Science.gov

Sample records for campus sao paulo

  1. University of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Acquadro, J.C.; Added, N.; Ferraretto, M.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has agreed to assist the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in the construction of a small superconducting heavy-ion linac to serve as an energy booster for projectiles from their 8-MV tandem. This booster will be similar in many respects to the ANL booster linac built in the late 1970s. The ANL contribution to this project will be (1) to build (at USP expense) 14 split-ring niobium resonators and some of the associated rf electronics, (2) to provide technical information, and (3) to train USP staff members in several phases of superconducting-linac technology. Two Brazilian engineers worked at Argonne for one year, gaining experience in cryogenics and in superconducting-resonator technology. Another engineer worked on the new control system at ATLAS for two years, the first year supported by Sao Paulo and the second with direct ANL support. Sao Paulo personnel returned to ANL in 1993 for assembly and testing of the first batch of completed resonators. The fabrication of the resonators will be completed by early 1995 when the Sao Paulo personnel will come back for final assembly and testing. Fabrication of electronics modules at ANL is still in progress.

  2. Analysis of knowledge in astronomy of the students of technology in industrial automation at the Federal Institute Sao Paulo at the campus Cubatao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Capasso Moraes, Ataliba

    This work is part of a research of the academic Masters in Science in Education in its final stages. It seeks to present the results of the survey conducted among students of the technology course in industrial automation at the Federal Institute São Paulo at the Campus Cubatão. In the first step, the students’ lack of knowledge to the related primary concepts of Astronomy turned out. Correcting these deficiencies found, external to the program content, a Basic Course in Astronomy, containing dialogued or expository lectures with the aid of audiovisual resources and access to textbooks. Analyzed the responses of this second step, it was found that students had a significant improvement in learning.

  3. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  4. Clinical engineering & equipment policy for Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wang, B

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive equipment policy was established for the health system of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Research, development and regulation issues were integrated with all phases of the equipment life cycle, including: planning, procurement, acceptance testing, commissioning, maintenance, repair, refitting, and decommissioning. This policy was implemented by a multidisciplinary group, which advised and coordinated planning and procurement, created a technology management and maintenance network composed of clinical engineering teams and reference centers, and worked closely with manufacturers, universities and research institutes to improve the quality and increase the variety of domestic medical products in order to substitute for imported devices.

  5. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-09-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  6. Discussing the air pollution of Sao Paulo City -- Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Assuncao, J.V. de; Filho, J.B.G.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Sao Paulo has a population of about 10 million people (1998 estimate) and a vehicle fleet of about 4.5 millions. A great increase in the ratio of persons per car occurred in the last 28 years, starting from 11.4 persons per car in 1970 and reaching 2.2 persons per car in 1998, a ratio similar to those in developed countries. The population of the city represents about 6% of the Brazilian population, 30% of the State population, and 61% of Metropolitan population. In the 60's and in the beginning of the 70's the air quality in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region and in Sao Paulo City was more influenced by industrial sources. Nowadays emissions in the metropolitan region come mainly from vehicles (94.8% of CO, 94.9% of NO{sub x}, 94.3% of HC and 54.1% of SO{sub x}, in 1997) and 40% contribution in relation to inhaling particulate (PM10) and in the city of Sao Paulo the contribution of vehicle emissions is the same or greater. Light-duty vehicles are powered by gasohol, a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22%, ethanol, and by plain ethanol. Heavy-duty vehicles are diesel oil fueled. A great concern exists in relation to health effects of small sized particulate and photochemical oxidants and its precursors. Besides the implementation of a strong air pollution control for stationary sources of particulate and sulfur dioxide, since the 70's and the existence of a federal law that established a program of emission control for new vehicles in 1986, only the sulfur dioxide control program was successful since the air quality levels of other common pollutants are still above the air quality standards for some part of the year. Other attempts were made in the last years, like the prohibition of free circulation of 20% of cars each day during the weekdays (rodizio of cars). Even with that the air quality levels don't meet the standards the all year, and other measures must be taken to solve the problem.

  7. Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation in the City of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro, Eduardo W.; Oliveira, Amauri P.; Soares, Jacyra; Ferreira, Mauricio J.; Boznar, Marija Z.; Mlakar, Primoz; Escobedo, Joao F.

    2009-03-11

    This work evaluates objectively the consistency and quality of a 9 year dataset based on 5 minute average values of downward longwave atmospheric (LW) emission, shortwave radiation, temperature and relative humidity. All these parameters were observed simultaneously and continuously from 1997 to 2006 in the IAG micrometeorological platform, located at the top of the IAG-USP building. The pyrgeometer dome emission effect was removed using neural network technique reducing the downward long wave atmospheric emission error to 3.5%. The comparison, between the monthly average values of LW emission observed in Sao Paulo and satellite estimates from SRB-NASA project, indicated a very good agreement. Furthermore, this work investigates the performance of 10 empirical expressions to estimate the LW emission at the surface. The comparison between the models indicates that Brunt's one presents the better results, with smallest ''MBE,''''RMSE'' and biggest ''d'' index of agreement, therefore Brunt is the most indicated model to estimate LW emission under clear sky conditions in the city of Sao Paulo.

  8. The Sao Paulo Microtron: Equipment and Planned Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, M. N.; Maidana, N. L.; Vanin, V. R.

    2007-10-26

    The Linear Accelerator Laboratory (LAL) of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP) is building a two-stage racetrack microtron, which will generate continuous wave electron beams with energies up to 38 MeV. This paper describes the characteristics of the accelerator, and reports on the experimental equipment that will be available in order to pursue the photonuclear physics research program. Operation will begin with the first stage (5 MeV), and concentrate on NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) measurements and radiation physics studies. Planned experiments for the second stage explore the cw character of the beam on coincidence experiments. A photon tagger has been already tested with radioactive sources and is ready to be installed. Gamma and neutron detector arrays are being developed for the detailed study of photoneutron reactions. Plans include the study of NRF and pygmy resonances, near the neutron binding energy.

  9. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  10. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  11. The new structure of the gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.A.J.

    1998-07-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of natural gas is leading to a significant increase in the importance of the gas industry in Brazil. This new era is already causing major changes in the existing gas distribution companies. Gas distribution concessions are a natural monopoly and the growth in demand for this energy source will require that these growing concessions are regulated. The south/south-east of Brazil is the center of the country's industrial base and the State of Sao Paulo is where most of the manufacturing activity is located. In addition, natural gas from Bolivia is scheduled to arrive in the State of Sao Paulo at the end of 1998. These two facts combined will mean major changes in the operations of manufacturing industry and in the gas supply business. Comparing the experience faced by other countries where a competitive environment in the gas industry has been introduced with privatization programs and the dismantlement of monopolies, this paper attempts to look into the future of the natural gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo in respect to the possible regulation that might be applicable, focusing on the new regulatory framework proposed to the gas industry sector and the perspectives for the introduction of the competition in gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo.

  12. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  13. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally defined).…

  14. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  15. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  16. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:20004487

  17. Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

  18. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  19. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  20. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  2. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  3. [Measles outbreak in the metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Eder Gatti; Oliveira, Maria Emília Braite de; Fred, João; Carelli, Luzia Auxiliadora; Lima, Gisele Dias de Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Yu, Ana Lucia Frugis

    2013-12-01

    Brazil has not had endemic circulation of the measles virus since 2000. Between May and June 2011, the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, State of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, reported three cases of measles. This report presents a descriptive study of the cases, control measures, and the search for a possible source and secondary cases. The genotypic characterization of the virus identified genotype D4, circulating in Europe. Secondary cases or index case were not found. The control measures and adequate vaccination coverage in Metropolitan Region of Campinas contributed to the interruption of disease transmission. PMID:24626560

  4. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  5. [The Sao Paulo labor force: a critical analysis of data sources].

    PubMed

    Costa, L B

    1990-01-01

    The author traces the recent evolution of the labor force in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. After a comparison of the two main sources of labor statistics, the decennial census and the annual survey entitled Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios, her findings are presented separately by sex for the period 1971-1988. An increase in the number of women who are heads of households is shown across most age groups and all types of union. Data are also included by sex on educational status, unemployment, residence characteristics, and hours of work.

  6. Income inequality and male homicide rates: Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1996-2007.

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2009-12-01

    In Sao Paulo, Brazil, homicides to men aged 15-44 years increased with an annual percentage change (APC) of 4.7% from 1996 to 2001, and then decreased from 2001 to 2007 with an APC of -14.6%. Analyzing the intra-urban distribution according to family income, the increase in the homicide rate was restricted to men living in the poorest neighbourhoods. In contrast, the decline in homicide rates was observed to men living in all districts. The reasons for this 'up and down' trend are not clear.

  7. Ticks infesting birds in Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Ileyne Tenório; Costa, Luís Flávio da Silva; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we report tick infestations on wild birds in plots of the Atlantic Forest reforested fragments with native species and plots reforested with Eucalyptus tereticornis in the municipality of Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 256 birds were captured: 137 individuals of 33 species, in planted native forest; and 128 individuals of 37 species, in planted Eucalyptus tereticornis forest. Nymphs of two tick species were found on the birds: Amblyomma calcaratum and Amblyomma longirostre, the former was more abundant in the fragments reforested with Atlantic forest native species, and the latter in the fragment reforested with E. tereticornis. New host records were presented for A. calcaratum.

  8. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  9. Blood alcohol levels in suicide by hanging cases in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zerbini, Talita; Ponce, Julio de Carvalho; Mayumi Sinagawa, Daniele; Barbosa Cintra, Raquel; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2012-07-01

    Suicide is one of the main causes of violent death worldwide, and has become a public health issue. Since alcohol consumption is associated with the increase in the number of suicides and hanging is one of the main methods used worldwide, the present study consists of an epidemiological analysis of BACs in victims of suicide by hanging autopsied in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The objective of the present work was to establish an epidemiological profile and evaluate blood alcohol concentrations in victims of suicide by hanging in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2007. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted by collection of secondary data from autopsy reports of victims of hanging. According to the present study, positive results for alcohol were higher in male victims, but the mean BAC was higher in women.

  10. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  11. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed…

  12. FREQUENCY AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PATHOGENS AT TERTIARY PUBLIC HOSPITAL, SAO PAULO, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Azevedo, Alexandre Mario; Nakashima, Myriam Amemiya; Xavier, José Murilo Buzato Villaron; Cabral, Claudete

    2015-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. This study determined both prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms identified during January to December 2012 at a tertiary public hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Data, hospital length of stay, age, identity of microorganisms, and antimicrobial susceptibilities were obtained from patients' records. A total of 724 positive strains were obtained from different body sites. Gram-negative microorganisms are significantly more prevalent than gram-positive microorganisms (p = 0.001). In all clinics analyzed, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (21.6%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.4%). Extended spectrum β-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae was present in 62.7% of the strains and 18.9% were resistant to carbapenem/meropenem. Acinetobacter baumannii showed multidrug resistance. The majority of Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from positive urinary tract cultures (63.4%), with 27.5% resistant against cefepime. Elderly patients, long periods of hospital stay and continuous usage of a single antibiotic should be kept in mind of possible causes for infection of A. baumannii, ESBL and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae and the worrisome E. coli with increased resistance to cefepime. The data allowed us to implement monitoring programs as part of the prevention strategy against pathogens prevalence and antibiotic resistance burden at Ipiranga Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  13. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  14. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  15. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.; Assuncao, J.V. de

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  16. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  17. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  18. The Water Crisis in Sao Paulo City: Drought and its Climate Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, Sao Paulo city had its largest water shortage in history. By the end of the first half of 2014, the Cantareira system of water reservoirs, which is responsible for supplying fresh water for about 9 million people in the city, dried to less than 10% of its active storage, leading to a critical situation and the need to pump water from its dead storage and allocate water from other smaller systems of reservoirs in order to meet the demand of the city and avoid a mandatory water rationing. Understanding and identifying the leading factors for such a water crisis is critical for the security of the city. Here, we investigate historical data of water levels and inflows into the Cantareira system and of the rainfall series over the contributing basin in order to estimate the contribution of climate factors to the variability of the water storage levels at the Cantareira system and shed some light on the main causes of the current water shortage. Preliminary results based on natural inflow data from 1930 to 2014 and water storage levels from 2004 through 2014 reveal that, about 60% of the low frequency (beyond seasonal cycle) variance in the storage level trends is explained by trends in the inflows. A remarkably monotonic decreasing trend of about 1.5% per month in the storage levels is observed since 2010 and is closely associated with a similar decreasing trend in the inflows into the system for the period. In fact, the annual average inflow for 2012 (25.6 m3/s) and 2013 (25.7 m3/s) was 65% of the long term average and still below the 2004-2012 average withdrawal to supply Sao Paulo (26.64 m3/s). By the end of the 2013 rainy season the system had accumulated 63% of its total capacity, but the persistence of low inflows and high temperatures during 2013 did not allowed any increase in the water levels. In 2014 austral summer the system experienced the worst hydrological drought since 1930 based on the available streamflow records. The average inflow for the

  19. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  20. The Impact of Antipsychotic Polytherapy Costs in the Public Health Care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. Objective To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider´s perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. Results 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Conclusion Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money

  1. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p < 0.001), but no relationship between fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p < 0.05). Understanding the relationship between local neighborhood environments and increasing rates of poor diet, physical activity, and obesity is essential in countries undergoing rapid economic and urban development, such as Brazil, in order to provide insights for policies to reduce increasing rates of NCDs and food access and health inequalities. PMID:21327549

  2. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  3. Reconnaissance for uranium in the coal of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Pierson, Charles T.; White, Max G.

    1958-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale of the Rio Bonito formation of Pennsylvanian age have been found in the States of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarlna and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The uranium oxide content of the samples collected in the State of Sao Paulo ranges from 0.001 percent to 0.082 percent. The samples collected in Santa Catarina averaged about 0.002 percent uranium oxide; those collected in Rio Grande do Sul, about 0.003 percent uranium oxide. Since the field and laboratory investigations are still in their initial stages, only raw data on the radioactivity and uranium content of Brazilian coals are given in this report.

  4. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  5. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study - the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study - were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  6. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  7. Tiering strategic environmental assessment and project environmental impact assessment in highway planning in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Luis E. Silva-Sanchez, Solange S.

    2008-10-15

    Constructing highways in dense urban areas is always a challenge. In Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, heavy truck traffic contributes to clog streets and expressways alike. As part of the traffic neither originates nor head to the region, a peripheral highway has been proposed to reduce traffic problems. This project, called Rodoanel, is an expressway approximately 175 km long. The fact that the projected south and north sections would cross catchments that supply most of the metropolis water demand was strongly disputed and made the environmental permitting process particularly difficult. The agency in charge commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of a revamped project, and called it the Rodoanel Programme. However, the SEA report failed to satisfactorily take account of significant strategic issues. Among these, the highway potential effect of inducing urban sprawl over water protection zones is the most critical issue, as it emerged later as a hurdle to project licensing. Conclusion is that, particularly where no agreed-upon framework for SEA exists, when vertical tiering with downstream project EIA is sought, then a careful scoping of strategic issues is more than necessary. If an agreement on 'what is strategic' is not reached and not recognized by influential stakeholders, then the unsettled conflicts will be transferred to project EIA. In such a context, SEA will have added another loop to the usually long road to project approval.

  8. The acoustics for speech of eight auditoriums in the city of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2002-11-01

    Eight auditoriums with a proscenium type of stage, which usually operate as dramatic theaters in the city of Sao Paulo, were acoustically surveyed in terms of their adequacy to unassisted speech. Reverberation times, early decay times, and speech levels were measured in different positions, together with objective measures of speech intelligibility. The measurements revealed reverberation time values rather uniform throughout the rooms, whereas significant variations were found in the values of the other acoustical measures with position. The early decay time was found to be better correlated with the objective measures of speech intelligibility than the reverberation time. The results from the objective measurements of speech intelligibility revealed that the speech transmission index STI, and its simplified version RaSTI, are strongly correlated with the early-to-late sound ratio C50 (1 kHz). However, it was found that the criterion value of acceptability of the latter is more easily met than the former. The results from these measurements enable to understand how the characteristics of the architectural design determine the acoustical quality for speech. Measurements of ST1-Gade were made as an attempt to validate it as an objective measure of ''support'' for the actor. The preliminary diagnosing results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented.

  9. Incidence of Leptospirosis infection in the East Zone of Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which is spread through contamined running water. This contaminations is seriously affected by the flooding which occurs in the area surrounding the Aricanduva river. The transmission of the disease results mainly from the contact of water with soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological survey on Leptospirosis cases in Sao Paulo East Zone area. Method The analysis conducted in this study was based on data collected from the health authorities of that region close the Aricanduva river between 2007 and 2008 years, which give the rates of confirmed cases, mortality and death from human Leptospirosis. Other information concerned with the relationships among rainfall index, points of flooding and incidence of Leptospirosis. Results We observed a direct and important water contamination. Records of flooding points and dates of the reported cases in the region showed a direct relationship from which the period of higher rainfall also recorded an increase in cases. The annual record of the city and the region and rainfall regions also presented correlation. Conclusion The association between the indices of flooding and Leptospirosis cases indicates that preventive measures are necessary to avoid exposing the community. PMID:23672682

  10. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure. PMID:12313650

  11. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure.

  12. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  13. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  14. The Impact of Epidemic Violence on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Quintana, Maria Inês; Dewey, Michael E.; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Aims To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007–2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses – e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001). Conclusion Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors

  15. Chemical-mineralogical characterization of C and D waste recycled aggregates from Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Angulo, S.C. Ulsen, C. John, V.M. Kahn, H. Cincotto, M.A.

    2009-02-15

    This study presents a methodology for the characterization of construction and demolition (C and D) waste recycled aggregates based on a combination of analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soluble ions, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) selective dissolution). These combined analytical techniques allow for the estimation of the amount of cement paste, its most important hydrated and carbonated phases, as well as the amount of clay and micas. Details of the methodology are presented here and the results of three representative C and D samples taken from the Sao Paulo region in Brazil are discussed. Chemical compositions of mixed C and D aggregate samples have mostly been influenced by particle size rather than the visual classification of C and D into red or grey and geographical origin. The amount of measured soluble salts in C and D aggregates (0.15-25.4 mm) is lower than the usual limits for mortar and concrete production. The content of porous cement paste in the C and D aggregates is around 19.3% (w/w). However, this content is significantly lower than the 43% detected for the C and D powders (<0.15 mm). The clay content of the powders was also high, potentially resulting from soil intermixed with the C and D waste, as well as poorly burnt red ceramic. Since only about 50% of the measured CaO is combined with CO{sub 2}, the powders have potential use as raw materials for the cement industry.

  16. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  17. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, A.M.M.; Guenther, W.M.R.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  18. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  19. Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joao Leandro Paula; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Lança, Andre Minhoto; de Almeida, Valeria Correia; Rocha, Simone Queiroz; Ragazzo, Taisa Grotta; Estevam, Denise Lotufo; Brigido, Luis Fernando de Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naïve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas), the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR), and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%–11.9%). Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17) with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%), potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35%) had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%); other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection (P < 0.05). PMID:23401688

  20. Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joao Leandro Paula; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Lança, Andre Minhoto; de Almeida, Valeria Correia; Rocha, Simone Queiroz; Ragazzo, Taisa Grotta; Estevam, Denise Lotufo; Brigido, Luis Fernando de Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naïve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas), the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR), and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%-11.9%). Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17) with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%), potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35%) had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%); other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection (P < 0.05).

  1. [Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?].

    PubMed

    Takitane, Juliana; de Oliveira, Lucio Garcia; Endo, Ligia Góes; de Oliveira, Keziah Cristina Barbosa Gruber; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Yonamine, Mauricio; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-05-01

    The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134) were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to traffic accidents and the related effects.

  2. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  3. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  4. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  5. Numerical Study of the Wintertime Planetary Boundary Layer Development in the Urban Area of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.; Miranda, R. M.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    The gradual replacement of natural by built surfaces and the ongoing emission of particulate matter and other pollutants that happens in urban environments, besides degrading the environment, influence the local weather and climate patterns. Urban areas have different albedo, heat and hydraulic capacity and conductivity, roughness, emissivity, and transmissivity, when compared to naturally vegetated areas. This set of characteristics may change the surface energy budget, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric chemical composition, wind direction and velocity, and therefore the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The effects of urbanization on the PBL have been studied in many mid-latitude areas, however in the tropical or subtropical areas they are scarce. The MCITY Brazil project developed in 2 cities of Brazil, Sao Paulo (23°32' S) and Rio de Janeiro (latitude 22° 55' S), has provided the necessary data to properly investigate the effects of urbanization in these two cities. The project included a campaign of soundings launched every 3 hours for 10 consecutive days in August (Austral winter) from an airport at the north part of the city of Sao Paulo, that allowed the study of the PBL development, and also the measurements of the components of the energy budget equation by micrometeorological towers. Therefore, the goal of this work is to simulate the development of the PBL in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo during winter, comparing its characteristics in urbanized and non urbanized sites, in order to assess the impact of urbanization on the development of the PBL in this area. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a single layer urban canopy parameterization (SLUCM) and realistic anthropogenic heat diurnal evolution. Preliminary results showed that the model is able to reproduce the PBL development during the campaign, including the passage of a cold-frontal system. The urban PBL reaches greater heights during the day than

  6. [Journal of the Nursing School of the University of Sao Paulo -- 36 years looking after the quality of nursing care].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Angelo, Margareth; Castilho, Valéria; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo; Trzeniak, Piotr

    2004-03-01

    REEUSP has been a trimestrial journal since 1998, which publishes 11 to 13 articles per issue on different nursing subareas; most of them on teaching, health technology, adult health (in its different specialties), mental and psychiatric health. The article and research emphasis keeps on the hospital. For being linked to a teaching unit, it presents quality on its publishing; many times produced from thesis and dissertations. It faces the challenge of stimulating the publishing of authors from other institutions; for not becoming endogenous. On the last 10 years, it received and published articles from 18 Brazilian states and several country cities from Sao Paulo State. Its graphic design was also remodeled for 2003, allowing higher clearness and easiness for reading. It accepts exchange with other journals and it is indexed on many basis. It was gotten a C international classification by CAPES.

  7. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  8. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  9. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05). Genera Pen/Asp were correlated to the total mass of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05) and colorless ascospores were correlated to humidity ( p < 0.05). Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  10. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  11. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  13. Changes in the spatial distribution of O3, NO and CO in different vehicular emission scenarios in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiquetto, J. B.; Silva, M. E. S.; Ynoue, R.; Cabral-Miranda, W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) has been investigated using the WRF/Chem model version 3.2.1 in a 1X1 km emission grid. Based on a local emission inventory, a control simulation (CTRL) was performed for the period 28/01-02/02/2014, during a summer season characterized by intense solar radiation and temperature positive anomalies, which resulted in high pollutant concentration. Sensitivity tests were performed using different vehicular emission scenarios and CTRL. In scenario A), emissions were removed from a region which encompasses almost the entire urban area of the SPMA, only roads in the outskirts had regular emissions. Comparing scenario A) to CTRL, sharp decreases in CO, NO and NO2 were observed inside the SPMA. Ozone decreased slighlty during the day, probably due to the significant absence of precursor emissions which form ozone during the day in the presence of sunlight. On the other hand, ozone concentrations increased at night, influenced by the absence of ozone-consuming precursors inside the densely urbanized SPMA, in the absence of sunlight. In scenario B), we removed emissions from a smaller area, corresponding roughly to an expanded downtown area (where a few traffic restriction laws operate). The goal of this scenario was to observe possible impacts if more strict traffic restriction laws were implemented. In scenario C), emissions were decreased by 50% in the same area, in an attempt to characterize concentrations in an urban toll scenario. Results from scenarios B) and C) showed a decrease in NO, NO2 and CO, but less intense than in scenario A). On the other hand, a higher increase in ozone was detected both during the day and at night compared to the CTRL and scenario A). These results suggests that, along with lower concentrations of precursor gases and CO, higher ozone concentrations are likely to be expected in downtown Sao Paulo if more severe traffic restriction laws should be implemented. This is concerning

  14. Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the protocol for an epidemiological and genetic survey

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Quintana, Maria Ines; Guindalini, Camila; Breen, Gerome; Blay, Sergio Luis; Coutinho, Evandro SF; Harpham, Trudy; Jorge, Miguel Roberto; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Moriyama, Tais S; Quarantini, Lucas C; Gadelha, Ary; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Yeh, Mary SL; Prince, Martin; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mello, Marcelo F; Dewey, Michael E; Ferri, Cleusa P; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Background violence is a public health major concern, and it is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric outcomes. Brazil is one of the most violent countries in the world, and has an extreme social inequality. Research on the association between violence and mental health may support public health policy and thus reduce the burden of disease attributable to violence. The main objectives of this project were: to study the association between violence and mental disorders in the Brazilian population; to estimate the prevalence rates of exposure to violence, post-traumatic stress disorder, common metal disorder, and alcohol hazardous use and dependence: and to identify contextual and individual factors, including genetic factors, associated with the outcomes. Methods/design one phase cross-sectional survey carried out in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A multistage probability to size sampling scheme was performed in order to select the participants (3000 and 1500 respectively). The cities were stratified according to homicide rates, and in Sao Paulo the three most violent strata were oversampled. The measurements included exposure to traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses (CIDI 2.1), contextual (homicide rates and social indicators), and individual factors, such as demographics, social capital, resilience, help seeking behaviours. The interviews were carried between June/2007 February/2008, by a team of lay interviewers. The statistical analyses will be weight-adjusted in order to take account of the design effects. Standardization will be used in order to compare the results between the two centres. Whole genome association analysis will be performed on the 1 million SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays, and additional association analysis will be performed on additional phenotypes. The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of Sao Paulo approved the study, and participants who matched diagnostic criteria have been

  15. Assessing the Health Benefits of Urban Air Pollution Reductions Associated with Climate Change Mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, and New York City

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the potential local health benefits of adopting greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, developed scenarios of GHG mitigation for Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and New York, New York, USA using air pollution health impact factors appropriate to each city. These findings illustrated that GHG mitigation can provide considerable local air pollution-related public health benefits to countries that choose to abate GHG emissions by reducing fossil fuel combustion.

  16. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (P<0·001) and higher in individuals with lower educational level (P=0·01) and current smokers (P=0·02). The main dietary contributors for total polyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries.

  17. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (P<0·001) and higher in individuals with lower educational level (P=0·01) and current smokers (P=0·02). The main dietary contributors for total polyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries. PMID:26810764

  18. Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Odón R; Ynoue, Rita Y; Martins, Leila D; Astolfo, Rosana; Miranda, Regina M; Freitas, Edmilson D; Borges, Alessandro S; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Freitas, Helber; Moreira, Andréa; Andrade, Maria F

    2009-02-01

    In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can provide information about emission factors of in-use vehicles. Emission factors are used to estimate vehicular emissions and are described as the amount of species emitted per vehicle distance driven or per volume of fuel consumed. This study presents emission factor data for fine particles, coarse particles, inhalable particulate matter and black carbon, as well as size distribution data for inhalable particulate matter, as measured in March and May of 2004, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros and Maria Maluf road tunnels, both located in São Paulo. The Jânio Quadros tunnel carries mainly light-duty vehicles, whereas the Maria Maluf tunnel carries light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. In the Jânio Quadros tunnel, the estimated light-duty vehicle emission factors for the trace elements copper and bromine were 261 and 220 microg km(-1), respectively, and 16, 197, 127 and 92 mg km(-1), respectively, for black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles. The mean contribution of heavy-duty vehicles to the emissions of black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles was, respectively 29, 4, 6 and 6 times higher than that of light-duty vehicles. The inhalable particulate matter emission factor for heavy-duty vehicles was 1.2 times higher than that found during dynamometer testing. In general, the particle emissions in São Paulo tunnels are higher than those found in other cities of the world. PMID:18228152

  19. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Pinto, Osmar, Jr.; Naccarato, Kleber; Saba, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  20. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs.

  1. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods.

  2. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  3. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  4. Nitro-PAH compounds in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilia, R.; Cecinato, A.; Tomasi Scianò, M. C.; Vasconcellos, P.; Carvalho, L.; Mathos, L.; Franco, L.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) are the chemical class with potent mutagenic compounds. These species are emitted from a wide range of combustion sources. Some compounds can be formed photo chemically via reactions of their parents PAH with OH or NO_3 radicals (in the presence of NO_2) in the gas phase as well as N_2O_5 or HNO_3 when parent PAH is associated with aerosols. In the tropics, an important source of particulate PAH and nitro-PAH is biomass burning used for clearings in forest and for making easier the harvesting of sugar cane. Brazil owns 25% of global sugar cane and is the major producer in the world. This burning produces soot, which remains for along time in the air and can cause respiratory diseases. This study was conducted in 3 cities in São Paulo State during sugar cane burning episodes. Back trajectories were calculated by University of São Paulo Trajectory Model for determination of air parcel trajectories over the sites. Atmospheric samples were collected on quartz fiber filters for 24 hours in high-volume sampler during one week. A Soxhlet apparatus filled with methylene chloride was used for extracting the filters. This residue was submitted to HPLC separation and the 3 obtained fractions (n-alkanes, PAH and nitro-PAH) were analyzed by both gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection. The isomers 2-, 3-, 8-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene were identified and results show large differences between the sites. 2-nitropyrene/2-nitrofluoranthene ratios were calculated indicating the daytime reactions promoted by OH radicals.

  5. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  6. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  7. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. PMID:20515500

  8. [Effects of the PROALCOOL program on migratory behavior in the state of Sao Paulo: the case of Ribeirao Preto].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Sao Paulo, particularly in the region of Ribeiros Preto.

  9. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil▿

    PubMed Central

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from <3 to 105 most probable number (MPN)/g. Densities correlated significantly with water temperature (r = 0.48; P < 0.001) but not with salinity (r = −0.09; P = 0.34). The effect of harvest site on counts was not significant (P > 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  10. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  11. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (Sao Vicente Channel is included) would be important to confirm if this pattern of bioaccumulation can be extended to the population of C. danae of this estuary.

  12. Size and spatial distribution of stray dog population in the University of São Paulo campus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Borba, Mauro Riegert; Guarnieri, Maria Cristina de Lourdes; Prist, Ricardo; Ferreira, Fernando; Amaku, Marcos; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Stevenson, Mark

    2013-06-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to describe the size and spatial distribution of the stray dog population in the University of São Paulo campus, Brazil from November 2010 to November 2011. The campus is located within the urban area of São Paulo, the largest city of Brazil, with a population over 11 million. The 4.2 km(2) that comprise the university grounds are walled, with 10 access gates, allowing stray dogs to move in and out freely. Over 100,000 people and 50,000 vehicles circulate in the campus daily. Five observations were made during the study period, using a mark-resight method. The same route was performed in all observations, being traveled twice on each observation day. Observed animals were photographed and the sight coordinates were obtained using a GPS device. The estimated size of the stray dog population varied from 32 (CI 95% 23-56) to 56 (CI 95% 45-77) individuals. Differences between in- and outward dog movements influenced dog population estimates. Overlapping home ranges of docile dogs were observed in areas where most people circulate. An elusive group was observed close to a protected rain forest area and the estimated home range for this group did not overlap with the home ranges for other dogs within the campus. A kernel density map showed that higher densities of stray dog sighting is associated with large organic matter generators, such as university restaurants. We conclude that the preferred source of food of the stray dogs on the University of São Paulo campus was leftover food deliberately offered by restaurant users. The population was stable during the study period and the constant source of food was the main reason to retain this population within the campus.

  13. Size and spatial distribution of stray dog population in the University of São Paulo campus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Borba, Mauro Riegert; Guarnieri, Maria Cristina de Lourdes; Prist, Ricardo; Ferreira, Fernando; Amaku, Marcos; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Stevenson, Mark

    2013-06-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to describe the size and spatial distribution of the stray dog population in the University of São Paulo campus, Brazil from November 2010 to November 2011. The campus is located within the urban area of São Paulo, the largest city of Brazil, with a population over 11 million. The 4.2 km(2) that comprise the university grounds are walled, with 10 access gates, allowing stray dogs to move in and out freely. Over 100,000 people and 50,000 vehicles circulate in the campus daily. Five observations were made during the study period, using a mark-resight method. The same route was performed in all observations, being traveled twice on each observation day. Observed animals were photographed and the sight coordinates were obtained using a GPS device. The estimated size of the stray dog population varied from 32 (CI 95% 23-56) to 56 (CI 95% 45-77) individuals. Differences between in- and outward dog movements influenced dog population estimates. Overlapping home ranges of docile dogs were observed in areas where most people circulate. An elusive group was observed close to a protected rain forest area and the estimated home range for this group did not overlap with the home ranges for other dogs within the campus. A kernel density map showed that higher densities of stray dog sighting is associated with large organic matter generators, such as university restaurants. We conclude that the preferred source of food of the stray dogs on the University of São Paulo campus was leftover food deliberately offered by restaurant users. The population was stable during the study period and the constant source of food was the main reason to retain this population within the campus. PMID:23273378

  14. Challenges in Developing a Cancer Oriented-Biobank: Experience from a 17 Year-Old Cancer Biobank in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Antonio Hugo Jose Froes Marques; Soares, Fernando Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Brazil and Latin America will face a cancer epidemic in the coming years. Efforts towards cancer prevention, early detection and treatment must be associated with active research that helps understanding the geographical variations of this disease. The creation of cancer-oriented biobanks should be part of this strategy. This article outlines the challenges of establishing a cancer-oriented biobank at the A. C. Camargo Center, a private, non-profit institution located in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We analyze important issues related to the day-to-day operations of the biobank within an institutional and national context, as well as the lessons learned over the years. It is hoped that the information contained in this paper will be useful for the development of other biobanks in Brazil and other countries in Latin America.

  15. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  16. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development. PMID:23950068

  17. [Professional trajectory of obstetric nurses from the University of Sao Paulo College of Nursing: a focus on social phenomenology].

    PubMed

    Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the experiences of students that were enrolled in the Obstetric Nursing Program offered by the University of São Paulo College of Nursing. Data were collected through interviews with the former students, who had different life histories after their graduation. The proposal of this research was based on Alfred Schutz' Social Phenomenology framework, considering that people express, in their actions socially experienced, the meaning of these experiences. Results showed two social types: the ones who continue in the area because they like what they do and the ones who do not work in the area as they were disappointed with the lack of professional autonomy. The reasons mentioned offer important guidelines that must be analyzed by the ones who are still working in the area, by the class associations and the ones who are responsible for the capacitation of these professionals. PMID:12641050

  18. The Spatial Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone Concentration Associated to Land Use in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiquetto, Julio; Siqueira Silva, Maria Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric Pollution presents a great challenge in the environmental and health management of the great urban centres, affecting all who reside in these locations. Presently, one of the most hazardous pollutants in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) is tropospheric ozone (O3). Its formation and control are influenced by a number of different factors, which involve precursor emission, atmospheric and environmental variables such as incoming shortwave solar radiation, and land use in the surroundings of the monitoring site (which alter atmospheric chemistry locally), creating a complex picture of temporal and spatial distribution of this pollutant in the study area. In addition to its complexity, O3 does not present a decreasing tendency through the years in the study area and its highest concentrations are measured in places often visited by the population, such as urban parks and squares, yet typical of having lower concentrations of vehicular pollution. In order to properly assess these issues, a better understanding of the processes related to the control of tropospheric ozone is required. Using data from the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), we intend to study the spatial distribution of tropospheric ozone in the SPMA. Previous works on the subject have shown that land use is an important factor in the control of O3 concentrations. From this understanding, we intend to look for associations between ozone concentrations and land use throughout the city, and also in specific locations, such as parks and squares, known for high ozone concentrations in the city. In order to assess the impact of land use change in the pollutant's concentration, the atmospheric model WRF/Chem will be used. This will be done by replacing, in the model, a typically urbanized area in the city by that of a park, and checking the impacts on ozone concentrations afterwards. Through sensitivity tests in the model, we also intend to work with other parametrizations that define the

  19. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  20. Assessing the infection risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public drinking water delivered by surface water systems in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sato, Maria Ines Z; Galvani, Ana Tereza; Padula, Jose Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Lauretto, Marcelo de Souza; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Hachich, Elayse Maria

    2013-01-01

    A survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was conducted in surface water used as drinking water sources by public water systems in four densely urbanized regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, based on protozoa concentrations, was performed to estimate the probability of protozoa infection associated with drinking water ingestion. A total of 206 source water samples were analyzed over a 24 month period using the USEPA Method 1623. The risk of infection was estimated using an exponential dose response model, children and adults exposure and a gamma distribution for (oo)cyst concentrations with three scenarios for treating censored data. Giardia was detected in 102 of the samples, and 19 of them were also positive for Cryptosporidium, with maximum concentrations of 97.0 cysts/L and 6.0 oocysts/L, respectively. Risk distributions were similar for the three scenarios. In the four regions, the estimated risk of Giardia infection per year, for adults and children, ranged from 0.29% to 2.47% and from 0.08% to 0.70%, respectively. Cryptosporidium risk infection varied from 0.15% to 0.29% for adults and from 0.04% to 0.08% for children. In both cases, the calculated risk surpassed the risk of infection of 10(-4) (1:10,000) defined as tolerable by USEPA for a yearly exposure. The probability of Giardia infection was very close to the rates of acute diarrheic disease for adults (1% to 3%) but lower for children (2% to 7%). The daily consumption of drinking water was an important contributing factor for these differences. The Microbiological Risk Assessment carried out in this study provides an indication of infection risks by Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the population served by these source waters. Strategies for source water protection and performance targets for the water treatment should be established to achieve the required level of public health risk.

  1. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  2. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather

  3. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  4. Analysis of astronomical concepts presented by students of the Federal Institute of São Paulo - Cubatão Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.; de Macedo, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of proficiency in astronomy, conducted among students of the Course of Technology in Industrial Automation at the São Paulo Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology at the Cubatão campus. In order to assess the level of the students' prior knowledge, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire with twenty-five basic questions. This first step revealed the scant proficiency the students obtained both in elementary and high school. In order to correct this serious shortcoming, a course in astronomy was applied- additionally to the official content program - containing attendance lessons and videos. In a second step, the students' answers were analyzed again, and it was verified that there was a significant improvement in their learning.

  5. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  6. Prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children aged 6 to 12 years in Embu das Artes, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Edson; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in school children in the city of Embu das Artes in São Paulo State. 2880 school children from seven public schools, aged between 6 and 12 years, were evaluated (clinical findings) by a pediatric rheumatologist. A board certified Pediatric Rheumatologist evaluated the subjects with suspected inflammatory arthropathy. Children with higher suspicion were referred to a specialized service. One hundred and forty-one children have presented abnormalities on examination of musculoskeletal system, with isolated pain on palpation the most common finding in the first evaluation (60.9%), with improvement in almost all cases in the second examination. Most of the abnormalities were related to recent injuries or congenital malformations. Six children have clinical findings suggestive of chronic arthropathy and were referred to a specialized pediatric rheumatology clinic. Of these, a 12 year-old girl fulfilled the criteria for JIA. The other diagnoses were aseptic necrosis of the hip (P = 1) of and post-trauma synovitis (P = 4). The prevalence of JIA in children aged between 6 and 12 years was 1/2.880 (or 0.34/1.000).

  7. Comparison of atmospheric instability indices derived from radiosonde observations and precipitation values measured with a weather radar and a rain gauge network in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mauro; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Gusev, Anatoly; De Abreu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Radio soundings are carried out daily in more than 800 stations throughout the world. The data collected in the soundings are used in many meteorological applications such as numerical weather prediction and climate models. Despite the relatively large number of sounding stations, they are unevenly distributed over the globe. It is generally assumed that the desired distance between stations is 300 km. In this study, we performed a comparison of 20 soundings of two stations located 85 km apart (State of São Paulo, Brazil; 23.511811° S, 46.637528° W, and 23.212578° S, 45.866581° W) to determine whether there is a concordance between atmospheric instability indices derived from the data collected by soundings at the these different locations. Additionally, precipitation data obtained by a meteorological radar and a rain gauge network during the same period as the soundings are compared to the stability indices to establish a correlation between precipitation values and these indices.

  8. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011in the vicinity of São Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. The SP-LMA data also will be intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment and analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities

  9. Acute myocardial infarction in the Brazilian State of Sao Paulo. In-hospital deaths from 1979 to 1996 and hospital fatality from 1984 to 1998 in the public health system

    PubMed

    Marcopito; Goldfeder; Schenkman

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the following parameters in the Brazilian State of Sao Paulo: 1) the percentage of deaths due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurring in hospitals; 2) the percentage of deaths due to AMI occurring in public health system hospitals as compared with all in-hospital deaths due to AMI between 1979 and 1996; 3) the fatality due to AMI in public health system hospitals from 1984 to 1998. METHODS: Data were available on the Datasus Web site (the health information agency of the Brazilian Department of Health) that provided the following: a) number of deaths resulting from AMI in hospitals; b) number of deaths resulting from AMI in public health system hospitals; c) number of hospital admissions due to AMI in public health system hospitals. RESULTS: The percentage of in-hospital deaths due to AMI increased from 54.9 in 1979 to 68.6 in 1996. The percentage contribution of the public health system to total number of deaths due to AMI occurring in hospitals decreased from 22.9 in 1984 to 13.7 in 1996; fatality due to AMI occurring in public health system hospitals had an irregular evolution from 1984 to 1992 and showed a slight trend for increased frequency from 1993 to 1998. CONCLUSION: The percentage of in-hospital deaths due to AMI has been increasing. Deaths resulting from AMI in public health system hospitals have decreased when compared with the total number of deaths due to AMI in all hospitals. Fatality due to AMI in public health system hospitals did not decrease from 1992 to 1998.

  10. Vehicular emission factors and chemical profile of Particulate Matter measured in two road tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, T.; Miranda, R. M.; Dominutti, P. A.; Hetem, I. G.; Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil, is vehicle exhaust. In this study, trace-element concentrations inside and outside of two traffic tunnels in the MASP are shown. The experiments were conducted in May and July 2011, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros (JQT) and Rodoanel (RAT) road tunnels, both located in MASP. The JQT carries mainly light-duty vehicles (LDV), whereas the RAT carries LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Hourly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were measured during the sampling campaign. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) samples were collected 6-h (daytime) and 12-h (overnight), employing gravimetric analysis to quantify PM mass concentration; reflectance to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations and X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition. Mean concentrations for PM2.5 and BC inside the JQT were 41(×11), and 19(×9) μg/m3, respectively. In the RAT mean concentrations were 175(×61), and 140(×78) μg/m3, for PM2.5 and BC, respectively. Emission Factors (EFs) for PM2.5, PM2.5-10, BC and trace metal (Na to Pb) from mobile sources operating under real-world conditions were determined using these traffic tunnels in the MASP as experimental set-up. LDV emission factors were 45 × 18 mg/km, 39 × 17 mg/km, 306 × 121 μg/km, 108 × 46 μg/km, 742 × 453 μg/km, 624 × 261 μg/km, and 33 × 15 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. HDV emission factors were 326 × 119 mg/km, 231 × 98 mg/km, 446 × 218 μg/km, 384 × 143 μg/km, 4618 × 1878 μg/km, 44 × 18 μg/km, and 46 × 20 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In general, the mean contribution of HDVs to the emissions of fine particles was from 1.4 to 7.3 times higher than that of LDVs. In addition, the data show a significant reduction in the EFs values when compared with data obtained in the last campaign held in the MASP in 2004. The reduction

  11. [The Education Program of Work for Health of the University of São Paulo (capital campus): the viewpoint of the tutors].

    PubMed

    Fonsêca, Graciela Soares; Junqueira, Simone Rennó

    2014-04-01

    In order to bring about positive changes in the education process of health professionals, the Ministries of Health and Education established the Education Program of Work for Health in 2008. The study aimed to achieve the consensus of a group of experts about the Program established at the University of São Paulo, Capital Campus, Brazil. The subjects of the study were the tutors who joined the program in 2010-2012. A qualitative approach was used based on the Delphi Technique. Among the data collected, tutors believe the program provides benefits to teaching practices and contributes to qualification of professionals involved in health services, and offers improvements for training in the health area. From the subjects' point of view, the tutors are the link between academia and the health services and the instructors are critical to ensure the effectiveness of activities. The staging of regular meetings and seminars help in the process. The main limitations are the lack of explicit commitment shown by some students and the high workload of undergraduate courses.

  12. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Scatena, Camila Morato da Conceição; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths. CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites. PMID:26603351

  13. Analysis of knowledge in Astronomy of the students of the technology course in industrial automation at the Federal Institute São Paulo at the Campus Cubatão

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Ataliba Capasso; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2014-05-01

    This work is part of a research of the academic Masters in Science in Education in its final stages. It seeks to present the results of the survey conducted among students of the technology course in industrial automation at the Federal Institute São Paulo at the Campus Cubatão. In the first step, the students' lack of knowledge to the related primary concepts of Astronomy turned out. Correcting these deficiencies found, external to the program content, a Basic Course in Astronomy, containing dialogued or expository lectures with the aid of audiovisual resources and access to textbooks. Analysed the responses of this second step, it was found that students had a significant improvement in learning.

  14. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  15. Provision of female sterilization in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Ford, Nicholas John

    2004-01-01

    Forty percent of Brazilian married women from 15 to 49 years of age have undergone surgical sterilization. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution states that all scientifically proven contraceptive methods should be available to all citizens, but it was only in 1997 that specific family planning legislation was approved. This study examines physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards the current provision of female sterilization and its legal implications, as well as women's experience with obtaining and undergoing sterilization. The study design included: (1) an investigation of the hospitals and health professionals and (2) a survey of women sterilized in combination with cesarean delivery in 1998. The survey showed they had a median of 3 living children, 60.0% had been sterilized between 30 and 39 years of age, and 61.0% had paid for the procedure. Many women reported previous method failure and adverse effects with hormonal contraceptives. Women with less schooling and lower socioeconomic status had more children and had begun childbearing and had been sterilized at younger ages than women with more schooling and higher socioeconomic status. Inequalities related to reproduction were strongly associated with teenage pregnancy and inadequate knowledge about contraceptives.

  16. Campus Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Camille

    2001-01-01

    Examines the origins, background, goals, and development of a master plan and specific building designs and renovation plans for the College of St. Benedict in St. Joseph, Minnesota. This 2,000-student women's college wanted its campus to foster community, hospitality, and a sense of place. Includes seven photographs and a campus plan. (GR)

  17. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This infrared scene of agriculture and ranching enterprises along the middle portion of the Rio Sao Francisco basin of Brazil (13.0S, 43.5 W) shows the usefulness of infrared film in determining types of vegetation. This region of Brazil has been under study for agriculture and ranching enterprises for several years. However, unpredictable rainfall and frequent severe droughts have limited the success of these enterprises.

  18. [The arrival of the plague in São Paulo in 1899].

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    In October 1899, the bubonic plague arrived in Brazil through the port of Santos. A city of intensive port activity, Santos was the gateway for a plague epidemic that devastated several cities in Brazil in the early 20th century and prompted joint action by several states to fight it. More importantly, given the difficulties and delays in importing anti-plague serum from Europe, it led to the creation of the Butantan Institute in Sao Paulo (in 1899) and the Municipal Serotherapeutic Institute in Rio de Janeiro (in 1900), which developed and standardized anti-plague serum and vaccines according to the particular conditions of the country. Until then, public health efforts had been isolated and had not reached the whole country. Oswaldo Cruz, newly arrived after three years of specialization at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, worked with scientists Adolfo Lutz and Vital Brazil on identifying the plague in Santos. This article analyzes the arrival of the bubonic plague epidemic in the state of Sao Paulo and the public health measures taken to combat the disease and provide patient care in the early part of the 20th century. The primary sources for this analysis were the São Paulo newspapers, especially O Estado de Sao Paulo, and reports from the Ministry of Justice and the President of the State of Sao Paulo.

  19. Air Pollution in São Paulo and Santiago de Chile: Sources and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Castanho, A.; Oyolla, P.; Gramsch, E.; Martinez, R.

    2007-05-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious issue for millions in Latin America. São Paulo, Santiago de Chile, México City and many other large urban conglomerates. Fast industrialization, large population growth, emissions from the transportation sectors and many other issues are the cause for the air pollution in these mega cities. São Paulo, with 17 million people, 5.5 million vehicles and strong industry suffers from severe particulate matter and ozone exposure. Santiago de Chile with very unfavorable dispersion characteristics also has problems with PM10 and ozone. Health effects in these areas are a public health concern. In Sao Paulo alone, about 30,000 excess deaths are attributable to air pollution issues. There are also critical institutional issues in the São Paulo metropolitan area, which has 39 municipalities, as well as three other metropolitan areas within a 100-km radius. In Santiago de Chile, a dry climate makes ressuspended soil dust an important PM10 component, and vehicle emissions produces high concentration of secondary organic aerosols. Old diesel buses make black carbon concentrations very high in Santiago. We carried out extensive aerosol source apportionment studies for several years, using PIXE as trace element analysis technique and multivariate statistical analysis to separate and quantify aerosol sources in Santiago and Sao Paulo. We will present results from 5 years studies in both Santiago and Sao Paulo. Vehicles and soil dust dominates the picture, with a strong sulfate component in Santiago de Chile.

  20. SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R. X.; Baur, W. H.

    This document is part of Subvolume E `Zeolite-Type Crystal Structures and their Chemistry. Framework Type Codes RON to STI' of Volume 14 `Microporous and other Framework Materials with Zeolite-Type Structures' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'.

  1. Campus Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnzen, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents guidelines for college students on using the Internet. Highlights include registering early, learning about Campus Wide Information System, finding an ideal time to use the computer lab and experimenting on the equipment, finding local USENET groups, reading the local mailing lists, researching professors' backgrounds, e-mailing…

  2. "Sedentary" Homeless Children in S. Paulo, Brazil: Their Houses, Their Families, Their Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    This study examined the lifestyle of children from a sedentary grouping of 20 homeless families living under a viaduct in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study particularly focused on issues related to this lifestyle, including dimensions of housing and cultural variations in housing related to child development and child rearing. The lifestyle of the…

  3. HD-SAO-DM cross index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, T. A.; Mead, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table of correspondence SAO-HD-DM-GC was prepared by Morin (1973). The machine-readable version of this cross identification was obtained from the Centre de Donnees Stellaires (Strasbourg, France). The table was sorted at the Goddard Space Flight Center by HD number and all blank HD number records were removed to produce the HD-SAO-DM table presented. There were 258997 entries in the original table; there are 180411 entries after removing the blank HD records. The Boss General Catalogue (GC) numbers were retained on the machine-readable version after the sort.

  4. Bioluminescent Mycena species from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Desjardin, Dennis E; Capelari, Marina; Stevani, Cassius

    2007-01-01

    Six species of bioluminescent agarics are described and illustrated from a single site in primary Atlantic Forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. These include two new taxa of Mycena, viz. M. asterina and M. lucentipes. Luminescence in Mycena fera, M. singeri and M. discobasis is reported for the first time. In addition an undeterminable luminescent Mycena species is described and additional specimens of Gerronema viridilucens are documented. An accounting of known bioluminescent species of Mycena and a discussion of why they luminesce are presented.

  5. Micros Flood Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Margie, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the impact of microcomputers on college campuses. Software development, recent advances in microcomputer technology, arrangements for computing on campus (workstations or computers for individual students), costs, and student reactions are among the areas considered. (JN)

  6. Campus Energy Modeling Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Scott; Kemper, Travis; Larsen, Ross; Graf, Peter

    2014-09-19

    NREL's Campus Energy Modeling project provides a suite of simulation tools for integrated, data driven energy modeling of commercial buildings and campuses using Simulink. The tools enable development of fully interconnected models for commercial campus energy infrastructure, including electrical distribution systems, district heating and cooling, onsite generation (both conventional and renewable), building loads, energy storage, and control systems.

  7. Assessing Campus Counseling Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrar, William R.; Affsprung, Eric H.; Long, Jeffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Campus mental health needs are in the spotlight. Whether the nature and severity of problems presenting in college counseling centers are increasing or not, it is important to provide appropriate services for the campus as a whole. By surveying the general campus population, a better basis for determining the needs of students can be established…

  8. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  9. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  10. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  11. Campus on the Hill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frank Edgerton

    2002-01-01

    Details the University of Cincinnati's campus master plan, designed to overcome deans'"fiefdoms" and make the best use of the limited remaining open space. Three imperatives shaped the plan: siting new buildings to infill the campus fabric rather than taking open space, siting buildings to shape outdoor spaces, and weaving open spaces as a…

  12. Curbing Campus Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Anthony P.

    Campus protests of the 60s have taken the form of unlawful, irrational and violent dissent that resulted in confrontations on campuses throughout the nation. Despite popular opinion as formulated by the mass media, dissent is not the dominant mood of American college students, and active demonstrators constitute a very small minority of a student…

  13. A Safer Campus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2010-01-01

    The FBI, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Secret Service, recently released a report on violent attacks on college campuses that details ongoing security concerns at U.S. institutions of higher learning, including the nation's 1,173 community colleges. Researchers say the goal of the report, "Campus Attacks:…

  14. Fighting Campus Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Warren

    2014-01-01

    When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…

  15. The Campus Information Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of THE CAMPUS INFORMATION GAME is to help to induct new students into their unfamiliar study environment. Typically it forms an early element of an overall induction program for their course of study. THE CAMPUS INFORMATION GAME has a key secondary theme of information quality that is particularly appropriate for students of…

  16. Crisis on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In a residence hall on the campus of Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, two students had been shot to death. A couple of hours later, the tragedy multiplied by horrific proportions as across campus, 30 students and instructors were gunned down in a classroom building. As the details emerged of the worst shooting incident in U.S. history, educators and…

  17. Campus Profile 98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendale Community Coll., CA. Planning and Research Office.

    Glendale Community College's Campus Profile is designed to assist faculty, staff, and students in understanding the college's diverse operations. Organized around an outline from the state accountability model, this statistical report focuses on the academic years 1995-1997. "Campus Profile '98" includes more accountability performance measures…

  18. Keeping Campuses Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Describes how colleges and universities are using technology, as well as traditional methods, to keep campuses safe and reduce crime. Topics include using free pizza in a successful contest to teach students about campus safety, installing security cameras, using access-control cards, providing adequate lighting, and creating a bicycle patrol…

  19. 2010 Campus Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With this review of campus sustainability efforts in 2010, the editors aim to give readers--those who are often immersed in the day-to-day particulars of sustainability efforts--the same chance to take a step back and take a broader look at where they stand with sustainability in higher education. This inaugural 2010 Campus Sustainability Review…

  20. 2008 Campus Technology Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article features the 14 winners of the 2008 Campus Technology Innovators. This article offers an insider's view of the winners' campus technology initiatives, their project leads, and vendor partners jointly recognized for a unique ability to advance teaching, learning, administration, and operation on North American college and university…

  1. Accessing the Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the expanded uses of school identification-card systems for college campuses and the benefits to the campus of having a one-card, multi-purpose system. Addresses tips for setting up a one-card system, and its future potential and benefit to a college. (GR)

  2. Lead exposure in pregnant women and their newborns in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Troster, E.J.; Schvartsman, S. )

    1988-06-01

    Blood lead concentrations of a group of mothers and their newborns were studied. The results showed a correlation between maternal and newborn levels. It is suggested that biochemical alterations may be present in some of the mothers and in a smaller proportion of the newborns. In addition, a comparison of the lead levels in blood with those in the environment was made.

  3. Brevipalpus phoenicis (group species B) on Citrus spp. and Coffea arabica, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some mite species of the genus Brevipalpus are considered pests of economic importance for several agricultural crops such as citrus and coffee. They are associated with the transmission of viruses [e.g.:citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)]. Recent studies indicate that the ...

  4. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  5. Assessment of nurses' knowledge about magnetic resonance imaging in a university hospital in Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos Souza; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Salvador, Maria Elisabete; da Silva Canteras, Lígia Mara; Carmagnani, Maria Isabel Sampaio; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this descriptive study were to determine the academic profile of nurses in a university hospital, assess their level of knowledge about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and verify whether this knowledge was acquired during their undergraduate or graduate education. Ninety randomly selected nurses working in inpatient wards and outpatient units of a university hospital participated in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire completed by the participants between August and October 2009. Most nurses were females who have received specialized education. The participants had a limited knowledge about MRI, which was restricted to the procedures to prepare patients for MRI examination and MRI contraindications. Most of the nurses acquired information about MRI during the professional practice. The majority of nurses showed interest to know more about the MRI examination, especially regarding the exam environment, conditions and contraindications, in order to prevent accidents. PMID:23181959

  6. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health.

  7. Ten years of a multidisciplinary diabetic foot team approach in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Fábio; Augusto Magalhães, Antonio; Gamba, Mônica; Nery, Caio; Cardoso, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can cause devastating foot problems including loss of protective sensation with subsequent ulcerations and amputations. The natural history and pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulcers is best understood and managed by a multiprofessional team approach. The main factors for prevention and treatment of these devastating diabetic foot conditions are shown, with special attention to education of the patient. This approach decreases the morbidity of the disease, besides its economical and social feasibility. PMID:22396805

  8. Mutagenic effect of methanol in gas station operators from Sao Paulo/Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gattas, G.J.F.; Cardoso, L.A.; Faria, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    The frequency of micronucleus (MN) in oral scamous cells of 76 gas station operators was investigated. Subjects were exposed to a fuel called MEG a mix of 33% methanol, 60% ethanol and 7% gasoline. In Brazil the ethyl alcohol, extracted from sugar cane have been used as a fuel since 70`s. In November 1991, for economical reasons, the MEG fuel was introduced in big cities. The MN frequency was evaluated in three different periods: before MEG introduction (1989), and twice after MEG utilization (1992 and 1995). Some individuals were analyzed more than one time. For each individual the frequency of MN was performed in 2000 oral cells. Statistical analysis through non parametric tests revealed a highly significant increase (P=0.001) in the frequency of MN before (1.38/2000 cells) and immediately after methanol introduction (3.0/2000 cells). The frequency of MN returned to be normal (1.4/2000 cells), in the third evaluation when the exposition to methanol decreased. It should represent genetic risk for individuals under occupational exposure and for the population as a whole when methanol has been introduced as a large-scale fuel.

  9. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  10. Contact allergy in male construction workers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Marzia Silva; de Avelar Alchorne, Alicede Oliveira; Costa, Enilde Borges; Montesano, Fábio Tadeu

    2007-04-01

    There are no recent data on allergens in the construction industry in Brazil; apparently there were no changes in allergenic substances. The objective of this study was to identify sensitization to allergens in adult males working in the construction industry. A cross-sectional study with adult males submitted to patch tests from May 2000 to December 2005. Out of 169 male patients, 83 were construction workers. The five most frequent allergens among the construction workers were potassium dichromate (57%), carba-mix (34.9%), cobalt chloride (30.2%), thiuram-mix (27.9%) and neomycin (19.8%). There is a significant sensitization to potassium dichromate, cobalt, carba-mix, and thiuram-mix, demonstrating that cement and rubber gloves of personal protection equipment still account for allergic contact dermatitis in construction industry workers. PMID:17343626

  11. Geological map of parts of the state of Sao Paulo based on LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejususparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Amaral, G.; Liu, C. C.; Filho, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Interpretation of LANDSAT images revealed the subdivision of the Bauru formation into three distinct lithofacies. Delineation of structural features yielded new information on paleoenvironmental reconstitution and hydrogeology. Structural features and photogeological units were revealed in the precambrian basement at the eastern portion of the state.

  12. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789…

  13. Campuses of the LACC.

    PubMed

    Siordia, Lawrence; Keating, Joseph C

    2005-06-01

    In its 94 years the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic (LACC) has occupied at least nine main campuses, exclusive of "satellite" facilities and the campuses of the dozen or more schools which have amalgamated with the LACC over the years. The longest serving of these properties have been in Glendale (1950-1981), Whittier (1981-present), and on Venice Boulevard in Los Angeles (1924-1950). This paper reviews these several locations and the efforts involved in acquiring and refurbishing them for College purposes. Additionally, we note two prospective campuses that never quite materialized: in Burbank, 1930 and in Los Gatos, 1975-76. PMID:17549200

  14. Handy Cash on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Explores how the installation of independent ATMs on college campuses, often operated by the institution, helps provide students with a greater level of service while potentially increasing bookstore and other business revenue. Several examples are discussed. (GR)

  15. NREL's Sustainable Campus Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rukavina, Frank; Pless, Shanti

    2015-04-06

    The high-performance buildings across the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) South Table Mountain campus incorporate a number of state-of-the art energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, making them models for sustainability. Each building, designed to meet the Gold or Platinum standards of the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) program, brings NREL closer to developing the campus of the future.

  16. OnCampus: a mobile platform towards a smart campus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xin; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Fulin; Chen, Zhen; Kang, Jialiang

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of researchers and practitioners are working to develop smart cities. Considerable attention has been paid to the college campus as it is an important component of smart cities. Consequently, the question of how to construct a smart campus has become a topical one. Here, we propose a scheme that can facilitate the construction of a smart and friendly campus. We primarily focus on three aspects of smart campuses. These are: the formation of social circles based on interests mining, the provision of educational guidance based on emotion analysis of information posted on a platform, and development of a secondary trading platform aimed at optimizing the allocation of campus resources. Based on these objectives, we designed and implemented a mobile platform called OnCampus as the first step towards the development of a smart campus that has been introduced in some colleges. We found that OnCampus could successfully accomplish the three above mentioned functions of a smart campus.

  17. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  18. [Female sterilization, AIDS, and medical culture in São Paulo and Porto Alegre, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Regina Maria; Knauth, Daniela Riva

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the factors associated with reproductive choices by HIV-positive pregnant women in two settings in Brazil, and particularly how health care providers and the local medical culture can affect these choices. Requesting and submitting to postpartum sterilization provide the focus of the analysis. The data come from a study conducted in prenatal care services in two cities, São Paulo and Porto Alegre. We employed two data collection strategies: collection of information from 427 patient records for HIV-positive women who had received prenatal care, and in-depth interviews with 60 women. While most women in both cities requested tubal ligation after delivery, a much higher proportion of women in Sao Paulo were actually sterilized, as compared to a tiny proportion of women in Porto Alegre. The local medical culture regarding sterilization and organization of prenatal care emerged as important factors for understanding the differences between the two cities.

  19. Safety on Campus: Whose Responsibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Robert C.

    This paper is part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002. It addresses postsecondary campus safety. It discusses the changes in the concept of in loco parentis on college campuses; the Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act of 1990; and legal principles applicable to…

  20. Reconfiguring a Campus--Fast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hignite, Karla

    2003-01-01

    Describes the first phase of a master plan to expand the University of Alaska-Anchorage by purchasing a shopping mall and reconfiguring campus services to take advantage of the additional space. The master plan calls for eventually moving administration to the periphery of the campus and migrating academic programs to the campus center. (SLD)

  1. Mending the Stanford Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Describes efforts to reclaim the historical campus plan for Stanford University (California), including preserving views; restoring open space; realigning streets and pedestrian paths; consolidating parking; connecting paths; adding a new shuttle bus, bike lanes, and bike parking; and correcting the haphazard development of athletic and recreation…

  2. Campus Violence White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joetta L.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the American College Health Association (ACHA) Executive Committee issued a position statement for the Association that addresses acts of violence, bias, and other violations of human rights that have been occurring all too often within or adjacent to college communities. The statement called for all campus health professionals to become…

  3. PNNL Campus Master Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, Whitney LC

    2012-09-07

    The Plan is used as a guide for PNNL in making facility and infrastructure decisions essential to supporting the PNNL vision: to establish a modern, collaborative, flexible, and sustainable campus while optimizing the efficiency of operations in support of courageous discovery and innovation.

  4. Sustainable Campus Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimm, Jon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how incorporating energy-efficient features into residence halls can save money and make students' campus experience more enjoyable. Use of heat-recovery systems, low-impact lighting, and natural daylighting are explored as are ideas to consider for future residence hall construction projects or renovations. (GR)

  5. The Vanishing Neighborhood Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    Only a generation ago, universities like Northeastern and Boston University had campuses strategically sprinkled throughout eastern Massachusetts. Lesley University offered graduate education programs across the U.S. BU had a contract with the U.S. Army to deliver master's programs on military bases throughout Europe. Mega-high-tech companies,…

  6. Fostering Civility on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rookstool, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The issue of civility has become a major topic of discussion on college campuses throughout the country, attracting media attention nationwide. In this illuminating book, civility scholar Judy Rookstool tackles the issue for the community college audience, bringing both her research and classroom experience to bear. She offers a definition of…

  7. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  8. Planning for Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    From natural disasters to criminal violence, facilities officers are often called on to address campus safety and security issues beyond their usual responsibilities. Their experiences in coping with unanticipated events have produced a catalogue of lessons learned that can help them and their peers at other institutions who might face the same…

  9. Extending Campus Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    In selecting clinical facilities for health technology programs, many points must be considered, since competence in this field cannot be achieved without clinical experience. This guide describes (1) the important differences between clinical practice and work-study programs, (2) the selection of off-campus facilities, predicated on a thorough…

  10. Campus Views 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Scot L.

    In 1986, and again in 1990, faculty and classified staff opinion surveys were conducted at Glendale Community College in California. The survey consisted of 136 questions divided into 6 sections: job satisfaction, personal information, working environment, campus management, educational goals, and student services. Results from the 1990 survey…

  11. Personal Computers on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, M. Mitchell

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues involving the use of on-line databases, magnetic and optical data storage, digital telecommunications, and microcomputers on college campuses. These issues include access to computers and computer networking, and educational uses of the computers. Examples of efforts at four universities are included. (JN)

  12. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  13. Perspectives on Campus Tensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, David C., Ed.

    The purpose of this book was to provide background information and insight on campus tensions, and suggest ideas on how to go about reducing these tensions. The papers are divided into 5 parts. Part I, The New Situation, includes papers by Kenneth E. Boulding, William M. Birenbaum, Marcus G. Raskin, and Peter Schrag. Part II, Where the Students…

  14. 2006 Campus Technology Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article features the winners of this year's "Campus Technology Innovator" competition. The winners are: (1) Drexel University, Pennsylvania (outsourcing); (2) Darton College, Georgia (3D); (3) Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (ePortfolios); (4) University of Michigan (the Web); (5) University of Tennessee College of Veterinary…

  15. Use That Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris. Div. of Forestry, Fisheries, and Wildlife Development.

    The purpose of this publication is two-fold: to show how the natural features on campuses can be used effectively in environmental education and to plead for preservation of as much of the natural landscape as possible on new school sites. Since opportunities for teaching about nature are easily found on the grounds around a school, this booklet…

  16. Campus [in] Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Stacy

    2007-01-01

    Community colleges, while safe, are not immune to violence. In the wake of the Virginia Tech shootings, community colleges are committed to making campuses safer. From training first responders to understanding and identifying potential threats, the author describes what schools are doing to eradicate their so-called [in] securities and improve…

  17. Cultural Pluralism on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E.; And Others

    This book is addressed primarily to higher education personnel responsible for campus programming that promotes a culturally plural environment. These chapters are included: (1) "Affirming Affirmative Action" (Harold E. Cheatham); (2) "Identity Development in a Pluralistic Society" (Harold E. Cheatham); (3) "The Minority Cultural Center on a…

  18. Religion on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Conrad; DeBerg, Betty A.; Porterfield, Amanda

    Case studies at four colleges explored students religious studies, values, and practices. Observations and interviews show that both the practice and the study of religion are thriving and supported by campus cultures. The chapters are: (1) Introduction; (2) West University (Betty A. Deberg); (3) South University (Conrad Cherry); (4) East…

  19. Five Decades on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    The article reviews campus climate and trends for each decade from the 1940s to the present. Noted are such influences as the returning veterans (1940s), desegregation and Sputnik (1950s), the civil rights struggle (1960s), female rights (1970s), and financial pressures (1980s). (DB)

  20. 2007 Campus Technology Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles the winners of this year's competition for outstanding technology innovation on US college and university campuses. The winners are: (1) Rice University, Texas (virtualized networks); (2) Drexel University, Pennsylvania (rich media); (3) Harvard Business School, Massachusetts (network management); (4) Louisiana State…

  1. The Campus Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Von, Jay

    1966-01-01

    All across the country, landscaping and site development are coming to the fore as essential and integral parts of university planning and development. This reprint concentrates on the function of landscape architecture, and briefly examines some of the major responsibilities of the landscape architect in planning a campus. Included are--(1)…

  2. Blueprint for Safer Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrower, Raymond H.; Healy, Steven J.; Lynch, Michael; Margolis, Gary J.; Stafford, Dolores; Taylor, William

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the rampage shootings at Virginia Tech on April 16, 2007 continues to be felt across the U.S. and the world. Clearly this incident, along with other active shooter incidents that have occurred since the Virginia Tech tragedy, has impacted one's awareness of campus safety and security. A number of states, other governmental entities,…

  3. Revisiting Campuses with Newman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on an essay the author published twenty years ago in "Current Issues in Catholic Higher Education" that examined the viability of John Henry Newman's "Idea of a University" against Catholic campus life and the just-released "Ex corde Ecclesiae". The current essay briefly notes those earlier key points made in the first article,…

  4. Effective Campus Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Ann; Creighton, Sarah Hammond

    2003-01-01

    Examines environmental assessments as a decision-making tool, distinguishing broad-based, targeted, and goal-oriented efforts as the three types most commonly practiced on campuses. Discusses benefits and problems associated with these approaches and concludes that the goal-oriented approach is most likely to be successful. Describes Tufts…

  5. Recycling the Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Milton

    1978-01-01

    Renovation and conversion of many old buildings at Davidson (North Carolina) College over the past fifteen years have saved millions of dollars and preserved the neoclassical architecture of the campus. The Davidson shop crews' repair and remodeling projects are described and illustrated by several photographs. (MF)

  6. The Continuing Campus Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Terry

    2005-01-01

    A dean resigns and a search committee for his replacement is selected and begins its job. This simple act occurs regularly on campuses throughout the nation. Periodically, though, things happen that disturb the business-as-usual cycle of such searches and provide a glimpse into problems that fester below the surface. In this article, Terry Jones…

  7. The Deconstructed Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazoue, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Four converging trends are undermining land-based campuses as the preeminent source of knowledge acquisition and certification. The emergence of the learning sciences, the wikification of knowledge, the unbundling of faculty roles, and the migration of learning online are driving fundamental institutional change toward location-independent…

  8. SAO HMC photodetector/event timer engineering model test report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-05

    The test unit is a custom photodetector/event timer, PET, built for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, SAO, by Los Alamos which records elapsed time in 10 ps steps. The 1 Kg, 12 cm diameter PET unit uses 10 watts of electrical power and was tested to SAO`s specified flight conditions. The event timer has two inputs -- a reference clock oscillator input and a stop signal. Like a stop watch with split timing capability, the event timer records the instant a stop signal arrives. At that sample instant, the number of elapsed clock cycles are stored and the sample instant position between two reference clock edges is interpolated and stored. Then that stored data can be shifted serially to an external computer. The photodetector part of the PET responds to an optical input and provides the electrical output signal to the event timer specifying the sample instant. This test report discusses the event timer test results. Test equipment is shown for most of the operational tests. The relay rack contains test pursers and clocks. The environmental chamber controls temperature. The computer reads and records the serial data from the PET. Reported testing topics include: Pulse shapes to be used as test inputs, test results obtained using the electrical source`s input, optical test results which are the best simulation of specified operational conditions, heat sink operation in vacuum. Vibration tests performed to SAO`s specification.

  9. Early experience of the SAO satellite-tracking program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, M. R.

    1983-06-01

    A retrospective of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) Satellite Tracking Program is presented. The program was designed to track satellites with twelve internationally located cameras, each with a 20-in.-diameter aperture, a curved focal plane, and a three-element corrector cell. Also included in the program was a volunteer network, Moonwatch, that made preliminary observations with telescopes, and eventually sighted Sputnik 1 before the camera system was operational. In July 1958, sponsorhip of SAO's Satellite-Tracking Program was assumed by NASA. Observation procedures continued to improve (e.g., with long arc photography) and scientific contributions included publishing first 'Standard Atmosphere'. In the 1970's, SAO's mission changed to the support of scientific programs (particularly earth dynamics), and the cameras were replaced by laser ranging systems.

  10. The virtual clinical campus.

    PubMed

    Friedman, C P

    1996-06-01

    The increased use of community sites for the clinical training of medical students creates many challenges for educators. Among them is the need to provide students in community settings with access to the same range of educational resources-the medical literature, student colleagues, feedback, and faculty-that are customarily available at academic medical centers. One way to make this access possible is to use information technology to create a "virtual clinical campus," which would allow students to enjoy the best of both worlds: the immersion in primary care offered by the community-based setting and the knowledge-rich resources of the academic medical center, including the all-important library. With a virtual campus in place, students would be able to access most library resources, interact with their peers, ensure that they were meeting the goals of their community rotations, and participate with their colleagues in didactic sessions without having to travel. The virtual campus is technologically feasible and economically within reach. It is possible that the movement of clinical training into the community will make it imperative for all medical students to own their own computers and for medical centers to provide the infrastructure that would enable community sites to have access to a range of educational resources.

  11. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) star catalog (Sao staff 1966, edition ADC 1989): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Nancy G.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An updated, corrected, and extended machine readable version of the catalog is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version were corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications were added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers were added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) were flagged. J2000 positions in usual units and in radians were added.

  12. OnCampus: a mobile platform towards a smart campus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xin; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Fulin; Chen, Zhen; Kang, Jialiang

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of researchers and practitioners are working to develop smart cities. Considerable attention has been paid to the college campus as it is an important component of smart cities. Consequently, the question of how to construct a smart campus has become a topical one. Here, we propose a scheme that can facilitate the construction of a smart and friendly campus. We primarily focus on three aspects of smart campuses. These are: the formation of social circles based on interests mining, the provision of educational guidance based on emotion analysis of information posted on a platform, and development of a secondary trading platform aimed at optimizing the allocation of campus resources. Based on these objectives, we designed and implemented a mobile platform called OnCampus as the first step towards the development of a smart campus that has been introduced in some colleges. We found that OnCampus could successfully accomplish the three above mentioned functions of a smart campus. PMID:27429884

  13. From Kobe Bryant to Campus Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Even though laws have been passed to protect young women--who are most at risk for rape--from sexual assault on campus, many young men think they can rape without consequence. Thus, the Campus Security Act of 1990 (now known as the Jerome Clery Act), which requires campuses to report serious crimes on campus, and the Campus Sexual Assault Victim's…

  14. The Business Officer as Campus Environmentalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, C. Ray

    Business officers on campus must be concerned to protect those natural features of the campus and incorporate them into integral parts of the campus. This document presents the environmental program at the University of Utah, consisting of the following elements: (1) Naming a fulltime campus environmental officer. (2) Having the campus designated…

  15. Profiling Campus Administration: A Demographic Survey of Campus Police Chiefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebach, Jared A.; Kovacsiss, Lea M.; Tesch, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Campus law enforcement faces unique challenges, as there are different societal expectations compared to municipal law enforcement. Municipal law enforcement models typically focus on traditionally reactive law and order, while campus law enforcement models typically focus on proactive responses to crime and its deterrence. Stressors experienced…

  16. Campus Snapshot: Assessing the Campus Environment through a Student Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzuti-Ashby, Jacqueline G.; Alary, Donna G.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study represents perceptions of students regarding campus environment and campus life at University College of the Fraser Valley (UCFV), a public four-year university-college located in British Columbia, Canada. Employing a unique methodology, referred to as reflexive photography, student participants were asked to photograph and…

  17. Greening the American Campus: Lessons from Campus Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Thaisa; Matthews, Chris; Rottle, Nancy; Toland, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus landscapes can serve as living laboratories for reducing carbon footprints, conserving water and aquatic resources, supporting biodiversity, and building active, equitable social communities. Moreover, as learning landscapes, such campuses actively promote sustainable design by engaging faculty, staff, and students in the design and…

  18. Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

    2010-10-01

    Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to

  19. Establishment and characterization of a new highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line derived from Saos2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Fan, Qiming; Tu, Bing; Yan, Wei; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in adolescents and young adults. There is a shortage of tumorigenic and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell lines that can be used for metastasis study. Here we establish and characterize a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that is derived from Saos2 cell line based on bioluminescence. The occasional pulmonary metastatic cells developed from Saos2 were isolated, harvested, characterized and named Saos2-l. The parental Saos2 and Saos2-l cells were further characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that Saos2-l cells demonstrated increased cell adhesion, migration and invasion compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Conversely, Saos2-l cells grew at a slightly slower rate than that of the parental cells. When injected into nude mice, Saos2-l cells had a greater increase in developing pulmonary metastases compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Further transcriptional profiling analysis revealed that some gene expression were up-regulated or down-regulated in the highly metastatic Saos2-l cells, indicating possible influencing factors of metastasis. Thus, we have established and characterized a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that should serve as a valuable tool for future investigations on the pathogenesis, metastasis and potential treatments of human osteosarcoma. PMID:25031706

  20. PLANNING THE CAMPUS BY COMPUTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATTOX, ROBERT F.

    PROBLEMS OF CAMPUS PLANNING ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF SCHEDULED AND NONSCHEDULED ACTIVITIES. ESTIMATION OF SPACE NEEDS FOR SCHEDULED CAMPUS ACTIVITIES INCLUDES--(1) TOTAL ENROLLMENT, (2) DISTRIBUTION OF MAJORS, (3) DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS TIME TO DEPARTMENTS, (4) DEPARTMENT LOADS, (5) DISTRIBUTION TO LECTURE LAB, (6)…

  1. Campus network security model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  2. Campus Security under the Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    A university president's worst nightmare can take any number of forms. The lone shooter run amok on campus. The freight-train sound of a tornado bearing down on a dormitory. A river cresting its banks, about to flood a college town. From robberies and assaults to fires and chemical spills, the list goes on and on. Campus security and safety…

  3. Campus Technology Innovators Awards 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary; Villano, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The annual Campus Technology Innovators awards recognize higher education institutions that take true initiative--even out-and-out risk--to better serve the campus community via technology. These top-notch university administrators, faculty, and staff demonstrate something more than a "job well done"; their vision and leadership have taken…

  4. Campus Reactions to Mass Notification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Andrea M.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.

    2010-01-01

    On April 16, 2007, a gunman opened fire at Virginia Tech University, killing 32 people before taking his own life. In the aftermath of such a violent campus incident, many universities are looking for ways to improve policies and programs that promote campus safety and allow them to effectively handle emergency situations. Many universities are…

  5. Campus Landscape: Functions, Forms, Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dober, Richard P.

    This guide provides information, instruction, and ideas on planning and designing every aspect of the campus landscape, from parking lots to playing fields. Using real-world examples of classic and contemporary campus landscapes, it features coverage of landscape restoration and regeneration; provides an assessment matrix for consistent, effective…

  6. Campus Child Care News, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marion F., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 1998 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the National Coalition for Campus Child Care Centers (NCCCC) and providing a forum for news, research, and information concerning campus child care centers. The February issue contains stories on the White House Conference on Child Care, registration…

  7. Campus Technology Innovators Awards 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meg; Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    Each year in judging the Campus Technology Innovators awards, the authors have the privilege of reading through hundreds of fascinating examples of technology innovation on campus. Nominated projects cover the gamut of technology areas, from assessment and advising to wireless and web 2.0. This article presents 11 innovator award winners of this…

  8. Overcoming Obstacles to Campus Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Despite their apparent popularity among those seeking degrees and credentials, today's colleges and universities face several interrelated public criticisms and concerns. When these competing concerns about student success, productivity, cost, and educational effectiveness all collide at the campus level, they create an array of campus tensions…

  9. The Smoke-Free Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report outlines the health threats of cigarette smoking on college campuses. It cites evidence that smoking among high school seniors and college freshmen has dropped only 1.5 percent since 1981, and notes the dangers of second-hand smoke. Six recommendations for becoming a smoke-free campus are listed. The experience of American industry and…

  10. Assignment: Eco-Friendly Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Meg

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how institutions of higher education can use their campus environments as a teaching tool and laboratory for finding solutions to environmental dilemmas and ensure that their campus operations, including the landscape, are exemplary models of environmental practice--even if it means far fewer expanses of lawn. Includes a list of…

  11. Evolution of a Virtual Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, D. Roe; Rosenthal, Donna McCrohan

    2001-01-01

    The five campuses of Cerro Coso Community College (CA) are located in Mojave Desert country, where many potential students live 100 miles or more from the nearest college site. This document describes lessons learned and accomplishments associated with development of its virtual campus, online courses, and online associate degree programs. (PGS)

  12. Paulo Freire: Pedagogue of Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.

    This book is an analytic and critical treatment of Paulo Freire's philosophy. Its two central theses are that Freire's thought is best understood as that of an educational practitioner and theorist and that the most fruitful interpretation of Freire comes from understanding him as a Catholic thinker. Chapter 1 situates Freire's lifelong work in…

  13. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Manica, L T; Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-05-01

    Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE), São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP). We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits) at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%), which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State. PMID:20552144

  14. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Manica, L T; Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-05-01

    Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE), São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP). We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits) at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%), which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State.

  15. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  16. Hate Is a Campus Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClerc, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Activities at Hunter College of the City University of New York to deal creatively and democratically with hate crimes on campus are reported including establishment of a Diversity Commission and heavy commitment of trustees and college president. (DB)

  17. The role of partnerships in promoting physical activity: the experience of Agita São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    around the outpatients clinic, as well as the establishment of a fitness room in the basic unit of health; and Sorocaba, a city of 600,000 inhabitants, that after 4 years of the program of building walk and bike pathways, and parks, found a decrease in hospitalization of 50% by stroke, and 57% of diabetes type 2. A recent paper has shown that sedendarism has declined relatively about 70% from 2002 to 2008 in the State of Sao Paulo, and World Bank has reported that Agita represents a saving of 310 million US dollars per year in the health sector of Sao Paulo. All this scenario strongly suggests that the social issue in the developing countries facilitates the success of strategic partnerships.

  18. The role of partnerships in promoting physical activity: the experience of Agita São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    around the outpatients clinic, as well as the establishment of a fitness room in the basic unit of health; and Sorocaba, a city of 600,000 inhabitants, that after 4 years of the program of building walk and bike pathways, and parks, found a decrease in hospitalization of 50% by stroke, and 57% of diabetes type 2. A recent paper has shown that sedendarism has declined relatively about 70% from 2002 to 2008 in the State of Sao Paulo, and World Bank has reported that Agita represents a saving of 310 million US dollars per year in the health sector of Sao Paulo. All this scenario strongly suggests that the social issue in the developing countries facilitates the success of strategic partnerships. PMID:22243915

  19. VARIATIONS IN PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW MEASUREMENTS ASSOCIATED TO AIR POLLUTION AND ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN CHILDREN IN SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de M Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie; Claudio, Luz; Imazawa, Alice Takimoto; Eluf-Neto, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last 20 years, there has been an increase in the incidence of allergic respiratory diseases worldwide and exposure to air pollution has been discussed as one of the factors associated with this increase. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of air pollution on peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV1 in children with and without allergic sensitization. Methods Ninety-six children were followed from April to July, 2004 with spirometry measurements. They were tested for allergic sensitization (IgE, skin prick test, eosinophilia) and asked about allergic symptoms. Air pollution, temperature and relative humidity data were available. Results Decrements in PEF were observed with previous 24-h average exposure to air pollution, as well as with 3 to 10 day average exposure and were associated mainly with PM10, NO2 and O3. in all three categories of allergic sensitization. Even though allergic sensitized children tended to present larger decrements in the PEF measurements they were not statistically different from the non-allergic sensitized. Decrements in FEV1 were observed mainly with previous 24-h average exposure and 3-day moving average. Conclusions Decrements in PEF associated with air pollution were observed in children independent from their allergic sensitization status. Their daily exposure to air pollution can be responsible for a chronic inflammatory process that might impair their lung growth and later their lung function in adulthood. PMID:22544523

  20. Mavale project: Sensor techniques applied to macrozoning of the Paraiba Valley and littoral north of the State of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    This project was designed with two basic objectives in mind. The first is to support the Consortium for Integrated Development of the Paraiba Valley and the Northern Littoral (CODIVAP) for preparation of regulatory guidelines for use of the regional lands. The second is to place at the disposal of the country's technical/scientific community a regional planning method based on the use of Remote Orbital Sensor data. This project involved studies on the following areas: maps - geological, pedological, geomorphological, ground cover, land use, urban area and urban expansion in the last decade, areas favorable for replenishment and concentration of ground water; compartmentation of the region into sub-basins and study of the relationships of land use to surface water quality; generation of a map indicating the suitability of land for civil engineering and urban expansion projects and projects subject to geological risk; preparation of a map showing suitability for agricultural use of the land; and social/economic/demographic analysis. The region of the study encompasses 40 municipalities and portions of 4 others, in an overall region of 18.111 sq. km. Imagery from MSS/Landsat, TM/Landsat, and HRV/SPOT was interpreted, exploring the multispectral, multitemporal, synoptic characteristics as well as the detail (compatible with spatial resolutions of the sensor systems). As a function of the objectives of the different thematic studies involved in the environmental and physical diagnostics, images were interpreted visually or processed digitally in alternate scales of 1:250,000, 1:100,000, or 1:50,000. These studies were complemented with pre-existing bibliographical and cartographic information, and the final mapping products are presented to the scale of 1:250,000, compatible with decisions at the regional level. Thematic studies relative to the physical/territorial, and social/economical reality were integrated in the search for holistic understanding of the region and its problems relative to land use and occupation. The macrozoning proposal directed at reorganizing human activities in the regional territory was generated from technical discussions of the body of researchers involved in the project and representatives of the municipalities which comprise the region of the study.

  1. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... criteria in making a sale. Best Prospects/Services Brazil's strengthened currency has meant that private... discuss industry developments, opportunities, and sales strategies. Commercial Setting Brazil is the... 30% of the import market, with U.S. sales mainly going through local agents, distributors...

  2. Brazil: Implications of Technological Change for Skills Training in Sao Paulo Industries. Training Discussion Paper No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Assis, Marisa

    The Brazilian economy is led by the industrial sector, which accounts for 34 percent of production and employs 25 percent of the economically active population. The labor force formally employed in industry consists mainly of relatively young males with little schooling. A large number of institutions both in the regular education system and…

  3. [Profile of candidates to the technical nursing course at a private school in the city of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Frias, M A; Takahashi, R T

    2000-09-01

    The result showed the candidate's profile as they are adult; with age middle of 31.09 years old; familiar income are 9.65 minimum salary; single; predominant female; 12.5% with university course complete or incomplete; 43.8% have a children. The age of a children vary of 6-13 years old. The candidates refer affinity to work with patient of major risk and absence of affinity to pediatric patient. The work in oncology, demonstrated the positive way the personal learning and the negative, the personal and patient suffering.

  4. Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana J. G.; Nogueira, Roselene A. M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) as a method for assessing school building performance. Set within the larger context of global efforts to develop and apply common indicators of school building quality, the authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of…

  5. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic forest, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small mammals and rodents play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 4...

  6. Ozone phytotoxic potential with regard to fragments of the Atlantic Semi-deciduous Forest downwind of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Bárbara B; Alves, Edenise S; de Souza, Silvia R; Domingos, Marisa; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    In the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), Brazil, high levels of primary pollutants contribute to ozone (O3) formation. However, little is known regarding the O3 effects in the tropics. Objectives in this study were to characterize the present levels of O3 pollution and to evaluate the relevance of current concentration-based indices for assessing the phytotoxic potential of O3. Changes in O3 concentrations and precursors at 5 monitoring stations within towns of MRC were analyzed. The daily O3 profile was typical for urban sites and showed little yearly variation. Given the permanently foliated forest canopy, yearly rather than seasonal O3 indices were thus more appropriate for estimating the effective ozone dose. With yearly SUM00, SUM60 and AOT40 of 156, 16 and 14 ppm h and confirmed by evidence of O3 injury in foliage, oxidative stress in the MRC has reached levels high enough to affect trees from the Atlantic Semi-deciduous Forest.

  7. ELEVATED LEVELS OF MULTIPLE CYTOCHROME P450 FORMS IN TILAPIA FROM BILLINGS RESERVOIR-SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels in tissues of fish inhabiting polluted areas have been used extensively in biomonitoring studies in Europe and North America. However, little information is available about the extent of CYP1A expression in fish from South American waters, nor on ...

  8. Sex Trade Involvement in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Toronto, Canada: Narratives of Social Exclusion and Fragmented Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Liborio, Renata Maria Coimbra

    2011-01-01

    An extensive international literature has been developed regarding the risk trajectories of sex trade-involved children and youth. This literature has not, however, substantially incorporated the narratives of youths regarding their experiences. In this article, the contemporary literature on child and youth sex trade-involvement is reviewed and…

  9. Early and one-year stroke case fatality in Sao Paulo, Brazil: applying the World Health Organization's stroke STEPS.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fernandes, Tiotrefis G; Alencar, Airlane P; Fedeli, Ligia M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2012-11-01

    Case fatality rate is considered a main determinant of stroke mortality trends. We applied the World Health Organization's Stroke STEPS to identify case fatality rates in a community hospital in Brazil. We evaluated all patients with first-ever stroke seeking acute care at the hospital's emergency ward between April 2006 and December 2008 to verify early and late case fatality according to stroke subtype. We used years of formal education as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Of 430 first-ever stroke events, 365 (84.9%) were ischemic and 65 (15.1%) were intracerebral hemorrhage. After 1 year, we adjudicated 108 deaths (86 ischemic; 22 hemorrhagic). Age-adjusted case fatality rates for ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage were 6.0% v 19.8% at 10 days, 10.6% v 22.1% at 28 days, 17.6% v 29.1% at 6 months, and 21.0% v 31.5% at 1 year. Illiteracy or no formal education was a predictor of death at 6 months (odds ratio [OR], 4.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-13.91) and 1 year (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.45-12.28) in patients with ischemic stroke, as well as at 6 months (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.17-8.70) and 1 year (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.30-8.45) for all stroke patients. Other variables, including previous cardiovascular risk factors and acute medical care, did not change this association to a statistically significant degree. In conclusion, case fatality, particularly up to 6 months, was higher in hemorrhagic stroke, and lack of formal education was associated with increased stroke mortality.

  10. Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.

  11. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  12. Smad7 mediates inhibition of Saos2 osteosarcoma cell differentiation by NF{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, Roman A. . E-mail: Roman_Eliseev@urmc.rochester.edu; Schwarz, Edward M.; Zuscik, Michael J.; O'Keefe, Regis J.; Drissi, Hicham; Rosier, Randy N.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor NF{kappa}B is constitutively activated in various tumor cells where it promotes proliferation and represses apoptosis. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) delay cell proliferation and promote differentiation and apoptosis of bone cells through activation of Smad downstream effectors and via Smad-independent mechanisms. Thus, NF{kappa}B and BMP pathways play opposing roles in regulating osteoblastic cell fate. Here, we show that in osteosarcoma Saos2 osteoblasts, NF{kappa}B regulates the activity of the BMP/Smad signaling. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B by overexpression of mI{kappa}B leads to the induction of osteoblast differentiation. Saos2 cells overexpressing mI{kappa}B (Saos2-mI{kappa}B) exhibit higher expression of osteoblast phenotypic genes such as alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and osteocalcin and are more responsive to BMP2 in comparison to wild-type cells (Saos2-wt) or empty vector infected controls (Saos2-EV). Furthermore, BMP-2 signaling and Smad phosphorylation are significantly increased in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells in comparison to Saos2-EV cells. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B signaling in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells is associated with decreased expression of the BMP signaling inhibitor Smad7. While gain of Smad7 function in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells results in inhibition of BMP signaling, anti-sense knockdown of Smad7 in Saos2-EV cells leads to upregulation of BMP signaling. We therefore conclude that in osteosarcoma Saos2 cells, NF{kappa}B represses BMP/Smad signaling and BMP2-induced differentiation through Smad7.

  13. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    PubMed Central

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:26729142

  14. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    PubMed

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  15. Approaches to Contemporary Campus Landscape Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of college campus landscaping looks at some principles and considerations in planning for hard vs. soft surfaces, campus furniture needs and design, security, and ornamental vegetation. Some examples of good planning are noted. (MSE)

  16. Sustainable Campus Dining: How Campuses Are Targeting Sustainability and Engagement through Dining Services Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable food and dining is a popular topic on college and university campuses. Popular areas of focus include equipment upgrades in the kitchen, installation of campus or community gardens, and streamlining existing campus recycling operations, such as by converting campus vehicles to run on used vegetable oil from the dining hall. Research…

  17. Campus Involvement, Perceived Campus Connection, and Alcohol Use in College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, James W.; Metz, Stacie M.; Brenner, Christina J.

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined the relationship of college athletes' levels of campus involvement and campus connection to their alcohol use. A survey measuring alcohol use, campus involvement and campus connection was administered to 720 athletes at nine institutions. Participants who reported having 5 or more drinks on one occasion in the past two…

  18. Energy Sustainability and the Green Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of campus energy sustainability, explaining that both demand- and supply-side strategies are required. Suggests that on the demand side, an aggressive campus energy conservation program can reduce campus energy consumption by 30 percent or more. Asserts that addressing the supply side of the energy equation means shifting…

  19. Designing and Operating a Barrier Free Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Laurie S.; Potter, George T.

    An account of the Ramapo College (New Jersey) experience in the design and development of a barrier-free campus includes discussion of the academic and service problems that arise in meeting the needs of handicapped students in college. Special attention is given to: campus bathrooms, campus housing (ramps, locks, bathrooms, roommate selection,…

  20. Will Your Campus Diversity Initiative Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, Grant

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author gives suggestions on how to make campus diversity initiative work. The author suggests making sure that the following conditions apply to a campus initiative before getting involved: (1) The communications about the initiative, on and off campus, are comparable to those for a capital campaign; (2) The initiative has an…

  1. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  2. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  3. Trend Shifts Evident on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    Campus issues and trends identified by college union and student activities administrators are considered. The major college issue is alcohol and its impact on the campus. Since all but eight states have adopted the 21 drinking age, there are many administrative concerns, including monitoring campus alcohol service and finding alternatives for pub…

  4. Addressing Homophobia and Heterosexism on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Elizabeth P., Ed.

    The chapters in this collection present an approach to changing attitudes about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) students, faculty, and staff on college campuses. The book explores a wide range of subjects and contains basic tools to establish programs for LGBT students. The chapters of part 1, "The Campus Environment: Campus-Wide…

  5. Campus and Community Coalitions. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on campus and community coalitions. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Campus and Community Coalitions: Implementing Environmental Prevention Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Campus Brief: University of Rhode Island; (3) International Town & Gown Association; (4) Q&A With Traci Toomey and…

  6. Connecting Students, Creating Futures at Central Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosin, Julie; Erbes, Elizabeth; Britt, James; Good, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Des Moines is an urban community located in the heart of Iowa. Des Moines Public Schools serves 32,000 students in a system with 62 buildings, including Central Campus--a Regional Academy. Central Campus is housed in four buildings, including the main campus at 1800 Grand located on the western edge of downtown Des Moines. As a regional academy,…

  7. Maui Community College Campus Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Kahului. Maui Community Coll.

    This document discusses campus safety at Maui Community College (MCC) (Hawaii). MCC is situated on 75 acres of land; the campus population is approximately 2,700 day and night students, with a faculty and staff of approximately 175. The report presents information on campus security services, procedures for reporting crimes and emergencies,…

  8. Identifying Options for Achieving a Viable Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of Marin, Kentfield, CA.

    This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of the Indian Valley campus (California) community task force to the Marin Community College District trustees. The trustees appointed the Indian Valley campus task force in 2000 to study options for the educational vitality, fiscal sustainability, and community benefit of the campus. This…

  9. Laredo Junior College Campus Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Rowlett and Scott, Architects, Houston, TX.

    The overall campus development and distribution of the required facilities are discussed in this study, which was prompted by the inadequacy of several existing facilities and an unorganized campus layout. An analysis is developed of--(1) the educational program, (2) the relationship of the campus to the city and the neighborhood, (3) the…

  10. Campus Shootings: A Prevention Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, James Alan

    2008-01-01

    New to the curriculum at many colleges this fall will be instruction for students in survival skills. The training material will not be like Clemson University's "College Survival Skills" Web site, which features useful advice on note taking, studying for exams, and dealing with professors. Rather, a new security DVD, Shots Fired on Campus:…

  11. Technology Use in Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrodicasa, Jeanna

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on technology use related to campus crisis and shows the impact that newer technologies have on making the world seem much smaller and united. When crises occur, such as at Virginia Tech shootings or Hurricane Katrina, students across the United States and even the world reach out to one another through new…

  12. University Satellite Campus Management Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Doug; Stott, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Among the 60 or so university satellite campuses in Australia are many that are probably failing to meet the high expectations of their universities and the communities they were designed to serve. While in some cases this may be due to the demand driven system, it may also be attributable in part to the ways in which they are managed. The…

  13. Distance Learners: Welcome to Campus!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Old Dominion University's distance learning program, called TELETECHNET, brings the main-campus college experience to geographically distant learners at sites across Virginia and as far away as the state of Washington, as well as to military personnel on Navy bases, carriers, and submarines. In an interesting turnabout, the Summer Institute for…

  14. Lost Men on Campus. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elizabeth Redden, author of the "Inside Higher Ed" article, "Lost Men on Campus," succinctly articulated the growing concerns about many college men at postsecondary institutions. Her review of results and issues presented at the "ND Conference on College Men" highlighted decreased rates of enrollment for men, underrepresentation of men in campus…

  15. Campus Life and Government Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shekleton, James F.

    This paper discusses the proper way to conduct official government investigations on college campuses within the framework of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution which protects against unreasonable searches and seizures. The article emphasizes that this amendment lays the groundwork for the limitations on the exercise of…

  16. Campus Networking Strategies: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael M.

    1988-01-01

    This article is adapted from the introduction to EDUCOM's forthcoming book, Campus Networking Strategies, which includes 10 case study chapters detailing academic experiences with computer networking. Topics discussed in the introduction include network issues for management, networking economics, engineering and telecommunications issues, and…

  17. NES: Search the Virtual Campus

    NASA Video Gallery

    Discover how to use the resources available within the NES Virtual Campus. Learn how to use the built-in filter feature and the “browse all” buttons to quickly navigate through all of the featu...

  18. International Initiatives on AASCU Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes information submitted by AASCU presidents and chancellors on efforts to build international programs on their campuses and/or to develop new partnerships and linkages abroad. Respondents were asked to focus specifically on the role of the president/chancellor in leading these initiatives.

  19. Campus Cultures Fostering Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 and 2005-06 workshops sponsored by the Council of Independent Colleges and the National Institute for Technology & Liberal Education have generated much data that can be used to describe aspects of the campus cultures at some 130 institutions that foster information literacy. These data are particularly informative regarding collaboration…

  20. Problem Gambling on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…

  1. Visiting School Campuses: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Spending time in schools and classrooms can be one of the best ways for novice reporters to dive into the education beat, and for veteran journalists to find fresh inspiration. While it is certainly not necessary for every story, education journalists should try their best to make time to visit schools. Classroom observations and campus tours help…

  2. Women's Campus Safety Audit Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This booklet is designed for those who want to make the college campus a safer environment for women. Specifically, it provides information to help make public and semi-public places safer and more comfortable for women, focusing on preventing sexual harassment and assault. The booklet introduces the safety audit and explains what the audit is…

  3. Creating a Global Perspective Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braskamp, Larry A.

    2011-01-01

    The author has written this Guidebook to assist users interested in creating a campus that will be more global in its mission, programs, and people. His approach is to focus on the views and contributions of the people who are engaged in higher education. Thus it has a "person" emphasis rather than a structural or policy point of view. The author…

  4. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  5. Campus Signs: Delivering the Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses campus signage and the image it gives to visitors about the institution itself, as well as ways to evaluate existing sign systems to determine whether they are properly conveying the messages intended. How design, graphics, colors, logos, fabrication, and locations support the principal function of signs, not detract from them, are…

  6. The Stewardship of Campus Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audrain, Calvert W.

    2011-01-01

    Even as technology and globalization are changing the way one lives and views the world, colleges and universities have become increasingly interested in preserving historic campus buildings and sites. Heritage has become more important to students, faculty, and staff, as well as to alumni, who have often been its prime supporters. This article…

  7. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  8. When Crisis Strikes on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

    This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

  9. Grow Your Green Campus Organically!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to environmental savvy, Delta College (Michigan) is like a lot of small institutions of higher education: It has a passel of green efforts underway, which could fall under all sorts of headings. The IT organization at the 11,000-student community college campus has virtualized its server operations and is on track to roll out a…

  10. Uranus occults SAO158687. [stellar occultation and planetary parametric observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Veverka, J.; Millis, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in obtaining atmospheric parameters, oblatenesses, and diameters of Jupiter and Mars from recent stellar occultations by these planets is used to predict what can be learned from the March 1977 occultation of the star SAO158687 by Uranus. The spectra of this star and Uranus are compared to indicate the relative instrument intensities of the two objects, the four passbands where the relative intensities are most nearly equal are listed, and expected photon fluxes from the star are computed on the assumption that it has UBVRI colors appropriate for a K5 main-sequence object. It is shown that low photon noise errors can be achieved by choosing appropriate passbands for observation, and the rms error expected for the Uranus temperature profiles obtained from the occultation light curves is calculated. It is suggested that observers of this occultation should record their data digitally for optimum time resolution.

  11. Performance evaluation of the SAO VLG-11 atomic hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, M. W.; Vessot, R. F.; Mattison, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    A new generation of frequency standards, the VLG-11 hydrogen maser, has been designed and built at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). A comprehensive series of environmental and short-term stability tests on three VLG-11 masers has been completed and evaluated. The test results reported here show substantial improvements over previous hydrogen masers in measured sensitivity to variations in ambient temperature, barometric pressure, and magnetic fields. The maser frequency stability, as represented by the two-sample (Allan) variance, has been measured for averaging times ranging from 1 to 100,00 seconds. The variance is lower than 1 x 10 to the -15th for averaging intervals between 1400 and 20,000 seconds. For times shorter than 4000 seconds, the measured stability data agree remarkably well with theoretical values calculated from thermal noise mechanisms and the 'noise within the linewidth' regime is clearly discernable in the data.

  12. Validation of the Updated SAO OMI Formaldehyde Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Liu, C.; Nowlan, C. R.; Chance, K.; Fried, A.; Janz, S. J.; Kanaya, Y.; Puentedura, O.

    2014-12-01

    The new SAO OMI formaldehyde retrieval, version v3.0.2 publicly released in June 2014, introduces major changes with respect to the previous version of the product. These changes include optimization of fitting window and fitting parameters, update of reference cross sections, reference sector normalization to the Pacific Ocean and a new air mass factor calculation. In this context it is necessary to assess the accuracy of the new product and perform a validation exercise. We compare the new data with other satellite retrievals from OMI, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY performed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, with in situ airborne measurements recorded using a Difference Frequency Generation Absorption Spectrometer (DFGAS) instrument, with aircraft passive remote sensing retrievals from the ACAM and GeoTASO instruments recorded during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns in Maryland and Texas and with ground-based DOAS measurements.

  13. Properties of QBO and SAO Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Reddy, C. A.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    We present an extension for the 2D (zonal mean) version of our Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations and the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO). Our earlier model reproduced the salient features of the mean zonal circulation in the middle atmosphere, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. In the present model we incorporate also tropospheric heating to reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation that affects significantly the dynamics of the stratosphere as Dunkerton had pointed out. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. The QBO period in the model is 30 months (mo), which is conducive to synchronize this oscillation with the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. Quadratic non-linearities generate interseasonal variations to produce a complicated pattern of variability associated with the QBO. The computed temperature amplitudes for the SAO and QBO are in substantial agreement with observations at equatorial and extratropical latitudes. At high latitudes, however, the observed QBO amplitudes are significantly larger, which may be a signature of propagating planetary waves not included in the present model. The assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium not being imposed, we find that the effects from the vertical Coriolis force associated with the equatorial oscillations are large for the vertical winds and significant for the temperature variations even outside the tropics but are

  14. Driving of the SAO by gravity waves as observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that atmospheric dynamics in the tropical stratosphere have an influence on higher altitudes and latitudes as well as on surface weather and climate. In the tropics, the dynamics are governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The QBO is dominant in the lower and middle stratosphere, and the SAO in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere. For both QBO and SAO the driving by atmospheric waves plays an important role. In particular, the role of gravity waves is still not well understood. In our study we use observations of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite instrument to derive gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag in order to investigate the interaction of gravity waves with the SAO. These observations are compared with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Usually, QBO westward winds are much stronger than QBO eastward winds. Therefore, mainly gravity waves with westward-directed phase speeds are filtered out through critical-level filtering already below the stratopause region. Accordingly, HIRDLS observations show that gravity waves contribute to the SAO momentum budget mainly during eastward wind shear, and not much during westward wind shear. These findings confirm theoretical expectations and are qualitatively in good agreement with ERA-Interim and other modeling studies. In ERA-Interim most of the westward SAO driving is due to planetary waves, likely of extratropical origin. Still, we find in both observations and ERA-Interim that sometimes westward-propagating gravity waves may contribute to the westward driving of the SAO. Four characteristic cases of atmospheric background conditions are identified. The forcings of the SAO in these cases are discussed in detail, supported by gravity wave spectra observed by HIRDLS. In particular, we find that the gravity wave forcing of the SAO cannot be explained by critical-level filtering alone; gravity

  15. Redirecting Second Language Curricula: Paulo Freire's Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford-Lange, Linda M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes philosophy of Paulo Freire as foundation for an existential/humanistic curriculum and explores practical and theoretical implications of this curriculum for second language teaching. Expands curriculum design principles into sample second language curriculum design principles. (Author/BK)

  16. The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System: A Gateway to the Planetary Sciences Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Thompson, D.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2009-03-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private libraries, plus access to scanned published articles.

  17. Observations of gravity waves from satellite and implications for the wave driving of the SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics at low latitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere is governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. It is known that tropical dynamics has significant influence on the atmosphere over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in simulating a realistic QBO and SAO. One main uncertainty is the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs). We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and potential GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data in the stratopause region. These observations are compared with the SAO driving due to planetary waves, as well as the zonal wind tendencies, both determined from the ECMWF ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis. HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to selective filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. However, during SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated by planetary waves, probably of extratropical origin. Still, we find indications in both satellite observations and ERAI that sometimes GW drag is important also during SAO westward wind shear.

  18. Violence on Campus: Defining the Problems, Strategies for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Schuh, John H., Ed.; Fenske, Robert H., Ed.

    This book addresses issues in dealing with campus violence, including types of violence on campuses, trends in campus violence, effects of increasing concerns about campus violence, and appropriate actions by student affairs and academic administrators to ensure campus safety. The chapters are: (1) "Violent Crime in American Society" (Fernando M.…

  19. Perceptions of campus climate by sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Patricia A; Fette, Ryan; Meidlinger, Peter C; Hope, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) often have negative experiences on university campuses due to their sexual orientation or gender identity. Direct and indirect experiences contribute to an overall perception of the campus climate. This study used an online survey to assess students' perceptions of campus climate, their experiences confronting bias, support of family members and friends, and whether they had considered leaving campus. Multiple regression analysis indicated that perceptions of poorer campus climate were predicted by greater unfair treatment by instructors, more impact from anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) bias on friends' and families' emotional support, and having hidden one's LGBT identity from other students. Cluster analyses revealed four groups of participants distinguished by openness about their sexual orientation and negative experiences, with one group appearing to be at risk for poor retention. Results are discussed in terms of the needs of LGBTQ students on campus.

  20. Implementing Technology for Science Classrooms in Sao Tome and Principe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, Maria Dolores Rodrigues

    This qualitative bounded case study was designed to understand how technology integration in schools could be addressed in a first-wave country. The integration of educational technology in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), a first-wave agricultural civilization, can narrow the divide between STP and third-wave information age societies. The conceptual framework was based on theories of change, learning, and context. Toffler's wave theory described how societies changed while Fullan's change theory examined how the people might change. Roger's diffusion of innovations addressed how processes change. Bandura, Vygotsky, and Siemen provided the framework for the learning within the model of change. Finally, the context theories of Tessmer and Richey's instructional design, Lave and Wenger's situated learning, and Sticht's functional context theory were applied. Twenty five individuals from 5 schools, including teachers, school directors, key educational stakeholders, and the minister of education were involved in a pilot project to integrate technology into the science curriculum. The data were collected via interviews, reflective summaries, and confidential narratives. The resulting data were analyzed to find emerging patterns. The results of this analysis showed that a first-wave civilization can adopt a third-wave civilization's features in terms of technology integration, when there is the support of opinion leaders and most of the necessary contextual requirements are in place. The study contributes to social change by providing access to knowledge through technology integration, which empowers both teachers and students.

  1. Campus Profiles Update: Campus Enrollments by Department and School, Fall Terms 1994-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Pamela M.

    This report is a compilation of data on department enrollments by campus, total enrollment by campus, and enrollment by campus and school in fall terms 1994-1998 for City College of San Francisco. On Castro-Valencia campus, enrollment rate for credit courses in music increased from 18 in fall 1994 to 59 in fall 1998, an increase of 227.8%. On John…

  2. Evaluating Your Campus Mail Center Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Mitchell D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes five strategies to consider when evaluating the security of a campus mail center: mail center efficiency, electronic tracking, identifying dangerous mail, training, and continuity planning. (EV)

  3. The Tale of Three Campuses: A Case Study in Outdoor Campus Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Erica L.

    2013-01-01

    In a study for APPA's Center for Facilities Research (CFaR), Cain and Reynolds (2006a; 2006b) linked the quality of campus facilities and the attractiveness of campus to college choice among their study's participants but also noted that facilities may not always be the primary motivation. Further, the physical campus environment can impact…

  4. Campus Sustainability Audit Research in Atlantic Canada: Pioneering the Campus Sustainability Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce the campus sustainability assessment framework (CSAF) as a campus sustainability audit methodology; to share student campus sustainability audit research; to reflect on using the CSAF for pedagogy; to review the usefulness of the CSAF as an action research instrument; to encourage other faculty/sustainability educators to…

  5. Colleges Debating Their Proper Role in Curbing Pornography on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koberstein, Jennifer A.

    1986-01-01

    Campus and administrative concerns about pornography on campus are increasing, including controversy over sale of periodicals on campus, screening of sexually explicit movies, student participation in films as actors, and education of students about social issues related to pornography. (MSE)

  6. Hate crimes on campus: racial/ethnic diversity and campus safety.

    PubMed

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Hossellman, Emily

    2012-03-01

    Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus-increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on campus. Findings suggest that those schools that are most successful in recruiting the hardest to recruit minorities (Black and Latino students) report fewer hate crimes on campus. Implications for campus climate and racial dynamics on campus, as well as future research, are discussed.

  7. Suicide and Its Prevention on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…

  8. Off-Campus Student Housing Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Lucy; Erickson, Luke V.

    2006-01-01

    Results from a survey of 180 students at a western university suggest that apartment manager's responsiveness and fairness explain 50% of the variance in determining student satisfaction with off-campus housing. Variables that measured aspects of the off-campus housing experience included manager fairness, likelihood of renting from the manager…

  9. The $7-Billion Patch for Campus Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Colleges are facing a growing deferred-maintenance problem, which at many public institutions adds up to repair bills in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Sometimes state legislatures have not supported those colleges at levels needed to maintain campus infrastructure. But at the same time, colleges continue to expand their campuses even as…

  10. Hate-Crime Hoaxes Unsettle Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    1999-01-01

    In recent months, police on a number of college and university campuses have investigated hate crimes that made headlines, only to discover that the crimes had been made up. While some feel the hoaxes are by individual students during difficult times in their lives, others feel leftists may be faking the crimes to influence the campus movement…

  11. A Midlife Crisis Hits College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    With baby boomers on college campuses nationwide getting ready to retire, those next in line--professors, administrators, and staff members in the middle of their careers--feel somewhat dispirited. They are more likely than anyone else on their campuses to harbor negative feelings about their jobs, career advancement, and the fairness of the…

  12. The CIC Historic Campus Architecture Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    America's private colleges and universities include most of the oldest institutions of higher education in the country, and their evolving physical campuses say much about American education. In recent years, the study of campus history, preservation, and adaptive reuse has received increasing attention by many sectors of the educational…

  13. The Handbook for Campus Crime Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Diane; Lee, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Campus security and safety are important issues in postsecondary education today. Providing students nationwide with a safe environment in which to learn and keeping students, parents and employees well informed about campus security are goals that have been voiced by many groups. These goals were advanced by the Crime Awareness and Campus…

  14. The Unholy Alliance Against the Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keniston, Kenneth; Lerner, Michael

    Radical extremists on the left and right are allied in a concerted attack on higher education, blaming the campuses for the unrest. Though the public on the whole has rejected the extreme charges, many have been persuaded that campus reforms would lessen or eliminate the disorders that have swept higher education. Hundreds of studies of student…

  15. Handheld Devices: Toward a More Mobile Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Mary A. C.

    2002-01-01

    Offers an overview of the acceptance and use of handheld personal computing devices on campus that connect wirelessly to the campus network. Considers access; present and future software applications; uses in medial education; faculty training needs; and wireless technology issues. (Author/LRW)

  16. The Deconstructed Campus: A Reply to Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazoué, James G.

    2012-01-01

    "The Deconstructed Campus: A Reply to Critics" responds to criticisms of precision education, an educational model proposed by James Mazoué in "The Deconstructed Campus." Precision education is characterized by the application of research-based principles to teaching and learning and is contrasted with legacy practices based on…

  17. Campus Violence: Kinds, Causes, and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Leighton C., Ed.; Pollard, Jeffrey W., Ed.

    This volume offers 14 papers on the types, sources, and possible cures of violence on college campuses from prominent workers in higher education. Following a preface the titles are: (1) "Conceptualizing Campus Violence: Definitions, Underlying Factors, and Effects" by Mary L. Roark; (2) "Administrative Perspectives on Disruptive Student Conduct"…

  18. Louisiana Shootings Underscore Vulnerability of Open Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Ten months after the massacre at Virginia Tech, colleges of all kinds continue to weigh campus-safety concerns. How can they help troubled students? How should they respond in emergencies? Preventing some campus incidents may involve luck, but responding to them effectively requires planning. Like residential colleges and universities,…

  19. Guidelines for Off-Campus Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rio Hondo Coll., Whittier, CA.

    As a result of a need for extended-opportunity programs and services and a legislative mandate in California Senate Bill 164, off-campus programs were developed to extend educational programs to all sections of the community and to accommodate students in off-campus locations. Rio Hondo College (California) developed guidelines in the following…

  20. Student Reaction to Campus Disruption: Spring '69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryba, Gary

    The spring of 1969 at the State University of New York at Buffalo was a time of student protest. The student's demands for change involved both campus and off-campus issues: (1) that students control 50% of the voting power in university decisionmaking; (2) that black students determine university policy affecting them; (3) that the Buffalo Police…

  1. Glendale Community College Campus Profile '99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Scot L.; Karpp, Edward R.; Amba, Conrad

    The Campus Profile is an annual publication designed to help faculty, staff, and students understand Glendale Community College's (California) diverse operations and make informed decisions. The publication is organized around the statewide accountability model. This year's Campus Profile includes more accountability performance measures than in…

  2. Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leider, Steven

    This article provides an overview of the current status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) students on community college campuses, and gives an idea of offerings and programs available at some campuses and districts. A primary difficulty in researching this subject is the anonymity of much of the LGBT population. The "coming out"…

  3. Developing International Campuses of Excellence in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubiralta, Marius; Delgado, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Secretary General of Universities (SGU) of the Spanish Ministry of Education launched a new programme to foster the modernisation and internationalisation of Spanish university campuses. This initiative focused on teaching, research and aspects of technology transfer, but also developing the campus into an integral social model which…

  4. Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

    2008-01-01

    Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

  5. Report on Extended Campus Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Sally Ann; And Others

    This report presents the results of a study of the Extended Campus Library Services program at Western Kentucky University (WKU), which was conducted by a committee appointed by the Director of University Libraries. A description of the program's goals and objectives is followed by a review of the extended campus programs in relation to similar…

  6. Planning Campus Health Care Services 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Bruce L.

    1975-01-01

    In a context of forecasts of major changes for America's entire health care system, colleges and universities are exploring the implications of new trends in campus health care delivery. On January 30-31, 1975, the Society for College and University Planning sponsored a workshop on "Campus Health Care Services" in Chicago to discuss such issues as…

  7. Prescription for Reorganizing: Merging Campus Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenefick, Colleen M.; Werner, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    On the Stony Brook University campus, there is literally a highway that divides the general academic side of the campus from the health sciences and hospital side. For more than 40 years, the Health Sciences Library and the University Libraries had been administered separately with different directors, budgets, staff, and organizational cultures.…

  8. Case Studies in the Campus Ministry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Clement W. (Ed.)

    This collection of essays on the campus ministry attempts to stimulate interest in developing an efficacious, contemporary role for religion in campus life. An introduction by Clement W. Welch states the place and relationship of the church in the academic community. A section of descriptive essays follows. John J. Kirvan, C.S.P., describes the…

  9. From Living Buildings to Living Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfieri, Tony; Damon, David; Smith, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable planning is a powerful tool in creating campus facilities that are environmentally, economically, and academically beneficial. As interconnected communities, college campuses provide an excellent model for sustainable intervention strategies. The University of British Columbia and the City University of New York's Lehman College have…

  10. Smart Kids at CAMP-US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the summer literacy, athletic, and computer program know as CAMP-US. Each year, CAMP-US serves approximately 500 children in 10-day sessions. The first half of each day is devoted to literacy and computer instruction, while the second half is spent engaging in recreational activities such as swimming, soccer, softball,…

  11. Housing Survey. Campus Housing: Finding the Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Depending on where you look for statistics, the number of students enrolling in colleges or universities is increasing, decreasing or remaining the about the same. Regardless of those trends, campus housing is a marketing tool for institutions looking to draw students to and keep them on campus. Schools need to offer sufficient beds and…

  12. The Mixed Political Blessing of Campus Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Sheryl D.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of sustainability rhetoric, curriculum, infrastructure, and marketing on college campuses is a mixed blessing. On the one hand, college presidents are pledging to eliminate their campuses' global warming emissions; colleges and universities are building wind turbines, composters, and green buildings; and sustainability coordinators are…

  13. Off-Campus Locations Report, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Off-campus locations play a significant role within Tennessee's higher education system. They meet the needs of many citizens who are unable to take advantage of the services provided at main campus locations and, in turn, serve the needs of the institution by making education available to more students. It is the responsibility of the Tennessee…

  14. Cults, College Students, and Campus Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the distinguishing features of a cult and the recruitment practices of cults on college campuses. Considers the psychological, social, and developmental reasons why students are attracted to cults, and describes the conversion process. Reports on campus policy, implications of litigation, and recommends strategies for dealing with cults.…

  15. Campus Chaplains: Cult Training and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elleven, Russell K.; Greenhaw, Kimberly J.; Allen, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the perception of 43 college chaplains across the United States with regard to cult training and perceptions of college and university cult activity. Campus chaplains are in a unique and challenging position on college campuses to assist students and confront cult issues. The results of the survey indicate that most campus…

  16. The Power of Place on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Earl

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities should never underestimate the power of special, transformational, and even sacred spaces on their campuses. Such spaces help create lasting relationships between students and institutions, but too often colleges overlook the influential role that campus landscape can play. Universities are products of history and…

  17. Campuses See Rising Demand for Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The numbers looked strange. In early March, the University of Missouri had received many more campus-housing contracts than it expected. Each year many upperclassmen cancel their agreements after finding an off-campus rental, leaving enough spaces for incoming students. But on March 17, the first day freshmen could select their rooms online, there…

  18. Chapel Use on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragun, Ryan T.; Henry, Patrick; Mann, Marcus; Russell Krebs, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Many institutions of higher education have chapels, but how often are the chapels used? The authors examine use of chapels on two private higher education campuses in the Southeastern United States. While close to 50% of students visited the chapels on both campuses, visits were primarily for secular activities, although use of the chapels for…

  19. The Enterprise Campus at Midlands Technical College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhames, Ronald L.; Ledbetter, J. Tom, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Commission established the Midlands Technical College (MTC) Enterprise Campus through special legislation. The Enterprise Campus provides for partnerships with private developers using private resources to create a unique business environment. Participants learn about the legislative process, the need for public/private partnerships, and what…

  20. Making Technology Work for Campus Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floreno, Jeff; Keil, Brad

    2010-01-01

    The challenges associated with securing schools from both on- and off-campus threats create constant pressure for law enforcement, campus security professionals, and administrators. And while security technology choices are plentiful, many colleges and universities are operating with limited dollars and information needed to select and integrate…

  1. Many Variables Determine Campus Safety Staffing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    College and university administrators must take into account a number of variables in determining the appropriate staffing levels for their campus public safety function, according to a white paper released by International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA). The report is entitled, "Establishing Appropriate Staffing…

  2. The Creative Virtues of Density on Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    The idea of greater density on college campuses almost always meets with opposition. The Latin word "campus" translates into English as "field," suggesting open green space and unencumbered vistas. The concept of collegiate learning amid nature--rolling lawns, beautiful fall foliage--is ingrained into the American psyche. But a closer look…

  3. Queen Margaret University College's Sustainable, Community Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The new campus of Queen Margaret University College in the United Kingdom is designed to be a sustainable educational and community resource. Early consultation with students and staff on the campus design revealed a strong desire for a sustainable environment, with plenty of green space for all to enjoy. In response to this, the design focuses on…

  4. The University of Michigan Campus Identification Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor.

    Specific information, identification, and direction to and within the campus as factors determining a campus sign system are discussed in terms of--(1) needs requiring an identification sign system, (2) recommendations for initiating a comprehensive sign system for the university, and (3) application procedures as they relate to streets, walkways,…

  5. A Rubric for Campus Heritage Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Charles A.; Fixler, David N.; Kelly, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    This article is inspired by recent observations, events, and publications, as well as by a general and rising concern for and appreciation of the culture of American historical heritage as manifested on college and university campuses. Among the influences and inspirations for this article are Richard P. Dober's (2005) "Campus Heritage" and the…

  6. Musculoskeletal Pain as a Marker of Health Quality. Findings from the Epidemiological Sleep Study among the Adult Population of São Paulo City

    PubMed Central

    Palombini, Luciana; Godoy, Luciana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We are witnessing the growth of urban populations, particularly in the developing world. São Paulo, the largest city in South America, continues to grow, and this growth is dramatically effecting the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the point prevalence of chronic pain in São Paulo city dwellers and to explore the influence of aspects related to urbanicity. Methods A two-stage cluster randomized sample included 1100 individuals of the city of Sao Paulo, representing the population proportionally in terms of gender, age and social classes in 2007. For this observational cross-sectional study, the household sample was interviewed using validated questionnaires for sociodemographic aspects, the Beck inventories for anxiety and depression, the WHOQoL-REF for quality of life, the Chalder Fatigue Scale. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as diffuse pain or pain located in the back, joints or limbs. Data regarding sleep complaints and polysomnography were obtained from the Epidemiologic Sleep Study conducted in São Paulo city in 2007. Results The prevalence estimate of chronic musculoskeletal pain was approximately 27%, with a female/male ratio of approximately 2.6/1. The predictors were being in the age-range of 30–39 years, low socioeconomic and schooling levels, obesity, sedentarism, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, poor life quality, anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychological wellbeing was the main discriminator between responders with chronic musculoskeletal pain and the controls, followed by depression for the participants with poor psychological wellbeing, and fatigue, for the remaining ones. Insomnia syndrome was the third-level discriminator for those with fatigue, whereas sleep quality for those without fatigue. Conclusions Musculoskeletal pain was frequently reported by São Paulo city dwellers and its correlates with psychological and sleep aspects are suggestive of a

  7. Collaborative procurement for developing a sustainable campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Rahim, Syukran Abdul; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd; Ismail, Mohd. Noorizhar

    2016-08-01

    It is particularly challenging to achieve sustainability in campus universities, where a high volume of users and activities has made it more imperative to promote green buildings that reduce energy and water consumption while having a minimal carbon footprint. At present, the frameworks for sustainable campus have seldom focused on the project procurement method which would improve construction team integration in developing the physical aspect of campus development. Therefore, in response to that challenge, this paper investigates how the delivery team, responsible for the design and construction of a project, can be integrated to work together more efficiently and more using the collaborative procurement method known as partnering. This paper reports part of a previous research and sets the base for ongoing research on the critical factors in partnering for sustainable campus development. The outcome or result of this study will meet and support the requirement for construction, maintenance, and operation process for universities towards sustainable building/campus in the future.

  8. The Effect of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on Saos-2 Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Khojasteh, Arash; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Eslami, Mohammad; Motahhary, Pourya; Morad, Golnaz; Shidfar, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss) is a xenogenic bone substitute, widely used in maxillofacial bone regeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate its influence on the growth behavior of human osteosarcoma cell line, Saos-2 culture, and compare it with the physiologic dose of Dexamethasone, an inductive factor for osteoblasts. Materials and Methods Human osteosarcoma cells, Saos-2, were cultured on Bio-Oss and their growth rate was compared to Saos-2 cultures treated with Dexamethasone 10-7 M in contrast to cells cultivated in PBS, in the control group. Assessment of proliferation was performed after 24, 36, and 48 hours by counting cells using trypan blue exclusion method. Alkaline phosphatase was measured spectrophotometrically at 405 nm with paranitrophenol buffer. Results After 48 hours, the number of Saos-2 cells increased significantly when subcultured with Bio-Oss. Bio-Oss was more effective on the enhancement of proliferation of Saos-2 cells when compared to the physiologic dose of Dexamethasone (P<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase activity increased in cells grown on Bio-Oss and dexamethasone 10-7 M in contrast to cells cultivated in PBS control group. The greatest level of activity was observed in the group containing Bio-Oss after 48 hour. Conclusion The significant increase of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity in cells cultured on Bio-Oss, compared to Dexamethasone-treated cells, suggests the important role of this bone substitute in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:23922573

  9. Paulo Freire's Legacy for Adults Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana

    The death of Paulo Freire in May 1997 was a momentous event for educators everywhere, especially adult educators, and a sad one for those who knew and loved him. The author has been thinking and writing about Freire's work for many years, exploring his contribution to a radical politics of adult education. While Freire's work features strongly in…

  10. Paulo Freire and the Politics of Postcolonialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that Paulo Freire's work has been appropriated in ways that denudes it of some of its important political insights. Argues that Freire's work must be read as a postcolonial text and that North Americans must engage in a radical form of border crossing to reconstruct Freire's work in the specificity of its historical and political…

  11. Paulo Freire: Dialogue, Politics and Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Tom

    1982-01-01

    The author presents major criticisms to Paulo Freire's work and offers some useful insights into the nature and limitations of the political aspects of his thought. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex BN8 5DL, UK) (SSH)

  12. The Critical Spirituality of Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the premise that Paulo Freire's capacity for hope in the face of personal struggle and exile issued from his spirituality, this paper examines Freire's spirituality through the lens of Michael Dantley's concept of critical spirituality. The concept of spirituality as discussed in the literature is explored, followed by an explication…

  13. A Pedagogy of Hope after Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In my review of the articles published in this issue of "SAJHE" I use the notion of "after" in two senses: "in imitation of" and "following in time" (moving beyond) (Schad 2003, x). In the first instance I wish to assess the extent to which contributors have drawn on Paulo Freire's concept of a "pedagogy of hope"--how their work imitates that of…

  14. Paulo Freire and the Concept of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Kelvin Stewart

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Paulo Freire's liberatory conception of education is interesting, challenging, even transforming because central to it are important aspects of education which other philosophers marginalise. I also argue that Freire's critics are right when they claim that he paid insufficient attention to another important aspect of…

  15. Optical properties of rare earth doped strontium aluminate (SAO) phosphors: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kshatri, D. S.; Khare, A.

    2014-11-01

    After the first news on rare earth (RE) doped strontium aluminate (SAO) phosphors in late 1990s, researchers all over the world geared up to develop stable and efficient persistent phosphors. Scientists studied various features of long lasting phosphors (LLP) and tried to earmark appropriate mechanism. However, about two decades after the discovery of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+, the number of persistent luminescent materials is not significant. In this review, we present an overview of the optical characteristics of RE doped SAO phosphors in terms of photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL) and afterglow spectra. Also, we refresh the work undertaken to study diverse factors like dopant concentration, temperature, surface energy, role of activator, etc. Simultaneously, some of our important findings on SAO are reported and discussed in the end.

  16. Are Your Campus Assets Hidden in Plain View?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Yahres, Mike; Knight, Syd

    1997-01-01

    Campus planning is affected by changing facility needs, transportation issues, emergence of satellite campuses, piecemeal development and funding, and shrinking budgets. A tool for reshaping college image is the campus assessment, which evaluates the campus character, condition, and maintenance and helps bring them in line with institutional…

  17. Responding to Campus Rape: A Practical Guide for College Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard; Smith, Michael Clay

    1996-01-01

    In addressing rape on campus, colleges and universities should provide a rape awareness program, a campus sexual harassment policy, a campus security plan focusing on prevention, procedures for notifying the community about criminal activity, adequate disciplinary procedures, and protection for minor children with whom campus employees work. A…

  18. The driving of the SAO by gravity waves derived from satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics in the tropical stratosphere and lower mesosphere is strongly influenced by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The tropical dynamics has significant influence on atmospheric dynamics over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on the surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in reproducing a realistic QBO and SAO. One of the main reasons are uncertainties in the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs) that are too small-scale to be resolved by the global models. Direct estimates of the GW driving of the QBO and SAO from global observations are still missing. We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data. These observations are compared with the zonal wind tendencies and the drag that is still missing in the tropical momentum budget of the ECMWF ERA Interim (ERAI) reanalysis after considering zonal wind tendency, Coriolis force, advection terms and drag of resolved global-scale waves. In the stratopause region ERAI is no longer well-constrained by data assimilation. Nevertheless, the missing drag and its relative variations can be used as a proxy for GW drag. Qualitatively, we find good agreement between satellite observations and ERAI, however the missing drag in ERAI is likely too high by about a factor of two. Both HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to the pre-filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. During SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated

  19. Partnerships for effective campus crisis responses.

    PubMed

    Ingemann, Mira; Jackson, LaTrelle; Pittman, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Violence on college campuses has spurred administrators and campus safety officials to devise effective crisis management and threat assessment strategies. The college community lends itself to a systematic multi-component model of crisis intervention primarily due to its self-contained and widespread interconnected social networks. The CISM model for a crisis response is an empirically supported program that would inform practice prior to, during, and following university-based crises. Ultimately, best practices in the world of academia should rest on a foundation of detailed preparation, interdepartmental collaboration and coordination, extensive specialized training, and periodic review of campus protocols to assess for systemic changes. PMID:19927497

  20. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  1. Crime on Campus, 1978-1979: A Survey of 150 College Campuses and Cities [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizotte, Alan J.

    "Crime on Campus, 1978-1979: A Survey of 150 College Campuses and Cities" is a machine-readable data file (MRDF) that includes statistics (in the form of 80 variables) on violent crimes and property crimes occurring on campuses and in the cities and municipalities associated with them. Information is given on the number of police on the campus and…

  2. Creating and Maintaining Security on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polensky, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the various components of an effective campus security program, including the master plan/needs assessment, law enforcement staffing, security technology, access control, closed circuit television systems, and emergency planning. (EV)

  3. Student Deaths Shake Up College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda Meggett

    2001-01-01

    Reports on two murders at historically Black colleges in South Carolina. Explores reasons for press attention, the schools' responses, law enforcement activities, and recent deaths at other colleges. Sidebars present information on crisis response and statistics on campus crime. (EV)

  4. Legal Underpinnings for Creating Campus Computer Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Marjorie W.; Worona, Steven L.

    1996-01-01

    Provides guidelines for the development of campus computer policies, focusing on legal issues related to adult material, harassment, privacy, commerce, and copyright. Notes that computer use policies and practices need to evolve in concert with the changing computer culture. (MDM)

  5. Building Blueprints: On-Campus Gourmet Dining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes Miami University's (Ohio) dining hall that was designed to entice students to use on-campus eateries by providing onsite show cooking of gourmet and international foods. Photos are included. (GR)

  6. Regional medical campuses: a new classification system.

    PubMed

    Cheifetz, Craig E; McOwen, Katherine S; Gagne, Pierre; Wong, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    There is burgeoning belief that regional medical campuses (RMCs) are a significant part of the narrative about medical education and the health care workforce in the United States and Canada. Although RMCs are not new, in the recent years of medical education enrollment expansion, they have seen their numbers increase. Class expansion explains the rapid growth of RMCs in the past 10 years, but it does not adequately describe their function. Often, RMCs have missions that differ from their main campus, especially in the areas of rural and community medicine. The absence of an easy-to-use classification system has led to a lack of current research about RMCs as evidenced by the small number of articles in the current literature. The authors describe the process of the Group on Regional Medical Campuses used to develop attributes of a campus separate from the main campus that constitute a "classification" of a campus as an RMC. The system is broken into four models-basic science, clinical, longitudinal, and combined-and is linked to Liaison Committee on Medical Education standards. It is applicable to all schools and can be applied by any medical school dean or medical education researcher. The classification system paves the way for stakeholders to agree on a denominator of RMCs and conduct future research about their impact on medical education.

  7. The diameter of 88 Thisbe from its occultation of SAO 187124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; White, N. M.; Bowell, E.; Klemola, A.; Elliott, R. C.; Smethells, W. G.; Price, P. M.; Mckay, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The 7 October, 1981 occultation of SAO 187124 by 88 Thisbe was observed at twelve sites. The occultation observations, together with information about the asteroid's light curve, gives a mean diameter for Thisbe of 232 + or - 10 km. This value is 10 percent larger than the previously published radiometric diameter of Thisbe.

  8. Campus Protective Services: A Self-Instructional Training Course for Campus Security Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullendore, Philip

    While most college campuses use non-sworn personnel, mostly students, to supplement regular security or peace officer personnel, there is no legal requirement or formal strategy for training these non-sworn officers. This handbook presents a self-instructional training course for non-sworn campus security personnel and was prepared to meet…

  9. Crime on Campus. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burling, Philip

    1993-01-01

    The guide is designed to inform college and university administration and governing boards about facts and issues concerning crime on campus so that they may develop policies and procedures for addressing it. After an introductory section that defines the trustees' role in managing institutional response to campus crime, Chapter 2 outlines…

  10. Revealing Campus Nature: The Lessons of the Native Landscape for Campus Heritage Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    As American settlement spread to the Midwest, college and university campuses came to symbolize some of the greatest achievements of public policy and private philanthropy. However, the expansion westward often ignored the cultural precedents of Native Americans and the diversity of the varied native landscapes. Today, campus planners and historic…

  11. The Impact of the Structure, Function, and Resources of the Campus Security Office on Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Patricia Anne

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is college and university safety. This national quantitative study utilized resource dependency theory to examine relationships between the incidence of reported campus crimes and the structure, function, and resources of campus security offices. This study uncovered a difference in reported total crime rates,…

  12. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the SAO-HD-GC-DM cross index version 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An updated and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. A correction of all errors which were found since preparation of the original catalog which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog are included and component identifications from the Index of Visual Double Stars (IDS) are appended to all multiple SAO entries with the same DM numbers, and lower case letter identifiers for supplemental BD stars are added. A total of 11,398 individual corrections and data additions is incorporated into the present version of the cross index.

  13. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star catalogue (SAO) version 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An updated, corrected and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version have been corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been blanked out, but the records themselves have been retained and flagged so that sequencing and record count are identical to the published catalog.

  14. Tobacco-free campus initiative.

    PubMed

    Mayabb, Gina; Hoppers, Trevor

    2006-03-01

    College students in the United States face many health risks in what, for most, is their first extended stay away from home. Unhealthy diets, binge drinking, and stress can all contribute to the decreased health status of many 18-24 year olds attending college. Smoking on college campuses, however, is one factor that is not as often included in this list of risky behavior. Smoking and tobacco use is so prevalent that it is often considered the normal thing to do. To counter this belief, and hopefully provide a better way to equip Oklahoma students to lead tobacco-free lifestyles as adults, we have developed a thorough and pointed policy aimed at reducing tobacco use among the 18-24-year-old population. The Oklahoma statute entitled "Smoking in Public Places and Indoor Workplaces Act," Title 63, specifically addresses smoking in educational facilities in Section 1-1523 by giving educational facilities freedom to assign areas permissible for smoking outside buildings and during most activities. Part C of this section states, "Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit educational facilities from having more restrictive policies regarding smoking and the use of other tobacco products in the buildings or on the grounds of the facility." Part C is the premise of the following proposed policy. Outlined in this discussion will be the definition of the problem and basic rationale for such a policy, definition of educational facilities, an outline and communication of policy provisions, suggestions for assistance and cessation, types of enforcement, funding sources, and key players who need to be involved for effective application of this policy. Additionally discussed are the implications and limitations of a restricting policy on tobacco use. PMID:16629236

  15. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  16. The Impact of Campus Traditions and Event-Specific Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Henslee, Amber M.; Buckner, Julia D.; Irons, Jessica G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Specific events (e.g., Spring Break, holidays) are associated with greater college student drinking. However, the ways in which specific events are celebrated at specific campuses may impact students’ beliefs about the social acceptability of drinking during these events, which may impact students’ event-specific drinking. The present study investigated whether two campuses with different traditions regarding St. Patrick’s Day and Mardi Gras differed on event-specific normative beliefs, intent to drink, and actual alcohol consumption. Method Undergraduate students at two campuses (N=570, 59% female) were surveyed pre- and post-events. Campus 1 has specific campus-wide traditions regarding St. Patrick’s Day whereas Campus 2 has specific campus-wide traditions regarding Mardi Gras. Prior to the events, participants were asked to indicate how much they expected their peers to drink and how much alcohol they intended to drink themselves during these events. After the events, students reported how much alcohol they actually consumed during the events. Results Campus 1 reported greater intent to drink and actual drinking during St. Patrick’s Day than Campus 2, whereas Campus 2 reported greater intent to drink and actual drinking during Mardi Gras than Campus 1. Campus 1 reported greater norms during SPD than Campus 2, whereas Campus 2 reported greater norms during MG than Campus 1. Event-specific norms did not moderate the relation between event and student event-specific drinking. Conclusion Campuses with different event-specific traditions differed in intent to drink and actual event-specific drinking. Findings have important implications for campus-wide interventions and individual treatment. PMID:25681820

  17. Campus sustainable food projects: critique and engagement.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Peggy F

    2011-01-01

    Campus sustainable food projects recently have expanded rapidly. A review of four components - purchasing goals, academic programs, direct marketing, and experiential learning - shows both intent and capacity to contribute to transformational change toward an alternative food system. The published rationales for campus projects and specific purchasing guidelines join curricular and cocurricular activities to evaluate, disseminate, and legitimize environmental, economic, social justice, and health concerns about conventional food. Emerging new metrics of food service practices mark a potential shift from rhetoric to market clout, and experiential learning builds new coalitions and can reshape relations with food and place. Campus projects are relatively new and their resilience is not assured, but leading projects have had regional, state, and national impact. The emergence of sustainability rankings in higher education and contract-based compliance around purchasing goals suggests that if support continues, higher education's leadership can extend to the broader agrifood system.

  18. Campus sustainable food projects: critique and engagement.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Peggy F

    2011-01-01

    Campus sustainable food projects recently have expanded rapidly. A review of four components - purchasing goals, academic programs, direct marketing, and experiential learning - shows both intent and capacity to contribute to transformational change toward an alternative food system. The published rationales for campus projects and specific purchasing guidelines join curricular and cocurricular activities to evaluate, disseminate, and legitimize environmental, economic, social justice, and health concerns about conventional food. Emerging new metrics of food service practices mark a potential shift from rhetoric to market clout, and experiential learning builds new coalitions and can reshape relations with food and place. Campus projects are relatively new and their resilience is not assured, but leading projects have had regional, state, and national impact. The emergence of sustainability rankings in higher education and contract-based compliance around purchasing goals suggests that if support continues, higher education's leadership can extend to the broader agrifood system. PMID:21560268

  19. Performance Analysis of IIUM Wireless Campus Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Latif, Suhaimi; Masud, Mosharrof H.; Anwar, Farhat

    2013-12-01

    International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is one of the leading universities in the world in terms of quality of education that has been achieved due to providing numerous facilities including wireless services to every enrolled student. The quality of this wireless service is controlled and monitored by Information Technology Division (ITD), an ISO standardized organization under the university. This paper aims to investigate the constraints of wireless campus network of IIUM. It evaluates the performance of the IIUM wireless campus network in terms of delay, throughput and jitter. QualNet 5.2 simulator tool has employed to measure these performances of IIUM wireless campus network. The observation from the simulation result could be one of the influencing factors in improving wireless services for ITD and further improvement.

  20. Professional Organizations for Pharmacy Students on Satellite Campuses

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Shepherd, Greene; Williams, Charlene; Zeeman, Jackie; Joyner, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses. Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses. Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel. Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication. PMID:27402981

  1. Professional Organizations for Pharmacy Students on Satellite Campuses.

    PubMed

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Shepherd, Greene; Williams, Charlene; Zeeman, Jackie; Joyner, Pamela

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses. Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses. Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel. Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication.

  2. Listening to Their Stories: Students' Perspectives about Campus Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores students' perspectives regarding campus gambling by listening to their gambling-related experiences and stories. Similarly, the chapter presents the perspective of a senior student affairs officer regarding campus gambling.

  3. The Future of the Campus: Architecture and Master Planning Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Jonathan; Roberts, Paul; Taylor, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses current and likely future trends within the architecture and master planning of university campuses. It argues that higher education administrators must maximise the value of the campus to create physical environments that enhance the student experience.

  4. Development through Dissent: Campus Activism as Civic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddix, J. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This chapter traces two decades of published research on learning outcomes related to campus activism and reports results from a speculative study considering civic outcomes from participation in campus political and war demonstrations.

  5. Professional Organizations for Pharmacy Students on Satellite Campuses.

    PubMed

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Shepherd, Greene; Williams, Charlene; Zeeman, Jackie; Joyner, Pamela

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses. Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses. Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel. Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication. PMID:27402981

  6. University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of Florida Campus Quad Bounded by West University Avenue, US 441/Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road, and North-South Drive, Gainesville, Alachua County, FL

  7. Privilege, Poverty, and Power: Remembering Paulo Freire's Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Democracy & Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This special edition honors the life and work of Paulo Freire by recalling the impact he had and continues to have on educators and students. Articles in this issue are: (1) "Editor's Introduction" (Tom Wilson); (2) "Nita's Elegy to Paulo Freire (in Portuguese) 'Privilegio, Pobreza e Poder'" (Ana Maria Araujo "Nita" Freire); (3) "Elegy to Paulo…

  8. Reducing stress on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Klainberg, Marilyn; Ewing, Bonnie; Ryan, Marybeth

    A variety of forces, internal and external, often impact students who are experiencing life on a college campus; these forces can lead to feelings of increased pressure and stress. To combat the negative effects of stress, faculty and administrators at a mid-size, suburban university collaborated to help students decrease their stress and assist them in attaining and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. A Stress Reduction Room (SRR) was designed, implemented, and evaluated with the goal of decreasing stress in this student population. The function of the SRR, benefits, and implications identified from the stress reduction campus initiative, are described in this paper.

  9. Integrated Renewable Energy and Campus Sustainability Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Uthoff, Jay; Jensen, Jon; Bailey, Andrew

    2013-09-25

    Renewable energy, energy conservation, and other sustainability initiatives have long been a central focus of Luther College. The DOE funded Integrated Renewable Energy and Campus Sustainability Initiative project has helped accelerate the College’s progress toward carbon neutrality. DOE funds, in conjunction with institutional matching funds, were used to fund energy conservation projects, a renewable energy project, and an energy and waste education program aimed at all campus constituents. The energy and waste education program provides Luther students with ideas about sustainability and conservation guidelines that they carry with them into their future communities.

  10. Suburban School Opens Elementary Campus in the Heart of Memphis: St. George's Independent School, Memphis, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    St. George's has nearly 1,150 students on three campuses: an elementary campus in Germantown and a middle/upper school campus in Collierville, both suburbs of Memphis, and a second elementary campus in Memphis. The Memphis campus serves 140 students in pre-K-5th grade. All Memphis campus students receive financial aid based on need, and…

  11. Phenotypic instability of Saos-2 cells in long-term culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hausser, Heinz-Juergen . E-mail: heinz-juergen.hausser@medizin.uni-ulm.de; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2005-07-22

    The human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 is widely used as a model system for human osteoblastic cells, though its phenotypic stability has not been ascertained. We therefore propagated these cells over 100 passages and compared relevant phenotypic properties. In general, higher passage cells exhibited higher proliferation rates and lower specific alkaline phosphatase activities, though mineralization was significantly more pronounced in cultures of late passage cells. Whereas expression of most genes investigated did not vary profoundly, some genes exhibited remarkable differences. Decorin, for instance, that has been discussed as a regulator of proliferation and mineralization, is strongly expressed only in early passage cells, and two receptors for pleiotrophin and midkine exhibited an almost mutually exclusive expression pattern in early and late passage cells, respectively. Our observations indicate that special care is required when results obtained with Saos-2 cells with different culture history are to be compared.

  12. Nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells on rhombic µ-pillars.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Melanie; Stannard, Cleo; Anselme, Karine; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    It has been previously shown that osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cells respond to micropillared surfaces consisting of poly-L-lactic acid with strong deformation of the cell body and nucleus. Until now, cell nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells was only studied by exposing them to square shaped micropillars in an isotropic pattern. Here we report on experiments of the cell nucleus response of such cells to rhombic structures of different topographies generated from a rubbery polymer, namely poly(n-butyacrylate). It is observed that cells orientate themselves perpendicular to the long axis of the rhombi. While their spreading on the surface is not influenced by the opening angle of the structures, rhombic structures with sharper angles induce stronger deformation of the cells and accordingly more elongated nuclei.

  13. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

  14. SAO mission support software and data standards, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, P.

    1993-01-01

    This document defines the software developed by the SAO AXAF Mission Support (MS) Program and defines standards for the software development process and control of data products generated by the software. The SAO MS is tasked to develop and use software to perform a variety of functions in support of the AXAF mission. Software is developed by software engineers and scientists, and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software is used either directly or customized through the use of scripts to implement analysis procedures. Software controls real-time laboratory instruments, performs data archiving, displays data, and generates model predictions. Much software is used in the analysis of data to generate data products that are required by the AXAF project, for example, on-orbit mirror performance predictions or detailed characterization of the mirror reflection performance with energy.

  15. Osteogenic potential of biosilica on human osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-12-01

    Biosilica is a natural polymer, synthesized by the poriferan enzyme silicatein from monomeric silicate substrates. Biosilica stimulates mineralizing activity and gene expression of SaOS-2 cells. To study its effect on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA), SaOS-2 cells were grown on different silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates (bone slices, Ca-P-coated coverslips, glass coverslips). Growth on these substrates induced the formation of HA nodules, organized in longitudinal arrays or spherical spots. Nodules of sizes above 1 μm were composed of irregularly arranged HA prism-like nanorods, formed by aggregates of three to eight SaOS-2 cells. Moreover, growth on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates elicited increased [(3)H]dT incorporation into DNA, indicative of enhanced cell proliferation. Consequently, an in vitro-based bioassay was established to determine the ratio between [(3)H]dT incorporation and HA formation. This ratio was significantly higher for cells that grew on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates than for cells on Ca-P-coated coverslips or plain glass slips. Hence, we propose that this ratio of in vitro-determined parameters reflects the osteogenic effect of different substrates on bone-forming cells. Finally, qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that growth of SaOS-2 cells on a silicatein/biosilica matrix upregulated BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2, inducer of bone formation) expression. In contrast, TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, modulator of bone resorption) expression remained unaffected. We conclude that biosilica shows pronounced osteogenicity in vitro, qualifying this material for studies of bone replacement also in vivo.

  16. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  17. Channels for Improved Performance from Living on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Pedro; Murray, James

    2010-01-01

    In a recent study, de Araujo and Murray (2010) find empirical evidence that living on campus leads to improved student performance, finding both immediate effects (GPA improves while the student lives on campus) and permanent effects (GPA remains higher even after moving off campus). Using the same dataset, we extend the analysis to explain why…

  18. Vandalism on College Campuses: The Need for More Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Vandalism is a prevalent problem on college campuses. This paper will describe why vandalism is not as readily noticed in higher education as a major problem and what those institutions can do to reduce the issue. Surveillance will be discussed as one of the various ways in which a campus can reduce crime on campus and make the college safer.…

  19. A Spectrum of Liabilities for Off-Campus Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Mary-Pat

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is liability of higher education institutions for off-campus housing. In the off-campus housing context, the "assumed duty" theory was determinative in a 2006 Delaware Supreme Court case. A student was assaulted by the boyfriend of another student in the parking lot of off-campus housing. The housing was…

  20. Building a virtual fence around an open campus

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Cameron M.; Johnson, Gerald R.

    2007-07-01

    This article for Security magazine describes PNNL's new campus public safety camera system. With strategically placed cameras, emergency call stations, and a campus-wide outdoor wireless mesh network, the system improves outdoor physical security, safety ,and emergency response throughout the campus.

  1. Understanding the Law Enforcement Officer's Role in the Campus Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyne, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Campus police forces operate under a difficult mandate of competing and conflicting goals. Officers are charged with protecting institutions whose basic mission is to provide a peaceful, open campus setting that encourages freedom of movement and expression. Campuses are generally unguarded and open to the general public and their buildings,…

  2. Stalking on Campus: Ensuring Security with Rights and Liberties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Julie; Longo, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    College campuses are often perceived as idyllic communities. While there is much truth in such perceptions, not surprisingly there are many complicated issues on college campuses. Stalking is one such problem that seems to persist and thrive in the cloistered college setting. Campus safety efforts must temper security practices with civil rights…

  3. Software Engineering Infrastructure in a Large Virtual Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristobal, Jesus; Merino, Jorge; Navarro, Antonio; Peralta, Miguel; Roldan, Yolanda; Silveira, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The design, construction and deployment of a large virtual campus are a complex issue. Present virtual campuses are made of several software applications that complement e-learning platforms. In order to develop and maintain such virtual campuses, a complex software engineering infrastructure is needed. This paper aims to analyse the…

  4. A Geospatial Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Lisle S.; Fifolt, Matthew; Beck, Heidi; Su, Wei; Kerbawy, Shatomi; Wakelee, Jessica; Nassel, Ariann

    2013-01-01

    Background: While there is no panacea for alleviating campus safety concerns, safety experts agree that one of the key components to an effective campus security plan is monitoring the environment. Despite previous attempts to measure campus safety, quantifying perceptions of fear, safety, and risk remains a challenging issue. Since perceptions of…

  5. Campus and Community Coalitions in AOD Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Changing the environment that affects decisions about use of alcohol and other drugs has emerged as a key to reducing substance use problems among college and university students. The student environment, however, is not limited to the campus. Education, counseling, and campus-based prevention policies and activities cannot succeed if a campus is…

  6. University Opinion Poll 8A: Bicycles on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ronald; And Others

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a two-stage survey of campus bicycle usage and opinions toward campus bicycle facilities. In the first stage, 952 persons, 78% of a random sample of students and staff reported their commuting habits and opinions about campus bicycle lanes. In the second stage, 139 persons, 84% of a sample of student and staff…

  7. Geospatial Crypto Reconnaissance: A Campus Self-Discovery Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lallie, Harjinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Campus discovery is an important feature of a university student induction process. Approaches towards campus discovery differ from course to course and can comprise guided tours that are often lengthy and uninspiring, or self-guided tours that run the risk of students failing to complete them. This paper describes a campus self-discovery…

  8. Assessment of Student Homonegativity and the Effect on Campus Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleus, Renee Cato

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have well documented how campus climate has affected students. The campus climate has affected a student's ability to persist through college and ultimately has impacted his or her entire life. Many campus climate studies have been conducted at universities, and most of these studies have focused on racial climate implications. The…

  9. Dragnet? No, Internet! Campus Security on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines college campus security's use of an Internet Web page to better inform its students and enhance campus law enforcement. The University of Richmond security Web site is provided as an example of how an interactive security system works. It notes that this system is available free to campus law enforcement agencies able to satisfy certain…

  10. The Formation and Development of the Mindful Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFon, Margaret A.; Christian, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This chapter recounts the development of faculty and student groups whose purposes are to promote mindfulness and contemplative pedagogy on the California State University-Chico campus through work both on the campus and in the greater Chico community. The "Mindful Campus" a student organization formed in 2011, merged with the "Faculty Initiative…

  11. Gang Activity on Campus: A Crisis Response Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Mahauganee; Meaney, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This case study challenges readers to consider a contemporary issue for campus threat assessment and emergency preparedness: gang presence on college campuses. A body of research examining the presence of gangs and gang activity on college campuses has developed, revealing that gangs pose a viable threat for institutions of higher education. The…

  12. The Challenges of On-Campus Recruitment Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    On-campus admissions events are the secret weapon that colleges and universities use to convince students to apply and enroll. On-campus events vary depending on the size, location, and type of institution; they include campus visitations, open houses, preview days, scholarship events, admitted student events, and summer yield events. These events…

  13. Civility on Community College Campuses: A Shared Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovics, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Means to foster civility and respect on community college campuses are presented. Faculty views are shared in relationship to maintaining appropriate behaviors on campuses. Shared responsibility, early intervention and clearly stated campus-wide policies are among suggested strategies for creating and maintaining a respectful environment.

  14. A New Campus Police Agency: A Florida Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Campus policing is a geographically focused police practice and the epitome of community oriented policing. Campus law enforcement agencies deal not only with a racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse population, they also deal with populations that change dramatically every year. While some campuses are enclaves unto themselves, many are…

  15. Semi-annual oscillation (SAO) of the nighttime ionospheric D-region as detected through ground-based VLF receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, I.; Price, C. G.; Rodger, C. J.

    2015-11-01

    Earth's middle and upper atmosphere exhibits several dominant large scale oscillations in many measured parameters. One of these oscillations is the semi-annual oscillation (SAO). The SAO can be detected in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC), the ionospheric transition height, the wind regime in the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT), and in the MLT temperatures. In addition, as we report for the first time in this study, the SAO is among the most dominant oscillations in nighttime very low frequencies (VLF) narrow-band subionospheric measurements. As VLF signals are reflected off the ionospheric D-region (at altitudes of ~65 and ~85 km, during the day and night, respectively), this implies that the upper part of the D-region is experiencing this oscillation as well, through changes in the dominating electron or ion densities, or by changes in the electron collision frequency, recombination rates, and attachment rates, all of which could be driven by oscillatory MLT temperature changes. We conclude that the main source of the SAO in the nighttime D-region is due to NOx molecules transport from the lower levels of the thermosphere, resulting in enhanced ionization and the creation of free electrons in the nighttime D-region, thus modulating the SAO signature in VLF NB measurements. While the cause for the observed SAO is still a subject of debate, this oscillation should be taken into account when modeling the D-region in general and VLF wave propagation in particular.

  16. Semi-annual oscillation (SAO) of the nighttime ionospheric D region as detected through ground-based VLF receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Israel; Price, Colin; Rodger, Craig J.

    2016-03-01

    Earth's middle and upper atmosphere exhibits several dominant large-scale oscillations in many measured parameters. One of these oscillations is the semi-annual oscillation (SAO). The SAO can be detected in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC), the ionospheric transition height, the wind regime in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT), and in the MLT temperatures. In addition, as we report for the first time in this study, the SAO is among the most dominant oscillations in nighttime very low frequency (VLF) narrowband (NB) subionospheric measurements. As VLF signals are reflected off the ionospheric D region (at altitudes of ˜ 65 and ˜ 85 km, during the day and night, respectively), this implies that the upper part of the D region is experiencing this oscillation as well, through changes in the dominating electron or ion densities, or by changes in the electron collision frequency, recombination rates, and attachment rates, all of which could be driven by oscillatory MLT temperature changes. We conclude that the main source of the SAO in the nighttime D region is NOx molecule transport from the lower levels of the thermosphere, resulting in enhanced ionization and the creation of free electrons in the nighttime D region, thus modulating the SAO signature in VLF NB measurements. While the cause for the observed SAO is still a subject of debate, this oscillation should be taken into account when modeling the D region in general and VLF wave propagation in particular.

  17. Occurrence of mycobacteria in bovine milk samples from both individual and collective bulk tanks at farms and informal markets in the southeast region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk and related dairy products. To address this concern, the Brazilian control and eradication program focusing on bovine tuberculosis, was established in 2001. However, bovine tuberculosis continues to afflict approximately 1,3 percent of the cattle in Brazil. In the present study, 300 samples of milk from bovine herds, obtained from both individual and collective bulk tanks and informal points of sale, were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and restriction-enzyme pattern analysis were then performed on the colonies exhibiting phenotypes suggestive of Mycobacterium spp., which were characterized as acid-fast bacilli. Results Of the 300 bovine milk samples that were processed, 24 were positively identified as Mycobacterium spp. Molecular identification detected 15 unique mycobacterial species: Mycobacterium bovis, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. flavescens, M. duvalii, M. haemophilum, M. immunogenum, M. lentiflavum, M. mucogenicum, M. novocastrense, M. parafortuitum, M. smegmatis, M. terrae and M. vaccae. The isolation of bacteria from the various locations occurred in the following proportions: 9 percent of the individual bulk-tank samples, 7 percent of the collective bulk-tank samples and 8 percent of the informal-trade samples. No statistically significant difference was observed between the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in the three types of samples collected, the milk production profiles, the presence of veterinary assistance and the reported concerns about bovine tuberculosis prevention in the herds. Conclusion The microbiological cultures associated with PCR-based identification tests are possible tools for the investigation of the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in milk samples. Using these methods, we found that the Brazilian population may be regularly exposed to mycobacteria by consuming raw bovine milk and related dairy products. These evidences reinforces the need to optimize quality programs of dairy products, to intensify the sanitary inspection of these products and the necessity of further studies on the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in milk and milk-based products. PMID:23618368

  18. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Diagnostic and Treatment Cascade among Contacts in Primary Health Care in a City of Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a tool for global TB control, especially in close contacts. But data is scarce in high burden countries, under field conditions, including data on the benefits of LTBI management. Objective To analyze the LTBI diagnosis and treatment cascade among contacts in primary health care (PHC) services in São José do Rio Preto—SP, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional design, conducted with contacts of pulmonary TB patients followed in all PHC services. Data was collected from May to September 2014 in the Reporting System for TB cases (TBWEB) and Reporting System for Chemoprophylaxis. Medical records and treatment follow-up forms were reviewed and all the nurses responsible for TB in PHC services were interviewed. Results Among 336 contacts included, 267 (79.4%) were screened for TB or LTBI, according to the presence or not of respiratory symptoms. Among those contacts screened, 140 (52.4%) were symptomatic, 9 (3.4%) had TB disease, 106/221 (48%) had positive TST result, meeting the criteria for LTBI treatment, and 64/106 (60.4%) actually started it. Overall, among 267 screened, only 64 (24%) started LTBI treatment. The completion rates of treatment among the contacts who started it, those with positive TST result and those screened were 56.3% (36/64), 16.3% (36/221) and 13.5% (36/267), respectively. Nurses claimed that asymptomatic TB contacts pay no attention to preventive health care and do not seek medical care as they do not have symptoms of the disease. In reviewing the medical records, high proportions of contacts without evaluation, incomplete assessment, incorrect records of contraindication for LTBI treatment, lack of notes regarding the identification and evaluation of contacts were identified. Conclusions There is a need for better organization of the surveillance and investigation routine for contacts in PHC, considering the reorganization of the work process and the features of the local health system. PMID:27285720

  19. Complete genome characterization of Rocio virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae), a Brazilian flavivirus isolated from a fatal case of encephalitis during an epidemic in Sao Paulo state.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Daniele B A; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Kuno, Goro

    2007-08-01

    The flaviviruses of major medical importance in South American countries are yellow fever, dengue, Saint Louis encephalitis, West Nile and Rocio viruses. Rocio virus (ROCV) has been responsible for epidemics of severe encephalitis in Brazil with a case-fatality rate of 10 % and development of sequelae in 20 % of the survivors. We have sequenced and characterized the entire genome of ROCV for the first time, by determining the general traits of the open reading frame and the characteristics of viral genes including the potential cleavage sites, conserved or unique motifs, cysteine residues and potential glycosylation sites. The conserved sequences in the 3'-non-coding region were identified, and the predicted secondary structures during cyclization between 5'- and 3'-non-coding regions were studied. Multiple protein and phylogenetic analyses based on antigenically important and phylogenetically informative genes confirmed a close relationship between ROCV and Ilheus virus (ILHV), together constituting a unique and distinct phylogenetic subgroup as well as the genetic relationship of ROCV with several members of the Japanese encephalitis group. Although ROCV is phylogenetically related to ILHV, our study shows that it is still a virus distinct from the latter virus. This is the first flavivirus uniquely indigenous to Brazil that has been sequenced completely and the genome characterized. The data should be useful for further studies at the molecular level, including construction of infectious clone, identification of gene function, improved disease surveillance based on molecular diagnostic tools and vaccine development.

  20. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  1. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  2. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  3. Remote Sensing techniques used to characterize soil erosion in southwestern Sao Paulo state. M.S. Thesis - 29 Sep. 1982; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Pinto, S. D. A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Within randomly sampled squares of a 1 km x 1 km grid, rill/gullies frequency, land cover/land use type and shape of the slopes were extracted from aerial photographs of the Ribeirao Anhumas drainage basin. Mean slope gradient, stream frequency and slope length were calculated on topographic maps. Ground truth data on fine sand/coarse sand ratio and vegetation cover densities were obtained. The MSS-LANDSAT-2 data (CCTs) were analyzed using single-cell, cluster synthesis and slicer algorithms. Graphical and statistical analyses of the data indicate that different slope gradients and land cover/land use types are the most significant factors related to the soil erosion process. The digital analysis of MSS data allowed the association among gray level classes and vegetation cover classes, which defined seven classes. These gray level classes and slope gradient classes were used to rank erosion risk.

  4. Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campoe, Otávio C; Stape, José Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

  5. [Misoprostol: pathways, mediation and social networks for access to abortion using medication in the context of illegality in the State of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Arilha, Margareth Martha

    2012-07-01

    The scope of this article is to discuss the commercialization and use of misoprostol for abortion purposes in the illegal contexts that still persist in Brazil. The information presented was collected through case studies conducted with two young women who aborted using medication - one successfully and one unsuccessfully - and two adult women who have close ties with women who used misoprostol. The study confirms the hypothesis that the diffusion and expansion of the use of misoprostol outside the hospital context is associated with the decision of women who seek lower costs, lower risks to their health and privacy. It also permits examination of the interpretation that this increase in consumption is linked to the inclusion of the medication in a set of goods that are illegally traded in Brazil, in different ways and in different contexts. As a result, women are exposed to different degrees of vulnerability depending directly on the steps taken, types of mediation used and social networks they belong to. These are the ways in which women and men obtain access to the use of misoprostol for abortion, the outcome of which may be successful or not. PMID:22872340

  6. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  7. Use of radial basis function networks and near-infrared spectroscopy for the determination of total nitrogen content in soils from Sao Paulo State.

    PubMed

    Fidêncio, Paulo H; Poppi, Ronei J; de Andrade, João C; de Abreu, Mônica F

    2008-07-01

    Total nitrogen has been determined by using a model developed between the conventional chemical measurements and diffuse reflectance spectra in the near-infrared region. Samples (244) from different types of soils with total nitrogen contents ranging from 0.20 to 13.60% (m/m) were modeled by partial least-squares regression (PLS), multi-layer perceptron feed-forward networks (MLP) and radial basis function networks (RBFN). The RBFN model produced a better square error of prediction (SEP) of 0.048 and R(2) = 0.93 in a procedure that is simpler, faster and less dependent on the initial conditions.

  8. MUTAGENICITY AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF PAH, NITRO-PAH, AND OXY-PAH FRACTIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER FROM SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary
    What is the study?
    Near roadway and immediate roadway exposures to transportation emissions gave very similar results in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in an assay for DNA adducts indicating that near roadway genotoxicity is not altered significantly over...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE URBAN AIR POLLUTION BENEFITS OF GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION: SANTIAGO, SAO PAULO, MEXICO CITY, AND NEW YORK CITY. (R827351)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Evaluation of anthropic influences in an estuarine system of Southeastern Brazilian Coast by applying enrichment factors in cores from Bertioga Channel, Sao Paulo state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, R. C.; Sartoretto, J. R.; Salaroli, A. B.; Gabriela, C.; Andreza, R. P.; Tessler, M. G.; Mahiques, M.; Goncalves, C.

    2011-12-01

    Santos estuary, located in Southeastern Brazilian Coast, is impacted by several anthropic activities. The largest commercial harbor in South America and the main petrochemical and metallurgical industrial centre in the country, with approximately 1100 industries, are also in this estuary. The estuarine system has an important channel, called Bertioga Channel, which connects the upper Santos estuary to the ocean. In this channel are located the main mangroves of the estuarine complex that have a great potential of heavy metals retention. This behavior is related to sedimentary dynamics of system, where contaminated sediments from upper estuary are filtrated by channel before reaching the ocean. In this context, the main goal of this work was to carry out a study on toxic elements in cores from Bertioga Channel. Enrichment Factor (EF) was determined and it was related to geochronological data, allowing the evaluation of anthropic activities impact in this region. Thus, in February 2010, were collected five cores along the channel using a vibrocorer. The cores (150 - 220 cm) were sliced at every 2 cm, the samples were frozen and freeze-drying. Elemental preparation and analysis (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sc and Zn) followed SW-846 methodologies applying ICP-OES technique. Geocronology was determined via gamma spectrometry, by 210Pbxs and 137Cs methods. In order to assess the degree of sediment contamination, enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using Sc as normalization element Background values correspondeded to the element concentration in the bottom sediment core as determined by 210Pb chronology. EFs obtained in all analyzed cores were lower than 2, indicating a minimal pollution for the region. However, in core Bertioga 5 (the closest one to Santos harbor), it can be seen As, Cr, Pb and Zn enrichment from the bottom to the top, mainly from 70's, when harbor activities expanded. Despite of the low levels found for the studied elements, Bertioga channel area has suffered environmental impact due to domestic sewer releasing and the presence of marina in the region.

  11. Campus Walkability, Pedometer-Determined Steps, and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity: A Comparison of 2 University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Susan B.; Mcclain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: At 2 Arizona State University (ASU) campuses, the authors measured student activity and distance walked on campus, as well as student-reported walkability around the student union. Methods: Students from ASU-Polytechnic (n = 20, 33% male) and ASU-Tempe (n = 20, 60% male) recorded distance walked on campus and wore…

  12. The Invisible Campus: Off-Campus and Out-of-District Instruction in Missouri, Fiscal Year 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManis, Michael A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the delivery of off-campus and out-of-district instruction in Missouri during fiscal year (FY) 1988. For the purposes of the study, "off-campus" referred to those courses offered by a four-year college at a location other than its principal campus, and "out-of-district" referred to courses offered by public…

  13. Crime on Campus. Legal Issues and Campus Administration. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael Clay; Fossey, Richard

    This book discusses issues related to campus crime and offers administrators suggestions and checklists that can be used to evaluate current procedures and defuse potential problems. Chapters cover: (1) "The Campus: A Sanctuary?"; (2) "The Complexion of Campus Crime Today"; (3) "The Concept of Crime and the Shape of Criminal Law"; (4) "College…

  14. CEEB Campus to Prospective Student Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Kay

    Johnson County Community College, one of 20 institutions of higher education in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area, has developed a comprehensive communications program which works. Close to eight percent of the college's current operating budget is dedicated to the communication process. Most publications are printed on campus by the Word…

  15. From the Campus to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of higher education is to equip students for success in life--in their workplaces, in their communities, and in their personal lives. Yet though this purpose has remained constant for centuries, colleges and universities themselves are undergoing major changes. The campus, the library, the refereed journal article, the classroom, and…

  16. Campus Speech Codes Said to Violate Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Most college and university speech codes would not survive a legal challenge, according to a report released in December by the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a watchdog group for free speech on campuses. The report labeled many speech codes as overly broad or vague, and cited examples such as Furman University's prohibition of…

  17. Adaptively Ubiquitous Learning in Campus Math Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liu, Yu-Lung

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop and evaluate the instructional model and learning system which integrate ubiquitous learning, computerized adaptive diagnostic testing system and campus math path learning. The researcher first creates a ubiquitous learning environment which is called "adaptive U-learning math path system". This system…

  18. Creating Connections: Library Instruction across Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tag, Sylvia G.; Buck, Stefanie; Mautino, Martha N.

    2005-01-01

    The Library Outreach Program Committee at Western Washington University serves as a coordinating body for outreach activities to the non-departmental campus community. Successful projects include collaboration with New Student Services/Family Outreach, Academic User Technology Services, and Residential Life. A database of outreach activities…

  19. Leadership Development on a Diverse Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riutta, Satu; Teodorescu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    While leadership development is considered an important goal of education on many campuses, very little is known about how leadership skills develop in a diverse environment, which most colleges will be in the future. We compare causes for Socially Responsible Leadership (SRL) at the end of college students' first year in one diverse liberal…

  20. A Select Survey of Campus Radio Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, H.

    To ascertain the continued need for a campus radio station at 10 watts and to justify a subsequent increase in power, the student radio station at Auburn University (Alabama) conducted surveys of college radio stations, emphasizing facilities in the southeast United States. Some of the findings of the surveys indicated that in the southeast and…

  1. Applying a Model of Sustainability on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Phillip S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the natural resource planning theory of Walter Firey as a conceptual base for planning efforts aimed at achieving sustainable policies and practices on university and college campuses. Explains that sustainable policies and practices are those that, according to Firey's theory, are simultaneously ecologically possible, economically…

  2. Women on Campus: 1970; A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Center for Continuing Education for Women.

    The symposium: Women on Campus, 1970, held at Michigan University on October 14, 1970, centered on 3 major topics: "Toward a New Psychology of Women"; "The Case of the Woman Graduate Student"; and "The University and Women." The papers that were presented concerning the first topic included: "Internal Barriers to Achievement in Women--An…

  3. Nerf Guns Strike a Nerve on Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Killing zombies on campus just isn't as much fun as it used to be. Students at Bowling Green State University once carried Nerf guns for a week each semester, shooting the zombies before the creatures could tag them. Participants were seen by most bystanders as nerdy but harmless kids who liked role-playing. These days, bright plastic Nerf guns…

  4. Hate Speech on Campus: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Looks at arguments concerning hate speech and speech codes on college campuses, arguing that speech codes are likely to be of limited value in achieving civil rights objectives, and that there are alternatives less harmful to civil liberties and more successful in promoting civil rights. Identifies specific goals, and considers how restriction of…

  5. JuicyCampus: Gone, and Best Forgotten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbeck, J. Patrick, II

    2009-01-01

    Two years ago, a former student of the author was raped. That should have been awful enough. But a few months later, his student discovered that her personal horror was being openly discussed--or, more accurately, mocked--on the gossip Web site JuicyCampus, where some of her classmates told her, and anyone else who happened to read the site, that…

  6. Facilitating College Readiness through Campus Life Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    In a program called "College Immersion," middle grades students spend up to one week on a local college campus, attending specially designed college classes and experiencing collegiate activities. This research study reports on findings related to two different college-middle school partnerships involved in a College Immersion program.…

  7. Characteristics of Successful Campus Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Dennis W.; Sedlacek, William E.

    1976-01-01

    Campus officers (N=52) were administered seven personality and attitude measures. Their performance was predicted on nine criterion measures, using multiple regression. Results yielded significant predictions on all criteria, but showed each criterion was associated with different, sometimes opposite characteristics. Negative racial attitudes were…

  8. A Green Campus Culture in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2006-01-01

    This article features information about the Nicolet Area Technical College in Rhinelander, Wisconsin for preserving the environment as a school-wide initiative. In 2003, Nicolet became the first of the state's 16 technical colleges to embrace a campus-wide focus on renewable energy. In cooperation with the Wisconsin Technical College System…

  9. The University of Salamanca's New Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo-Sotelo, Pablo Campos

    2005-01-01

    The University of Salamanca in Spain has planned a new campus rooted in the local culture, geography, architecture and academic tradition. It will be built in the adjacent municipality of Villamayor, along the bank of the river Tormes. The master plan defines the basic features for what is one of the most important university development projects…

  10. Infusing JUST Design in Campus Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staeger-Wilson, Katheryne; Sampson, Douglas H.

    2012-01-01

    This practice brief highlights the collaborative work among a disability resource professional, a university architect, and students with disabilities to create a campus recreation center with universal design features. This partnership serves to illustrate that building to minimum compliance standards does not necessarily remove barriers to…

  11. Campus Communications in the Age of Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Recent catastrophes have brought about numerous critiques and changes to campus communications. In this article, the author shares the lessons she has learned from the crises she experienced during her 18 years of being the president of Trinity (Washington) University. Furthermore, Joan Hinde Stewart, president of Hamilton College, adds her…

  12. Setting the Standard: XML on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Explains what XML (Extensible Markup Language) is; where to find it in a few years (everywhere from Web pages, to database management systems, to common campus applications); issues that will make XML somewhat of an experimental strategy in the near term; and the importance of decision-makers being abreast of XML trends in standards, tools…

  13. For Members Only: Feminism on Campus Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agness, Karin L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of contemporary feminism in the classroom and on campus is widespread, and student clubs, women's centers, and women's studies departments often exclude women who hold traditional views. In this article, the author takes a look at how this influence evolved and describes the very successful actions she took as a student to challenge…

  14. Electronic Campus Meets Today's Education Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalec, John J.; And Others

    Waubonsee Community College (WCC) employs electronic technology to meet the needs of its students and community in virtually every phase of campus operations. WCC's Information System Center, housing three mainframe computers, drives an online registration system, a computerized self-registration system that can be accessed by telephone from…

  15. Residence Halls: Making Campus a Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curley, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the reasons for and advantages to transforming college campuses from commuter to residential facilities or expanding existing facilities, suggesting that the design for new student residence facilities must provide for a wide variety of functions above and beyond the spaces required for sleeping and bathing. Incorporating study lounges,…

  16. Making Campuses More Inclusive of Transgender Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemyn, Brett Genny

    2005-01-01

    This article examines a number of areas of campus life where transgender students experience discrimination because of gender-exclusive policies and practices: health care, residence halls, bathrooms, locker rooms, records and documents, public inclusion, and programming, training, and support. The specific obstacles faced by transgender students…

  17. Campus Climate Student Survey, Spring 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Community Coll. District, CA. Research and Planning.

    A study was conducted at the San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) in California to assess students' perceptions of the campus climate and their college experience. A 65-item questionnaire was administered in-class to a 10% random sample of the spring 1994 student population, and a shorter version of the survey instrument had been included…

  18. The Campus Diversity Initiative: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayak, Sharada

    2005-01-01

    This Case Study presents the Campus Diversity Initiative (CDI), a three-phase project lead by the Educational Resources Project Centre Trust, in New Delhi, India. In a historic and cultural context different from that of India, the American Diversity Initiative was launched by the Ford Foundation in 1990 and addressed their diversity issues by…

  19. Predators: Uncomfortable Truths about Campus Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisak, David

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author cites a few studies which revealed startling statistics about sexual violence in colleges, particularly rape. He notes that sexual violence remains as much a dirty secret on the campuses as it is in the larger society. It flourishes because to confront it, an institution must be willing to shine a bright light on…

  20. Promoting Geographic Information System Usage across Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Shaun; Kinikin, Janae

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how they implemented and promoted Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at Weber State University (WSU), a four-year public institution with two campuses. GIS is a type of computer system made of hardware, software, and data that allows the mapping of spatially related layers that have a common…

  1. A Reaction to Mazoue's Deconstructed Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrock, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Mazoue's ("J Comput High Educ," 2012) article, "The Deconstructed Campus," is examined from the perspective of instructional design practice. Concerns center on: the knowledge base of precision instruction; the differential effectiveness of teaching procedural as opposed to declarative knowledge; the reliance on assessment of online learning; and…

  2. Mapping Academic Library Contributions to Campus Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Steven W.; Kutner, Laurie; Cooper, Liz

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed academic libraries across the United States to establish baseline data on their contributions to campus internationalization. Supplementing data from the American Council on Education (ACE) on internationalization of higher education, this research measured the level of international activities taking place in academic…

  3. Improving Service Management in Campus IT Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Stewart H. C.; Chan, Yuk-Hee

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at presenting the benefits from implementing IT service management (ITSM) in an organization for managing campus-wide IT operations. In order to improve the fault correlation from business perspectives, we proposed a framework to automate network and system alerts with respect to its business service impact for proactive…

  4. Perspectives on Campus Expansion: Three Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Paul C., Ed.

    This paper presents three views on the University of Pittsburgh campus expansion: from a university representative, from a city planner, and from a community leader. Three salient points made by the authors indicate: (1) The University's main concern was with the development of its own physical plant; community development was a peripheral…

  5. Historical Analysis of College Campus Interracial Dating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firebaugh, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Interracial dating on American campuses has had a relatively stormy past. Until the past three decades or so, it was outlawed in some states. Southern institutions, in particular, such as the infamous Bob Jones University have made this issue divisive even among their own constituencies. Age and generation seem to be cogent factors with younger…

  6. Sustainable Campus: Engaging the Community in Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Too, Linda; Bajracharya, Bhishna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the major factors necessary for engaging university campus community in sustainability. While general awareness in sustainability issues has improved in recent years through mass media coverage, this knowledge is not always translated into actual sustainable practice. Studies have indicated that…

  7. The Expanded Campus: Integrating the Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, John

    1985-01-01

    The plans for the physical expansion of the University of Witwatersrand cannot be divorced from its goals. In planning a new campus area, there is an underlying philosophy of growth to accommodate all sectors of society and to serve the total community of which the university is part. (MLW)

  8. The New Campus, 1980. Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackler, George, Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This issue of "The New Campus" contains 14 articles that allude to or deal directly with the quality of continuing education programs. Articles and authors are as follows: "A Study of the Use of an SCA-FM Broadcast System for Teacher Inservice Education" (Charles Koelling and Richard Robinson); "The Changing Role of Adult Education" (Ben J.…

  9. Transportation Sustainability on a University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to show the present level of sustainable transportation, mainly walking and bicycling, on a large campus in the US Midwest and then analyzes some of the opportunities and impediments in increasing the modal share. Design/methodology/approach: Three types of analysis are used. First, current level of walking and bicycling…

  10. Population Characteristics of Potential Satellite Campus Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landini, Albert J.

    This document presents a method of determining the best location for a potential satellite campus by predetermining the population characteristics of its potential students. The question is approached as a marketing problem with a geographical orietation. The test site for this project was Pierce College in the Los Angeles Comunity College…

  11. Infusing Catholic Identity throughout the Campus Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amata

    2011-01-01

    This article, originally presented as a plenary address at the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities 2011 Annual Meeting, addresses a bottom-up methodology for infusing the spirit of Catholic identity more deeply throughout a campus community. The author begins with an exploration of some theoretical underpinnings of this approach and…

  12. Intelligent Campus Buildings for the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caloz, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Discusses three "information age" trends that have colleges and universities re-examining their campus infrastructure flexibility to support these wireless communication needs. Trends examined are information technology; increased demand for flexible, technology- focused teaching spaces; and increased systems' interconnectivity. (GR)

  13. University of Northern Iowa Comprehensive Campus Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Rowlett and Scott, Architects, Houston, TX.

    This planning study was conducted in two major phases. Phase 1 included the investigation and analysis of the educational program and existing physical plant, a statement of policy and goals, determination of needs, and the delineation of conceptual ideas on future growth patterns and campus development. A summary of Phase 1 is included in this…

  14. Eco-Friendly Campuses as Teaching Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Stephen J.; Kearns, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable design projects offer academic communities the opportunity to make the design and operations of their campuses part of the larger lessons of social and environmental responsibility that are integral parts of higher education. In no place is that demonstrated more clearly than in New England, with its long commitment to environmental…

  15. Campus Construction Continues Despite Economy's Woes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The economic outlook may be sour for Wall Street's investment banks and for homeowners who took out mortgages they could not really afford, but campus planners and architects say that--so far, at least--colleges' construction plans are largely unaffected by the downturn. Some colleges, in fact, are trying to speed up projects to limit the damage…

  16. Campus Police Benefit by Automating Training Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Making sure law enforcement officers are current with their professional training has always been a top priority of police departments whether they must protect a city or a college campus. However, as training has expanded with many new certification categories, tracking all of these for each officer has grown more complex. This has prompted many…

  17. First Few Weeks on Campus. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Every fall, college and university campuses and communities brace for the onslaught of new and returning students. For first-year students, anecdotal evidence suggests that the first six weeks of enrollment are critical to success. Because many students initiate heavy drinking during these early days of college, the potential exists for excessive…

  18. Programmatic Approach To Improving Campus Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel Woodard, Virginia; Sims, Johnnie M.

    2000-01-01

    Study describes one small, private, predominantly White college's model for change in its efforts to improve campus climate for racial and ethnic minority students. The college's "wedge" model outlines activities, support systems, curricular changes, and attitude work that impact the process of change. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/GCP)

  19. Social Class on Campus: Theories and Manifestations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Will

    2011-01-01

    This is at once a playful text with a serious purpose: to provide the reader with the theoretical lenses to analyze the dynamics of social class. It will appeal to students, and indeed anyone interested in how class mediates relationships in higher education, both because of its engaging tone, and because it uses the college campus as a microcosm…

  20. Building Partnerships with College Campuses: Community Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiderman, Sally; Furco, Andrew; Zapf, Jennifer; Goss, Megan

    The information that forms the basis of this brochure was drawn from a summit of community organization representatives who have worked in partnerships with institutions of higher education. The brochure highlights three issues community partners believe must be fully addressed if community/campus partnerships are to be successful and mutually…

  1. We Built a Barrier-Free Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, George T.; Potter, Laurie S.

    1978-01-01

    Ramapo College identified many problems that need to be met to make a campus truly accessible to the handicapped student: rest rooms, residence hall ramps, locks, showers, roomate indoctrination, emergency situations, snow and ice, elevators, and fire precautions. Solutions to these problems are described. (Author/LBH)

  2. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  3. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  4. Rescue Your Campus from "Stranded" Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadamus, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to deal with the pressures to defer maintenance on campus buildings, including the issue of accelerated cycles of obsolescence, which "stranded" costs to avoid and to accept, and specific strategies to gain control of the physical asset portfolio. (EV)

  5. Crime on Campus. Annual Report: 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Michael D.

    This report portrays the nature, volume, and extent of crime occurring on the campuses and housing of approximately 65 institutions of higher education in Tennessee from January to December of 1990. Following an introduction, a sample reporting form is provided, along with information on classification of offenses and calculation of crime rates.…

  6. Cults on Campus: Awareness Is Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, DeRosette H.

    1992-01-01

    This article offers information and suggestions to administrators on dealing with cults on college campuses. Reasons why students are vulnerable to cults as well as cult recruitment techniques and ways to help students make informed choices are considered. Print, organizational, and videotape resources are identified. (DB)

  7. Study of Australian Multi-Campus Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Johnston, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether Australian multi-campus universities are distinctive in terms of their student profile by field of education (FOE), funding and expenditure profiles, and learning and teaching outcomes, and identifies the implications for higher education policy and funding. Both parametric and non-parametric techniques are used to…

  8. Pathways to Progress on Campus Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busteed, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    Although most institutions have had to deal with alcohol-related problems, many higher education leaders are unfamiliar with successful responses--and especially with proactive strategies. Few trustees and senior administrators have found a successful formula for dealing with alcohol on campus, and there are many reasons why. This article aims to…

  9. The Prevention and Cure of Campus Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebein, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Institutional approaches to alternative dispute resolution can offer students and faculty a safe, non-judgmental environment for addressing disputes and promoting campus civility. Issues discussed include ways to promote an institutional atmosphere of civility; creation of structures for conflict resolution and alternative dispute resolution; use…

  10. Suicide Prevention in a Diverse Campus Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    As the college population in the United States rapidly diversifies, leaders of successful campus suicide prevention programs are recognizing the importance of targeting specific groups of students. Recent estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics indicated that in 2008 more than one-third (36.7 percent) of college students…

  11. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  12. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gunfight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three State legislatures in 2011 considered bills to permit the carrying of firearms at their public institutions of higher education, and some public colleges in at least six states now allow weapons on college grounds or in college buildings. The lawful possession of guns on campus is a recent and limited phenomenon, but decisions by the…

  13. The BACnet Campus Challenge - Part 1

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Masica, Ken; Tom, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Here, the BACnet protocol was designed to achieve interoperability among building automation vendors and evolve over time to include new functionality as well as support new communication technologies such as the Ethernet and IP protocols as they became prevalent and economical in the market place. For large multi-building, multi-vendor campus environments, standardizing on the BACnet protocol as an implementation strategy can be a key component in meeting the challenge of an interoperable, flexible, and scalable building automation system. The interoperability of BACnet is especially important when large campuses with legacy equipment have DDC upgrades to facilities performed over different timemore » frames and use different contractors that install equipment from different vendors under the guidance of different campus HVAC project managers. In these circumstances, BACnet can serve as a common foundation for interoperability when potential variability exists in approaches to the design-build process by numerous parties over time. Likewise, BACnet support for a range of networking protocols and technologies can be a key strategy for achieving flexible and scalable automation systems as campuses and enterprises expand networking infrastructures using standard interoperable protocols like IP and Ethernet.« less

  14. Teach-ins on American Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Focuses on the November 11, 1981 teach-ins or "convocations," held at various college campuses, by discussing their rationale (concerns about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and need to reduce risks), type of events held, and individuals who spoke. Suggests this may be the beginning of an anti-nuclear movement. (SK)

  15. For Gay Students, More Room on Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Students in the University of Rhode Island's GLBT community are fed up with what they describe as their marginalization. They are seeking, among other resources, respectable headquarters, where they can invite professors, hold events, and develop a sense of belonging on the campus. Since a week-long protest this past fall, they are gaining ground.…

  16. Gay Rights on Campus, circa 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Elizabeth P.; Ford, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students, staff, and faculty on college campuses has certainly improved over the last generation, but recent dramatic episodes confirm the continuing need for vigilance and reform. Students remain the constituency most vulnerable to the effects of entrenched bigotry: the harassment…

  17. Women, Alcohol, and the College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzhoff, Donna

    Social norms regarding women's drinking have relaxed over the past few decades and, on college campuses, the gap between the percentages of female (79%) and male (86%) students who report that they use alcohol is smaller than ever. This situation presents a particular challenge to college administrators. The Alcohol Education and Training Program…

  18. Campus Values in Mate Selection: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, John W.; Henze, lura F.

    1969-01-01

    Replicates research by Hill (1939) and McGinnis (1956) through use of questionnaire with random sample on four campuses. Concludes that values expressed currently and a generation ago show remarkable consistency. Revised version of paper presented at Rocky Muntain Social Science Association, Denver, Colorado, 1968. (CJ)

  19. Campus Environmental Audits: The UCLA Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, April A.; Gottlieb, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The nation's first comprehensive analysis of a university's environmental impact, at the University of California at Los Angeles, has become a blueprint for prompting environmental change on campuses nationwide. The study documented conditions in the workplace, wastes and hazards, air quality, water and energy use, and procurement practices.…

  20. Suicide and Its Impact on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Although any death on campus can have profound effects on the community, leaving survivors to grope for meaning and cope with feelings of grief and loss, deaths by suicide entail several additional challenges. Shneidman (2001) estimated that an individual's suicide touches the lives of at least six others, creating wide-ranging psychological…

  1. Operations Course Icebreaker: Campus Club Cupcakes Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Brent; Southin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Campus Club Cupcakes is an in-class "introduction to operations management" experiential learning exercise which can be used within minutes of starting the course. After reading the one-page mini case, students are encouraged to meet each other and collaborate to determine if making and selling cupcakes to fellow business students would…

  2. Planning and Managing the Campus Facilities Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneau, William A., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    The campus and facilities of a college should be managed using the same principles as any other investment in an institution's financial portfolio. Stemming from the APPA/National Association of College & University Business Officers (NACUBO) Institute for Facilities Finance, this book addresses the totality of managing the facilities investment…

  3. Toward a Virus-Free Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstone, Ariel

    2004-01-01

    In academic settings, battling Internet threats and coming out unscathed is uncommon. Unfortunately, on many college campuses cyber-security concerns rarely extend beyond the IT staff and are addressed in a disparate, ad-hoc fashion. Yet, while many universities and large corporations were hit hard by the recent NetSky and Sasser worms, fewer than…

  4. 10 Trends to Watch in Campus Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James; Samels, James E.

    2007-01-01

    College and university presidents are increasingly called upon to make informed choices about technology. The rapidly shifting landscape makes it tough to keep up with change and innovation, let alone stay ahead of the curve. In this article, the authors discuss 10 trends to watch in campus technology. These trends are the following: (1) increased…

  5. Campus Interviews: Some Challenges to Conventional Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBell, Camille; Dinger, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the questions that 33 corporate recruiters asked during 128 campus screening interviews. Analyses revealed that most questions addressed college experience, work experience, strengths and weaknesses, and biographical background. Significant relationships were found among type of company, gender of recruiter, and type of question. Results…

  6. Statistical Analysis Aiming at Predicting Respiratory Tract Disease Hospital Admissions from Environmental Variables in the City of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO2 and CO, PM10 and O3, and PM10, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes. PMID:20706674

  7. Ambient concentrations and insights on organic and elemental carbon dynamics in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro dos Santos, Djacinto A.; Brito, Joel F.; Godoy, José Marcus; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) is a megacity with about 20 million people and about 8 million vehicles, most of which are fueled with a significant fraction of ethanol - making it a unique case worldwide. This study presents organic and elemental carbon measurements using thermal-optical analysis from quartz filters collected in four sampling sites within the SPMA. Overall Organic Carbon (OC) concentration was comparable at all sites, where Street Canyon had the highest concentration (3.37 μg m-3) and Park site the lowest (2.65 μg m-3). Elemental Carbon (EC), emitted as result of incomplete combustion, has been significantly higher at the Street Canyon site (6.11 μg m-3) in contrast to all other three sites, ranging from 2.25 μg m-3 (Downtown) to 1.50 μg m-3 (Park). For all sampling sites, the average OC:EC ratio are found on the lower bound (<2) of what is usually observed for other megacities, highlighting the significant contribution of EC in Sao Paulo. At the Street Canyon site, average OC:EC ratio was 0.56, to our knowledge the lowest value ever observed for any urban site. An approach for apportionment between primary and secondary organic carbon based on primary OC:EC ratio was evaluated. The secondary OC was estimated to be 30-40% of total OC concentrations throughout the various sampling sites. The organic carbon dynamics has been further studied using each of the thermally-derived organic carbon fractions. Each of these has been studied regarding their correlation with EC and the correlation between different sites. The analyses have identified that the OC3 and OC4, i.e., the carbon fraction which evolves from the filter at temperatures above 450 °C, presents a regional behavior, with high correlation among all sites. Conversely, OC1, the first fraction to evolve, has depicted a more local characteristic. Furthermore, the fraction of OC which becomes char during the temperature increase under inert atmosphere (the Pyrolytic Carbon-PC) has

  8. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature.

  9. Indoor and outdoor atmospheric fungal spores in the São Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil): species and numeric concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Bauer, Heidi; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Pukinskas, Sandra; Matos, Dulcilena; Melhem, Márcia; Puxbaum, Hans

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the indoor and outdoor concentrations of fungal spores in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), collected at different sites in winter/spring and summer seasons. The techniques adopted included cultivation (samples collected with impactors) and microscopic enumeration (samples collected with impingers). The overall results showed total concentrations of fungal spores as high as 36,000 per cubic meter, with a large proportion of non culturable spores (around 91% of the total). Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the dominant species both indoors and outdoors, in all seasons tested, occurring in more than 30% of homes at very high concentrations of culturable airborne fungi [colony forming units(CFU) m-3]. There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor concentrations. The total fungal spore concentration found in winter was 19% higher than that in summer. Heat and humidity were the main factors affecting fungal growth; however, a non-linear response to these factors was found. Thus, temperatures below 16°C and above 25°C caused a reduction in the concentration (CFU m-3) of airborne fungi, which fits with MASP climatalogy. The same pattern was observed for humidity, although not as clearly as with temperature given the usual high relative humidity (above 70%) in the study area. These results are relevant for public health interventions that aim to reduce respiratory morbidity among susceptible populations.

  10. The impact of simple donor education on donor behavioral deferral and infectious disease rates in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Goncalez, Thelma T.; Sabino, Ester C.; Salles, Nanci Alves; Almeida-Neto, Cesar de; Mendrone-Jr, Alfredo; Dorlhiac-Laccer, Pedro E.; Liu, Jing; Murphy, Edward L.; Schreiber, George B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that HIV residual risk is higher in Brazilian than in US and European blood donors; probably due to failure to defer at risk individuals in Brazil. This study assessed the impact of an educational brochure in enhancing blood donor's knowledge about screening test window phase and reducing at risk individuals from donating. Study design and Methods This trial compared an educational intervention with blood center's usual practice. The brochure was distributed in alternating months to all donors. After donating, sampled participants completed 2 questions about their HIV window period knowledge. The impact on HIV risk deferral, leaving without donation, CUE use and test positivity was also analysed. Results From August-November 2007 we evaluated 33,940 donations in the main collection center of FPS/HSP at Sao Paulo, Brazil. A significant (p <.001) pamphlet effect was found on correct responses to both questions assessing HIV window phase knowledge (68.1% vs. 52.9%) and transfusion risk (91.1% vs. 87.2%). After adjusting for gender and age, the pamphlet effect was strongest for people with more than eight years of education. There was no significant pamphlet effect on HIV risk deferral rate, leaving without donation, use of CUE, or infectious disease rates. Conclusion While the educational pamphlet increased window period knowledge, contrary to expectations this information alone was not enough to make donors self-defer or acknowledge their behavioral risk. PMID:20003056

  11. Cryptosporidium spp. infection in mares and foals of the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Sandra Valéria; de Brito, Roberta Lomonte Lemos; Zucatto, Anaiza Simão; Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the occurrence of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in mares and their respective foals. This study was carried out in 11 farms located in the municipalities of Araçatuba, Birigui, Guararapes and Santo Antônio do Aracangua, in the northwest region of the State of Sao Paulo, from November 2010 to March 2011. A total of 98 mares and 98 foals of several breeds were analyzed; among foals, 59 were males and 39 females, aged from three to 330 days. Feces were collected directly from the rectal ampulla, purified and processed according to modified Kinyoun stain. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 21.4% (21/98) for foals and 18.4% (18/98) for mares. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. had significant association with breeds and age of animals. Results obtained led to the conclusion that foals older than two months and Mangalarga animals are less susceptible to the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp.

  12. LARGE-SCALE ASYMMETRIES IN THE TRANSITIONAL DISKS OF SAO 206462 AND SR 21

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.

    2014-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations in the dust continuum (690 GHz, 0.45 mm) and {sup 12}CO J = 6-5 spectral line emission of the transitional disks surrounding the stars SAO 206462 and SR 21. These ALMA observations resolve the dust-depleted disk cavities and extended gaseous disks, revealing large-scale asymmetries in the dust emission of both disks. We modeled these disk structures with a ring and an azimuthal Gaussian, where the azimuthal Gaussian is motivated by the steady-state vortex solution from Lyra and Lin. Compared to recent observations of HD 142527, Oph IRS 48, and LkHα 330, these are low-contrast (≲ 2) asymmetries. Nevertheless, a ring alone is not a good fit, and the addition of a vortex prescription describes these data much better. The asymmetric component encompasses 15% and 28% of the total disk emission in SAO 206462 and SR 21, respectively, which corresponds to a lower limit of 2 M {sub Jup} of material within the asymmetry for both disks. Although the contrast in the dust asymmetry is low, we find that the turbulent velocity inside it must be large (∼20% of the sound speed) in order to drive these azimuthally wide and radially narrow vortex-like structures. We obtain residuals from the ring and vortex fitting that are still significant, tracing non-axisymmetric emission in both disks. We compared these submillimeter observations with recently published H-band scattered light observations. For SR 21 the scattered light emission is distributed quite differently from the submillimeter continuum emission, while for SAO 206462 the submillimeter residuals are suggestive of spiral-like structure similar to the near-IR emission.

  13. Substance abuse on the college campus.

    PubMed

    Rimsza, Mary Ellen; Moses, Karen S

    2005-02-01

    Substance abuse is a major health and behavioral concern in college students. Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly abused drugs on college campuses. Others include tobacco, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lysergic acid, ketamine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, and psilocybin mushrooms. This article reviews the use of these drugs by college students. Substance use is a major contributing factor in poor academic performance and failure to successfully complete a college education.

  14. Binge Drinking on College Campuses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Karen

    This digest discusses binge drinking on U.S. college campuses. Male binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row one or more times during a 2-week period; female binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks in a row one or more times during a two-week period. A drink is defined as twelve ounces of beer or wine cooler, four ounces…

  15. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, Gonzalo; Vasilkov, Alexander; Seftor, Colin; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a set of long-term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept and a similar retrieval approach. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good-quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal-to-noise ratio of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ˜ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column density (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products (SAO OMI v3.0.2 and BIRA OMI v14) with our OMPS product using 1 year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product

  16. A New Campus Built on Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Ari; Mercado, Andrea; Regnier, Cindy

    2015-08-01

    The University of California (UC), Merced partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce energy consumption by as part of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Partnerships (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program. This case study reports on the process and outcome of this project including the achieved savings from design improvements for the campus. The intent of the project was to retrofit the Science & Engineering (S&E) building and the central plant at UC Merced to achieve up to 30% energy reduction. The anticipated savings from these retrofits represented about 17% of whole-campus energy use. If achieved, the savings contribution from the CBP project would have brought overall campus performance to 56% of the 1999 UC/CSU benchmark performance for their portfolio of buildings. However, the final design that moved forward as part of the CBP program only included the retrofit measures for the S&E building.

  17. Characterizing sexual health resources on college campuses.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Lechner, Kate E; Frerich, Ellen A; Lust, Katherine A; Garcia, Carolyn M

    2012-10-01

    This observational study describes the development of the college resources and sexual health inventory, the profile of sexual health promotion resources at participating colleges, and comparisons of resources across several college characteristics. 28 diverse college campuses in one Midwestern state participated. 10 domains were assessed, including characteristics of campus health services (e.g. convenience), condom programs, sexual health information, communication about resources, sexual violence resources and gay/lesbian/bisexual student resources. Scores for each measure reflected the presence or extent of each resource. Summary scores were created for the overall level of sexual health resources and for each domain. T tests and ANOVAs were used to compare resources at 2-year versus 4-year colleges, public versus private sectors, metro versus non-metro locations, and across enrollment size. Inventory scores ranged from 6 to 53. 4-year colleges offered significantly more resources than 2-year; resource levels were statistically similar across location and enrollment size. Subsequent analyses comparing campuses with and without a health center indicated that several resources which were not inherently tied to a clinic nonetheless differed significantly with having a health center. Colleges without this resource could position sexual health resources in other offices or departments or provide referrals to sexual health resources in the broader community.

  18. Updated Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Monitoring Instrument (SAO OMI) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Wang, H.; Kurosu, T. P.; Suleiman, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde (H2CO) retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO. The version of the algorithm described here includes relevant changes with respect to the operational one, including differences in the reference spectra for H2CO, the fit of O2-O2 collisional complex, updates in the high-resolution solar reference spectrum, the use of a model reference sector over the remote Pacific Ocean to normalize the retrievals, an updated air mass factor (AMF) calculation scheme, and the inclusion of scattering weights and vertical H2CO profile in the level 2 products. The setup of the retrieval is discussed in detail. We compare the results of the updated retrieval with the results from the previous SAO H2CO retrieval. The improvement in the slant column fit increases the temporal stability of the retrieval and slightly reduces the noise. The change in the AMF calculation has increased the AMFs by 20%, mainly due to the consideration of the radiative cloud fraction. Typical values for retrieved vertical columns are between 4 × 1015 and 4 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with typical fitting uncertainties ranging between 45 and 100%. In high-concentration regions the errors are usually reduced to 30%. The detection limit is estimated at 1 × 1016 molecules cm-2.

  19. Application of echinoid sperm and embryo bioassays for the pollution assessment of Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, A.J.; Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located on the Southeastern Brazilian coast, encompasses the largest oil terminal in the country and is also a highly touristic area. Frequent oil spills are responsible for chronic contamination problems and sewage disposal in the waters of the channel is also common practice. the water and sediment quality in different sites along Sao Sebastiao Channel was evaluated quarterly throughout a year, by toxicity testing with sperm cells and embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Water samples were collected from two depths (1 m below surface and 1 m above the bottom). Sediments, collected by a grab sampler, had their pore water extracted by centrifuging. It was then analyzed for toxicity. The results showed that the pore water from most sites impaired sperm viability and embryo development of the test organisms. Sediments were further characterized for particle size distribution, TOC, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons content. They contained baseline concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe, but the hydrocarbons levels were above the average for nearby coastal areas. The overlying water from the deeper layer was of better quality than the surface, but very fast changes were observed along time and space. This seems to be intimately associated with the predominant hydrodynamic and meteorological phenomena in that region. The results showed that these toxicity test methods can be applied in association with other forms of analysis, for the establishment of quality criteria for Brazilian coastal environments.

  20. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.