Irfan; Kamen-Kaye, Maurice; Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The Junggar basin occupies a large triangular area of some 130 000 km 2 in northwestern China. Situated between the Altay Shan (Altay Range) on the northeast and the Tian Shan (Tian Range) on the southwest, and between lesser ranges around the remainder of its periphery, the Junggar basin is completely intermontane. Its history as a basin began in the Permian, and continued as various uplifts and downwarps evolved. Through the Paleozoic the characteristics of the Junggar basin area were largely geosynclinal and marine. Its post-Permian development took place exclusively in continental regimes. Inhabitants of the Junggar basin have known and utilized its numerous oil and asphalt seeps and its spectacular spreads of asphalt for more than 2000 years, especially in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt near the northwestern rim. The first discovery of oil in the modern sense came at Dushanzi, one of the steeply folded anticlines of theÜrümqi foredeep near the southern rim. The first shallow oil in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt came in 1937, followed by commercial production in the Karamay field in 1955. Output continued to be modest until wells were drilled through local thrusts and reverse faults in the early 1980s. By 1985, cumulative production of the Karamay group of fields had reached 42,000,000 t (metric tonnes) (306,000,000 bbl), with a calculated minimum ultimate recovery of 280,000,000 t (2 billion bbl). Principal production comes from Permian and Triassic strata in continental facies. Apart from marine Mid and Upper Carboniferous strata, source rocks occur mainly in fine-grained lacustrine detrital beds of the Permian, the Triassic, the Jurassic and the Tertiary. Several uplifts and downwarps elsewhere in the Junggar basin remain to be drilled comprehensively. Results from such drilling may enhance the very important position that the Junggar already has attained in the hierarchy of China's onshore basins.

  3. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  4. Bathymetry of four deep Baltic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reissmann, Jan H.

    1999-12-01

    Extensive hydrographic field campaigns were carried out by the Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende (IOW) in four deep basins of the Baltic Sea during different seasons from 1996 to 1999. The spreading and transformation of dense deep water was studied using a fixed eddy-resolving station grid within the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (meso scale dynamics). The station spacing of each survey was 2.5 nm, which corresponds to a station distance of 2.5’ meridionally and about 4.5’ zonally. Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation, statistical uncertainties of the mean ship position during station work are on the order of ± 37 m in each direction. In this way, shipborne echosounders provided representative topographic data sets for the deepest parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow and the Eastern Gotland Basin. The absolute accuracy of water depths lies in the range of ± 1 m while its spatially determined mean standard deviation does not exceed ± 0.2 m in each survey. The resulting topographic maps are presented. Derived direction tendencies of deep circulation patterns result from conservation of their potential vorticity above topographic irregularities. Resulting vectors suggest a permanent tendency for cyclonic circulation within all four deep Baltic basins. The most intense topographic control of the deep circulation must be expected above both the eastern and western flanks of the Eastern Gotland Basin. Beneath closed bathymetric contours, depthareavolume relationships have been estimated numerically to characterise the storage capacity of each basin for dense deep water.

  5. Chicxulub impact basin: Gravity characteristics and implications for basin morphology and deep structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Burke, Kevin; Hall, Stuart A.; Lee, Scott; Marin, Luis E.; Suarez, Gerardo; Quezada-Muneton, Juan Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    1993-01-01

    The K-T-aged Chicxulub Impact Structure is buried beneath the Tertiary carbonate rocks of the Northern Yucatan Platform. Consequently its morphology and structure are poorly understood. Reprocessed Bouguer (onshore) and Free Air (offshore) gravity data over Northern Yucatan reveal that Chicxulub may be a 200-km-diameter multi-ring impact basin with at least three concentric basin rings. The positions of these rings follow the square root of 2 spacing rule derived empirically from analysis of multi-ring basins on other planets indicating that these rings probably correspond to now-buried topographic basin rings. A forward model of the gravity data along a radial transect from the southwest margin of the structure indicates that the Chicxulub gravity signature is compatible with this interpretation. We estimate the basin rim diameter to be 204 +/- 16 km and the central peak ring diameter (D) is 104 +/- 6 km.

  6. Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Hanna Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Michael S.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Nuccio, Vito F.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for a continuous-type basin-centered gas accumulation in the Hanna Basin in Carbon County, Wyoming, is evaluated using geologic and production data including mud-weight, hydrocarbon-show, formation-test, bottom-hole-temperature, and vitrinite reflectance data from 29 exploratory wells. This limited data set supports the presence of a hypothetical basin-centered gas play in the Hanna Basin. Two generalized structural cross sections illustrate our interpretations of possible abnormally pressured compartments. Data indicate that a gas-charged, overpressured interval may occur within the Cretaceous Mowry, Frontier, and Niobrara Formations at depths below 10,000 ft along the southern and western margins of the basin. Overpressuring may also occur near the basin center within the Steele Shale and lower Mesaverde Group section at depths below 18,000 to 20,000 ft. However, the deepest wells drilled to date (12,000 to 15,300 ft) have not encountered over-pressure in the basin center. This overpressured zone is likely to be relatively small (probably 20 to 25 miles in diameter) and is probably depleted of gas near major basement reverse faults and outcrops where gas may have escaped. Water may have invaded reservoirs through outcrops and fracture zones along the basin margins, creating an extensive normally pressured zone. A zone of subnormal pressure also may exist below the water-saturated, normal-pressure zone and above the central zone of overpressure. Subnormal pressures have been interpreted in the center of the Hanna Basin at depths ranging from 10,000 to 25,000 ft based on indirect evidence including lost-circulation zones. Three wells on the south side of the basin, where the top of the subnormally pressured zone is interpreted to cut across stratigraphic boundaries, tested the Niobrara Formation and recovered gas and oil shows with very low shut-in pressures.

  7. Effect of basin physical characteristics on solute fluxes in nine alpine/subalpine basins, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sueker, J.K.; Clow, D.W.; Ryan, J.N.; Jarrett, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Alpine/subalpine basins may exhibit substantial variability in solute fluxes despite many apparent similarities in basin characteristics. An evaluation of controls on spatial patterns in solute fluxes may allow development of predictive tools for assessing basin sensitivity to outside perturbations such as climate change or deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Relationships between basin physical characteristics, determined from geographical information system (GIS) tools, and solute fluxes and mineral weathering rates were explored for nine alpine/subalpine basins in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, using correlation analyses for 1993 and 1994 data. Stream-water nitrate fluxes were correlated positively with basin characteristics associated with the talus environment; i.e., the fractional amounts of steep slopes (??? 30??), unvegetated terrain and young debris (primarily Holocene till) in the basins, and were correlated negatively with fractional amounts of subalpine meadow terrain. Correlations with nitrate indicate the importance of the talus environment in promoting nitrate flux and the mitigating effect of areas with established vegetation, such as subalpine meadows. Total mineral weathering rates for the basins ranged from about 300 to 600 mol ha-1 year -1. Oligoclase weathering accounted for 30 to 73% of the total mineral weathering flux, and was positively correlated with the amount of old debris (primarily Pleistocene glacial till) in the basins. Although calcite is found in trace amounts in bedrock, calcite weathering accounted for up to 44% of the total mineral weathering flux. Calcite was strongly correlated with steep slope, unvegetated terrain, and young debris-probably because physical weathering in steep-gradient areas exposes fresh mineral surfaces that contain calcite for chemical weathering. Oligoclase and calcite weathering are the dominant sources of alkalinity in the basins. However, atmospherically deposited acids consume much of the

  8. Desert basins of the Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  9. Multiple nested basin boundaries in nonlinear driven oscillators☆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongxiang; Xie, Xiangpeng; Luo, Guanwei

    2017-03-01

    A special type of basins of attraction for high-period coexisting attractors is investigated, which basin boundaries possess multiple nested structures in a driven oscillator. We analyze the global organization of basins and discuss the mechanism for the appearance of layered structures. The unstable periodic orbits and unstable limit cycle are also detected in the oscillator. The basin organization is governed by the ordering of regular saddles and the regular saddle connections are the interrupted by the unstable limit cycle. Wada basin boundary with different Wada number is discovered. Wada basin boundaries for the hidden and rare attractors are also verified.

  10. Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte basin has plenty of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.

    1997-04-21

    Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte basin is one of the Phanerozoic basins of what is now called the North West Shelf of Australia. This basin consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this basin is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte basin, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-basin and Darwin shelf.

  11. Impact melt of the lunar Crisium multiring basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Sliz, M. U.

    2017-02-01

    New geological mapping of the Crisium basin on the Moon has revealed exposures of the basin impact melt sheet. The melt sheet has a feldspathic highland composition, somewhat more mafic than the melt sheet of the Orientale basin, but less mafic than comparable deposits around the Imbrium basin. These newly recognized deposits would be ideal locations to directly sample Crisium basin impact melt, material whose study would yield insight into the composition of the lunar crust, the time of formation of the basin, and the large impact process.

  12. Basin average rainfall and its sampling error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Chulsang; Ha, Eunho

    2002-11-01

    The sampling error from the randomly located rain gauge network has a significant meaning, especially for hydrologic applications where the basin average rainfall estimated using point measurements is used as an input for various rainfall-runoff analyses. In this paper we derived an equation for the sampling error from the randomly located rain gauge network of a basin and compared it with that from the evenly spaced rain gauge network derived by [1989], also implemented by [2000]. To make the analytical derivation of the sampling error equation available, we assumed that the locations of the rain gauges planted through years in a given basin follow the uniform distribution and the rainfall field is weakly statistically homogeneous in space and time. The derived equation is neatly factored with the rainfall spectrum and the design filter, which considers the second-order statistics of a rainfall field and sampling design characteristics such as the basin size, the basin shape, and the number of rain gauges within the basin. The derived equation is also flexible enough to consider various shapes of the basins such as circles, ellipses, and rectangles as well. We applied the two equations for the sampling errors from evenly spaced and randomly located rain gauge network cases to the GATE data field using the rainfall model of [1989] and then compared the results. As a result of the study, we found that the sampling errors from the randomly located and evenly spaced rain gauge networks are more or less the same as the standard deviation of the m gauge averages until some threshold number of rain gauges is reached. With more rain gauges the sampling error from the evenly spaced rain gauge network decreases much faster, while that from the randomly located rain gauge networks stagnates. However, if considering the typical rain gauge density in a natural basin, we may conclude that the sampling error involved in the estimation of basin average rainfall using point

  13. Hydrocarbon potential of lower Magdalena basin

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, E.; Valderrama, R. )

    1989-03-01

    The Lower Magdalena basin complex of Colombia has an areal extent of more than 87,000 km{sup 2}. The geologic setting of the different subbasins of the Lower Magdalena presents attractive play concepts for the generation, entrapment, and production of hydrocarbons. The sedimentary sequence within the basin attains a thickness in excess of 12,200 m, with the preponderance of this section being of Tertiary age. This major thickness of section contains good source and reservoir rocks and seals and an abundance of structural and stratigraphic traps, which make the basin attractive for new interpretation and evaluation. The Plato, San Jorge, and Sinu subbasins lie within the Lower Magdalena complex. Each of these presents different geological conditions, thereby offering a variety of play concepts for hydrocarbon exploration. Previous exploration in the Lower Magdalena has resulted in the discovery of 10 small to moderate-size fields, which have produced nearly 200 million bbl of oil. The density of exploration drilling within the basin is one well/435 km{sup 2}, thereby allowing the opportunity for more discoveries to be realized. The existence of a thick Tertiary section with excellent source beds and a tectonic history that allows for both structural and stratigraphic traps presents an excellent opportunity for the application of modern exploration techniques to reevaluate the potential of a basin that has not been thoroughly evaluated due to complex exploration problems.

  14. Circulation in the Ecologically Protected Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, E.; Speer, K. G.; Weijer, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Lau Basin, located in the South Pacific, north of New Zealand and East of Fiji, is a back-arc basin with active hydrothermal vents and volcanoes. In September 2015, the New Zealand Ministry for the Environment announced the new Kermadec Ocean Sanctuary in the southern portion of the basin. The sanctuary, which covers more than 620,000 square kilometers, is the world's largest protected marine environment boasting endangered species from turtles, whales, and seabirds to corals, shellfish, and zooplankton. Though protections are in place for the ecological residents of the basin, little is known about the fluid circulation that permits such ecological diversity. Whitworth et al. (1999), explored the water-masses associated with the deep western boundary current (DWBC) in the Tonga-Kermadec Trench and found the trench to be a passageway for Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) into the South Pacific. In this project, an analysis of Ridge 2000 Program floats and Argo floats show intrusion of water from the trench into the basin, potentially providing another pathway of CDW into the western edge of the South Pacific. Using a simple model developed by Stommel-Arons (1960) and expanded upon by Pedlosky (1989) for abyssal circulation, the bulk of the flow pattern observed from the floats is qualitatively described, including the well-defined DWBC, first observed in this data, along the Lau-Fiji ridge.

  15. Hydrothermal Activity in the Northern Guaymas Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, C.; Hensen, C.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Sarkar, S.; Geilert, S.; Schmidt, M.; Liebetrau, V.; Kipfer, R.; Scholz, F.; Doll, M.; Muff, S.; Karstens, J.; Böttner, C.; Chi, W. C.; Moser, M.; Behrendt, R.; Fiskal, A.; Evans, T.; Planke, S.; Lizarralde, D.; Lever, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rift-related magmatism in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California induces hydrothermal activity within the basin sediments. Mobilized fluids migrate to the seafloor where they are emitted into the water column changing ocean chemistry and fuelling chemosynthetic ecosystems. New seismic and geochemical data from the northern rift arm of the Guaymas Basin document the variety of fluid expulsion phenomena from large-scale subsurface sediment mobilization related to contact metamorphosis to focused small-scale structures. The geochemical composition of emitted fluids depends largely on the age of the fluid escape structures with respect to the underlying intrusions. Whereas, old structures are dominated by methane emission, young vent sites are characterized by hot fluids that carry a wide range of minerals in solution. The overall high geothermal gradient within the basin (mainly between 160 and 260 °C/km) leads to a thin gas hydrate stability zone. Thus, deep hydrothermal fluid advection affects the gas hydrate system and makes it more dynamic than in colder sedimentary basins.

  16. Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, O.

    1981-05-04

    Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the Onitsha high. Although geologists interpret the basin as Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary, its southern portion is down-warped and overlapped by the delta's thick Tertiary deposits, lowering the Cretaceous to prohibitive depths in the overlap areas; wells drilled to 16,000 ft at the delta's apex thus have not encountered the Cretaceous sediments. An evaluation of the basin's pre-Santonian hydrocarbon prospects will require a deep exploratory drilling program. As Nigeria shifts its production emphasis from oil to gas and firms up plans for an LNG plant in the Niger delta, exploration in the gas-prone Anambra basin will probably surge.

  17. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.; Laabs, Benjamin J.C.; Forester, Richard M.; McGeehin, John P.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Bright, Jordon

    2005-01-01

    Mapping and dating of surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin were undertaken to provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores taken from deposits beneath Bear Lake, which sometimes receives water and sediment from the glaciated Bear River and sometimes only from the small drainage basin of Bear Lake itself. Analyses of core sediments by others are directed at (1) constructing a high-resolution climate record for the Bear Lake area during the late Pleistocene and Holocene, and (2) investigating the sources and weathering history of sediments in the drainage basin. Surficial deposits in the upper Bear River and Bear Lake drainage basins are different in their overall compositions, although they do overlap. In the upper Bear River drainage, Quaternary deposits derived from glaciation of the Uinta Range contain abundant detritus weathered from Precambrian quartzite, whereas unglaciated tributaries downstream mainly contribute finer sediment weathered from much younger, more friable sedimentary rocks. In contrast, carbonate rocks capped by a carapace of Tertiary sediments dominate the Bear Lake drainage basin.

  18. Maturation modeling in Otway Basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Falvey, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Otway basin is a Jurassic to Pliocene sedimentary basin formed on the southern Australian continental margin. Its formation is associated with rifting and breakup of the Australian and Antarctic plates. Lithospheric cooling and contraction have probably produced post-breakup subsidence. Either lithospheric stretching or deep crustal metamorphism may have produced pre-breakup subsidence. These mechanisms have identifiable thermal histories. Organic diagenesis (specifically the reflectance of vitrinite in oil) is empirically determined by the thermal and depositional history of an organic sediment. Thus, the stages of hydrocarbon maturity of Otway basin sediments can be modeled. Depositional history is determined from ''geohistory analysis'' and thermal history depends on the subsidence mechanism applied to the basin. A paleo-heat-flow history derived from the deep crustal metamorphism model of subsidence produces a maturation profile with depth that is consistent with observed vitrinite reflectance data, although organic diagenesis modeling is relatively insensitive to precise details of thermal history. Depositional and maturation history modeling for the present day, 20 Ma ago, 40 Ma ago, and 60 Ma ago is applied to a seismic profile across the southern Australian continental shelf in the Otway basin as a demonstration of the projection backward in time of sedimentation and organic diagenesis.

  19. Petroleum geology of Solimoes Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, J.N.P.; Meister, E.M.; Pereira, C.A.G.; Murakami, C.Y. )

    1993-02-01

    Solimoes basin is located at the northwestern portion of the South American continent, adjacent to a subandean pericratonic belt. It constitutes a Paleozoic intracratonic basin covering an area of about 600,000 km[sup 2] and displaying a maximum sedimentary thickness of 3400 m. The tectono-sedimentary evolution can be largely related with important events that occurred at the western border of the continent. The regional flexural subsidence and tectonic deformation observed are correlated to two major phases: Pre-Andean (Paleozoic) and Andean (Mesozoic and Cenozoic). In the Andean phase, compression with shear components, of Triassic age, known as the Jurua Tectonism, became very important for oil exploration of the basin. The stratigraphic conditions considered of greatest interest for petroleum exploration comprise Devonian gas and oil sourcing shales and Carboniferous sandstones reservoirs with an evaporitic seal. The main traps are anticlines related to reverse faults. In this context, Petrobras discovered Jurua gas field in 1978 and the Rio Urucu gas and oil field in 1986. These were the first fields discovered in Brazilian Paleozoic basins. Total petroleum fields discovered in Brazilian Paleozoic basins. Total petroleum reserves discovered represent 400 million bbl of equivalent oil. Present migration and accumulation call for previous accumulation in intrabasinal Paleozoic highs and related stratigraphic traps. Late tectonism seems to have resulted in redistribution and/or escape of fluids into new traps. Less disturbed areas are expected to contain original accumulations.

  20. South Pole-Aitken Basin Mission (SPAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M.; Head, J. W., III; Prockter, L.; Dahl, J. M.; Cooper, C. D.; Crumpler, L.; Gershman, R.; Welch, R.; Jet Propulsion LABORATORY Team

    1997-03-01

    Recent Clementine data of the farside of the moon has shown high resolution details of the South Pole-Aitken basin. The basin is over 2500 km in diameter, making it the largest impact basin thus far identified in our solar system. Estimates for the excavation depth from the basin suggest that the lower crust/upper mantle may have been reached. Clementine UVVIS data show noritic compositions and high FeO wt pct compositions, supporting that at least the lower crust may have been excavated. Because the geology of the area offers a unique opportunity to study the stratigraphy of the lunar crust at depth as well as the composition of rocks from the lunar farside, we have selected a site in the South Pole-Aitken basin for a sample return mission. Although the mission described below is currently unsuitable as a Discovery class mission, other scenarios are still possible that will reduce the mass and make the mission more feasible.

  1. Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Ait Salem, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure recognized on seismic defines a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic salt basin in the offshore area initiated during early rifting. Subsidence and sea-level rise during Jurassic resulted in carbonate platform development. This was followed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time by the deposition of a prograding siliciclastic system. Only three wells have been drilled in this basin. Although drilled on poorly defined prospects, these wells encountered gas and oil shows. Fairly extensive seismic coverage of good quality data is now available. A study based on an integrated approach involving seismic facies definition and mapping, correlation with well data, identification of the principal control on sedimentation, and basin modeling in conjunction with source rock prediction and maturity modeling has been carried out. Results have shown that hydrocarbon potential in the offshore Essaouira basin has not yet been substantiated by drilling. Attractive structural and stratigraphic prospects exist in the shelf, shelf edge, and the slope, and await confirmation by drilling.

  2. Petroleum geochemistry of the Zala basin, Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, J.L. ); Koncz, I. )

    1994-01-01

    The Zala basin is a subbasin within the Pannonian basis on Hungary. Oil and smaller amounts of gas are produced from Upper Triassic through Miocene reservoirs. Our geochemical study of oils and rocks in the basin indicate that two, and possibly three, genetic oil types are present in the basin. Miocene source rocks, previously believed by explorationists to be the predominant source rock, have expelled minor amounts of hydrocarbons. The main source rock is the Upper Triassic (Rhaetian) Koessen Marl Formation or its stratigraphic equivalent. Oils derived from the Triassic source rock are recognizable by their isotopic and biological marker composition, and high content of metals. In other areas of Europe, Upper Triassic source rocks have been correlated with large oil accumulations (e.g., Molassa and Villafortuna fields, Po basin, and other fields in Italy) or are postulated to be good potential source rocks (e.g., Bristol channel Trough). Knowledge of the geochemical characteristics of oils derived from these Upper Triassic source rocks and understanding of the source rock distribution and maturation history are important for recognizing Triassic oil-source bed relationships and for further exploration in other basins in Hungary and other parts of Europe where Triassic source rocks are present.

  3. Subsurface structure of the eastern Arkoma basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vanarsdale, R.B. ); Schweig, E.S. III )

    1990-07-01

    Analysis of 425 km of seismic reflection data in the eastern Arkoma basin reveals a structure and history quite different from those previously reported for the Arkoma basin. The eastern Arkoma basin has three structural styles that formed in the following chronological order: deep, steep normal faults; shallow listric normal faults; and thrust faults. The origin of the structural styles and the Paleozoic history of the eastern Arkoma basin may be summarized as follows. Late Proterozoic or Early Cambrian rifting was followed by deposition of Cambrian through Upper Mississippian strata on a passive plate margin. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary marks a time of major down-to-the-south normal faulting with coincident folding of the footwall blocks and truncation of the faulted and folded terrain by a pre-Morrowan (Mississippian-Pennsylvanian) unconformity. The unconformity slopes southward and steepens locally across the erosionally truncated footwall blocks. During the Pennsylvanian, down-to-the-south listric normal faults cut the Atokan and Morrowan sections and merged with, but did not displace, the steeper segments of the sub-Morrowan unconformity. Surface folds north of the Ross Creek thrust are rollover anticlines overlying these listric normal faults. Major deformation in the eastern Arkoma basin terminated with emplacement of the Ross Creek thrust in the Late Pennsylvanian. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Biomonitoring the genotoxic potential of the air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea under climatic conditions in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cassanego, M B B; Sasamori, M H; Petry, C T; Droste, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluated the genotoxic effects of the atmospheric air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in urban areas with different intensities of vehicular traffic and in riparian forest fragments in the Sinos River Basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), considering the influence of climatic conditions prevailing in these environments. Bimonthly, from May 2012 to March 2013, cuttings with flower buds were exposed for 8 h in urban and riparian forest environments in the municipalities of Caraá, Taquara and Campo Bom in the upper, middle and lower sections, respectively, of the Sinos River Basin. Simultaneously, negative controls were made and climatic data were recorded. Micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Significantly higher MCN frequencies were observed in buds exposed in urban and riparian forest environments in Taquara (up to 7.23 and 4.80, respectively) and Campo Bom (up to 4.90 and 4.23, respectively) than in buds exposed in Caraá (up to 2.90 and 2.50, respectively), in the majority of samplings, and in relation to the negative control (up to 1.93) in all months. Over the course of the period monitored, there were significant variations in MCN frequencies at all sampling points, with the exception of the urban environment in Caraá. For the urban environments, relation between the MCN frequency, vehicular traffic and mean temperature was observed. For the riparian forest fragments, there was no association between MCN frequency and climatic factors. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea can be considered a useful tool to point out areas with increased atmospheric pollution, since the exposure of plants under severe climatic conditions is avoided to minimize their negative influence on the formation of micronuclei.

  5. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T.

    1996-12-31

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia`s oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra`s magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  6. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T. Petroleum Co., Lagos )

    1996-01-01

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia's oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra's magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  7. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  8. Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Missouri, Colorado, Peace and Slave River Basin, 1928-1989.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-07-01

    This report presents data for monthly mean streamflows adjusted for storage change, evaporation, and irrigation, for the years 1928-1990, for the Colorado River Basin, the Missouri River Basin, the Peace River Basin, and the Slave River Basin.

  9. Jakobshavns Glacier drainage basin - A balance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Maximum and minimum estimates are made of the drainage basin feeding the Jakobshavns Glacier by using surface elevation maps derived from Seasat altimetry. Benson's (1962) net balance measurements are used to calculate the balance flow within the basin. Comparisons of the balance flux at the terminus with estimates of actual flux suggest the basin is in overall equilibrium or slightly thickening. This agrees with measurements along the nearby EGIG traverse. Balance velocities accelerate rapidly within 100 km of the coast. Farther upstream, balance velocities are consistent with both measured velocities along the EGIG traverse and calculated deformation velocities. It is estimated that Jakobshavns Glacier discharges between 4.8 and 7.6 percent of the annual net balance over Greenland and drains between 3.7 and 5.8 percent of the ice sheet area.

  10. Jakobshavns Glacier drainage basin - A balance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Maximum and minimum estimates are made of the drainage basin feeding the Jakobshavns Glacier by using surface elevation maps derived from Seasat altimetry. Benson's (1962) net balance measurements are used to calculate the balance flow within the basin. Comparisons of the balance flux at the terminus with estimates of actual flux suggest the basin is in overall equilibrium or slightly thickening. This agrees with measurements along the nearby EGIG traverse. Balance velocities accelerate rapidly within 100 km of the coast. Farther upstream, balance velocities are consistent with both measured velocities along the EGIG traverse and calculated deformation velocities. It is estimated that Jakobshavns Glacier discharges between 4.8 and 7.6 percent of the annual net balance over Greenland and drains between 3.7 and 5.8 percent of the ice sheet area.

  11. Configuration Management Plan for K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, W.R.; Laney, T.

    1995-01-27

    This plan describes a configuration management program for K Basins that establishes the systems, processes, and responsibilities necessary for implementation. The K Basins configuration management plan provides the methodology to establish, upgrade, reconstitute, and maintain the technical consistency among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. The technical consistency afforded by this plan ensures accurate technical information necessary to achieve the mission objectives that provide for the safe, economic, and environmentally sound management of K Basins and the stored material. The configuration management program architecture presented in this plan is based on the functional model established in the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-1073-93, {open_quotes}Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program{close_quotes}.

  12. Independent focuses Philippines exploration on Visayan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Rillera, F.G.

    1995-08-21

    Cophil Exploration Corp., a Filipino public company, spearheaded 1995 Philippine oil and gas exploration activity with the start of its gas delineation drilling operations in Libertad, northern Cebu. Cophil and its Australian partners, Coplex Resources NL and PacRim Energy NL, have set out to complete a seven well onshore drilling program within this block this year. The companies are testing two modest shallow gas plays, Libertad and Dalingding, and a small oil play, Maya, all in northern Cebu about 500 km southeast of Manila. Following a short discussion on the geology and exploration history of the Visayan basin, this article briefly summarizes Cophil`s ongoing Cebu onshore drilling program. Afterwards, discussion focuses on identified exploration opportunities in the basin`s offshore sector.

  13. Hellas basin, Mars: Formation by oblique impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    Hellas, a 2,000-km-diameter, roughly circular multiring impact basin in the southern highlands of Mars, has a pronounced southeastern lobe of rim material that extends for some 1,500 km. This lobe and a system of ridges concentric to the southern part of the basin (including part of the lobe) were interpreted to be formed by an oblique impact that was inclined in the direction of the lobe. Our preliminary geologic mapping of the Hellas region (lat -20 to -65 deg, long 250 to 320 deg) at 1:5,000,000 scale gives this hypothesis additional supporting evidence, including a symmetric distribution of basin ejecta and volcanic centers across the inferred trend of the impact. Furthermore, measurements of relief indicate that the downrange ejecta may be about twice as thick as they are elsewhere around the rim.

  14. Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, A.J. ); Portilla, O. )

    1994-05-23

    The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

  15. The topography of optimal drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T.; Meakin, P.; JøSsang, T.

    1994-09-01

    A model for drainage networks and their associated landscapes has been developed. This model is based on the minimum energy dissipation principle and an empirical relationship s ˜ Qα between the slope s of each link in a channel network and the mean annual discharge Q that flows through it. The model was studied using six different values for the exponent α. The surfaces of these minimum energy dissipation drainage networks appear to be more complex than simple self-affine fractals. The drainage basins in these optimal drainage networks have power law size (area) distributions with a universal exponent, which is independent of the value of α. For the minimum energy dissipation drainage networks obtained using a particular value for α, the basin shapes are similar to each other. An empirical relationship has also been found to relate the basins' "length-width" ratio to the value of α.

  16. Basin topology in dissipative chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    Seoane, Jesús M; Aguirre, Jacobo; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2006-06-01

    Chaotic scattering in open Hamiltonian systems under weak dissipation is not only of fundamental interest but also important for problems of current concern such as the advection and transport of inertial particles in fluid flows. Previous work using discrete maps demonstrated that nonhyperbolic chaotic scattering is structurally unstable in the sense that the algebraic decay of scattering particles immediately becomes exponential in the presence of weak dissipation. Here we extend the result to continuous-time Hamiltonian systems by using the Henon-Heiles system as a prototype model. More importantly, we go beyond to investigate the basin structure of scattering dynamics. A surprising finding is that, in the common case where multiple destinations exist for scattering trajectories, Wada basin boundaries are common and they appear to be structurally stable under weak dissipation, even when other characteristics of the nonhyperbolic scattering dynamics are not. We provide numerical evidence and a geometric theory for the structural stability of the complex basin topology.

  17. GRAIL Gravity Map of Orientale Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    This color-coded map shows the strength of surface gravity around Orientale basin on Earth's moon, derived from data obtained by NASA's GRAIL mission. The GRAIL mission produced a very high-resolution map of gravity over the surface of the entire moon. This plot is zoomed in on the part of that map that features Orientale basin, where the two GRAIL spacecraft flew extremely low near the end of their mission. Their close proximity to the basin made the probes' measurements particularly sensitive to the gravitational acceleration there (due to the inverse squared law). The color scale plots the gravitational acceleration in units of "gals," where 1 gal is one centimeter per second squared, or about 1/1000th of the gravitational acceleration at Earth's surface. (The unit was devised in honor of the astronomer Galileo). Labels on the x and y axes represent latitude and longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21050

  18. Aptian anoxia in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sliter, W.V. )

    1989-10-01

    Marine strata of Aptian age in the Pacific Basin include two distinct levels that represent episodes during which sediments rich in organic carbon were deposited. Both episodes lasted less than 1 m.y., as revealed in strata deposited atop submerged topographic highs. One unusually widespread episode of early Aptian age ({approximately}117.5 Ma) correlates with coeval units in Europe and thus is analogous to the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event in its short duration and wide geographic extent. The second episode of late Aptian age ({approximately}116.5 Ma) is restricted to allochthonous pelagic deposits in the Franciscan Complex of California. These results support the concept of widespread and narrowly synchronous anoxic events. Further, they show that organic carbon deposition in the Pacific Basin took place in intermediate water oxygen-minimum zones and thus differed in the mode of deposition, and hence paleoceanography, from that in other middle Cretaceous ocean basins.

  19. Water utilization in the Snake River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoyt, William Glenn; Stabler, Herman

    1935-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the present utilization of the water in the Snake River Basin with special reference to irrigation and power and to present essential facts concerning possible future utilization. No detailed plan of development is suggested. An attempt has been made, however, to discuss features that should be taken into account in the formulation of a definite plan of development. On account of the size of the area involved, which is practically as large as the New England States and New York combined, and the magnitude of present development and future possibilities, considerable details have of necessity been omitted. The records of stream flow in the basin are contained in the reports on surface water supply published annually by the Geological Survey. These records are of the greatest value in connection with the present and future regulation and utilization of the basin's largest asset water.

  20. Subsidence modeling of the Sabah Basin, a foreland basin, Northwest Borneo, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Azim-Ibrahim, N. ); White, N. )

    1994-07-01

    The Sabah Basin is located on the northwestern side of Borneo. It is a piggy back northeast-southwest-trending basin, riding on a north-westward directed imbricate thrust system. The basin contains approximately 10 to 12 km of sediment in the deepest part deposited in two main episodes of basin development; (1) a pre-early middle Miocene phase of generally deep-marine clastic deformation, which was later subjected to compression and (2) a post-early middle Miocene episode of clastic deposition, comprising bathyal to upper coastal plain sediments. Tectonic subsidence of the post-middle Miocene sequence was determined using the 1-D Airy and 2-D flexure backstripping techniques and wells and selected dip profiles, where the effects of compaction and sediment loading were removed. Variation in paleowater depth was also taken into account. The results show an extremely rapid subsidence phase dominating the earlier part of the basin history, with the later part corresponding to passive basin infilling. The boundary between these two phases becomes younger toward the northwest. The rapid subsidence phase is attributed to tectonic loading, possibly as a result of continuing thrusting at the basin margin. The results also imply that sedimentary sequences formed during the earlier phase were tectonically controlled and marked by transgressive events, while those deposited during the later phase bear the imprints of both tectonic and eustasy.

  1. Mechanics of basin inversion: Finite element modelling of the Pannonian Basin System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosinski, M.; Beekman, F.; Matenco, L.; Cloetingh, S.

    2011-04-01

    This finite element modelling study addresses the contraction of rheologically layered and laterally heterogeneous lithosphere representative for the Pannonian Basin and its surroundings. The time interval and strain rate adopted in the experiments reflect the Pliocene-Quaternary inversion of the basin. Several sets of fully coupled elastoviscoplastic thermo-mechanical, plane strain 2D models explore the evolution of buckling, and stress/strain changes across the lithosphere. The viscous rheology of the asthenosphere allows for a detailed simulation of isostatic rebound during deformation. The numerical models predict the successive development of surface undulations, caused by crustal and/or lithosphere folding, at three different characteristic wavelengths. Among these, the longest wavelength folds occur systematically at the rim of the basin as marginal bulges, while the short wavelength folds overprint the earlier folds and are observed at a later stage during compression. The thermo-mechanical evolution of the lithosphere in response to progressive horizontal contraction is described in terms of a characteristic delay of the changes in the stress regime and a reduction of elastic strain in the strong crustal layers. The models predict a change in stress state along the flanks of the basin, caused by the development of weak basin lithosphere in their vicinity. Comparing the modelling results with tectonic features of the Pannonian Basin has resulted in the identification of three different stages in the Pliocene-Quaternary basin inversion of the Pannonian-Carpathian system.

  2. Evolutionary mass-flow megaturbidites in interplate basin: example of the North Pyrenean basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrouilh, R.

    1986-05-01

    The Cretaceous North Pyrenean interplate basin develops in close relationship with the opening of the Bay of Biscay. The basin margins and its gravity sedimentary filling are related to differential movements of Iberian and European plates. Optimal climatic and morphologic conditions allow large amounts of carbonates to be deposited on its margins, major factors provoked the sedimentary and tectonic instability of the basin shelf and slope, particularly by reactivating a deep, ancient fault network. These events generated a single event or a series of successive autosuspended mass flows, which differentiate into megaturbidites, spreading over large areas of the basin floor. This large distribution of instantaneous evolutionary mass-flow megaturbidites, which pertain to the normal carbonate gravity sedimentation of the basin, allows us to determine: (1) paleoenvironments such as areas of paleoslopes; (2) the sedimentary and tectonic migration of the shelf break and of the basinal depocenter, and the relation of migration to regional plate tectonics; (3) evolution of local areas of special interest (petroleum geology), or evolution of the interplate basin, especially when it becomes a single trough (birth of first regional linear sequences); (4) interference of local centered transfer system (i.e., canyon fan or point slope fan) and regional linear transfer system (i.e., shelf break and slope).

  3. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  4. Evolution of the San Jorge basin, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.G. ); Uliana, M.A. ); Biddle, K.T. ); Mitchum, R.M. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The San Jorge basin, although small, is the most important hydrocarbon-producing basin in Argentina. Remaining untested potential is high because of the presence of good source rock, favorable structural complexity, and multiple reservoirs. Reservoir quality is commonly low because of the highly tuffaceous sandstones. The sedimentary fill of the basin is closely related to its tectonic history. Northwest-southeast-trending grabens formed and filled during a Triassic and Early Jurassic early rift phase, climaxing with a pervasive Middle Jurassic volcanic episode; continued growth and filling of the basin occurred during a Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous late rift phase and Cretaceous early and late sag phases. Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary extension set up many of the present-day structural traps along normal faults. Middle Tertiary Andean compression produced the narrow, north-south San Bernardo structural belt, which exhibits reversed movement on older, normal, graben-bounding faults and on local, low-angle thrust faults. Marked early to middle Tertiary erosion produced a significant unconformity within Cretaceous beds around basin margins. Origin of Upper Jurassic and lowermost Cretaceous sedimentary fill is primarily lacustrine or fluvial in origin. Lacustrine, organic-rich black shales are fringed by oolitic and other limestones and fluvial-deltaic sandstones derived mostly from the north. A significant southern source of sand existed during the Valanginian. Interbedded marine shales occur mostly to the west toward a presumed marine seaway connection to the northern Magallanes basin. Middle to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, sourced mostly from the north, are mainly fluvial sandstone-shale successions with some minor lacustrine influence. Reservoir quality glauconitic sands were deposited during a Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary marine incursion from the Atlantic.

  5. Atlantic Mesozoic marginal basins: an Iberian view

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.C.L.

    1987-05-01

    In the light of theoretical models for crustal stretching that precedes ocean opening, it is unlikely that Iberian basins have mirror image counterparts beneath North American or other European continental shelves. However, certain Iberian sedimentary sequences are comparable to those found in other basins. Of particular note are (1) the almost identical pre-rift sequences in all these areas, (2) the development of Upper Jurassic carbonate buildups in Portugal, Morocco, and beneath the Scotian Shelf, and (3) the hydrocarbon-bearing Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous synrift and postrift siliciclastics of North America, Iberia, and Aquitaine. In the prerift sequences, Triassic red beds are capped by evaporites, which subsequently influenced the structural development of basins. Intertidal and supratidal carbonates occur at the base of the Jurassic and are overlain by Lower and Middle Jurassic limestone-shale sequences, which in places contain bituminous shales. In Portugal only, resedimented carbonates of Toarcian-Aalenian age are associated with an uplifted basement horst. In Portugal, Aquitaine, and eastern Canada, Middle Jurassic high-energy carbonate platforms developed. Synrift siliciclastic sequences show spectacular evidence for deposition within fault-bounded basins. In Portugal, lower Kimmeridgian clastics are up to 3 km thick, but Upper-Lower Cretaceous sequences are relatively thin (ca. 1 km), in contrast to those of the Basco-Cantabrian region where they exceed 10 km. In the latter region occurs the fluvially dominated Wealden (Upper Jurassic-Neocomian) and Urgonian carbonate platforms and associated basinal sediments. In the Asturias basin, Kimmeridgian shales and fluvially dominated deltaic sandstones succeed conglomeratic fluvial sandstones of uncertain age.

  6. Paleohydrogeology of the San Joaquin basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, A.M.; Garven, G.; Boles, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transport can have a significant effect on chemical diagenetic processes in sedimentary basins. This paper presents results from the first part of a study that was designed to explore the role of an evolving hydrodynamic system in driving mass transport and chemical diagenesis, using the San Joaquin basin of California as a field area. We use coupled hydrogeologic models to establish the paleohydrogeology, thermal history, and behavior of nonreactive solutes in the basin. These models rely on extensive geological information and account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, tectonic uplift, sediment compaction, and clay dehydration. In our numerical simulations, tectonic uplift and ocean regression led to large-scale changes in fluid flow and composition by strengthening topography-driven fluid flow and allowing deep influx of fresh ground water in the San Joaquin basin. Sediment compaction due to rapid deposition created moderate overpressures, leading to upward flow from depth. The unusual distribution of salinity in the basin reflects influx of fresh ground water to depths of as much as 2 km and dilution of saline fluids by dehydration reactions at depths greater than ???2.5 km. Simulations projecting the future salinity of the basin show marine salinities persisting for more than 10 m.y. after ocean regression. Results also show a change from topography-to compaction-driven flow in the Stevens Sandstone at ca. 5 Ma that coincides with an observed change in the diagenetic sequence. Results of this investigation provide a framework for future hydrologic research exploring the link between fluid flow and diagenesis.

  7. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  8. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  9. Sedimentation in Canada Basin, Western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Shimeld, J.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Chapman, B.; Chian, D.; Childs, J. R.; Mayer, L. A.; Edwards, B. D.; Verhoef, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin on Earth. Marine seismic field programs were conducted during the past 5 years in order to study the geology, sedimentary history and geomorphology of the region. As part of this program, five annual icebreaker expeditions acquired bathymetric, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data on a regional scale. More than 12,000 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data and 120 sonobuoy seismic refraction records over abyssal plain and continental rise regions of Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Alpha Ridge were acquired. The success of these programs was achieved through novel technical modifications to equipment to permit towing in heavy ice conditions and through collaboration between multiple Canadian and US agencies and institutions, enabling utilization of two ice breakers during seismic and multibeam data acquisition in heavy ice. The seafloor of the Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. The sedimentary succession is generally flat lying with reflections extending over hundreds of km. These reflections onlap bathymetric highs, such as Alpha and Northwind ridges. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 6.5 km, and generally thins to the north and west. Reflection characteristics suggest that sediment volume input to the Arctic Ocean has been high and dominated by turbidity current deposition, similar to Amundsen and Nansen Basins of the eastern Arctic. These turbidites originate from the eastern and southern continental margins. There is no evidence of contemporaneous or post-depositional reworking by bottom currents. Additionally, there is little evidence of tectonic deformation after primary basin-forming events except in the NE quadrant, nearer Alpha Ridge. In this area, there is significant normal faulting propagating from basement through much of the

  10. Tectonic history of the Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolata, D.R.; Nelson, J.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The Illinois basin began as a failed rift that developed during breakup of a supercontinent approximately 550 Ma. A rift basin in the southernmost part of the present Illinois basin subsided rapidly and filled with about 3,000 m of probable Early and Middle Cambrian sediments. By the Late Cambrian, the rift-bounding faults became inactive and a broad relatively slowly subsiding embayment, extending well beyond the rift and open to the Iapetus Ocean, persisted through most of the Paleozoic Era. Widespread deformation swept through the proto-Illinois basin beginning in the latest Mississippian, continuing to the end of the Paleozoic Era. Uplift of basement fault blocks resulted in the formation of many major folds and faults. The timing of deformation and location of these structures in the forelands of the Ouachita and Alleghanian orogenic belts suggest that much of the deformation resulted from continental collision between North America and Gondwana. The associated compressional stress reactivated the ancient rift-bounding faults, upthrusting the northern edge of a crustal block approximately 1,000 m within the rift. Concurrently, dikes (radiometrically dated as Early Permian), sills, and explosion breccias formed in or adjacent to the reactivated rift. Subsequent extensional stress, probably associated with breakup of Pangea, caused the crustal block within the rift to sink back to near its original position. High-angle, northeast- to east-west-trending normal faults, with as much as 1,000 m of displacement, formed in the southern part of the basin. These faults displace some of the northwest trending Early Permian dikes. Structural closure of the southern end of the Illinois basin was caused by uplift of the Pascola arch sometime between the Late Pennsylvanian and Late Cretaceous.

  11. Ground Motion Prediction Atop Geometrically Complex Sedimentary Basins - The Dead Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani-Kadmiel, S.; Tsesarsky, M.; Louie, J. N.; Gvirtzman, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Dead Sea Transform (DST) is the source for some of the largest earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean. Several deep and structurally complex sedimentary basins are associated with the DST. These basins are up to 10 km deep and typically bounded by active fault zones. The low seismicity of the DST combined with the limited instrumental coverage of the seismic network in the area result in a critical knowledge gap. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the limited instrumental data with synthetic data based on computational modeling, in order to study the effects of earthquake ground motion in these sedimentary basins. We performed a 2D ground-motion analysis in the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) using a finite-difference code. Results indicate a complex pattern of ground motion amplification affected by the geometric features in the basin. To distinguish between the individual contributions of each geometrical feature in the basin, we developed a semiquantitative decomposition approach. This approach enabled us to interpret the DSB results as follows: (1) Ground-motion amplification as a result of resonance occurs basin-wide due to a high impedance contrast at the base of the uppermost layer; (2) Steep faults generate a strong edge-effect that further ampli- fies ground motions; (3) Sub-basins cause geometrical focusing that may significantly amplify ground motions; and (4) Salt diapirs diverge seismic energy and cause a de- crease in ground-motion amplitude. We address the significance of ground motion amplification due to geometrical focusing via an analytical and numerical study. We show that effective geometrical focusing occurs for a narrow set of eccentricities and velocity ratios, where seismic energy is converged to a region of ±0.5 km from surface. This mechanism leads to significant ground motion amplification at the center of the basin, up to a factor of 3; frequencies of the modeled spectrum are amplified up to the corner frequency of the source.

  12. An intramontane pull-apart basin in tectonic escape deformation: Elbistan Basin, Eastern Taurides, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufoğlu, H.

    2013-04-01

    The Elbistan Basin in the east-Central Anatolia is an intramontane structural depression in the interior part of the Anatolide-Tauride Platform. The Neogene fill in and around Elbistan Basin develops above the Upper Devonian to lower Tertiary basement and comprises two units separated by an angular unconformity: (1) intensely folded and faulted Miocene shallow marine to terrestrial and lacustrine sediments and (2) nearly flat-lying lignite-bearing lacustrine (lower unit) and fluvial (upper unit) deposits of Plio-Quaternary Ahmetçik Formation. The former is composed of Lower-Middle Miocene Salyan, Middle-upper Middle Miocene Gövdelidağ and Upper Miocene Karamağara formations whereas the latter one is the infill of the basin itself in the present configuration of the Elbistan Basin. The basin is bound by normal faults with a minor strike-slip component. It commenced as an intramontane pull-apart basin and developed as a natural response to Early Pliocene tectonic escape-related strike-slip faulting subsequent to post-collisional intracontinental compressional tectonics during which Miocene sediments were intensely deformed. The Early Pliocene time therefore marks a dramatic changeover in tectonic regime and is interpreted as the beginning of the ongoing last tectonic evolution and deformation style in the region unlike to previous views that it commenced before that time. Consequently, the Elbistan Basin is a unique structural depression that equates the extensional strike-slip regime in east-Central Anatolia throughout the context of the neotectonical framework of Turkey across progressive collision of Arabia with Eurasia. Its Pliocene and younger history differs from and contrasts with that of the surrounding pre-Pliocene basins such as Karamağara Basin, on which it has been structurally superimposed.

  13. 3D Geophysical modelling of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, to investigate basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber-Enslin, Stephanie; Ebbing, Jörg; Webb, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The Karoo Basin in South Africa has recently been identified as a possible source for shale gas. The basin which was deposited in the Late Carboniferous (300 Ma) to Middle Jurassic (180 Ma) presently covers an area of 600 000 km2. However, no clear tectonic model exists for the Karoo Basin, though several have been proposed including a retroarc foreland basin and subsidence of basement blocks combined with mantle flow. This study attempts to constrain a model using isostasy and flexure studies. In this study we present the first broad-scale 3D model of the Karoo basin based on teleseismic, reflection and refraction seismic, MT, borehole and potential field data, including satellite gravity data. The basin is shallowest in the northeast where it is underlain by the strong Archean Kaapvaal craton, and deepens over the weaker Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal mobile belt which surrounds the craton to the south and west. The basin is deepest just north of the Cape fold belt which stretches along the southern and southwestern coast of South Africa. We also present preliminary backstripping results from proximal and distal regions of the basin which reveal the extent of tectonic subsidence. The importance of including Cape syn- and post-rift sediments (~ 483 to 330 Ma) in the south in the analysis is highlighted. This allows for a complete understanding of the crustal strength at the time of Karoo deposition. Investigation of flexure profiles across the basin, from on to off-craton, show the effect of varying crustal strength during cycles of Cape orogenic loading (between 292 and 215 Ma).

  14. Contrasting basin architecture and rifting style of the Vøring Basin, offshore mid-Norway and the Faroe-Shetland Basin, offshore United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpfer, Kateřina; Hinsch, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    The Vøring and the Faroe-Shetland basins are offshore deep sedimentary basins which are situated on the outer continental margin of the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Both basins are underlain by thinned continental crust whose structure is still debated. In particular the nature of the lower continental crust and the origin of high velocity bodies located at the base of the lower crust are a subject of discussion in recent literature. Regional interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, combined with well data, suggest that both basins share several common features: (i) Pre-Cretaceous faults that are distributed across the entire basin width. (ii) Geometries of pre-Jurassic strata reflecting at least two extensional phases. (iii) Three common rift phases, Late Jurassic, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Palaeocene. (iv) Large pre-Cretaceous fault blocks that are buried by several kilometres of Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata. (iii). (v) Latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene inversion. (vi) Occurrence of partial mantle serpentinization during Early Cretaceous times, as proposed by other studies, seems improbable. The detailed analysis of the data, however, revealed significant differences between the two basins: (i) The Faroe-Shetland Basin was a fault-controlled basin during the Late Jurassic but also the Late Cretaceous extensional phase. In contrast, the Vøring Basin is dominated by the late Jurassic rifting and subsequent thermal subsidence. It exhibits only minor Late Cretaceous faults that are localised above intra-basinal and marginal highs. In addition, the Cretaceous strata in the Vøring Basin are folded. (ii) In the Vøring Basin, the locus of Late Cretaceous rifting shifted westwards, affecting mainly the western basin margin, whereas in the Faroe-Shetland Basin Late Cretaceous rifting was localised in the same area as the Late Jurassic phase, hence masking the original Jurassic geometries. (iii) Devono-Carboniferous and Aptian/Albian to Cenomanian rift phases

  15. View west of reserve basin of submarine trout and frigate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of reserve basin of submarine trout and frigate Edward E. McDonnell - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 17. VIEW OF SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING FLUME TRACK SPUR CROSSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING FLUME TRACK SPUR CROSSING OVER SETTLING BASIN, SPARE BENT MATERIAL IN RIGHT-HAND FOREGROUND, BYPASS FLUME, AND SHACK #6 IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  17. 14. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM TOWARD SETTLING BASIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM TOWARD SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING RIGHT FORK TO BYPASS, LEFT FORK TO BASIN - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  18. Geology of the Caloris basin, Mercury: a view from MESSENGER.

    PubMed

    Murchie, Scott L; Watters, Thomas R; Robinson, Mark S; Head, James W; Strom, Robert G; Chapman, Clark R; Solomon, Sean C; McClintock, William E; Prockter, Louise M; Domingue, Deborah L; Blewett, David T

    2008-07-04

    The Caloris basin, the youngest known large impact basin on Mercury, is revealed in MESSENGER images to be modified by volcanism and deformation in a manner distinct from that of lunar impact basins. The morphology and spatial distribution of basin materials themselves closely match lunar counterparts. Evidence for a volcanic origin of the basin's interior plains includes embayed craters on the basin floor and diffuse deposits surrounding rimless depressions interpreted to be of pyroclastic origin. Unlike lunar maria, the volcanic plains in Caloris are higher in albedo than surrounding basin materials and lack spectral evidence for ferrous iron-bearing silicates. Tectonic landforms, contractional wrinkle ridges and extensional troughs, have distributions and age relations different from their counterparts in and around lunar basins, indicating a different stress history.

  19. View westsouthwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west-southwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.

    1999-05-01

    The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore reparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin.

  1. Hazard categorization of 105-KE basin debris removal project

    SciTech Connect

    Meichle, R.H.

    1996-01-25

    This supporting document provides the hazard categorization for 105-KE Basin Debris Removal Project activities planned in the K east Basin. All activities are categorized as less than Hazard Category 3.

  2. Early sedentary economy in the basin of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Niederberger, C

    1979-01-12

    Artifactual and nonartifactual evidence from the lacustrine shores of the Chalco-Xochimilco Basin suggest the existence of fully sedentary human communities in the Basin of Mexico from at least the sixth millennium B.C.

  3. 2. CATCH BASIN, INFLOW PIPES AT CENTER, COLD FLOW LABORATORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CATCH BASIN, INFLOW PIPES AT CENTER, COLD FLOW LABORATORY AT LEFT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Catch Basin, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  4. A global distributed basin morphometric dataset.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinyi; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N; Mei, Yiwen; Hong, Yang

    2017-01-05

    Basin morphometry is vital information for relating storms to hydrologic hazards, such as landslides and floods. In this paper we present the first comprehensive global dataset of distributed basin morphometry at 30 arc seconds resolution. The dataset includes nine prime morphometric variables; in addition we present formulas for generating twenty-one additional morphometric variables based on combination of the prime variables. The dataset can aid different applications including studies of land-atmosphere interaction, and modelling of floods and droughts for sustainable water management. The validity of the dataset has been consolidated by successfully repeating the Hack's law.

  5. Basins of attraction for chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Erik A.; Panaggio, Mark J.; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Chimera states—curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators—typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we evaluate asymptotic states and associated destination maps, and demonstrate that basins form a complex twisting structure in phase space. Understanding the basins’ precise nature may help in the development of control methods to switch between chimera patterns, with possible technological and neural system applications.

  6. Isidis Basin, Mars: Geology and Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2003-04-01

    Building on Bridges et al. [2003, JGR 108], we are currently studying the general geologic history and evolution of the Isidis basin based on topographic and imaging data obtained by orbiting spacecraft such as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey. This study complements our recently completed analyses on Syrtis Major to the west [Hiesinger and Head, 2002, LPSC 1063] and the transition between Syrtis Major and Isidis [Ivanov and Head, 2002, LPSC 1341]. We are interested in a number of scientific questions, for example, what are the characteristics of the Isidis rim and what caused its present morphology? What is the role and fate of volatiles in the Isidis basin and what are the characteristics of the uppermost surface layer? Does the floor of the Isidis basin primarily consist of volcanic plains as indicated by wrinkle ridges and cone-like features, material deposited by a catastrophic collapse of the rim as proposed by Tanaka et al. [2000, GRL 29], or of sediments deposited in an ocean as suggested by Parker et al. [1989, Icarus 82]? What is the stratigraphy of the deposits within the Isidis basin and what processes were responsible for its present appearance? For our study we used MOLA topography data with a spatial resolution of 128 pixel/deg. The data allowed us to obtain a detailed view of the Isidis basin, its structure, stratigraphy, geologic history and its evolution. Our preliminary investigation let us conclude that (1) the basin floor is tilted towards the southwest with about 0.015 degree, (2) there are 2 types of ridges within the Isidis basin, (3) ridges of the thumbprint terrain are ~10-50 m high, less than ~5-7 km wide, and occur at narrowly constrained elevations of ~-3600 to -3700 m, (4) these ridges occur only within the innermost ring structure and most of them are not exposed at the lowest elevations, (5) wrinkle ridges are ~75-100 m high, less than ~70 km wide, hundreds of kilometers long and occur over a wide range of elevations, (6

  7. Megafans of the Northern Kalahari Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Miller, R. McG.; Eckardt, F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We identify eleven megafans (partial cones of fluvial sediment, >80 km radius) in the northern Kalahari Basin, using several criteria based on VIS and IR remotely sensed data and SRTM-based surface morphology reconstructions. Two other features meet fewer criteria of the form which we class as possible megafans. The northern Kalahari megafans are located in a 1700 km arc around the southern and eastern flanks of the Angola's Bié Plateau, from northern Namibia through northwest Botswana to western Zambia. Three lie in the Owambo subbasin centered on the Etosha Pan, three in the relatively small Okavango rift depression, and five in the Upper Zambezi basin. The population includes the well-known Okavango megafan (150 km), Namibia's Cubango megafan, the largest megafan in the region (350 km long), and the largest nested group (the five major contiguous megafans on the west slopes of the upper Zambezi Valley). We use new, SRTM-based topographic roughness data to discriminate various depositional surfaces within the flat N. Kalahari landscapes. We introduce the concepts of divide megafans, derived megafans, and fan-margin rivers. Conclusions. (i) Eleven megafan cones total an area of 190,000 sq km. (ii) Different controls on megafan size operate in the three component basins: in the Okavango rift structural controls become the prime constraint on megafan length by controlling basin dimensions. Megafans in the other les constricted basins appear to conform to classic relationships fan area, slope, and feeder-basin area. (iii) Active fans occupy the Okavango rift depression with one in the Owambo basin. The rest of the population are relict but recently active fans (surfaces are relict with respect to activity by the feeder river). (iv) Avulsive behavior of the formative river-axiomatic for the evolution of megafans-has resulted in repeated rearrangements of regional drainage, with likely effects in the study area well back into the Neogene. Divide megafans comprise the

  8. Atlas of major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Baranoski, M.T.; Flaherty, K.; Humphreys, M.; Smosna, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    This regional study of gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin has four main objectives: to organize all of the -as reservoirs in the Appalachian basin into unique plays based on common age, lithology, trap type and other geologic similarities; to write, illustrate and publish an atlas of major gas plays; to prepare and submit a digital data base of geologic, engineering and reservoir parameters for each gas field; and technology transfer to the oil and gas industry during the preparation of the atlas and data base.

  9. A global distributed basin morphometric dataset

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xinyi; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Mei, Yiwen; Hong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Basin morphometry is vital information for relating storms to hydrologic hazards, such as landslides and floods. In this paper we present the first comprehensive global dataset of distributed basin morphometry at 30 arc seconds resolution. The dataset includes nine prime morphometric variables; in addition we present formulas for generating twenty-one additional morphometric variables based on combination of the prime variables. The dataset can aid different applications including studies of land-atmosphere interaction, and modelling of floods and droughts for sustainable water management. The validity of the dataset has been consolidated by successfully repeating the Hack’s law. PMID:28055032

  10. Science for the changing Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, Erik; Pyke, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with its multidisciplinary structure and role as a federal science organization, is well suited to provide integrated science in the Great Basin of the western United States. A research strategy developed by the USGS and collaborating partners addresses critical management issues in the basin, including invasive species, status and trends of wildlife populations and communities, wildfire, global climate change, and riparian and wetland habitats. Information obtained through implementation of this strategy will be important for decision-making by natural-resource managers.

  11. Conservation in the Delaware River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Featherstone, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) has embarked on an ambitious water conservation program to reduce the demand for water. Conservation has become an integral component of the commission`s strategy to manage water supplies in the four-state Delaware River Basin. The program includes both regulatory and educational initiatives. DRBC has adopted five conservation regulations, which pertain to source metering, service metering, leak detection and repair, water conservation performance standards for plumbing fixtures and fittings, and requirements for water conservation plans and rate structures. DRBC also sponsors information and education events, such as symposiums on selected topics and water conservation technology transfer sessions with major industrial and commercial groups.

  12. Magnetic crustal features in the Vinchina basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, Cecilia; Ariza, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Marcos; Gimenez, Mario; Christiansen, Rodolfo

    2017-07-01

    This research based on geological and geophysical data encompasses the South Central Andes region between 28 S and 31 S. We observed a region of high-magnetic susceptibility linked to sources located beneath the Vinchina basin through anomaly calculations and enhancing techniques using aerial and terrestrial magnetic data. The Curie Point Depth (CPD) obtained from the magnetic anomalies reflects a cold crust of approximately 50 km thick with CPD values of up to 40 km. These results are consistent with those obtained by other authors by means of mineral, isotopic, and thermo-chronological analysis in clay levels of the Vinchina basin sedimentary infill.

  13. A global distributed basin morphometric dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinyi; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Mei, Yiwen; Hong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Basin morphometry is vital information for relating storms to hydrologic hazards, such as landslides and floods. In this paper we present the first comprehensive global dataset of distributed basin morphometry at 30 arc seconds resolution. The dataset includes nine prime morphometric variables; in addition we present formulas for generating twenty-one additional morphometric variables based on combination of the prime variables. The dataset can aid different applications including studies of land-atmosphere interaction, and modelling of floods and droughts for sustainable water management. The validity of the dataset has been consolidated by successfully repeating the Hack's law.

  14. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.

    2017-06-01

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  15. Old Basin Filled by Smooth Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Old basin, 190 km in diameter, filled by smooth plains at 43 degrees S, 55 degrees W. The basin's hummocky rim is partly degraded and cratered by later events. Mariner 10 frame 166607.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  16. Tectonic differences between eastern and western sub-basins of the Qiongdongnan Basin and their dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianbao; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei; Qiu, Ning; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2015-03-01

    The central depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin can be divided into the eastern and western sub-basins by the Lingshui-Songnan paleo-uplift. To the northwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to EW, and later to NW; In the southwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to NNE, and then to NW, making the central depression much wider towards the west. In the eastern sub-basin, the NE-striking faults and the EW-striking faults made up an echelon, making the central depression turn wider towards the east. Fault activity rates indicate that faulting spreads gradually from both the east and west sides to the middle of the basin. Hence, extensional stress in the eastern sub-basin may be related to the South China Sea spreading system, whereas the western sub-basin was more under the effect of the activity of the Red River Fault. The extreme crustal stretching in the eastern sub-basin was probably related to magmatic setting. It seems that there are three periods of magmatic events that occurred in the eastern sub-basin. In the eastern part of the southern depression, the deformed strata indicate that the magma may have intruded into the strata along faults around T60 (23.3 Ma). The second magmatic event occurred earlier than 10.5 Ma, which induced the accelerated subsidence. The final magmatic event commenced later than 10 Ma, which led to today's high heat flow. As for the western sub-basin, the crust thickened southward, and there seemed to be a southeastward lower crustal flow, which happened during continental breakup which was possibly superimposed by a later lower crustal flow induced by the isostatic compensation of massive sedimentation caused by the right lateral slipping of the Red River Fault. Under the huge thick sediment, super pressure developed in the western sub-basin. In summary, the eastern sub-basin was mainly affected by the South China Sea spreading system and a magma setting, whereas the western sub-basin had a closer

  17. SimBasin: serious gaming for integrated decision-making in the Magdalena-Cauca basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Joanne; Angarita, Hector; Corzo, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    The Magdalena-Cauca macrobasin covers 24% of the land area of Colombia, and provides more than half of the country's economic potential. The basin is also home a large proportion of Colombia's biodiversity. These conflicting demands have led to problems in the basin, including a dramatic fall in fish populations, additional flooding (such as the severe nationwide floods caused by the La Niña phenomenon in 2011), and habitat loss. It is generally believed that the solution to these conflicts is to manage the basin in a more integrated way, and bridge the gaps between decision-makers in different sectors and scientists. To this end, inter-ministerial agreements are being formulated and a decision support system is being developed by The Nature Conservancy Colombia. To engage stakeholders in this process SimBasin, a "serious game", has been developed. It is intended to act as a catalyst for bringing stakeholders together, an illustration of the uncertainties, relationships and feedbacks in the basin, and an accessible introduction to modelling and decision support for non-experts. During the game, groups of participants are led through a 30 year future development of the basin, during which they take decisions about the development of the basin and see the impacts on four different sectors: agriculture, hydropower, flood risk, and environment. These impacts are displayed through seven indicators, which players should try to maintain above critical thresholds. To communicate the effects of uncertainty and climate variability, players see the actual value of the indicator and also a band of possible values, so they can see if their decisions have actually reduced risk or if they just "got lucky". The game works as a layer on top of a WEAP water resources model of the basin, adapted from a basin-wide model already created, so the fictional game basin is conceptually similar to the Magdalena-Cauca basin. The game is freely available online, and new applications are being

  18. Active intra-basin faulting in the Northern Basin of Lake Malawi from seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillington, D. J.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Scholz, C. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Onyango, E. A.; Peterson, K.; Gaherty, J. B.; Nyblade, A.; Accardo, N. J.; McCartney, T.; Oliva, S. J.; Kamihanda, G.; Ferdinand, R.; Salima, J.; Mruma, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Many questions remain about the development and evolution of fault systems in weakly extended rifts, including the relative roles of border faults and intra-basin faults, and segmentation at various scales. The northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift in the East African Rift System is an early stage rift exhibiting pronounced tectonic segmentation, which is defined by 100-km-long border faults. The basins also contain a series of intrabasinal faults and associated synrift sediments. The occurrence of the 2009 Karonga Earthquake Sequence on one of these intrabasinal faults indicates that some of them are active. Here we present new multichannel seismic reflection data from the Northern Basin of the Malawi Rift collected in 2015 as a part of the SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project. This rift basin is bound on its east side by the west-dipping Livingstone border fault. Over 650 km of seismic reflection profiles were acquired in the Northern Basin using a 500 to 1540 cu in air gun array and a 1200- to 1500-m seismic streamer. Dip lines image a series of north-south oriented west-dipping intra-basin faults and basement reflections up to 5 s twtt near the border fault. Cumulative offsets on intra-basin faults decrease to the west. The largest intra-basin fault has a vertical displacement of >2 s two-way travel time, indicating that it has accommodated significant total extension. Some of these intra-basin faults offset the lake bottom and the youngest sediments by up to 50 s twtt ( 37 m), demonstrating they are still active. The two largest intra-basin faults exhibit the largest offsets of young sediments and also correspond to the area of highest seismicity based on analysis of seismic data from the 89-station SEGMeNT onshore/offshore network (see Peterson et al, this session). Fault patterns in MCS profiles vary along the basin, suggesting a smaller scale of segmentation of faults within the basin; these variations in fault patterns

  19. Invasion of the Brazilian campo rupestre by the exotic grass Melinis minutiflora is driven by the high soil N availability and changes in the N cycle.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pâmella C D; Menendez, Esther; da Silva, Danielle L; Bonieck, Douglas; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Resende-Stoianoff, Maria Aparecida; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna; Mateos, Pedro F; Scotti, Maria Rita

    2017-01-15

    The Serra do Rola Moça State Park (PESRM) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil is a preserved site representative of the campo rupestre biome over an ironstone outcrop that has a high level of plant diversity. Almost 60% of this grassy field has been invaded by the exotic molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora), which constitutes a severe threat to the biodiversity and survival of this biome, particularly due to the impacts of annual fires and inappropriate restoration interventions. Many invasive species exhibit a high demand for nitrogen (N). Hence, this work aimed to study the N cycle alterations promoted by M. minutiflora in a site of the campo rupestre, where the leguminous species Mimosa pogocephala was prevalent. The biome's soils exhibited a high natural N fertility and low C:N ratio. The main N source in this biome resulted from the biological N fixation performed by M. pogocephala associated with Burkholderia nodosa, as evidenced by the total leaf N content, leaf δ(15)N signature, nodule occupation and bacterial molecular identification analyses. The displacement of native species by molasses grass was associated with changes in the soil N forms, namely the nitrate increased as the ammonium decreased. The latter was the dominant N form in the native species plots, as observed in the soil analysis of total N, ammonium and nitrate contents. The dominant ammonium form was changed to the nitric form by the stimulation of ammonia-oxidising bacteria populations due to the invasive species. Therefore, the key mechanism behind the invasiveness of the exotic grass and the concomitant displacement of the native species may be associated with changes in the soil N chemical species. Based on this finding and on the high N-based soil fertility found in the campo rupestre N fertilisation procedures for restoration of invaded areas should be strictly avoided in this biome.

  20. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

  1. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-10-31

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals.

  2. A new survey of multiring impact basins on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.A.; Frey, H.V. )

    1990-08-30

    Multiring impact basins have profoundly influenced the geologic evolution of Mars. The authors compile and summarize the evidence for Martian impact basins and suggest eight new examples. Multiring basins on Mars define three morphologic subclasses with increasing basin size. Basins having diameters 300 < D < 1,850 km are morphologically comparable to the classic lunar Orientale basin. Argyre type basins (1,850 < D < 3,600 km) are characterized by a rugged annulus and concentric grabens. The largest, Chryse type basins (D > 3,600 km) have extremely shallow topographic profiles and numerous concentric structures expressed as scarps, massifs, and channels. Radial and concentric structures analogous to those associated with Orientale are not apparent for basins of Argyre size or larger. These variations in basin morphology and structure may be associated with mechanical interactions between basin-forming impacts, relatively thin, weak lithosphere, and, for the largest impacts, spherical target geometry. Multiring basins are recognized on all parts of Mars, including Tharsis, Elysium, and the northern lowlands. Much of the subsequent resurfacing of cratered terrain such as Lunae Planum ridged plains is associated spatially with multiring basins. Nucleation of long-lived volcanic complexes in Tharsis and Elysium was probably aided by early impact basins. The planetary terrain dichotomy was probably established during the period of heavy meteoritic bombardment, and subsequent processes in the northern plains region were not sufficiently vigorous to destroy or completely obscure the underlying multiring basin fabric. The revised population of multiring basins is consistent with the size frequency distribution of craters < 500 km in diameter on Mars.

  3. [Species from genus Eimeria observed in domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces raised at the Municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Adriana J; Mayen, Friederike L; de Oliveira, Francisco C R

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to identify species of the genus Eimeria from eleven rabbit meat breeders from Campos dos Goytacazes. Fecal samples were collected from rabbits with different health conditions and consintence of feces. The following species of Eimeria were identified: E. perforans; E. magna; E. coecicola; E. irresidua; E. media; E. flavescens; E. nagpurensis; E. intestinalis, E. exigua and E. stiedae. Parasites from this genus were detected in 81.82% (9) of the rabbit meat production sites, regardless of the management and hygiene conditions. In all cases the infection was always caused from more than one species of Eimeria.

  4. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  5. Procedures for ensuring community involvement in multijurisdictional river basins: a comparison of the Murray-Darling and Mekong river basins.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Jonathan L; Ewing, Sarah A; Bird, Juliet F

    2002-04-01

    Community involvement is fundamental to the management of multijurisdictional river basins but, in practice, is very difficult to achieve. The Murray-Darling basin, in Australia, and the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia are both cooperatively managed multijurisdictional river basins where the management authorities have expressed an aim of community involvement. In the Murray-Darling basin vigorous efforts have promoted a culture of community consultation throughout each of the state jurisdictions involved, although true participation has not necessarily been achieved. In the Mekong basin the community is much more diverse and the successes so far have been largely at the local level, involving action in subsections of the basin. These case studies suggest that community involvement in the form of community consultation across large multijurisdictional river basins is achievable, but more comprehensive participation is not necessarily possible.

  6. Georgia Basin-Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report, 2012 was undertaken to characterize the air quality within the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound region,a vibrant, rapidly growing, urbanized area of the Pacific Northwest. The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characteri...

  7. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974 (Pub...

  8. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity...

  9. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L...

  10. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L...

  11. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public...

  12. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ....20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L...

  13. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L...

  14. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L...

  15. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L...

  16. Integrated Worker Radiation Dose Assessment for the K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-10-27

    This report documents an assessment of the radiation dose workers at the K Basins are expected to receive in the process of removing spent nuclear fuel from the storage basins. The K Basins (K East and K West) are located in the Hanford 100K Area.

  17. Streamflow and basin characteristics at selected sites in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melcher, N.B.; Ruhl, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Common basin and streamflow characteristics for sites in Kentucky are presented. Basin characteristics include quantified drainage basin parameters and statistics on areal rainfall. Streamflow characteristics include tables for mean, high and low flow frequencies and partial duration discharge. The data listed in this report are for continuous and low-flow partial-record sites. (USGS)

  18. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  19. Status of the interior Columbia Basin: summary of scientific findings.

    Treesearch

    Forest Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1996-01-01

    The Status of the Interior Columbia Basin is a summary of the scientific findings from the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. The Interior Columbia Basin includes some 145 million acres within the northwestern United Stales. Over 75 million acres of this area are managed by the USDA Forest Service or the USDI Bureau of Land Management. A framework...

  20. Notice of release of 'Trailhead II' basin wildrye

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Trailhead II' basin wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love] is a tetraploid basin wildrye release for use in re-vegetation efforts on rangelands of western North America. Trailhead II is the result of two cycles of recurrent selection within the basin wildrye cultivar 'Trailhead' for r...

  1. Work plan for 105KE Basin seal conveyor relocation

    SciTech Connect

    Tedeschi, D.J.

    1994-08-25

    This engineering work plan will support the activities of a pilot encapsulation of the spent fuel rods at 105KE Basin for the Hanford Site. The plan is to move and resue any existing encapsulation equipment in the Basin to another part of the Basin. This plan will discuss the activities involved in moving the seal conveyor system.

  2. Daily Flow Model of the Delaware River Basin. Main Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    of the Catskills and adjacent mountains . In the lower portion of the basin rolling hills gradually diminish to the low areas in the Atlantic Coastal... Mountain range which runs northeasterly through the middle of the basin. The upper basin consists of the eastern slopes of the Poconos and the western slopes

  3. Midplate seismicity exterior to former rift-basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Midplate seismicity associated with some former rift-zones is distributed diffusely near, but exterior to, the rift basins. This "basin-exterior' seismicity cannot be attributed to reactivation of major basin-border faults on which uppercrustal extension was concentrated at the time of rifting, because the border faults dip beneath the basins. The seismicity may nonetheless represent reactivation of minor faults that were active at the time of rifting but that were located outside of the principal zones of upper-crustal extension; the occurrence of basin-exterior seismicity in some present-day rift-zones supports the existence of such minor basin-exterior faults. Other hypotheses for seismicity exterior to former rift-basins are that the seismicity reflects lobes of high stress due to lithospheric-bending that is centered on the axis of the rift, that the seismicity is localized on the exteriors of rift-basins by basin-interiors that are less deformable in the current epoch than the basin exteriors, and that seismicity is localized on the basin-exteriors by the concentration of tectonic stress in the highly elastic basin-exterior upper-crust. -from Author

  4. Georgia Basin-Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report, 2012 was undertaken to characterize the air quality within the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound region,a vibrant, rapidly growing, urbanized area of the Pacific Northwest. The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characteri...

  5. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.

    Treesearch

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...

  6. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-08-01

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  7. Ghaba salt basin province and Fahud salt basin province, Oman; geological overview and total petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Three Total Petroleum Systems each consisting of one assessment unit have been identified in the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces of north-central Oman. One Total Petroleum System and corresponding assessment unit, the North Oman Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) Total Petroleum System (201401) and Ghaba- Makarem Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20140101), were identified for the Ghaba Salt Basin Province (2014). In the Fahud Salt Basin Province, however, two overlapping Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were recognized: (1) the North Oman Huqf?Shu?aiba(!) TPS (201601); Fahud-Huqf Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20160101), and (2) the middle Cretaceous Natih(!) TPS (201602); Natih-Fiqa Structural/Stratigraphic Assessment Unit (20160201). The boundary for each Total Petroleum System also defines the boundary of the corresponding assessment unit and includes all trap styles and hydrocarbon-producing reservoirs within the petroleum system. In both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces, hydrocarbons were generated from several deeply buried source rocks within the Infracambrian Huqf Supergroup. One general ?North Oman Huqf? type oil is dominant in the Fahud Salt Basin. Oils in the Ghaba Salt Basin are linked to at least two distinct Huqf source-rock units based on oil geochemistry: a general North Oman Huqf-type oil source and a more dominant ?questionable unidentified source? or ?Q?-type Huqf oil source. These two Huqf-sourced oils are commonly found as admixtures in reservoirs throughout northcentral Oman. Hydrocarbons generated from Huqf sources are produced from a variety of reservoir types and ages ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous in both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces. Clastic reservoirs of the Gharif and Al Khlata Formations, Haushi Group (middle Carboniferous to Lower Permian), dominate oil production in the Ghaba Salt Basin Province and form the basis for the Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) TPS. In contrast, the Lower Cretaceous Shu?aiba and middle Cretaceous

  8. Basin development and tectonic history of the Llanos Basin, Eastern Cordillera, and Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.A.; Addison, F.T.; Alvarez, R.

    1995-10-01

    The Middle Magdalena Valley, Eastern Cordillera, and Llanos basin constituted a major regional sedimentary basin from the Triassic to the middle Miocene. Basin development began during the Triassic to the earliest Cretaceous with a synrift megasequence related to the separation of North and South America in the proto-Caribbean. The synrift megasequence began with deposition in a continental environment that became paralic and shallow marine in the Early Cretaceous. Basin development continued into the Cretaceous in a back-arc setting east of the Andean subduction zone. The back-arc megasequence was dominated by shallow-marine sedimentation and produced an excellent regional source rock during the Turonian-Coniacian. Marine deposition was abruptly terminated during the early Maastrichtian due to the final accretion of the Western Cordillera.

  9. Somali Basin, Chain Ridge, and origin of the Northern Somali Basin gravity and geoid low

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Geophysical data are used to investigate the origin of the Northern Somali Basin and its relationship to surrounding tectonic elements. The results show the Northern Somali Basin to be the third of a series of oceanic basins separated by long transform faults created during movement between East and West Gondwanaland. The flexure resulting from differential subsidence across Chain Ridge along with the difference in lithospheric thermal structure on either side of it can account for the amplitude and shape of the observed geoid step and gravity anomalies across Chain Rige. It is suggested that the geoid and gravity low over the Northern Somali Basin may result from the superposition of a continental edge effect anomaly and the fracture zone edge effect anomaly.

  10. Somali Basin, Chain Ridge, and origin of the Northern Somali Basin gravity and geoid low

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Geophysical data are used to investigate the origin of the Northern Somali Basin and its relationship to surrounding tectonic elements. The results show the Northern Somali Basin to be the third of a series of oceanic basins separated by long transform faults created during movement between East and West Gondwanaland. The flexure resulting from differential subsidence across Chain Ridge along with the difference in lithospheric thermal structure on either side of it can account for the amplitude and shape of the observed geoid step and gravity anomalies across Chain Rige. It is suggested that the geoid and gravity low over the Northern Somali Basin may result from the superposition of a continental edge effect anomaly and the fracture zone edge effect anomaly.

  11. Potential for a basin-centered gas accumulation in the Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The Raton Basin appears to contain a significant continuous or basin-centered gas accumulation in sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Trinidad Sandstone and Vermejo Formation and Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Raton Formation. The accumulation is underpressured and occurs at comparatively shallow (<3,500 ft) depths. The sandstones are interbedded with coal beds that are currently being developed for coal-bed methane, and the coals are the likely source for gas found in the sandstones. Based on analogs with other Rocky Mountain basins, relatively water-free production should occur where levels of thermal maturity in the coals exceed a vitrinite reflectance value of 1.1 percent. This level of thermal maturity occurs over much of the central part of the Raton Basin. Because of the shallow depths, some of the accumulation has probably been degraded by surface water invasion.

  12. How large is the Indus Basin? Facts, artefacts and basin delineation improvement needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif

    2017-04-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are increasingly used for basin boundaries delineation in a variety of hydro-climatic studies. However, accuracy of basin areas depends on quality of DEMs and adopted methods. This study presents auto and supervised delineation in a case study of the Indus Basin (IB), which originates in the Himalayan Mountains and ends in the Arabian Sea. The published estimates of the IB area show significant variability, ranging from 866,000 to 1,230,000 km2. Auto-delineation has been carried out using four DEMs: 1. GTOPO 30 (1km resolution), 2. GTOPO 30 Hydro1K (1km resolution), 3. CGIAR SRTM DEM (90m resolution), and 4. HydroSHEDS SRTM DEM (90m resolution). It is shown that discrepancies between different estimates reflect differences in the initial extent of the DEMs used for basin delineation, and are due to reiterating auto pit-filling process. Four critical points (where overestimates were suspected) have been selected, based on auto-delineated streams together with overlay of the minimum and maximum available basin boundaries, and were evaluated based on Google Earth and flow data. This study shows that the Pangong basin (in western Tibet), Gaggar-Hakra basin (starts from Himachal Pradesh and ends in the western part of the Thar desert) concomitant with downstream part of the Sukkur Barrage are not part of the IB, but are areas of either internal drainage basins or downstream command areas of the Indus River. Our best estimate of the IB area is 833,000 km2, and is in good agreement with the basin area by HydroSHEDS. This study recommends a revisit of earlier hydro-climatic studies, which are based on overestimated basin boundaries, and recommends to use the current study's results for future improvements. The important cautionary message of current study is to adopt supervised delineation, and to evaluate accuracy of auto-delineated areas based on geomorphology and flow data, particularly when there are endorheic lake basins or deserts in

  13. Central Mississippi River Basin LTAR site overview

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) member of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is representative of the southern Corn Belt, where subsoil clay content makes tile drainage challenging and make surface runoff and associated erosion problematic. Substantial research infrastru...

  14. Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts for African Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Valdes, J. B.; Wi, S.; Roy, T.; Roberts, J. B.; Robertson, F. R.; Demaria, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Using high resolution downscaled seasonal meteorological forecasts we present the development and evaluation of seasonal hydrologic forecasts with Stakeholder Agencies for selected African basins. The meteorological forecasts are produced using the Bias Correction and Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD) methodology applied to NMME hindcasts (North American Multi-Model Ensemble prediction system) to generate a bootstrap resampling of plausible weather forecasts from historical observational data. This set of downscaled forecasts is then used to drive hydrologic models to produce a range of forecasts with uncertainty estimates suitable for water resources planning in African pilot basins (i.e. Upper Zambezi, Mara Basin). In an effort to characterize the utility of these forecasts, we will present an evaluation of these forecast ensembles over the pilot basins, and discuss insights as to their operational applicability by regional actors. Further, these forecasts will be contrasted with those from a standard Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach to seasonal forecasting. The case studies presented here have been developed in the setting of the NASA SERVIR Applied Sciences Team and within the broader context of operational seasonal forecasting in Africa. These efforts are part of a dialogue with relevant planning and management agencies and institutions in Africa, which are in turn exploring how to best use uncertain forecasts for decision making.

  15. Middle Rio Grande Basin Research Report 2008

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Catherine Dold

    2008-01-01

    An ecosystem is rarely static. A natural system composed of plants, animals, and microorganisms interacting with an area's physical factors, an ecosystem is always fluctuating and evolving. But sometimes, often at the hands of humans, ecosystems change too much. Such is the case with many of the ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico.

  16. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Within this submission are multiple .tif images with accompanying metadata of magnetotelluric conductor occurrence, fault critical stress composite risk segment (CRS), permeability CRS, Quaternary mafic extrusions, Quaternary fault density, and Quaternary rhyolite maps. Each of these contributed to a final play fairway analysis (PFA) for the SE Great Basin study area.

  17. Petroleum geology of Tembungo Area, Sabah Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul Jalil, M. ); Komoo, I. )

    1994-07-01

    Tembungo area, located in the central part of the Sabah Basin, is a highly prolific hydrocarbon play. This is reflected by the discovery of Tembungo Field in 1971, which has been producing oil for more than 19 yr. Petronas (PRSS) has recently reassessed the remaining potential of the area by undertaking an integrated study to determine structural and stratigraphic evolution, reservoir characteristic, source rock potential, entrapment styles, and hydrocarbon potential. The results indicate that Tembungo oil has been generated from dominantly terrigenous organic matter derived from coastal and inland vegetation. The reservoir sandstones, which were deposited during middle to upper Miocene, were evidently transported from a shallow coastal region into a bathyal environment by turbidity current. These sandy sediments entered the basin from the south and southeast through canyons and channels, and spread into the basin in the form of deep-water fan complexes. Shales that dominated the sedimentary sequences in the basin formed an effective cap rock. Integrated study of Tembungo area reveals the presence of a number of structural and stratigraphic prospects significant for hydrocarbon exploration. Some stratigraphic prospects include wedge-out and pinch-out. Paleochannel distribution pattern is an important factor in controlling the highly potential prospects as it provides clues to the presence or absence of reservoir rocks. Combined with structural and stratigraphic features, several new prospects have been identified and ranked.

  18. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  19. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  20. The Newly Discovered Rembrandt Impact Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-05

    This NAC mosaic of the newly discovered Rembrandt impact basin was presented last week during a NASA media teleconference. The number per area and size distribution of impact craters superposed on Rembrandt rim indicates that it is one of the younges