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Sample records for campylobacter spp isolated

  1. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    PubMed Central

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; dos Santos, Luciana Ruschel; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Borsoi, Anderlise; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed a 62.5% resistance to at least one drug, especially to enrofloxacin (71%), neomycin (50%), lincomycin (50%), tetracycline (43%), penicillin (42%), ceftiofur (33%) amoxicillin (27%), spiramycin (20%), ampicillin (18%) and norfloxacin (14%), whereas a lower percentage of strains was resistant to erythromycin (10%) and doxycycline (10%). All strains were sensitive to gentamicin and lincomycin-spectinomycin and 80% of them to colistin. These results indicate that it is necessary to reduce the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine. PMID:24031299

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; Dos Santos, Luciana Ruschel; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Borsoi, Anderlise; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed a 62.5% resistance to at least one drug, especially to enrofloxacin (71%), neomycin (50%), lincomycin (50%), tetracycline (43%), penicillin (42%), ceftiofur (33%) amoxicillin (27%), spiramycin (20%), ampicillin (18%) and norfloxacin (14%), whereas a lower percentage of strains was resistant to erythromycin (10%) and doxycycline (10%). All strains were sensitive to gentamicin and lincomycin-spectinomycin and 80% of them to colistin. These results indicate that it is necessary to reduce the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine.

  4. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  5. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. isolated from grower-finisher pigs in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Norma P.; Friendship, Robert M.; Dewey, Cate E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 80 Ontario grower-finisher pig herds. Ninety-nine percent of the isolates yielded Campylobacter, C. coli being the most common species detected. Control of this microorganism must rely on careful food processing and storage of pork, rather than on an on-farm approach. PMID:17542372

  6. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Humski, Andrea; Njari, Bela; Ostović, Mario; Duvnjak, Sanja; Cvetnić, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Summary In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86%. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35% of the samples, respectively. In 4.98% of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multilocus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs) and clonal complexes (CCs) of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the first time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia. PMID:28115906

  7. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from different poultry production systems at slaughterhouse level.

    PubMed

    Fraqueza, M J; Martins, A; Borges, A C; Fernandes, M H; Fernandes, M J; Vaz, Y; Bessa, R J B; Barreto, A S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated from different chicken production systems at the slaughterhouse level. Chicken sampling at slaughterhouse was performed for cecum, carcass, and breast meat from flocks of organic (n = 6), extensive indoor (n = 14), and intensive production (n = 14), totaling 34 ceca pools, 64 neck skin pools, and 132 breasts, representing 96,386 chickens. A collection of 167 strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (n = 85) and Campylobacter jejuni (n = 82) and were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. The frequency of Campylobacter in chicken samples from different production systems was between 79 and 100%. Campylobacter isolated from all origins were resistant to the fluoroquinolones studied (80-98%). However, for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, the Campylobacter isolates from extensive indoor chicken were significantly (P < 0.05) less resistant (77 and 58%) than that from organic (97 and 91%) and intensive production (96 and 95%). A high probability of tetracycline resistance occurrence was also found for the Campylobacter spp. tested (58% for C. jejuni and 76% for C. coli). A more frequent profile of multidrug resistance was noticed for isolates from intensive and organic production than for extensive indoor production. These results reinforce the need of efficient strategy implementation to control and reduce Campylobacter in chickens at production and slaughter levels, and the necessity to reduce the use of antimicrobials in poultry sector. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylo-bacter spp. isolated from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Baserisalehi, M; Al-Mahdi, A Y; Kapadnis, B P

    2005-01-01

    Environmental samples were subjected to determine frequency of occurrence of pathogenic campylobacters in the environment. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested to evaluate the level of antibiotic sensitive campylobacters in the environment of investigation. In all, 70 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from water and domestic animal faeces samples using Kapadnis-Baseri device and antimicrobial susceptibility of them was determined by disc diffusion test and E- test. The results indicated that all the isolates of Campylobacter were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and resistant to cefotaxime, cephalexin and ampicillin. Lowest MIC values were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin (2 microg/mL) and highest MIC values for ampicillin and chloramphinicol (256 microg/mL). In general, pathogenic Campylobacter spp. were prevalent in large numbers in the environment, however, they were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.

  9. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from domestic animals and poultry in south of Iran.

    PubMed

    Baserisalehi, M; Bahador, N; Kapadnis, B P

    2007-05-01

    A total of 455 domestic animals (cow, horse and camel) and poultry from south of Iran were surveyed for fecal carriage of Campylobacter spp. Out of all collected fecal samples, the highest isolation rate of Campylobacter was recorded among poultry (35%), followed by horse (27%) and cow (21%) while, lowest isolation rate was recorded among camel. Of the 85 Campylobacter strains isolated, 76 were classified as catalase positive Campylobacter. Out of them, high frequency of occurrence was belonged to Campy. jejuni. Furthermore, catalase positive Campylobacter spp. were isolated from all the sources of investigation, other than camel. The results obtained from biotyping of the isolates indicated Camp. lari biotype I followed by Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli biotypes I existed in high frequency; while Camp. jejuni biotype II and untypable Campylobacter existed in low frequency. Overall, domestic animals and poultry other than camels are vehicle of Campylobacter in the area of investigation therefore, the people who living in this area may be infected via feces of domestic animals and poultry.

  10. MLST genotypes and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in Grenada.

    PubMed

    Stone, Diana; Davis, Margaret; Baker, Katherine; Besser, Tom; Roopnarine, Rohini; Sharma, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether multilocus sequence types (MLST) of Campylobacter from poultry in 2 farms in Grenada, West Indies, differed by farm, antimicrobial resistance and farm antibiotic use. Farm A used fluoroquinolones in the water and Farm B used tetracyclines. The E-test was used to determine resistance of isolates to seven antibiotics. PCR of the IpxA gene confirmed species and MLST was used to characterize 38 isolates. All isolates were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Farm antibiotic use directly correlated with antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates. Almost 80% of the isolates from Farm A were fluoroquinolone resistant and 17.9% of the isolates from Farm B were fluoroquinolone resistant. All Campylobacter isolates from Farm A were tetracycline sensitive, whereas 35.7% of isolates from Farm B were tetracycline resistant. Six previously recognized sequence types (STs) and 2 novel STs were identified. Previously recognized STs were those overwhelmingly reported from poultry and humans globally. Isolates with the same ST did not always have the same antibiotic resistance profile. There was little ST overlap between the farms suggesting that within-farm transmission of Campylobacter genotypes may dominate. MLST typing was useful for tracking Campylobacter spp. among poultry units and can help elucidate Campylobacter host-species population structure and its relevance to human health.

  11. MLST Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Poultry in Grenada

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Diana; Davis, Margaret; Baker, Katherine; Besser, Tom; Roopnarine, Rohini; Sharma, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether multilocus sequence types (MLST) of Campylobacter from poultry in 2 farms in Grenada, West Indies, differed by farm, antimicrobial resistance and farm antibiotic use. Farm A used fluoroquinolones in the water and Farm B used tetracyclines. The E-test was used to determine resistance of isolates to seven antibiotics. PCR of the IpxA gene confirmed species and MLST was used to characterize 38 isolates. All isolates were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Farm antibiotic use directly correlated with antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates. Almost 80% of the isolates from Farm A were fluoroquinolone resistant and 17.9% of the isolates from Farm B were fluoroquinolone resistant. All Campylobacter isolates from Farm A were tetracycline sensitive, whereas 35.7% of isolates from Farm B were tetracycline resistant. Six previously recognized sequence types (STs) and 2 novel STs were identified. Previously recognized STs were those overwhelmingly reported from poultry and humans globally. Isolates with the same ST did not always have the same antibiotic resistance profile. There was little ST overlap between the farms suggesting that within-farm transmission of Campylobacter genotypes may dominate. MLST typing was useful for tracking Campylobacter spp. among poultry units and can help elucidate Campylobacter host-species population structure and its relevance to human health. PMID:23555097

  12. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  13. Resistance to antimicrobial agents of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from animals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krutkiewicz, A; Sałamaszyńska-Guz, A; Rzewuska, M; Klimuszko, D; Binek, M

    2009-01-01

    A total of 69 Campylobacter jejuni and 16 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from chicken, dog and pig stool samples were characterized based on their resistance to five antimicrobial agents and on plasmid pTet profiles. Antimicrobials used in this study were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Among the isolates studied, 91.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agent. The highest level of resistance for the whole test group was to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (57.6%), followed by ciprofloxacin (44.2%) and tetracycline (20%). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Strains isolated from chickens were susceptible to erythromycin. Few erythromycin-resistant strains were isolated from dogs and pigs (5.8%). C. coli strains exhibited a higher antibiotic resistance than C. jejuni strains, excluding resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The pTet plasmid harboring the tet(O) gene was detected in 14 Campylobacter spp. strains. Our studies demonstrate that the majority (71.4%) of tetracycline-resistant isolates carry a plasmid-borne tet(O) gene, particularly strains for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) are > or = 256 microg/ml. In conclusion, we have found high-level trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance in Polish strains isolated from different sources. This study has demonstrated that resistance of Campylobacter species differs depending on both the bacterial species and animal origins. All strains that displayed resistance to four antimicrobial agents were isolated from pigs. Localization of the tet(O) gene on either plasmid or chromosome was not found to be correlated with tetracycline resistance.

  14. Genetic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated from domestic and imported chicken meats and humans in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ku, Bok Kyung; Kim, Hae Ji; Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Young Ihl; Choi, Jung Su; Park, Mi Young; Kwon, Jin Wook; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Sun Jin; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the in vitro activity of antimicrobials against Campylobacter spp. isolates from chicken and human sources and the genetic interrelation among them. During 2004-2008, a total of 173 Campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken meats (60 domestic and 62 imported chicken meats) and humans (n = 51) were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobials. Of 173 isolates, 140 (80.9%) showed multidrug resistance (MDR) against three to eight antimicrobials. The most frequent pattern type was MDR to four antimicrobials: ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Over 52.6% (91/173) of the isolates tested were resistant to these four antibiotics simultaneously. Especially, two and five isolates originated from Korea and Brazil showed resistance against all antibiotics tested, except for florfenicol. Further, 95% (57/60) of the isolates originated from domestic chicken showed resistance to ciprofloxacin, the antimicrobial agent of choice for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. Genotypic characterization of all Campylobacter isolates performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielded 74 types among the 173 isolates. Isolates sharing the same or similar genetic clusters were detected in different countries at different times. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of chicken-related isolates were closely related to those of isolates from humans with gastroenteritidis. The results of this study suggest that MDR Campylobacter spp. are widespread and that Campylobacter with similar genotypes are circulating both in humans and in chicken meat in Korea.

  15. Comparison of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Organic and Conventional Dairy Herds in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, K.; Bartlett, P. C.; Kaneene, J. B.; Downes, F. P.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. PMID:15006764

  16. Comparison of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from organic and conventional dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Bartlett, P C; Kaneene, J B; Downes, F P

    2004-03-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline.

  17. Isolation, identification and differentiation of Campylobacter spp. using multiplex PCR assay from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elbrissi, Atif; Sabeil, Y A; Khalifa, Khalda A; Enan, Khalid; Khair, Osama M; El Hussein, A M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize thermophilic Campylobacter species in faecal samples from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan, by application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease of global concern, and the organisms can be transmitted to human via food, water and through contact with farm animals and pets. There are five clinically related Campylobacter species: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni). Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter fetus. Conventional cultural methods to diagnose campylobacteriosis are tedious and time consuming. Wide ranges of genes have been reported to be used for PCR-based identification of Campylobacter spp. We used a multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously detect genes from the major five clinically significant Campylobacter spp. The genes selected were hipO (hippuricase) and 23S rRNA from glyA (serine hydroxymethyl transferase) from each of C. jejuni. C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis; and sapB2 (surface layer protein) from C. fetus subsp. fetus. The assay was used to identify Campylobacter isolates recovered from 336 cultured faecal samples from goats in three localities in Khartoum State. C. coli was the most predominant isolate (234; 69.6%), followed by C. jejuni (19; 5.7%), C. upsaliensis (13; 3.9%), C. fetus subsp. fetus (7; 2.1%) and C. lari (6; 1.8%). Twenty-nine goats showed mixed infection with Campylobacter spp., 21 of which harbored two Campylobacter spp., while eight animals were infected with three species. Ten out of twelve goats that displayed diarrhea harbored C. coli only. C. coli, C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis showed significant variation with localities. The prevalence of C. coli was significantly higher (87; 25.9%) in goats from Omdurman, whereas C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis were significantly higher (11; 3.3%, 9; 2.7%) in goats from Khartoum. The multiplex PCR assay was found to be rapid and easy to perform and

  18. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Three Species of Antarctic Penguins in Different Geographic Locations.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Llorente, M T; Serrano, T; Ruano, M J; Belliure, J; Benzal, J; Herrera-León, S; Vidal, V; D'Amico, V; Pérez-Boto, D; Barbosa, A

    2017-03-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species was studied in three Antarctic penguin species, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua). A total of 390 penguins were captured in 12 different rookeries along the Antarctic Peninsula with differences in the amount of human visitation: six colonies were highly visited [Stranger Point, King George Island (P. papua and P. adeliae); Hannah Point, Livingston Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Deception Island (P. antarctica); and Paradise Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua)], and six colonies were rarely visited [Devil's Point, Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island (P. papua); Cierva Cove, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua); Rongé Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Yalour Island (P. adeliae); and Avian Island (P. adeliae)]. A total of 23 strains were isolated from penguins from nine different rookeries. Campylobacter lari subsp. lari was isolated from eight samples (seven from P. papua and one from P. adeliae); C. lari subsp. concheus from 13 (ten from P. adeliae and three from P. antarctica) and C. volucris from two samples (both from P. papua). We did not find any significant differences in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. between the populations in highly and rarely visited areas. This is the first report of C. lari subsp. concheus and C. volucris isolation from penguins in the Antarctic region.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from Ontario sheep flocks and associations between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Scott, L; Menzies, P; Reid-Smith, R J; Avery, B P; McEwen, S A; Moon, C S; Berke, O

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in faecal Campylobacter spp. from lambs and adult sheep and associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR. A total of 275 faecal samples collected during initial and final visits from 51 sheep flocks, including one feedlot, across southern Ontario were tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 52% (143/275) of the faecal samples, Campylobacter coli in 7% (19/275), Campylobacter lari in 1% (2/275) and 2% (4/275) were non-speciated Campylobacter. Broth microdilution was used to test antimicrobial susceptibility of 162 isolates to nine antimicrobials. Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 142) were resistant to tetracycline (39%), ciprofloxacin (4%), nalidixic acid (4%) and telithromycin (1%). C. coli isolates (n = 19) were resistant to tetracycline (74%), and azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and telithromycin (5%). The C. lari isolate displayed resistance to nalidixic acid. No statistically significant associations were found between AMU and AMR during multivariate modelling in this study.

  20. High Prevalence of Resistance to Fluoroquinolones and Tetracycline Campylobacter Spp. Isolated from Poultry in Poland.

    PubMed

    Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela; Kielsznia, Alicja; Korzekwa, Kamila; Tobiasz, Anna; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-06-19

    Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of foodborne diseases in humans, particularly when transmitted by the handling or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting, but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., fluoroquinolones and macrolides) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. The indiscriminate use of these drugs, both in clinical medicine and animal production, has a major impact on public health. The aim of the present study was to identify Campylobacter strains, isolated from turkey and broilers, using both PCR and the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) methods to reveal the accuracy of identification, as well to evaluate the antimicrobial and genetic resistance of the investigated strains. MALDI-TOF and PCR methods were used to show differences, if any, in the specificity of that test. In this study, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry gave the same results as multiplex PCR, in all cases. The highest rate of resistance (i.e., 100% of turkey and broiler strains) was detected against ciprofloxacin, whereas 58.1% of turkey and 78.6% of broiler strains were resistant to tetracycline. Multidrug-resistant isolates were not found in the study. All ciprofloxacin-resistant strains had a mutation in the gyrA gene, at the Thr-86 position. The presence of the tetO gene was found in 71% of turkey and in 100% of broiler strains. All resistant to tetracycline strains included tetO gene. Additionally, in five turkey and three broiler strains, susceptible to tetracycline, tetO gene was present. These results indicate the high prevalence of Campylobacter strains, which are phenotypically and genetically resistant to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail chicken in two health units in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Deckert, Anne; Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso; Reid-Smith, Richard; Tamblyn, Susan; Seliske, Patrick; Irwin, Rebecca; Dewey, Cate; Boerlin, Patrick; McEwen, Scott A

    2010-07-01

    Campylobacter is an important enteric pathogen of humans and can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Campylobacter infections have frequently been associated with the handling and consumption of raw and undercooked poultry. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter strains is of concern in the treatment of campylobacteriosis in vulnerable populations. A 2-year multidisciplinary study was conducted in the Perth and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph public health units in Ontario, Canada, to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in retail chicken. Retail chicken samples were collected from randomly selected stores in these health units. Resulting Campylobacter isolates were tested for susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), ampicillin (AMP), chloramphenicol (CHL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clindamycin (CLI), erythromycin (ERY), gentamicin (GEN), nalidixic acid (NAL), tetracycline (TCY), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) using the E test. The prevalence of Campylobacter in 1,256 retail chicken samples was 59.6%. Of these positive samples, 9% contained Campylobacter coli, 1% contained Campylobacter lari, and 90% contained Campylobacter jejuni. Of the chicken isolates that were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents, 301 isolates (40%) were resistant to one agent, 374 (50%) were resistant to two, 39 (5%) were resistant to three, 20 (3%) were resistant to four, and 6 (1%) were resistant to five. Nine isolates (1%) were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. All isolates were susceptible to AMC, CHL, and GEN. Less than 10% of isolates were resistant to NAL, CIP, CLI, ERY, and AMP. Resistance to TCY was common (56%). No isolates had a resistance pattern that included all three antimicrobials important in the treatment of human campylobacteriosis (CIP, ERY, and TCY); however, 24 isolates (3.2%) were resistant to at least two of these antimicrobials.

  2. Resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from poultry carcasses in a big Swiss poultry slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Frediani-Wolf, V; Stephan, R

    2003-12-31

    The aim of this study was to determine resistance patterns of strains of Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry carcasses in one of the two big Swiss poultry slaughterhouses. A variety of antibiotics with clinical relevance in human and/or in veterinary medicine was tested. In addition, the results of the disc diffusion method, E-test and microdilution broth methods were compared. Of the 195 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 195 poultry carcasses from 21 flocks, 134 strains were susceptible in vitro to all tested antibiotics. Sixty-one strains (31.3%, from eight flocks) showed resistance. Forty-one strains were resistant to a single antibiotic-34 to streptomycin, 6 to ampicillin and 1 to ciprofloxacin. Eighteen strains (from two flocks) showed combined resistance to erythromycin and streptomycin, two strains to ciprofloxacin and streptomycin. None of the isolates was resistant to tetracycline. The data of this first study in Switzerland show a favourable resistance situation for C. jejuni strains against erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. The disc diffusion method was found to be a reliable and easy tool for monitoring the prevalence of resistant C. jejuni strains. For surveillance of changes in the susceptibility concentration levels to antimicrobial agents, however, a MIC method should be used. Further investigations along the whole poultry production chain (farm, slaughterhouse and retail levels) are now necessary in order to confirm the resistance situation.

  3. Evidence of cross-contamination by Campylobacter spp. of broiler carcasses using genetic characterization of isolates.

    PubMed

    Normand, Valérie; Boulianne, Martine; Quessy, Sylvain

    2008-10-01

    Campylobacter is recognized as one of the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, and is frequently isolated from the small intestines and ceca microflora of chickens. Twenty-one out of 81 Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks were selected to evaluate the genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolates and to study the distribution of genotypes among flocks. Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcasses and ceca were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Little diversity was found among Campylobacter strains isolated from a given carcass, with a maximum of 2 different genotypes being present. However, at flock level, as many as 4 different profiles were observed. Typing of strains showed that most strains isolated from ceca were similar to those isolated from corresponding broiler carcasses. A total of 39 different macrorestriction profiles were observed, with evidence of Campylobacter cross-contamination among broiler flocks in Quebec slaughterhouses. Surprisingly, some flocks shared related genotypes both with and without sharing similar rearing practices. Existence of such cross-contamination must be considered to in developing strategies to control Campylobacter in chickens, and to avoid bacteria contamination of noncolonized flocks. Further typing studies of Campylobacter found in hatcheries, farm environment, and crates or trucks in Quebec might be helpful in elucidating the kinetics of broiler chicken Campylobacter contamination.

  4. Evidence of cross-contamination by Campylobacter spp. of broiler carcasses using genetic characterization of isolates

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Valérie; Boulianne, Martine; Quessy, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is recognized as one of the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, and is frequently isolated from the small intestines and ceca microflora of chickens. Twenty-one out of 81 Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks were selected to evaluate the genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolates and to study the distribution of genotypes among flocks. Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcasses and ceca were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Little diversity was found among Campylobacter strains isolated from a given carcass, with a maximum of 2 different genotypes being present. However, at flock level, as many as 4 different profiles were observed. Typing of strains showed that most strains isolated from ceca were similar to those isolated from corresponding broiler carcasses. A total of 39 different macrorestriction profiles were observed, with evidence of Campylobacter cross-contamination among broiler flocks in Quebec slaughterhouses. Surprisingly, some flocks shared related genotypes both with and without sharing similar rearing practices. Existence of such cross-contamination must be considered to in developing strategies to control Campylobacter in chickens, and to avoid bacteria contamination of noncolonized flocks. Further typing studies of Campylobacter found in hatcheries, farm environment, and crates or trucks in Quebec might be helpful in elucidating the kinetics of broiler chicken Campylobacter contamination. PMID:19086371

  5. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen.

  6. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  7. Genetic diversity of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolates from different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zbrun, María V; Romero-Scharpen, Analía; Olivero, Carolina; Zimmermann, Jorge A; Rossler, Eugenia; Soto, Lorena P; Astesana, Diego M; Blajman, Jesica E; Berisvil, Ayelén; Frizzo, Laureano S; Signorini, Marcelo L

    The objective of this study was to investigate a clonal relationship among thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolates from different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in Argentina. A total of 128 thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. (89 C. jejuni and 39 C. coli) isolates from six poultry meat chains were examined. These isolates were from: a) hens from breeder flocks, b) chickens on the farm (at ages 1 wk and 5 wk), c) chicken carcasses in the slaughterhouse, and d) chicken carcasses in the retail market. Chickens sampled along each food chain were from the same batch. Campylobacter spp. isolates were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare different profiles according to the source. Clustering of C. jejuni isolates resulted in 17 profiles, with four predominant genotypes and many small profiles with just a few isolates or unique patterns, showing a very high degree of heterogeneity among the C. jejuni isolates. Some clusters included isolates from different stages within the same chain, which would indicate a spread of strains along the same poultry meat chain. Moreover, twenty-two strains of C. coli clustered in seven groups and the remaining 17 isolates exhibited unique profiles. Evidence for transmission of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. through the food chain and cross contamination in the slaughterhouses were obtained. This collective evidence should be considered as the scientific basis to implement risk management measures to protect the public health. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry carcasses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Kania, Iwona; Osek, Jacek

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry carcasses at slaughter in Poland. For the isolated strains, resistance to selected antibiotics and the associated genetic determinants were identified. A total of 498 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 802 poultry samples during the 2-year study period. Strains were identified to species with the PCR method; 53.6% of the strains were Campylobacter jejuni and 46.4% were Campylobacter coli. A high percentage of the tested Campylobacter strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (74.1 and 73.5%, respectively) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and streptomycin (20.5%). Only one C. jejuni and two C. coli isolates were resistant to gentamicin. Seventy-nine (15.9%) of the 498 strains were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics examined. Higher levels of resistance, irrespective of the antimicrobial agent tested, were found within the C. coli group. Almost all strains resistant to quinolones (99.5%) and to tetracycline (99.6%) carried the Thr-86-to-Ile mutation in the gyrA gene and possessed the tet(O) marker, respectively. All isolates resistant to erythromycin had the A2075G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. These results reveal that poultry carcasses in Poland are a reservoir of potentially pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter strains for humans, which may pose a public health risk.

  10. Human, food and animal Campylobacter spp. isolated in Portugal: high genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance rates.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Andreia; Santos, Andrea; Manageiro, Vera; Martins, Ana; Fraqueza, Maria J; Caniça, Manuela; Domingues, Fernanda C; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-10-01

    Infections by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered the major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, with food being the main source of infection. In this study, a total of 196 Campylobacter strains (125 isolates from humans, 39 from retail food and 32 from food animal sources) isolated in Portugal between 2009 and 2012 were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and flaA short variable region (SVR) typing. Susceptibility to six antibiotics as well as the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance phenotypes was also studied. Based on MLST typing, C. coli strains were genetically more conserved, with a predominant clonal complex (CC828), than C. jejuni strains. In contrast, C. coli isolates were genetically more variable than C. jejuni with regard to flaA-SVR typing. A high rate of resistance was observed for quinolones (100% to nalidixic acid, >90% to ciprofloxacin) and, in general, resistance was more common among C. coli, especially for erythromycin (40.2% vs. 6.7%). In addition, most isolates (86%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial families. Besides the expected point mutations associated with antibiotic resistance, detected polymorphisms in the cmeABC locus likely play a role in the multiresistant phenotype. This study provides for the first time an overview of the genetic diversity of Campylobacter strains from Portugal. It also shows a worrying antibiotic multiresistance rate and the emergence of Campylobacter strains resistant to antibiotics of human use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. PFGE genotyping and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken meat

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, B.; Kalantar, M.; Rastegar-Lari, A.; Fallah, F.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 70 samples were collected from chicken meat obtained from 10 markets in Tehran, Iran from which 39 Campylobacter coli were isolated. Among 10 antibiotics used, maximum resistance was seen to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (SXT) (97.36%), nalidixic acid (94.8%), ciprofloxacin (87.7%), streptomycin (89.72%), and tetracycline (97.4%). No resistance was to gentamycin was observed. None of the Campylobacter strains under study harbored integron, suggesting the involvement of other resistance mechanisms in emergence of multi drug resistance (MDR) phenotype among the isolates. Two major types (A and B) and 15 subtypes (A1-A8 and B1-B7) were identified. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis demonstrated a high degree of homogeneity while the majority of the isolates shared identical or very similar PFGE genotypes. Isolates with identical genotypes differed in their resistance profile, although all of them assigned to MDR phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular survey from Iran characterizing Campylobacter isolates from poultry, which adds to our knowledge the epidemiological linkage of Campylobacter isolates with MDR properties from different sources and emphasizes the need for cautious use of antimicrobials in different fields of food production chain. PMID:27822247

  12. Detection of CDT toxin genes in Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from broiler carcasses and vegetables in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Aline Feola; da Silva, Daniela Martins; Azevedo, Sergio Santos; Piatti, Rosa Maria; Genovez, Margareth Elide; Scarcelli, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis. One of the main virulence factors related to Campylobacter spp. in animals and humans is the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), encoded by three adjacent genes (cdtA, cdtB, cdtC). The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in samples of vegetables has not been reported in Brazil yet, and has seldom been described in the international literature. The detection of CDT in these strains has not been reported, either. The objectives of the present study were to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. strains carrying virulence factors in samples of poultry and vegetables (lettuce and spinach) from different points of sale, thus verifying if vegetables are as an important vehicle for potentially virulent Campylobacter spp. strains as poultry. Twenty four strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni by phenotypic and genotypic methods: 22 from broiler carcasses and two from lettuce samples. Three strains were identified as Campylobacter coli: two from broiler carcasses and one from lettuce. The presence of the cdt genes were detected in 20/24 (83.3%) C. jejuni strains, and 3/3 (100%) C. coli strains. The isolation of Campylobacter spp. strains with the cdt gene cluster in lettuce samples points to a new possible source of contamination, which could have an impact in the vegetable production chain and risk to public health. Results show that potentially virulent C. jejuni and C. coli strains remain viable in samples of broiler carcasses and vegetables at the points of sale.

  13. Recovery of Campylobacter spp. from Food and Environmental Sources.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Catherine D; Kenwell, Robyn; Iugovaz, Irene; Oyarzabal, Omar A

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of Campylobacter species from food and environmental sources is challenging due to the slow growth of these bacteria and the need to suppress competing organisms during the isolation procedures. The addition of multiple selective antimicrobials to growth media can negatively impact recovery of some Campylobacter spp. Here, we describe our current method for the isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter species, mainly C. jejuni and C. coli, from food and environmental samples. We emphasize the use of membrane filtration during plating for the specific isolation of Campylobacter spp. and a reduced use of antimicrobial supplements throughout the whole isolation process.

  14. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Client-Owned Dogs and Cats, and Retail Raw Meat Pet Food in the Manawatu, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bojanić, K; Midwinter, A C; Marshall, J C; Rogers, L E; Biggs, P J; Acke, E

    2017-09-01

    Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety dogs and 110 cats examined at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for elective procedures, and fifty locally purchased retail raw meat pet diets were sampled. Two culture protocols combining Bolton broth enrichment and mCCDA and CAT agars in a microaerobic atmosphere at 42°C and 37°C with species identification using PCR were performed. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus was 36%, 13%, 23% and 1% in dogs and 16%, 5%, 5% and 7% in cats, respectively. One dog had Campylobacter lari confirmed, and three dogs and one cat had multiple Campylobacter spp. detected. Significantly more animals tested positive using CAT than mCCDA agar (P < 0.001). Being neutered, vaccinated for Bordetella bronchiseptica, fed dry diets and brought in for neutering were protective factors for dogs, whereas attendance for dental treatment was a risk factor for cats. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 28%, C. jejuni 22%, C. lari 6% and Campylobacter coli 6% of food samples. Six isolates positive by Campylobacter genus PCR were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. Poultry meat was more likely to be positive than non-poultry meat (P = 0.006). Of the 13 C. jejuni pet isolates with full MLST profiles, eight were of different sequence types (ST) and all nine food isolates were of different STs.

  15. Antibiotic resistance and polymorphism in the quinolone resistance-determining region of Campylobacter spp. isolated from 1-day-old ducklings.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Engy A; AbdelRahman, Mona A A; Shalaby, Azhar G; Morsy, Mai M; Nasef, Soad A

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-three isolates of Campylobacter coli and three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were recovered from 150 1-day-old ducklings. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and amikacin, but resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) by the disc diffusion method. Most isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin, but resistant to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Of the 33 C. coli isolates, nine were positive for the tetracycline resistance gene tet(O), although only two of these were resistant to tetracycline in the disc diffusion test. None of the isolates possessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene infrequently linked to FQ-resistance. The finding indicated that ducklings may be a source of antibiotic resistant Campylobacter spp. with potential poultry and public health hazard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Copyright

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Ferro, I D; Benetti, T M; Oliveira, T C R M; Abrahão, W M; Farah, S M S S; Luciano, F B; Macedo, R E F

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter strains (C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari) isolated from broiler carcasses processed in the State of Paraná, Brazil. 2. Rates of microbial resistance and susceptibility were assessed by both Disk Diffusion (DD) and Etest (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) techniques. Antibiotics were tested using DD (12 antibiotics) and/or MIC (7 antibiotics) methods. 3. A total of 95.8% of the strains were resistant to at least two agents. In terms of multidrug resistance, 75% of strains were resistant to three or more groups of antibiotics. The highest rates of resistance were detected for cefalotin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid. A high rate of susceptibility of the strains to erythromycin (95.8%) was found confirming that this is considered the agent of choice for treating campylobacteriosis. Comparison of the microbial resistance and susceptibility, as determined simultaneously by the two methods, found the techniques to be statistically equivalent for 5 out of the 6 antibiotics tested. 4. The results of this study suggest the need for adopting measures to control the use of antibiotics in broiler production to prevent multidrug resistance of Campylobacter strains and reduce the risk of serious human diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated chicken meat.

  18. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R.; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M.; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-01-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated “cases.” A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. PMID:26962088

  19. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-05-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated "cases." A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.

    PubMed

    Repérant, E; Laisney, M J; Nagard, B; Quesne, S; Rouxel, S; Le Gall, F; Chemaly, M; Denis, M

    2016-09-01

    Investigating Campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of Campylobacter strains. In the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in Bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mCCDA, Karmali, Butzler no. 2 and CampyFood agar (CFA)) for the detection of Campylobacter positive samples and the identification of Campylobacter species, from naturally contaminated broiler chicken samples (caeca, neck skin from carcasses, and skin from thighs). We compared our local results to those we obtained with samples from a European survey (caeca and neck skin) and a national survey (neck skin, thigh skin, and breast). Direct plating favored the detection of positive samples highly contaminated by Campylobacter (caeca and neck skin from carcasses) whatever the media. A longer enrichment reduced the rates of Campylobacter recovery except when using Butzler no. 2, more particularly for neck skin which background microflora was less important than in caeca. As a matter of fact, enrichment allowed a higher detection rate of positive samples with low Campylobacter contamination levels (breast, thigh skin), this detection being enhanced when using Butzler no. 2. When comparing the 3 other selective media, CFA was the 2nd most efficient media prior to mCCDA and Karmali. Interestingly, enrichment promoted the growth of Campylobacter coli but this promotion was least with Butzler no. 2 agar. Our study has confirmed the need to adapt the method to the types of samples for improving the detection of Campylobacter and that the method may affect the prevalence of the species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A simplified and cost-effective enrichment protocol for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat without microaerobic incubation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To simplify the methodology for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat, we evaluated 108 samples (breasts and thighs) using an unpaired sample design. The enrichment broths were incubated under aerobic conditions (subsamples A) and for comparison under microaerobic conditions (subsamples M) as recommended by current reference protocols. Sensors were used to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the broth and the percentage of oxygen (O2) in the head space of the bags used for enrichment. Campylobacter isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the bacterial communities of subsamples M and A after 48 h enrichment. Results The number of Campylobacter positive subsamples were similar for A and M when all samples were combined (P = 0.81) and when samples were analyzed by product (breast: P = 0.75; thigh: P = 1.00). Oxygen sensors showed that DO values in the broth were around 6 ppm and O2 values in the head space were 14-16% throughout incubation. PFGE demonstrated high genomic similarity of isolates in the majority of the samples in which isolates were obtained from subsamples A and M. RISA and DGGE results showed a large variability in the bacterial populations that could be attributed to sample-to-sample variations and not enrichment conditions (aerobic or microaerobic). These data also suggested that current sampling protocols are not optimized to determine the true number of Campylobacter positive samples in retail boiler meat. Conclusions Decreased DO in enrichment broths is naturally achieved. This simplified, cost-effective enrichment protocol with aerobic incubation could be incorporated into reference methods for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat. PMID:21812946

  2. Quantification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in broilers during meat processing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Günter; Reich, Felix; Beckmann, Lutz; Atanassova, Viktoria

    2007-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of gastrointestinal illness. Since animal products, especially poultry meat, are an important source of human outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, tracing back to processing and initial production is of great interest. Samples were collected at a German poultry slaughterhouse for the estimation of the prevalence of Campylobacter at different processing steps. Quantification of Campylobacter in each of the samples was also performed. Out of 99 samples examined, 51 (51.5%) were positive for Campylobacter, with bacterial counts ranging from log(10) 6.5 cfu sample(-1) for carcasses to log 3.6 cfu ml(-1) for scalding water. The Campylobacter isolates (n = 51) were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using SmaI and KpnI restriction enzymes. Molecular typing showed a multitude of strains with different molecular patterns. Strains found in cloacal swabs before processing could also be isolated from carcasses at different processing steps.

  3. Comparison of different sampling types across the rearing period in broiler flocks for isolation of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; González-Bodí, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2015-04-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in most developed countries. It is generally accepted that poultry products are a significant source of foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans. Assessing the effectiveness of any potential intervention at farm level requires monitoring of the Campylobacter status of broiler flocks, using appropriate sampling methods. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the sample type across the rearing period for the detection of Campylobacter spp. at farm level. During this study, 21 commercial broiler farms were intensively sampled. Each farm was visited and sampled at different times during the rearing period (d 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42). On the first day of rearing, the status of the house and the day-old flock was evaluated, and environmental and cecal samples were collected. During rearing, 4 different sample types were collected: feces with sock swabs (sock swabs), feces directly from the litter (feces), cloacal swabs, and cecal content. All samples were analyzed according to ISO 10272-1:2006 (Annex E) and also by direct culture. The results of this study showed that Campylobacter spp. were detected in all of the sample types on d 14 of rearing. From this point on, the detection increased significantly, with a maximum detection rate by the end of rearing, regardless of the sample type. All samples that were negative upon direct culture were also negative after pre-enrichment. At the end of rearing, the percentage of samples positive for Campylobacter spp. was 71.4% for cecal samples, 61.9% for cloacal swabs, 45.2% for sock swabs, and 69.1% for fecal samples. C. jejuni was detected in all the sample types, with positive rates ranging from 67.1 to 76.0% for cecal samples and cloacal content, respectively. Cecal samples, cloacal swabs, and fecal samples cultured by direct plating onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) without pre-enrichment have

  4. Molecular and Statistical Analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Carriage in Wildlife and Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other). Models included a random effect to account for clustering by farm where samples were collected. Samples were subtyped using a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative fingerprinting assay. A total of 92 livestock and 107 wildlife faecal samples were collected, and 72% and 27% tested positive for Campylobacter, respectively. Pooled faecal samples from livestock were significantly more likely to test positive for Campylobacter than wildlife samples. Relative to dairy cattle, pig samples were at significantly increased odds of testing positive for Campylobacter. The odds of isolating Campylobacter jejuni from beef cattle samples were significantly greater compared to dairy cattle and raccoon samples. Fifty unique subtypes of Campylobacter were identified, and only one subtype was found in both wildlife and livestock samples. Livestock Campylobacter isolates were significantly more likely to exhibit antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compared to wildlife Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter jejuni was more likely to exhibit AMR when compared to C. coli. However, C. jejuni isolates were only resistant to tetracycline, and C.  coli isolates exhibited multidrug resistance patterns. Based on differences in prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and resistant Campylobacter between

  5. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requ...

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter spp. isolated from conventional and antimicrobial-free swine production systems from different U.S. regions.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Daniel A; Bahnson, Peter B; Funk, Julie A; Thakur, Siddhartha; Morrow, William E Morgan; Wittum, Thomas; DeGraves, Fred; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a study to compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolated from 34 farm-slaughter pair cohorts of pigs raised in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems. Isolates originated from four different states of two geographic regions (region 1--Ohio and Michigan; region 2--Wisconsin and Iowa). A total of 838 fecal and 1173 carcass samples were examined. Campylobacter isolates were speciated using multiplex polymerase chain reaction targeting ceuE and hipO genes. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using agar dilution to a panel of six antimicrobials: chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 472 of 838 pigs (56.3%). Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly based on production system (conventional [58.9%] and ABF [53.7%], odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-2.6, p = 0.24) or geographic region (region 1 [54.1%] and region 2 [58.2%], OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.6-1.9, p = 0.92). At slaughter plant, Campylobacter prevalence varied based on processing stages (19.4% at pre-evisceration, 25.3% at postevisceration, and 3.2% at postchill). Resistance was common to tetracycline (64.5%), erythromycin (47.9%), and nalidixic acid (23.5%). Campylobacter isolates from conventional production systems were more likely to be erythromycin resistant than from ABF (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.2, p = 0.01). The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter coli isolates were 3.7% and 1.2% from ABF and conventional production systems, respectively. Thirty-seven out of 1257 C. coli (2.9%) were resistant to both erythromycin and ciprofloxacin, drugs of choice for treatment of invasive human campylobacteriosis. The finding of ciprofloxacin resistance, particularly from ABF herds, has significant implications on the potential role of risk factors other than mere antimicrobial use for production

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Serovars and Campylobacter spp. Isolated from an Opportunistic Gull Species, Yellow-legged Gull ( Larus michahellis ).

    PubMed

    Migura-Garcia, Lourdes; Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife is a natural reservoir of Salmonella and Campylobacter, the most important human foodborne pathogens worldwide. Free-living birds have the potential to transport, over large distances, such zoonotic bacteria that may harbor antimicrobial resistance traits. On the northeastern Iberian coast, we assessed the role of Yellow-legged Gulls ( Larus michahellis ) as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and thermophilic Campylobacter isolates recovered from gulls at three colonies, with varying degrees of dependence on refuse dumps as food sources. Of the 39 Salmonella isolates we tested, 17 were multiresistant (resistance to three antimicrobial families), with eight being Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Other clinically relevant Salmonella serovars showing multiresistance included Hadar, Bredeney, and Virchow. Relevant Campylobacter antimicrobial resistances were detected among three Campylobacter jejuni isolates, of which all three showed resistance to nalidixic acid, two were resistant to ciprofloxacin, one was resistant to enrofloxacin, and one was resistant to tetracycline. Our results highlight the importance of free-living gulls with opportunistic feeding habits in the dissemination of enteric pathogens resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents of public health concern.

  8. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  9. Occurrence of virulence genes among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from domestic animals and children.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, M; Klawe, J J; Szczepańska, B; Spica, D

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the flaA, cadF, cdtB and iam genes of Campylobacter spp. was determined with the PCR method. The materials to investigate were 56 C. jejuni and 23 C. coli strains isolated from clinical samples (children and domestic animals). It was found that all of the Campylobacter spp. isolates from children with diarrhoea and domestic animals had cadF gene, responsible for adherence. The flaA gene was present in all Campylobacter spp. isolates derived from children and cats. Occurrence of flaA gene was confirmed in 100% of C. jejuni strains obtained from dogs. The high prevalence of the cdtB gene associated with toxin production was observed in this study (100%-Campylobacter spp. isolates obtained from dogs and cats, 97.9%-Campylobacter spp. isolates from children). The isolates showed a wide variation for the presence of iam gene. The lowest prevalence (23.5%) was detected in Campylobacter spp. obtained from dogs. The highest rates of iam detection (91.6%) were revealed in C. coli isolates from children.

  10. Evaluation of logistic processing to reduce cross-contamination of commercial broiler carcasses with Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Potturi-Venkata, Lakshmi-Prasanna; Backert, Steffen; Vieira, Sergio L; Oyarzabal, Omar A

    2007-11-01

    Cross-contamination of broiler carcasses with Campylobacter is a large problem in food production. Here, we investigated whether the contamination of broilers carcasses from Campylobacter-negative flocks can be avoided by logistic scheduling during processing. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from several commercial broiler flocks and enumerated for Campylobacter spp. Based on enumeration results, flocks were categorized as Campylobacter negative or Campylobacter positive. The schedule of processing included the testing of Campylobacter-positive flocks before or after the testing of Campylobacter-negative flocks. During processing, flocks were also sampled for Campylobacter spp. before and after chilling. Campylobacter strains were identified with multiplex PCR and analyzed for relatedness with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our results show that Campylobacter-negative flocks were indeed contaminated with Campylobacter strains originating from previously processed Campylobacter-positive flocks. Campylobacter isolates collected from carcasses originating from different farms processed on the same day showed similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, confirming cross-contamination. These findings suggest that a simple logistic processing schedule can preserve the Campylobacter-negative status of broiler carcasses and result in products with enhanced food safety.

  11. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identifi cation and Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Maria R; Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Ivanov, Ivan N; Petrov, Peter K; Velev, Valeri R; Tomova, Ivelina I; Tiholova, Maida M; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causative agents of gastrointestinal infections in humans. The most frequently isolated strains of this bacterial genus are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. To date, genetic methods for bacterial identification have not been used in Bulgaria. We optimized the multiplex PSR assay to identify Campylobacter spp. and differentiate C. jejuni from C. coli in clinical isolates. We also compared this method with the routinely used biochemical methods. To identify Campylobacter spp. and discriminate C. coli from C. jejuni in clinical isolates using multiplex PCR assay. Between February 2014 and January 2015 we studied 93 stool samples taken from patients with diarrheal syndrome and identified 40 species of Campylobacter spp. in them. The clinical material was cultured in microaerophilic atmosphere, the isolated strains being biochemically diff erentiated (hydrolysis of sodium hippurate for C. jejuni, and hydrolysis of indoxyl acetate for C. coli). DNA was isolated from the strains using QiaAmp MiniKit (QIAGEN, Germany). Twenty strains were tested with multiplex PCR for the presence of these genes: cadF, characteristic for Campylobacter spp., hipO for C. jejuni and asp for C. coli. The biochemical tests identified 16 strains of C. jejuni, 3 strains of C. coli, and 1 strain of C. upsaliensis. After the multiplex PCR assay the capillary gel electrophoresis confirmed 16 strains of C. jejuni, 2 strains of C. coli and 2 strains of Campylobacter spp. - because of the presence of the gene cadF. C. jejuni has the gene hipO, and it is possible that this gene may not be expressed in the biochemical differentiation yielding a negative reaction as a result. In comparison, we can conclude that the genetic differentiation is a more accurate method than the biochemical tests. The multiplex PCR assay is a fast, accurate method for identifi cation of Campylobacter spp. which makes it quite necessary in the clinical diagnostic practice.

  12. Bacteraemia caused by Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Ladrón de Guevara, C; Gonzalez, J; Peña, P

    1994-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter has become increasingly recognised as the cause of various infections. Campylobacter jejuni and C coli cause acute gastroenteritis in man all over the world. C jejuni enteritis can lead to bacteraemia, but its actual incidence remains unknown. Seven cases of bacteraemia caused by C jejuni or C coli are reported, from the blood of seven patients: five immune deficient adults; a newborn baby; and a patient who had had abdominal surgery. Patients who develop diarrhoea as a result of Campylobacter infection are at risk of bacteraemia thereafter. PMID:8132835

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. relative to other enteric pathogens in grow-finish pigs with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Burrough, Eric; Terhorst, Samantha; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella spp., Lawsonia intracellularis, and Brachyspira spp. are pathogens commonly associated with diarrhea in growing and finishing pigs. Brachyspira spp. infection has recently reemerged as a significant concern due to an increase in the incidence of swine dysentery; however, the mechanisms underlying this increase in dysentery remain largely unknown. Pigs are also well-recognized as potential carriers of Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter coli, yet enteric disease in swine associated with infection by these bacteria is considered uncommon and diagnosis has historically been based upon exclusion of other causes. Accordingly, Campylobacter culture is often excluded in routine diagnostic testing of cases of porcine enterocolitis and the incidence of infection is therefore largely unknown. In this study, feces from 155 cases of clinical diarrhea in grow-finish pigs submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory were cultured for Campylobacter spp. in addition to other testing as indicated for routine diagnostic investigation. Campylobacter culture was positive from 82.6% (128/155) of samples with C. coli accounting for 75% of isolates and Campylobacter jejuni for the remaining 25%. In 14.8% (23/155) of cases a Campylobacter spp. was the sole infectious agent detected; however, there was no association with any particular Campylobacter spp. Interestingly, for those cases with a laboratory diagnosis of Brachyspira-associated disease, 100% (15/15) were also culture positive for Campylobacter spp. suggesting a possible interrelationship between these bacteria in the pig gut. No association was noted between Campylobacter culture results and infection with either Salmonella spp. or L. intracellularis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxin production by Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Wassenaar, T M

    1997-01-01

    Of all the virulence factors that were proposed for Campylobacter jejuni and related species to cause disease in humans, the discovery of toxin production was the most promising but led to a rather confusing and even disappointing stream of data. The discussion of whether proteinaceous exotoxins are relevant in disease remains open. One important reason for this lack of consensus is the anecdotal nature of the literature reports. To provide a basis for an unbiased opinion, this review compiles all described exotoxins, compares their reported properties, and provides a summary of animal model studies and clinical data. The toxins are divided into enterotoxins and cytotoxins and are sorted according to their biochemical properties. Since many Campylobacter toxins have been compared with toxins of other species, some key examples of the latter are also discussed. Future directions of toxin research that appear promising are defined. PMID:9227862

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Noroviruses, and Indicator Organisms in Surface Water in Southwestern Finland, 2000-2001

    PubMed Central

    Hörman, Ari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Torvela, Niina; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2004-01-01

    A total of 139 surface water samples from seven lakes and 15 rivers in southwestern Finland were analyzed during five consecutive seasons from autumn 2000 to autumn 2001 for the presence of various enteropathogens (Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and noroviruses) and fecal indicators (thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F-RNA bacteriophages) and for physicochemical parameters (turbidity and temperature); this was the first such systematic study. Altogether, 41.0% (57 of 139) of the samples were positive for at least one of the pathogens; 17.3% were positive for Campylobacter spp. (45.8% of the positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni, 25.0% contained Campylobacter lari, 4.2% contained Campylobacter coli, and 25.0% contained Campylobacter isolates that were not identified), 13.7% were positive for Giardia spp., 10.1% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and 9.4% were positive for noroviruses (23.0% of the positive samples contained genogroup I and 77.0% contained genogroup II). The samples were positive for enteropathogens significantly (P < 0.05) less frequently during the winter season than during the other sampling seasons. No significant differences in the prevalence of enteropathogens were found when rivers and lakes were compared. The presence of thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, and C. perfringens had significant bivariate nonparametric Spearman's rank order correlation coefficients (P < 0.001) with samples that were positive for one or more of the pathogens analyzed. The absence of these indicators in a logistic regression model was found to have significant predictive value (odds ratios, 1.15 × 108, 7.57, and 2.74, respectively; P < 0.05) for a sample that was negative for the pathogens analyzed. There were no significant correlations between counts or count levels for thermotolerant coliforms or E. coli or the presence of F-RNA phages and pathogens in the samples analyzed. PMID

  17. Screening and rapid identification of Campylobacter spp. DNA by FlaA PCR based method on chicken and human fecal samples in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which has a potential public health concern worldwide. Due to discriminatory problems encountered by conventional isolation of Campylobacter spp. and its genetic similarities, rapid molecular techniques for its genetic characterization are useful. In this study,...

  18. Campylobacter spp. - prevalence on pig livers and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Hamedy, Ahmad; Merle, Roswitha; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on surfaces of slaughtered pig livers. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs) of selected Campylobacter coli isolates. Additionally, C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the broth dilution method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for erythromycin, gentamicin, ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Samples were taken during the slaughtering process in a slaughterhouse in Lower Saxony, Germany. Altogether, 10% of 1500 surfaces of pig livers from 50 fattening herds was found to be Campylobacter positive, with C. coli as the predominant species (76%) followed by C. jejuni (21%). Resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was higher in C. jejuni compared to C. coli, whereas C. coli were more resistant to quinolone compared to C. jejuni. Fluoroquinolone resistance is usually associated with cross-resistance to quinolone, but in the presented investigation C. coli as well as C. jejuni showed a higher resistance to ciprofloxacin (28.6% and 20.0%, respectively) than to nalidixic acid (9.5% and 0%, respectively). A high genetic diversity of the C. coli isolates was demonstrated by MLST. Differences in STs and antimicrobial resistance pattern indicate that the Campylobacter strains originated from the pig itself and not from the slaughterhouse. A comparison of the STs with those reported in the C. jejuni/coli PubMLST database showed an overlap of porcine and human isolates, indicating that C. coli isolates from pigs should be considered as potential sources of human infection.

  19. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    PubMed

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of more than one clinical isolate of Campylobacter spp. from each of 49 patients in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Lin, Susan; Scholes, Paula; On, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis demonstrated that while 76% of patients had only one genotype of campylobacter, 10% carried two different but related genotypes (Dice coefficients > 0.78), and 14% carried at least two unrelated genotypes (Dice coefficients < 0.65). This supports the clustering of Campylobacter isolates with similar PFGE patterns, highlights the need to analyze multiple isolates from both sources and patients, and confirms that caution should be exercised before epidemiological links between patients or sources are dismissed.

  1. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  2. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in salad vegetables in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lay Ching; Robin, Tunung; Ragavan, Usha Menon; Gunsalam, Jurin Wolmon; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Radu, Son; Kumar, Malakar Pradeep

    2007-06-10

    The main aim of this study was to combine the techniques of most probable number (MPN) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantifying the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter spp. in ulam, a popular Malaysian salad dish, from a traditional wet market and two modern supermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 309 samples of raw vegetables which are used in ulam were examined in the study. The prevalences of campylobacters in raw vegetables were, for supermarket I, Campylobacter spp., 51.9%; Campylobacter jejuni, 40.7%; and Campylobacter coli, 35.2%: for supermarket II, Campylobacter spp., 67.7%; C. jejuni, 67.7%; and C. coli, 65.7%: and for the wet market, Campylobacter spp., 29.4%; C. jejuni, 25.5%; and C. coli, 22.6%. In addition Campylobacter fetus was detected in 1.9% of raw vegetables from supermarket I. The maximum numbers of Campylobacter spp. in raw vegetables from supermarkets and the wet market were >2400 and 460 MPN/g, respectively.

  3. Description and sources of contamination by Campylobacter spp. of river water destined for human consumption in Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Denis, M; M Tanguy; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2011-10-01

    Presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. in water of five rivers upstream from an intake point for drinking water production was investigated, and isolates genetically compared with human, pig and poultry isolates in order to determine their source. River water and drinking water obtained from these rivers were sampled one time per month, over a period of one year, and tested for Campylobacter. Isolates were typed by PFGE. Campylobacter was not detected in treated drinking water, but 50% of the river samples were contaminated. Contamination was observed on the four seasons. In total, 297 Campylobacter isolates were collected and generated 46 PFGE profiles. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently detected species in samples (74.1% of the isolates), followed by Campylobacter coli (17.8%) and Campylobacter lari (8.1%). Forty-two of the 46 PFGE profiles were unique. Only one genotype was detected three times in a river during the year and four genotypes in two different rivers. When compared to animal and human Campylobacter PFGE profiles, 14, 11 and one Campylobacter genotypes from water were genetically closed to human, poultry, and pig Campylobacter genotypes, respectively. The Campylobacter population displayed a high level of genetic diversity, suggesting that contamination originated from various origins. Human, poultry and pig were sources of contamination of the river by Campylobacter. Finally, no Campylobacter were detected in drinking water, indicating that the risk of outbreaks due to consumption of drinking water is low. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Lack of Evidence for Vertical Transmission of Campylobacter spp. in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Callicott, Kenneth A.; Friðriksdóttir, Vala; Reiersen, Jarle; Lowman, Ruff; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Berndtson, Eva; Hiett, Kelli L.; Needleman, David S.; Stern, Norman J.

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne infection in the industrial world. There is evidence that C. jejuni is present in eggs and hatchery fluff, opening the possibility for vertical transmission from hens to progeny. Poultry operations in Iceland provide an excellent opportunity to study this possibility, since breeding flocks are established solely from eggs imported from grandparent flocks in Sweden. This leaves limited opportunity for grandparents and their progeny to share isolates through horizontal transmission. While Campylobacter was not detected in all grandparent flocks, 13 of the 16 egg import lots consisted of eggs gathered from one or more Campylobacter-positive grandparent flocks. No evidence of Campylobacter was found by PCR in any of the 10 relevant quarantine hatchery fluff samples examined, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the parent birds through 8 weeks, while they were still in quarantine rearing facilities. After the birds were moved to less biosecure rearing facilities, Campylobacter was isolated, and 29 alleles were observed among the 224 isolates studied. While three alleles were found in both Sweden and Iceland, in no case was the same allele found both in a particular grandparent flock and in its progeny. We could find no evidence for vertical transmission of Campylobacter to the approximately 60,000 progeny parent breeders that were hatched from eggs coming from Campylobacter-positive grandparent flocks. If vertical transmission is occurring, it is not a significant source for the contamination of chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. PMID:16957196

  5. [Prevalence and characteristics of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in the human food chain].

    PubMed

    Bardoň, J; Koláčková, I; Husičková, V; Röderová, M; Karpíšková, R; Stosová, T; Kolář, M

    2014-09-01

    To monitor the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry in slaughterhouses, poultry and pork liver at retail, and cows milk in Moravia. To determine the resistance of animal isolates to selected antibiotics; and to compare it with an antibiogram of human strains. Throughout the year 2013, the following samples were collected in the South Moravian and Olomouc Regions: mixed samples of broiler cecal contents in slaughterhouses, fresh and frozen chickens and pork liver at retail, and raw cows milk from vending machines. The samples were both qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for the presence of Campylobacter spp. The isolates recovered were tested for resistance to antibiotics. For comparison, antimicrobial resistance was also studied in human isolates from the same regions. A total of 41.8% of the tested food samples were found to contain Campylobacter spp.. The most contaminated (73.2%) were fresh chickens. Campylobacter spp. were not detected in raw cows milk samples. The isolates showed high levels of resistance to quinolone antibiotics and, in the case of C. coli, also to tetracycline and streptomycin. The studied commodities were frequently contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The levels of contamination (in CFU/g) varied between commodities and so, evidently, did the real risk for human infections. When antibiotic therapy is needed, quinolone antibiotics cannot be used. Adherence to high standards of consumer safe food handling is crucial for the prevention of diseases.

  6. Prevalence, quantitative load, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from broiler ceca and broiler skin samples in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chokboonmongkol, C; Patchanee, P; Gölz, G; Zessin, K-H; Alter, T

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks by testing cecal contents at slaughter and to detect and quantify Campylobacter on broiler carcass skin samples of the corresponding slaughter batches, to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates, and to genotype selected Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing analysis. Ninety-eight broiler flocks were included in the study. Intact ceca were randomly taken at the time of evisceration throughout a slaughter batch to detect Campylobacter spp. at the broiler flock level and one whole carcass per slaughter batch was taken for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on broiler skin. The prevalences of Campylobacter spp. in broiler ceca and broiler skin samples were 11.2% (11/98) and 51% (50/98), respectively. Even though most Campylobacter-positive broiler skin samples were contaminated with only up to 230 most probable number per gram, a substantial share (13.3%) showed very high Campylobacter numbers on the broiler skin samples (most probable number = ∞; lower confidence limit T(0) 580/g). From 32 C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates tested, the highest antimicrobial resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (81.2%), followed by tetracycline (40.6%), ampicillin (31.2%), and erythromycin (9.4%). All tested strains were sensitive to gentamicin. By multilocus sequence typing analysis, a total of 9 different sequence types were identified among 16 C. jejuni isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolated from cecal content and carcass skin of the same farm or slaughter batch showed corresponding allelic profiles. Our data suggest that intense cross-contamination during the slaughter process led to a strong increase of Campylobacter prevalence on broiler skin compared with the prevalence in broiler ceca. To reduce Campylobacter prevalences on broiler skin, on-farm biosecurity measures need to be accompanied by control measures

  7. Comparative performance of isolation methods using Preston broth, Bolton broth and their modifications for the detection of Campylobacter spp. from naturally contaminated fresh and frozen raw poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, T; De Zutter, L; Houf, K; Botteldoorn, N; Baré, J; Van Damme, I

    2016-10-03

    The performance of different isolation methods was evaluated for the detection of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry meat. Therefore, fresh and frozen poultry meat samples were analysed using the standard procedure (ISO 10272-1:2006), enrichment in Preston broth, and enrichment in modified Bolton broth (supplemented with (i) potassium clavulanate (C-BB), (ii) triclosan (T-BB), (iii) polymyxin B (P-BB)). The enrichment cultures were streaked onto both modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and RAPID'Campylobacter agar (RCA). Moreover, direct plating on mCCDA and RCA was performed to quantify Campylobacter. In total, 33 out of 59 fresh retail meat samples (55.9%) were Campylobacter positive. For both fresh and frozen poultry meat samples, enrichment in Bolton broth (ISO 10272-1:2006) resulted in a higher number of positive samples than enrichment in Preston broth. Supplementation of Bolton broth with potassium clavulanate (C-BB) and triclosan (T-BB) enhanced the Campylobacter recovery from fresh poultry meat compared to non-supplemented Bolton broth, although the use of C-BB was less applicable than T-BB for Campylobacter recovery from frozen samples. Additionally, the use of RCA resulted in a higher isolation rate compared to mCCDA. The present study demonstrates the impact of culture medium on the recovery of Campylobacter from fresh and frozen naturally contaminated poultry meat samples and can support laboratories in choosing the most appropriate culturing method to detect Campylobacter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Bulgarian retail market.

    PubMed

    Stoyanchev, Todor; Vashin, Ivan; Ring, Christian; Atanassova, Viktoria

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products available for the consumers at retail markets in Bulgaria. Samples (n = 210) of poultry carcasses and poultry products for sale at the retail market in Bulgaria were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter spp., of these 35 frozen whole carcasses, 135 chilled poultry cuts (45 wing cuts, 45 thigh cuts and 45 fillet) and 40 thermally treated (ready-to-eat) poultry products. The results obtained showed that 35.2% of the frozen poultry carcasses for sale in the markets were Campylobacter contaminated. In the chilled poultry cuts Campylobacter was isolated at the highest percentage in wing- and thigh cuts, 91.1% and 88.9%, respectively. The fillet samples were contaminated by Campylobacter in 48.9% of cases. In the chilled poultry products as well as in the frozen carcasses C. jejuni (74.8%/70.3%) was the most commonly isolated Campylobacter species, with the remainder being C. coli (25.2%/29.7%). Campylobacter spp. were not detected in the thermally treated poultry products.

  9. Evolution of susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. to quinolones and macrolides.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, R; Fernández-Baca, V; Díaz, M D; Muñoz, P; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Bouza, E

    1994-01-01

    Erythromycin, new macrolides, and quinolones are alternatives for the treatment of Campylobacter infections. Concerns related to the emergence of resistance to both groups of drugs have been raised. We studied the evolution of antimicrobial susceptibilities of 275 clinical isolates of microorganisms of the genus Campylobacter isolated in our institution during a 5-year period (1988 to 1992). The microorganisms studied were C. jejuni (n = 230), C. coli (n = 42), and C. fetus (n = 3). The overall resistance rates (determined by the agar dilution method and the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) were as follows: erythromycin, 2.3%; clarithromycin, 2.3%; azithromycin, 1.9%; ciprofloxacin, 28.5%; norfloxacin, 31%; ofloxacin, 26.3%; and nalidixic acid, 36.8%. The evolution of resistance (percent resistance in 1988 versus percent resistance in 1992) was as follows: erythromycin, 2.6 versus 3.1; clarithromycin, 2.6 versus 3.1; azithromycin, 2.6 versus 3.1; ciprofloxacin, 0 versus 49.5; norfloxacin, 2.6 versus 55.5; ofloxacin, 0 versus 45.6; nalidixic acid, 2.6 versus 56.8. Our data show stable macrolide activity against Campylobacter spp. and the rapid development of quinolone resistance over the last 5 years. PMID:7810993

  10. Evolution of susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. to quinolones and macrolides.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Fernández-Baca, V; Díaz, M D; Muñoz, P; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Bouza, E

    1994-09-01

    Erythromycin, new macrolides, and quinolones are alternatives for the treatment of Campylobacter infections. Concerns related to the emergence of resistance to both groups of drugs have been raised. We studied the evolution of antimicrobial susceptibilities of 275 clinical isolates of microorganisms of the genus Campylobacter isolated in our institution during a 5-year period (1988 to 1992). The microorganisms studied were C. jejuni (n = 230), C. coli (n = 42), and C. fetus (n = 3). The overall resistance rates (determined by the agar dilution method and the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) were as follows: erythromycin, 2.3%; clarithromycin, 2.3%; azithromycin, 1.9%; ciprofloxacin, 28.5%; norfloxacin, 31%; ofloxacin, 26.3%; and nalidixic acid, 36.8%. The evolution of resistance (percent resistance in 1988 versus percent resistance in 1992) was as follows: erythromycin, 2.6 versus 3.1; clarithromycin, 2.6 versus 3.1; azithromycin, 2.6 versus 3.1; ciprofloxacin, 0 versus 49.5; norfloxacin, 2.6 versus 55.5; ofloxacin, 0 versus 45.6; nalidixic acid, 2.6 versus 56.8. Our data show stable macrolide activity against Campylobacter spp. and the rapid development of quinolone resistance over the last 5 years.

  11. Molecular Subtype Analyses of Campylobacter spp. from Arkansas and California Poultry Operations

    PubMed Central

    Hiett, K. L; Stern, N. J.; Fedorka-Cray, P.; Cox, N. A.; Musgrove, M. T.; Ladely, S.

    2002-01-01

    Campylobacter isolates from diverse samples within broiler production and processing environments were typed by using flaA short variable region DNA sequence analysis. Sixteen flocks from four different farms representing two broiler producers in Arkansas and California were analyzed. Fourteen of the flocks (87.5%) were Campylobacter-positive; two remained negative throughout the 6-week rearing period. In general, multiple clones were present within a flock. Additionally, clones found within a flock were also present on the final product, although the diversity of Campylobacter spp. on the final product appeared to be reduced relative to that observed within the flock. Comparison of clones between flocks on the same farm revealed that some clones of Campylobacter persisted in multiple flocks. Furthermore, some clones were identified across the two farms that were under the same management. In two sampling periods, environmental isolates were positive for Campylobacter prior to flock shedding. Environmental samples associated with five additional flocks were positive for Campylobacter concomitantly with recovery of Campylobacter from the birds. Analysis of the environmental isolates that were positive prior to flock shedding demonstrated that in some instances the environmental isolates possessed genotypes identical to those of isolates originating from the flock, while in other cases the environmental isolates possessed genotypes that were distantly related to isolates obtained from the flock. Analyses of environmental isolates that tested positive concurrently with the positive isolates from the flocks demonstrated varied results; in some instances the environmental isolates possessed genotypes identical to those of isolates originating from the flock, while in other cases the environmental isolates possessed genotypes that were distantly related to isolates obtained from the flock. These data suggest that the external environment may contribute to Campylobacter

  12. Loads and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sison, F B; Chaisowwong, W; Alter, T; Tiwananthagorn, S; Pichpol, D; Lampang, K N; Baumann, M P O; Gölz, G

    2014-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify Campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates. Out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were Campylobacter spp. positive. The majority of isolated Campylobacter strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as Campylobacter jejuni. Most of these positive samples (52.6%) showed a very high quantitative Campylobacter contamination (most probable number > 2,400/g, lower confidence limit 580/g). For antimicrobial resistance testing, 44 C. coli/jejuni isolates were tested using the agar disk diffusion method. Out of these, 77.3% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by ciprofloxacin (70.4%), tetracycline (54.6%), erythromycin (20.2%), and gentamicin (11.4%). Of the isolates, 36.4% (n = 16) were resistant to 1 antimicrobial agent, 34.1% (n = 15) were resistance to 3 antimicrobial agents, 13.6% (n = 6) to 2 antimicrobial agents, 9.1% (n = 4) to 4 antimicrobial agents, and 6.8% (n = 3) to all 5 antimicrobial agents tested. Our data demonstrate a high contamination of fresh chicken meat with Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Philippines. The detected high Campylobacter prevalences and quantitative loads on chicken meat at retail in the Philippines highlight the need to implement efficient intervention measures along the food chain and to encourage sanitary handling of poultry meat.

  13. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Commercial Turkey Flocks: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kumar, Anand; Sanad, Yasser M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Garabed, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on commercial meat turkeys are rare. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and persistence of genotypically related strains of Campylobacter spp. recovered from three commercial turkey farms in Ohio belonging to a single producer. Eight hundred ten samples were collected from birds aged 1 week to slaughter, consisting of 750 fecal droppings and 60 ceca at slaughter. Overall Campylobacter prevalence was 55.9%. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed 72.3% of all isolates as C. coli, 5.3% as C. jejuni, 10.6% as both, and 11.9% as other Campylobacter spp. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene subtyping detected 70 types—62 for C. coli and 8 for C. jejuni isolates—with most (80%) of flaA-types constituting farm homogeneous groups. Multilocus sequence typing of 99 selected Campylobacter isolates resulted in 23 sequence types (STs), consisting of 8 STs for C. jejuni and 15 STs for C. coli isolates. Six novel STs—four for C. jejuni and two—for C. coli, were detected. In a subset of isolates (n=98) tested for antimicrobial resistance, the most common resistance was to tetracycline (95%), followed by azithromycin (43%), while 42% and 18% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to florfenicol. C. coli isolates displayed a higher proportion of resistance than C. jejuni to most antimicrobials. This study highlights the high prevalence, genotypic diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in commercial turkey from farm to slaughter. PMID:25184688

  15. Comparative media investigation and MLST characterization of Campylobacter spp. recovered from broiler fecal, carcass rinse, and exudate samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are considered a leading bacterial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in human populations. Several investigations focused on delineating Campylobacter spp. epidemiology have been conducted; however a complete understanding of the critical sources for Campylobacter spp. transmissio...

  16. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently isolated from dairy cows as commensal organisms. While sporadic Campylobacter infections in humans in the US are generally attributed to poultry, outbreaks (defined as 2 or more affected people) are commonly associated with dairy products, particularly nonpasteurize...

  17. The occurrence of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. in river and lake waters.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Stathopoulos, G A; Constantinidis, T C; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1995-05-01

    In order to assess Salmonella, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. occurrence in surface waters and to compare it with the standard faecal indicator bacteria, 86 river and lake samples, from eight sampling sites in Northern Greece were examined for the presence of these pathogens in parallel to total and faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. A total of 17 Salmonellae, 14 Campylobacters and 9 Yersiniae were isolated. Only in Salmonella positive samples the geometric means of total and faecal coliforms were found significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in the negative samples, whereas the presence of Campylobacters and Yersiniae may not be predicted by the standard indicator bacteria.

  18. Genomic Diversity of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Recovered from Free-Range Broiler Farms and Comparison with Isolates of Various Origins†

    PubMed Central

    Rivoal, K.; Ragimbeau, C.; Salvat, G.; Colin, P.; Ermel, G.

    2005-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the incidence of campylobacteriosis exceeds that of salmonellosis. Campylobacter bacteria are transmitted to humans mainly in food, especially poultry meat products. Total prevention of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks is the best way to reduce (or eliminate) the contamination of poultry products. The aim of this study was to establish the sources and routes of contamination of broilers at the farm level. Molecular typing methods (DNA macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and analysis of gene polymorphism by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism) were used to characterize isolates collected from seven broiler farms. The relative genomic diversity of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni was determined. Analysis of the similarity among 116 defined genotypes was used to determine clusters within the two species. Furthermore, evidence of recombination suggested that there were genomic rearrangements within the Campylobacter populations. Recovery of related clusters from different broiler farms showed that some Campylobacter strains might be specifically adapted to poultry. Analysis of the Campylobacter cluster distribution on three broiler farms showed that soil in the area around the poultry house was a potential source of Campylobacter contamination. The broilers were infected by Campylobacter spp. between days 15 and 36 during rearing, and the type of contamination changed during the rearing period. A study of the effect of sanitary barriers showed that the chickens stayed Campylobacter spp. free until they had access to the open area. They were then rapidly colonized by the Campylobacter strains isolated from the soil. PMID:16204541

  19. The in vitro susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. to the antibacterial effect of manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Lin, S M; Molan, P C; Cursons, R T

    2009-04-01

    We report the antimicrobial effect of manuka honey against Campylobacter spp. isolated by a diagnostic laboratory from specimens from a community in New Zealand. The isolates were differentiated according to species level using multiplex PCR. C. jejuni (20 strains) and C. coli (7 strains) were identified. The clinical isolates identified and type culture collection strains of these species were subjected to testing to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of manuka honey using a microdilution technique. The MIC of the manuka honey against all of the Campylobacter tested was found to be around 1% (v/v) honey. The low MIC values suggest that honey might still inhibit the growth of campylobacteria after dilution by fluid in the gut, but the actual concentration of honey that can be achieved in the intestine is unknown. Therefore, clinical investigation is required to establish the efficacy of honey against Campylobacter spp. in the gut environment.

  20. Prevalence, numbers and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. in retail poultry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lay, Kruy Sun; Vuthy, Yith; Song, Ping; Phol, Khem; Sarthou, Jean Louis

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastro-enteritis; and raw poultry is considered to be an important source of these bacteria. To evaluate whether the Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. bacteria could be monitored for the purpose of microbial presence, enumeration and antimicrobial resistance in raw poultry, 152 poultry carcasses were randomly selected from 10 markets in retail outlets of Phnom Penh during March 2006 to February 2007. The majority of poultry samples was contaminated by Salmonella serovars (88.2%) and Campylobacter spp. (80.9%). A very high contamination of Salmonella was found at 3-4 log₁₀ CFU/g for 22.4% of samples and of Campylobacter at 7-8 log₁₀ CFU/g for 1.3% of samples. Fifty nine different Salmonella serovars contaminated 134 poultry carcasses; five most prevalent serovars covered 29.1% of serovars isolates (Anatum, Typhimurium, Corvallis, Stanley and Enteritidis). Three Campylobacter species contaminating 123 raw poultry were Campylobacter jejuni (50.0%), Campylobacter coli (29.0%) and Campylobacter lari (21.0%). High antibiotic resistance percentages were found among Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. isolates. This study revealed that raw poultry at the retail outlets in Phnom Penh markets are contaminated with high prevalences of food-borne pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk in reducing human infections.

  1. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from Cattle Farms in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Wonki; Kaya, Katherine N.; Hancock, Dale D.; Call, Douglas R.; Park, Yong Ho; Besser, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was investigated in cattle on Washington State farms. A total of 350 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates were isolated from 686 cattle sampled on 15 farms (eight dairies, two calf rearer farms, two feedlots, and three beef cow-calf ranches). Isolate species were identified with a combination of phenotypic tests, hipO colony blot hybridization, and multiplex lpxA PCR. Breakpoint resistance to four antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, and doxycycline) was determined by agar dilution. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequent species isolated (34.1%), followed by Campylobacter coli (7.7%) and other thermophilic campylobacters (1.5%). The most frequently detected resistance was to doxycycline (42.3% of 350 isolates). Isolates from calf rearer facilities were more frequently doxycycline resistant than isolates from other farm types. C. jejuni was most frequently susceptible to all four of the antimicrobial drugs studied (58.8% of 272 isolates). C. coli isolates were more frequently resistant than C. jejuni, including resistance to quinolone antimicrobials (89.3% of isolates obtained from calves on calf rearer farms) and to erythromycin (72.2% of isolates obtained from feedlot cattle). Multiple drug resistance was more frequent in C. coli (51.5%) than in C. jejuni (5.1%). The results of this study demonstrate that C. jejuni is widely distributed among Washington cattle farms, while C. coli is more narrowly distributed but significantly more resistant. PMID:15640184

  2. Evaluation of agar plates for direct enumeration of Campylobacter spp. from poultry carcass rinses.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Macklin, Kenneth S; Barbaree, James M; Miller, Robert S

    2005-06-01

    Campy-Cefex, a modification of Campy-Cefex, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCDA), Karmali, CAMPY, and Campy-Line agars were evaluated for their efficiency to isolate and enumerate Campylobacter spp. from poultry carcass rinses. Campy-Cefex and its modification produced the best results but were statistically similar to CAMPY, mCCDA, and Karmali.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Broilers in Live Bird Markets in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Beibei; Ma, Licai; Li, Yingli; Jia, Haiyan; Wei, Jianchao; Shao, Donghua; Liu, Ke; Shi, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Yafeng; Ma, Zhiyong

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolates from broilers in live bird markets (LBMs). A total of 209 Campylobacter spp. isolates (84 Campylobacter jejuni; 125 Campylobacter coli) were recovered from 364 broiler cecum samples collected from five LBMs in Shanghai, China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 13 antimicrobials were determined using agar dilution method. More than 96% of the Campylobacter spp. isolates were resistant to quinolones and tetracyclines. A high prevalence of macrolide resistance (erythromycin, 84.0%; azithromycin, 80.8%) was observed in C. coli, but not in C. jejuni (erythromycin, 6.0%; azithromycin, 2.4%). C. coli also showed significantly higher resistance than C. jejuni to clindamycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. In contrast, C. coli isolates had lower resistance to florfenicol than the C. jejuni isolates. The majority of the C. jejuni (88.1%) and C. coli (97.6%) isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) to three or more classes of antimicrobials. All of the 208 ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates were positive for the C257T mutation of the gyrA gene. In addition, the tet(O) gene was identified in all of the 202 doxycycline-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates. Furthermore, 75.7% and 20.4% of the 103 azithromycin-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates were positive for the A2075G mutation of the 23S rRNA gene and the presence of the erm(B) gene, respectively. Moreover, the cat gene was found in 14.3% (8/56) and 76.8% (73/95) of the chloramphenicol-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli isolates, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. isolates originating from LBMs. The high prevalence of MDR Campylobacter spp. isolates in LBMs highlights the need to implement efficient intervention measures to control not only Campylobacter contamination in LBMs but also

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) in Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Rhynd, Kamara J R; Leighton, Patrick A; Elcock, David A; Whitehall, Pamela J; Rycroft, Andrew; Macgregor, Shaheed K

    2014-12-01

    From April to July 2005, rectal swabs were collected from 48 free-ranging small Asian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) on the east and south coasts of Barbados and analyzed for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. Salmonella was recovered in 21.12% (7/33) of mongooses at the east-coast site and 26.67% (4/15) at the south-coast site. Four serotypes were isolated: Salmonella enterica serovar Rubislaw, Kentucky, Javiana, and Panama. One east-coast sample of 11 tested for Campylobacter was positive (9.09%). These results indicate that mongooses in Barbados are carriers and shedders of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and are a potential wildlife reservoir for these enteropathogens.

  5. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairies.

    PubMed

    Del Collo, Laura P; Karns, Jeffrey S; Biswas, Debabrata; Lombard, Jason E; Haley, Bradd J; Kristensen, R Camilla; Kopral, Christine A; Fossler, Charles P; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2017-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently isolated from dairy cows as commensal organisms. Sporadic Campylobacter infections in humans in the United States are generally attributed to poultry, but outbreaks are also commonly associated with dairy products, particularly unpasteurized or raw milk. Bulk tank milk samples and milk filters from US dairy operations were collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study and analyzed using real-time PCR and traditional culture techniques for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The weighted prevalence of operations from which we detected Campylobacter spp. in either bulk tank milk or milk filters was 24.9%. We detected Campylobacter spp. in a higher percentage of operations with 100-499 cows (42.8%) and 500 or more cows (47.5%) than in operations with 30-99 cows (6.5%). Campylobacter spp. were also more frequently detected in operations in the west than the east (45.9 and 22.6%, respectively). We isolated Campylobacter spp. from approximately half of PCR-positive samples, representing 12.5% (weighted prevalence) of operations. The majority (91.8%) of isolates were C. jejuni, but C. lari and C. coli were also isolated. We detected resistance to tetracycline in 68.4% of C. jejuni isolates, and resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in 13.2% of C. jejuni isolates. Based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found that dairy-associated C. jejuni were genotypically diverse, although clonal strains were isolated from different geographic regions. These results suggest that bulk tank milk can be contaminated with pathogenic Campylobacter spp., and that the consumption of unpasteurized or raw milk presents a potential human health risk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence and Mechanism of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Commercial Poultry Flocks in the United Kingdom before, during, and after Fluoroquinolone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Deborah J.; Johnson, Maggie M.; Frost, Jennifer A.; Humphrey, Tom; Jørgensen, Frieda; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Five commercial broiler flocks were treated with a fluoroquinolone for a clinically relevant infection. Fresh feces from individual chickens and environmental samples were cultured for campylobacters before, during, and weekly posttreatment until slaughter. Both Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were isolated during all treatment phases. An increased proportion of quinolone-resistant strains was seen during treatment, and these strains persisted posttreatment. One quinolone-resistant isolate of each species, each serotype, and each phage type from each sample at all treatment phases was examined for its phenotype and mechanism of resistance. Two resistant phenotypes were isolated: Nalr Cipr and Nalr Cips. The majority (269 of 290) of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates, whether they were C. jejuni or C. coli, had a mutation in gyrA that resulted in the substitution Thr-86→Ile. The other gyrA mutations detected were Thr-86→Ala (n = 17) and Asp-90→Asn (n = 10). The genotypic variation, based on the silent mutations in gyrA identified by the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography pattern and DNA sequencing, was used to supplement typing data and provided evidence for both the spread of preexisting resistant strains and the selection of spontaneous resistant mutants in treated flocks. Multidrug resistance was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with resistance to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-five percent (73 of 290) of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates but only 13% (24 of 179) of susceptible isolates were resistant to three or more unrelated antimicrobial agents. In conclusion, quinolone-resistant campylobacters were isolated from commercial chicken flocks in high numbers following therapy with a veterinary fluoroquinolone. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates had the GyrA substitution Thr-86→Ile. Resistant isolates were isolated from the feces of some flocks up to the point of slaughter, which may have consequences for public health. PMID:15673754

  7. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    PubMed

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from chicken carcasses during processing in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, E; Momtaz, H; Ameri, M; Ghasemian-Safaei, H; Ali-Kasemi, M

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken carcasses during different stages of broiler processing in a major commercial poultry processing plant in southwestern Iran. Overall, 84 chicken carcasses were sampled from 4 sites along the processing line during a total of 7 visits. In addition, 14 water samples from the chiller tank were taken. Using the cultural method, 186 of 336 (55.4%) carcasses were positive for Campylobacter. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequently isolated (89.4%) than Campylobacter coli (10.6%). The frequency of Campylobacter spp. on carcasses was 54.8% after defeathering, 51.2% after evisceration, 69.0% 20 min after the chilling period started, and 46.4% 24 h after the chilling period completed. Campylobacter was positive in 85.7% of the samples taken from the chilling water. The frequency of Campylobacter spp.-positive carcasses was reduced in complete chilled chickens but not during the slaughtering process. Susceptibilities of Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion method. Of the 198 Campylobacter isolates tested, 92.9% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (78.3%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (62.1%), nalidixic acid (58.6%), and enrofloxacin (44.4%).

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Lestari, Shofiyah Ika; Pu, Shuaihua; Ge, Beilei

    2009-03-01

    Effective in September 2005, enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone group antimicrobial, was withdrawn from use in the U.S. poultry farms. In this 1-year study initiated in October 2006, we isolated and characterized Campylobacter spp. from Louisiana retail conventionally raised (n = 141) and organic (n = 53) chickens as a comparison to evaluate the postban bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Campylobacter was present in 43.3% of the chickens; similar rates were observed among conventional and organic chickens. A total of 165 Campylobacter isolates were recovered, with Campylobacter jejuni being the predominant species (66.7%). No apparent seasonal trend was deduced from the prevalence data. Further, the two main conventional and one organic chicken brands did not carry significantly different rates of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). The most common resistance observed was to tetracycline (31.5%), followed by erythromycin (20%) and ciprofloxacin (6.1%). No resistance to gentamicin was identified. All Campylobacter isolates recovered from organic chickens (n = 48) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, compared to 8.5% resistance rate for those from conventional chickens (n = 117). Additionally, the resistance rate to erythromycin was significantly higher in Campylobacter isolates from conventional chickens (23.9%) than those from organic chickens (10.4%; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated a low prevalence and low ciprofloxacin resistance rate of Campylobacter in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban. Further studies involving a larger sample size over time are warranted to better assess the effects of banning enrofloxacin use in poultry and the levels of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  10. Lectin typing of Campylobacter isolates.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, N; Benjamin, J; Skirrow, M B

    1990-01-01

    Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, C fetus and C laridis were tested for agglutination reactions with a panel of five lectins: Arachis hypogaea, Bauhinia purpurea, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum vulgaris and Wisteria floribunda. Twenty three patterns of agglutination (lectin types) were recorded among 376 isolates. Patterns were consistent and reproducible. Only 4.5% of isolates were untypable because of autoagglutination. Some lectin types were found exclusively or predominantly in a species, but others were shared between species. Forty two per cent of C jejuni and 35% of C coli isolates belonged to lectin type 4. There was no apparent correlation between lectin type and serotype; different lectin types were found among strains of single Penner and Lior serotypes. Lectin typing is a simple and economical procedure suitable for use in non-specialist laboratories, either as an adjunct to serogrouping or, after further development, as a sole typing scheme. PMID:2262570

  11. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters.

  12. Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Poultry Carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Abdi-Hachesoo, Bahman; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Asasi, Keramat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter is one of the leading bacterial species causing foodborne illnesses in humans. Antimicrobial agents have been extensively used for treatment of Campylobacter infections; but in the recent years, both animal and human isolates of this bacterium have shown resistance to several antibiotics such as tetracycline. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of genetic determinants of tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter spp. recovered from poultry carcasses in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: Eighty-three thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Isolates were first identified based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then screened for presence of tetracycline resistance genes (tet (A), tet (B), tet (O) and te (S)) by PCR. Results: The overall prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli among the examined isolates was 51.8% and 48.2%, respectively. Tetracycline resistance genes of tet (B) and tet (S) were not seen among these Campylobacter spp. Isolates, whereas the most common tet gene identified was tet (O), found in 83.1% (69/83) of all the isolates. The tet (O) gene sequence comparison between C. jejuni and C. coli showed 100% similarity and these sequences (JX853721and JX853722) were also identical to the homologous sequences of other strains of Campylobacter spp. existing in the GenBank databases. In addition, tet (A) was found in 18% (15/83) of Campylobacter spp. isolates. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of tet (A) in Campylobacter spp. There was 100% homology between the sequences of tet (A) from this study (JX891463 and JX891464) and the tet (A) sequences mentioned for other bacteria in the GenBank databases. Conclusions: The high prevalence of tet (O) resistance gene along with new detection of tet (A) resistance gene in Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry carcasses revealed an extensive tetracycline resistance among Campylobacter isolates from poultry in Iran. It emphasized

  13. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from raw camel, beef, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Kazemeini, Hamid Reza

    2010-04-01

    Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causes of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in human beings which are transmitted mostly via food originating from animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail raw meats in Iran. From June 2008 to June 2009, a total of 722 raw meat samples from camel (n = 107), beef (n = 190), lamb (n = 225), and goat (n = 180) were purchased from randomly selected retail outlets in Isfahan and Yazd, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. In this study, 50 of the 722 meat samples (6.9%) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in lamb meat (12.0%), followed by goat meat (9.4%), beef meat (2.4%), and camel meat (0.9%). The most prevalent Campylobacter spp. isolated from the meat samples was Campylobacter jejuni (84.0%); the remaining isolates were Campylobacter coli (16.0%). Susceptibilities of 50 Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk-diffusion assay. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (68.0%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (46.0%) and nalidixic acid (40.0%). All of the isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p < 0.05) were found in the lamb meat samples taken in spring (20.0%) and summer (18.9%). To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from raw camel, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

  15. Isolation and identification of thermophilic Campylobacter species in faecal samples from Swedish dogs.

    PubMed

    Engvall, Eva Olsson; Brändstrom, Boel; Andersson, Linda; Båverud, Viveca; Trowald-Wigh, Gunilla; Englund, Lena

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of Swedish dogs as potential reservoirs of thermophilic Campylobacter species, faecal samples were analysed from 91 dogs in 2001. The majority of dogs (n = 84) were healthy family dogs. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 51 of the 91 dogs (56%). A significant difference in isolation rates was observed between younger and older dogs: 76% of the younger dogs (5-12 months) were positive, compared with 39% of dogs > or = 13 months (p < 0.01). Two different selective media, Preston and CAT, were used for isolation of Campylobacter species. 104 Campylobacter isolates were identified to species level using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis techniques. Campylobacter upsaliensis predominated and was isolated from 39 dogs, C. jejuni from 10, C. coli from 2, C. helveticus from 2 and C. lari from 1 dog. Four dogs had mixed flora with 2 different Campylobacter species. These data clearly show that younger dogs in particular frequently shed thermophilic Campylobacter spp, which could be of impact for public health. To establish the zoonotic potential of canine Campylobacter isolates, both human and canine isolates have to be further characterized and compared.

  16. Review of Campylobacter spp. in drinking and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment. © 2013.

  17. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, California.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Gulland, M D Frances; Atwill, E Rob; Lawrence, Judy; Jang, Spencer; Conrad, Patricia A

    2005-12-01

    Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. prevalence and antimicrobial drug sensitivity were determined in northern elephant seals that had not entered the water and seals that were stranded on the California coast. Stranded seals had a higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, possibly from terrestrial sources, which were more likely to be resistant.

  18. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Methods: Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. Results: PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). Conclusion: C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran. PMID:26783018

  19. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Turkey, Pork, and Beef Meat in Poland between 2009 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Korsak, Dorota; Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rożynek, Elżbieta; Żyłowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in poultry, pork, and beef meat at the retail level and to identify the main categories of meat representing the most significant reservoirs of Campylobacter. A monitoring study was conducted throughout Poland from 2009 to 2013. A total of 1,700 fresh meat samples were collected from supermarkets, large retail outlets, and smaller stores. Thermophilic Campylobacter species were detected in 690 (49.3%) of 1,400 poultry samples collected from retail trade. Strains were isolated from 50.2 and 41.1% of raw chicken and turkey meat samples, respectively, and from 50.1 and 42.6% of raw chicken and turkey giblets. The incidence of Campylobacter spp. on pork (10.6%) and beef (10.1%) was significantly lower than on poultry. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species in chicken (46.6%), pork (68.6%), and beef (66.7%), and Campylobacter coli was the most frequently isolated Campylobacter species in turkey meat (71.2%). This study revealed that retail raw meats are often contaminated with Campylobacter; however, the prevalence of these pathogens is markedly different in different meats. Raw retail meats are potential vehicles for transmitting foodborne diseases, and our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis critical control point programs and consumer food safety education efforts.

  20. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  1. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Hald, B; Madsen, M

    1997-01-01

    Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin at 4 mg/liter, and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter. Additionally, with respect to the C. upsaliensis transmission potential of poultry, a chicken cloacal swab sample from each of 100 different broiler flocks was included in the study for comparison. We found 21 (29%) of the puppies positive for Campylobacter spp., with a species distribution of 76% C. jejuni, 5% C. coli, and 19% C. upsaliensis. Of the kittens examined, two (5%) excreted campylobacters; both strains were C. upsaliensis. None of the chicken samples examined were found to be positive for C. upsaliensis. We concluded that young puppies and kittens are potential transmitters of human-pathogenic Campylobacter spp., including C. upsaliensis, while poultry seems negligible in C. upsaliensis epidemiology. PMID:9399557

  2. Epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. at two Dutch broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W F; van de Giessen, A W; Bolder, N M; Mulder, R W

    1995-06-01

    Broiler flocks on two Dutch poultry farms were screened weekly for the presence of campylobacter in fresh caecal droppings during eight consecutive production cycles. Hatchery and fresh litter samples were taken at the start of each new cycle. Water, feed, insects, and faeces of domestic animals, present on the farms were also included in the sampling. Penner serotyping of isolates was used to identify epidemiological factors that contribute to campylobacter colonization in the broiler flocks. Generally, broiler flocks became colonized with campylobacter at about 3-4 weeks of age with isolation percentages of 100%, and stayed colonized up to slaughter. A similar pattern of serotypes was found within the various broiler houses on one farm during one production cycle. New flocks generally showed also a new pattern of serotypes. Most serotypes isolated from the laying hens, pigs, sheep and cattle were different from those isolated from the broilers at the same time. Campylobacter serotypes from darkling beetles inside the broiler houses were identical to the ones isolated from the broilers. No campylobacter was isolated from any of the hatchery, water, feed or fresh litter samples. Conclusive evidence of transmission routes was not found, but results certainly point towards horizontal transmission from the environment. Horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next one via a persistent contamination within the broiler house, as well as vertical transmission from breeder flocks via the hatchery to progeny, did not seem to be very likely.

  3. Association of Campylobacter spp. levels between chicken grow-out environmental samples and processed carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matthew W; Eifert, Joseph D; Ponder, Monica A; Schmale, David G

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacter spp. have been isolated from live poultry, production environments, processing facilities, and raw poultry products. Environmental sampling in a poultry grow-out house, combined with carcass rinse sampling from the same flock, may provide a relative relationship between pre- and postharvest Campylobacter contamination. Air samples, fecal/litter samples, and feed/drink line samples were collected from 4 commercial chicken grow-out houses in western Virginia between September 2011 and January 2012. Birds from each sampled house were the first flock slaughtered the following day and were then sampled by postchill carcass rinses. Campylobacter, from postenrichment samples, was detected in 27% (32/120) of house environmental samples and 37.5% (45/120) of carcass rinse samples. All environmental sample types from each house included at least one positive sample except the house 2 air samples. The sponge sample method was found to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) proportion of Campylobacter-positive samples (45%) than the fecal/litter samples (20%) and air samples (15%) when sample types of all the houses were compared. The proportion positive for the fecal/litter samples postenrichment, for each flock, had the highest correlation (0.85) to the proportion of positive carcass rinse samples for each flock. Environmental samples from house 1 and associated carcass rinses accounted for the largest number of Campylobacter positives (29/60). The fewest number of Campylobacter positives, based on both house environmental (4/30) and carcass rinse samples (8/30), was detected from flock B. The results of this study suggest that environmental sampling in a poultry grow-out house, combined with carcass rinse sampling from the same flock, have the potential to provide an indication of Campylobacter contamination and transmission. Campylobacter qualitative levels from house and processing plant samples may enable the scheduled processing of flocks with lower

  4. Prevalence and quantification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Italian retail poultry meat: Analysis of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Stella, Simone; Soncini, Gabriella; Ziino, Graziella; Panebianco, Antonio; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Colavita, Giampaolo; Alberghini, Leonardo; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    Retail poultry meat is a crucial vehicle for consumers' exposure to Campylobacters, but no official controls are currently applied in Italy. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Campylobacter contamination of a wide range of poultry meats marketed in Italy. N. 472 chicken and turkey meat samples (sectioned meats, offal, meat preparations and products) were taken from slaughterhouses, deboning plants and different retailers and submitted to detection/enumeration of Campylobacter spp. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and biomolecular techniques. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 34.1% of the samples, with general low counts. Higher values were observed in offal (especially liver) and sectioned meats, with significantly higher rates in skin-on samples (86.8% vs 32.7%). Minced meat preparations showed lower prevalence (22.4% vs 58.3%) and counts than whole pieces. Decreasing rates were observed among slaughterhouses (80%), deboning plants (49%), butcher's shops (37%) and large scale retailers (25%). Sectioned chicken meats were significantly more contaminated than turkey meats. Almost all the isolates were identified as C. jejuni or C. coli, with similar prevalences (18.4% and 20.5%, respectively); C. jejuni was predominant only in samples from slaughterhouses/deboning plants. For setting future control programs, meat typology should be considered the main critical factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  6. PFGE, Lior Serotype, and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Travelers and US Military Personnel with Acute Diarrhea in Thailand, 1998-2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from travelers and US military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand...gastroenteritis. Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, especially in children, travelers, and military personnel...characterizing C. jejuni and C. coli and identifying specific Campylobacter spp. in outbreak studies [14-16]. Furthermore, the combination of PFGE

  7. Prevalence of zoonotic Campylobacter spp. in rectal swabs from dogs in Slovakia: special reference to C. jejuni and C. coli.

    PubMed

    Badlík, Marián; Holoda, Emil; Pistl, Juraj; Koscová, Jana; Sihelská, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    This work focused on the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in samples obtained from dog droppings. There were 135 samples collected and examined from both clinically healthy and diseased dogs from households, clinics, rehabilitation centres and dog shelters in eastern Slovakia. The isolation of the Campylobacter spp. was achieved by the use of combined selective cultivation methods, followed by confirmation and species identification of the isolates using the PCR method.The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in dogs was 30.4%. Statistically significant differences were recorded (P < 0.05) within the age groups of all dogs examined: 40.6% of the older dogs (> or = 1 year) tested positive, compared to 19.7% of the younger ones (< 1 year). There was no significant difference in relation to dog gender. The most frequently isolated species was Campylobacter (C.) jejuni, present in 51.2% of all positive samples. Campylobacter coli was present in 9.8% of the samples. The remaining positive samples (39%) were confirmed as C upsaliensis, based on phenotypic traits. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter was found in samples from shelters (50%) and the lowest in those from households (11.5%), with samples from rehabilitation centres (42.3%) and clinics (18.8%) coming in second and third place.The high prevalence of Campylobacter confirms the hypothesis that dogs, mainly the ones kept in groups, are a source of Campylobacter spp. Further investigation is required to determine to what extent infected dogs may be a potential source of infection in humans.

  8. Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks at farm level and the potential for cross-contamination during slaughter.

    PubMed

    Ellerbroek, L I; Lienau, J-A; Klein, G

    2010-12-01

    Screening of broiler flocks for their Campylobacter carriage on farm level and consequently the spread of Campylobacter spp. during slaughtering can help to identify hygiene control points. Therefore, between December 2001 and August 2002 in total 51 broiler flocks from three farms of different geographical regions in Germany were analysed for thermophilic Campylobacter. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 45% of the broiler flocks examined. Subsequently, 1101 samples were taken from 22 flocks during different stages of processing. Samples were collected from: transport crates before and after cleaning/disinfection, evisceration, post-scalded and post-chilled carcasses and endproducts. Additionally, 45 selected Campylobacter isolates of droppings were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Campylobacter carriage of flocks showed seasonal variation, with the highest contamination rate during the period of June to August. No evidence was found for a horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next via a persistent house-contamination. In each positive flock, one to three different genotypes were found. One or two clones dominated isolations obtained from the farm level. The fact that in different flocks indistinguishable isolates of clonal origin were detected during the same rearing period suggested a transmission between the broiler flocks or an intermittent common external source. In one case, isolates of clonal origin were detected in various farms during different rearing periods. Sampling during processing confirmed that the entrance of a positive flock resulted in contamination of the abattoir environment. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from all sampling stages along the processing line, with a percentage of 91.1-100 of isolates at different stages of slaughtering. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. of slaughtered cattle and sheep in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hoseinzadeh, Saeid; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Aski, Hesamaddin Shirzad; Berizi, Enayat

    2016-01-01

    Although poultry meat is considered as the main source for human Campylobacter infections, there is limited information about non-poultry sources. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fecal samples of the cattle and sheep in Shiraz, Iran. A total of 302 fecal samples were obtained from clinically healthy, slaughtered cattle and sheep from Shiraz slaughterhouse. The animals were clinically healthy before being slaughtered. The samples were cultured according to the specific cultivation method under thermophilic conditions. The susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates were determined for 13 antimicrobial agents. All enriched samples and cultured isolates were targeted for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16S rRNA and multiplex PCR for determining their species. Among 302 fecal samples, 65 (21.5%) and 205 (67.8%) samples were positive for the presence of Campylobacter species with the cultivation and PCR techniques, respectively. All 65 distinct isolates were susceptible to neomycin and colistin and the isolates showed high resistance to cephalotin (83.0%) and ciprofloxacin (67.7%). After the multiplex PCR, 78.5% of total positive samples showed the simultaneous presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In conclusion, the results emphasized that non-poultry farms are important as a possible source of Campylobacter infections. PMID:27872721

  10. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. of slaughtered cattle and sheep in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hoseinzadeh, Saeid; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Berizi, Enayat

    2016-01-01

    Although poultry meat is considered as the main source for human Campylobacter infections, there is limited information about non-poultry sources. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fecal samples of the cattle and sheep in Shiraz, Iran. A total of 302 fecal samples were obtained from clinically healthy, slaughtered cattle and sheep from Shiraz slaughterhouse. The animals were clinically healthy before being slaughtered. The samples were cultured according to the specific cultivation method under thermophilic conditions. The susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates were determined for 13 antimicrobial agents. All enriched samples and cultured isolates were targeted for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16S rRNA and multiplex PCR for determining their species. Among 302 fecal samples, 65 (21.5%) and 205 (67.8%) samples were positive for the presence of Campylobacter species with the cultivation and PCR techniques, respectively. All 65 distinct isolates were susceptible to neomycin and colistin and the isolates showed high resistance to cephalotin (83.0%) and ciprofloxacin (67.7%). After the multiplex PCR, 78.5% of total positive samples showed the simultaneous presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In conclusion, the results emphasized that non-poultry farms are important as a possible source of Campylobacter infections.

  11. Rapid identification of Campylobacter spp. by melting peak analysis of biprobes in real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Logan, J M; Edwards, K J; Saunders, N A; Stanley, J

    2001-06-01

    We describe rapid PCR-biprobe identification of Campylobacter spp. This is based on real-time PCR with product analysis in the same system. The assay identifies enteropathogenic campylobacters to the species level on the basis of their degree of hybridization to three 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) biprobes. First-round symmetric PCR is performed with genus-specific primers which selectively target and amplify a portion of the 16S rRNA gene common to all Campylobacter species. Second-round asymmetric PCR is performed in a LightCycler in the presence of one of three biprobes; the identity of an amplified DNA-biprobe duplex is established after determination of the species-specific melting peak temperature. The biprobe specificities were determined by testing 37 reference strains of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Arcobacter spp. and 59 Penner serotype reference strains of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. From the combination of melting peak profiles for each probe, an identification scheme was devised which accurately detected the five taxa pathogenic for humans (C. jejuni/C. coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis, and C. fetus), as well as C. helveticus and C. lanienae. The assay was evaluated with 110 blind-tested field isolates; when the code was broken their previous phenotypic species identification was confirmed in every case. The PCR-biprobe assay also identified campylobacters directly from fecal DNA. PCR-biprobe testing of stools from 38 diarrheic subjects was 100% concordant with PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay identification (13, 20) and thus more sensitive than phenotypic identification following microaerobic culture.

  12. Rapid Identification of Campylobacter spp. by Melting Peak Analysis of Biprobes in Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Logan, J. M. J.; Edwards, K. J.; Saunders, N. A.; Stanley, J.

    2001-01-01

    We describe rapid PCR-biprobe identification of Campylobacter spp.. This is based on real-time PCR with product analysis in the same system. The assay identifies enteropathogenic campylobacters to the species level on the basis of their degree of hybridization to three 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) biprobes. First-round symmetric PCR is performed with genus-specific primers which selectively target and amplify a portion of the 16S rRNA gene common to all Campylobacter species. Second-round asymmetric PCR is performed in a LightCycler in the presence of one of three biprobes; the identity of an amplified DNA-biprobe duplex is established after determination of the species-specific melting peak temperature. The biprobe specificities were determined by testing 37 reference strains of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Arcobacter spp. and 59 Penner serotype reference strains of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. From the combination of melting peak profiles for each probe, an identification scheme was devised which accurately detected the five taxa pathogenic for humans (C. jejuni/C. coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis, and C. fetus), as well as C. helveticus and C. lanienae. The assay was evaluated with 110 blind-tested field isolates; when the code was broken their previous phenotypic species identification was confirmed in every case. The PCR-biprobe assay also identified campylobacters directly from fecal DNA. PCR-biprobe testing of stools from 38 diarrheic subjects was 100% concordant with PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay identification (13, 20) and thus more sensitive than phenotypic identification following microaerobic culture. PMID:11376061

  13. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of campylobacter isolates from free-living, human-commensal american crows.

    PubMed

    Weis, Allison M; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M; Townsend, Andrea K

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health.

  14. Prevalence and Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter Isolates from Free-Living, Human-Commensal American Crows

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Allison M.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health. PMID:24375131

  15. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Campylobacter Species among Diarrheic Children at Jimma, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tassew, Haimanot; Asrat, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Campylobacter is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne disease. The prevalence of Campylobacter species resistant to antimicrobial agents is increasing. This study is intended to determine prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter species among under-five children with diarrhea. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 under-five children with diarrhea from July to October 2012 at Jimma town. Isolation and identification of Campylobacter species were performed using standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed following standard protocol. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for analysis. Results. From 227 under-five children, 16.7% were positive for Campylobacter spp.; isolates, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, accounted for 71.1%, 21.1%, and 7.9%, respectively. Higher rate of resistance was observed to ampicillin 76.3%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68.4%), tetracycline (39.5%), chloramphenicol (31.6%), clindamycin (26.3%), and doxycycline (23.7%). Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and nalidixic acid were effective for more than 80% of the isolates. Multiple drug resistance was observed among 78.9% of all the three spp. Conclusions. Isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. was high. C. lari was reported for the first time at this study area. Higher rate of resistance was observed to the commonly used drugs. PMID:26904735

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in live and dressed chicken in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Akhras, Rani R

    2012-01-01

    A total of 140 broiler flocks presented for slaughtering at Amman slaughterhouse were tested for Campylobacter spp. via collection of cloacal swabs from live birds, feathered skin samples at prescalding, and skin samples at postscalding (62°C or 57°C scalding temperature), postevisceration, and postchilling. The results indicated that 40% of the flocks tested by cloacal swabs, 34% at prescalding, 32% at post 57°C scalding, and 32% postevisceration were harboring Campylobacter jejuni. None of the skin samples collected from dressed birds at postscalding (62°C) or postwashing-chilling steps (regardless of scalding temperature) revealed the presence of C. jejuni. Thirty eight isolates were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution method. Almost 50% of the isolates were multidrug resistant to 9 or 10 out of the ten tested antimicrobials. The other half of tested isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycyclin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enorfloxacin, gentamycin, tilmicosin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim.

  17. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. at different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zbrun, M V; Romero-Scharpen, A; Olivero, C; Rossler, E; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Sequeira, G J; Signorini, M L; Frizzo, L S

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence and concentration of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. at different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in Argentina. Three integrated poultry companies were sampled. Each supply chain was considered at different stages from the reproductive farm to chicken meat at a retail market. The stages sampled were: (a) hens from breeder flocks, (b) eggs in the incubator, (c) broiler chickens in flocks (aged <1 week and >5 weeks), (d) chickens at a slaughterhouse, and (e) chicken meat at a retail market. The chickens sampled along each supply chain were in the same batch. Samples collected were: (a) cloacal samples from hens and chickens on the farms, (b) fertile eggs, (c) feed, water and litter from flocks, (d) chicken carcasses from the slaughterhouse and retail market, and (e) caeca and livers from the slaughterhouse. Samples obtained were examined for Campylobacter spp. The isolates were biotyped and the genus and species identified by PCR. Campylobacter spp. on chicken carcasses at slaughterhouse and retail market were enumerated. The highest proportions of Campylobacter positive samples were observed in carcasses at retail (25/30, 83.3%) and faecal samples from breeding hens (27/45, 60.0%). Only 3.3% (3/90) samples collected from broiler chickens aged <1 week were positive, but the percentage of positive samples had risen to 28.9% (26/90) by the end of the rearing period. The proportions of Campylobacter positive carcasses and caecal contents at the slaughterhouse were both 33.3% (10 of 30 samples each). The concentration of Campylobacter contamination observed on carcasses at retail markets ranged from no bacteria/carcass to 3.71 log10 cfu/carcass. The data obtained provide essential information for future quantitative risk assessments aiming to estimate the probability of a person contracting campylobacteriosis following consumption of broiler meat in Argentina. The proportions of Campylobacter

  18. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in raw and ready-to-eat foods and in a Canadian food service operation.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Diane T; Sattar, Syed A; Farber, Jeffrey M; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2008-10-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in a variety of foods from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and raw milk samples from across Canada was determined over a 2-year period. The samples consisted of 55 raw foods (chicken, pork, and beef), 126 raw milk samples from raw milk cheese manufacturers, and 135 ready-to-eat foods (meat products, salads, and raw milk cheeses). Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 4 of the 316 samples analyzed: 1 raw beef liver sample and 3 raw chicken samples. An isolation rate of 9.7% was observed among the raw chicken samples tested. This study also investigated the role of cross-contamination in disseminating Campylobacter from raw poultry within a food service operation specializing in poultry dishes. Accordingly, kitchen surfaces within a restaurant in Ottawa, Ontario, were sampled between March and August 2001. Tests of the sampling method indicated that as few as 100 Campylobacter cells could be detected if sampling was done within 45 min of inoculation; however, Campylobacter spp. were not detected in 125 swabs of surfaces within the kitchens of this food service operation. Despite the reported high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw poultry, this organism was not detected on surfaces within a kitchen of a restaurant specializing in poultry dishes.

  19. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence and species level diagnostics of Campylobacter spp., enteric Helicobacter spp. and Anaerobiospirillum spp. in healthy and diarrheic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Hänninen, M L; Revez, J; Hannula, M; Zanoni, R G

    2008-06-22

    In order to study the occurrence and co-infection of different species of Campylobacter, enteric Helicobacter and Anaerobiospirillum in dogs and cats and define a possible association between these microrganisms and gastrointestinal disorders, 190 dogs and 84 cats, either healthy or with diarrhea, were sampled between 2002 and 2003. Thirty-three C. upsaliensis, 17 C. jejuni, 2 C. helveticus, 1 C. lari isolates from dogs and 14 C. helveticus, 7 C. jejuni, 6 C. upsaliensis isolates from cats were identified using species-specific PCR and phenotypic tests. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests, PCR-RFLP of gyrB and a phylogenetic study of partial groEL and 16S rRNA sequences were used to identify 37 H. bilis, 22 H. canis and 14 H. cinaedi in dogs and 12 H. canis, 5 H. bilis and 2 H. cinaedi in cats. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests and species-specific PCR of 16S rRNA were used to identify 14 A. succiniciproducens, 12 A. thomasii isolates and one unidentified Anaerobiospirillum sp. isolate in dogs and 3 A. thomasii isolates in cats. Fifty-two animals (19%) were positive for the isolation of more than one genus. No significant statistical correlation was found between any isolates of Campylobacter, Helicobacter or Anaerobiospirillum spp. or the various co-infection rates, and the presence of diarrhea in either dogs or cats. Campylobacter isolates were also tested for antibiotic resistance using the agar dilution method.

  1. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Subtyping and Source Attribution of Campylobacter Isolated from Food Animals.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Gregory H; Tate, Heather P; Abbott, Jason; Tran, Thu-Thuy; Kabera, Claudine; Crarey, Emily; Young, Shenia; McDermott, Patrick F; Sprague, Grisselle; Campbell, Mark; Adeyemo, Oyewole; Browne-Silva, Johnette; Myers, Michael; Thitaram, Sutawee; Zhao, Shaohua

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. commonly cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. Poultry meats have long been considered the predominant source of these infections, but few in-depth Campylobacter source attribution studies have been completed. We analyzed more than 1,300 Campylobacter isolates recovered from a number of animal and food sources, including dairy and beef cattle, pigs, poultry, and retail poultry meat, and compared them with Campylobacter isolates recovered from human clinical samples. Each isolate was subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI and queried against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PulseNet database to identify human isolates with indistinguishable patterns. Half (49.5%) of the PFGE patterns from poultry animal and retail meat isolates were indistinguishable from patterns of at least one human isolate. Among the isolates from beef and dairy cows, 56.6 and 65.0%, respectively, of their PFGE patterns were indistinguishable from those of human isolates. Only a small portion of the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter isolated from pigs (9.5%) were found to have PFGE patterns in common with human isolates. These data imply that cattle may be larger contributors to Campylobacter infections than previously recognized and help further our understanding of potential sources of human campylobacteriosis.

  3. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  4. Distribution and Polymorphism of the Flagellin Genes from Isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    American Society for Microbioloc% Distribution and Polymorphism of the Flagellin Genes from Isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni RICHARD...in Campylobacter jejuni . serogroups both the flaA and flaB genes are extremely Mol. M;crobiol. 5:1151-1158. z homologous. Within most LIO heat-labile...irllwn hungatei. J1. Bacteriol. 123:-28 proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81116. Infect. Immun. 59: 42. Thomashow, L S., and S. C. Rittenberg. 198

  5. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Kudirkienė, Eglė; Bunevičienė, Jurgita; Šernienė, Loreta; Ramonaitė, Sigita; Olsen, John E; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-07-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of these pathogens on raw broiler meat products from different producers were examined. Out of 312 broiler meat product samples examined, 46.8% were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was identified in 51.4% and Campylobacter coli in 37.7% of positive samples. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequently found in the warm period (April-October) and C. coli in the cold period (November-March) of the year (P < 0.05). The overall mean count of Campylobacter spp. was 3.55 and 3.50 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) on wings and drumsticks respectively. The occurrence and counts of Campylobacter spp. varied significantly between producers examined (P < 0.05). Analysis of flaA-RFLP genotyping revealed C. jejuni genotypes common to all producers as well as producer-specific genotypes. Both the occurrence and counts of Campylobacter spp. on broiler meat products were producer-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Prevalence of and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. contamination of broiler chicken carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Laisney, Marie-José; Allain, Virginie; Lalande, Françoise; Petetin, Isabelle; Rouxel, Sandra; Quesne, Ségolène; Gloaguen, Pierre-Yves; Picherot, Mélanie; Santolini, Julien; Salvat, Gilles; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Chemaly, Marianne

    2010-12-01

    A study was conducted in 2008 to estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for Campylobacter spp. contamination of broiler carcasses during the slaughtering process. A pool of 10 caeca and one carcass were collected from 425 batches of broiler chickens slaughtered in 58 French slaughterhouses over a 12-month period. Potential risk factors were identified according to the Campylobacter contamination status of carcasses and processing variables identified from questionnaires. The statistical analysis took into account confounding factors that have already been associated with the presence of Campylobacter on carcasses such as the slaughter age of the chicken or seasonal variations. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 77.2% of caeca (95% CI 73.2 to 81.2) and from 87.5% of carcasses (95% CI 84.4 to 90.7). A multiple logistic regression showed 4 parameters as significant risk factors (p < 0.05) for contamination: (I) batches were not the first to be slaughtered in the logistic schedule (OR = 3.5), (II) temperature in the evisceration room was higher than 15 °C (OR = 3.1), (III) dirty marks on carcasses after evisceration were visible (OR = 2.6) and (IV) previous thinning of the flocks, from which slaughtered batches came, had occurred at the farm (OR = 3.3). This last result highlighted the need for sanitary precautions to be taken when catching birds for transport. At the slaughterhouse, evisceration seemed to be the operation contributing most to the spread of contamination. Effective risk management solutions could include the systematic external rinsing of carcasses after evisceration and the implementation of slaughtering schedules according to the Campylobacter contamination status of flocks. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Fecal Shedding of Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I. V.; Wells, S. J.; Harmon, K. M.; Green, A.; Schroeder-Tucker, L.; Glover, M.; Siddique, I.

    2000-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-PCR assays. For C. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. Farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for C. jejuni. Statistical significance was set at a P of 0.20. Using these criteria, application of manure with broadcast spreaders (P = 0.17), feeding of whole cottonseed or hulls (P = 0.17) or alfalfa (P = 0.15), and accessibility of feed to birds (P = 0.17) were identified as possible risk factors for C. jejuni infection. C. coli was detected in at least one animal in 19.4% of operations and 1.8% of individual cows (n = 2,085). At the herd level, use of broadcaster spreaders was not a risk factor for C. coli infection. For Arcobacter, cows from 71% of dairy operations (n = 31) and 14.3% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 1,682) were positive. At the herd level, for Arcobacter spp., feeding of alfalfa (P = 0.11) and use of individual waterers (P = 0.19) were protective. This is the first description of Arcobacter spp. in clinically healthy dairy cattle and the first attempt to correlate their presence with C. jejuni. PMID:10788372

  8. Fecal shedding of Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Wesley, I V; Wells, S J; Harmon, K M; Green, A; Schroeder-Tucker, L; Glover, M; Siddique, I

    2000-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-PCR assays. For C. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. Farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for C. jejuni. Statistical significance was set at a P of 0.20. Using these criteria, application of manure with broadcast spreaders (P = 0.17), feeding of whole cottonseed or hulls (P = 0.17) or alfalfa (P = 0.15), and accessibility of feed to birds (P = 0.17) were identified as possible risk factors for C. jejuni infection. C. coli was detected in at least one animal in 19.4% of operations and 1.8% of individual cows (n = 2,085). At the herd level, use of broadcaster spreaders was not a risk factor for C. coli infection. For Arcobacter, cows from 71% of dairy operations (n = 31) and 14.3% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 1,682) were positive. At the herd level, for Arcobacter spp., feeding of alfalfa (P = 0.11) and use of individual waterers (P = 0.19) were protective. This is the first description of Arcobacter spp. in clinically healthy dairy cattle and the first attempt to correlate their presence with C. jejuni.

  9. Application of MALDI-TOF MS Systems in the Rapid Identification of Campylobacter spp. of Public Health Importance.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Wang, Yun F; Moura, Hercules; Miranda, Nancy; Simpson, Steven; Gowrishankar, Ramnath; Barr, John; Kerdahi, Khalil; Sulaiman, Irshad M

    2017-09-12

    Campylobacteriosis is an infectious gastrointestinal disease caused by Campylobacter spp.In most cases, it is either underdiagnosed or underreported due to poor diagnostics and limited databases. Several DNA-based molecular diagnostic techniques, including 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence typing, have been widely used in the species identification of Campylobacter. Nevertheless, these assays are time-consuming and require a high quality of bacterial DNA. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) MS is an emerging diagnostic technology that can provide the rapid identification of microorganisms by using their intact cells without extraction or purification. In this study, we analyzed 24 American Type Culture Collection reference isolates of 16 Campylobacter spp. and five unknown clinical bacterial isolates for rapid identification utilizing two commercially available MADI-TOF MS platforms, namely the bioMérieux VITEK(®) MS and Bruker Biotyper systems. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to confirm the species-level identification of the unknown clinical isolates. Both MALDI-TOF MS systems identified the isolates of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. fetus. The results of this study suggest that the MALDI-TOF MS technique can be used in the identification of Campylobacter spp. of public health importance.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-08-21

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.

  12. Colonization of Chicks by Non-Culturable Campylobacter spp

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    epidemiologic assessment for the transmission (8000 g, 5 min) and resuspended in 15 ml of PBS, with 5 of the organism to broiler chickens is needed to...spectrophotometrically (O.D.260 ). The DNA (2 uig) was digested (3-4 h, 37°C), Serotyping with BgIlI or HhaI in a 20 d reaction mixture in buffers Both the...original (0) and the recovered (R) Campylobacter uppliee by the manufacturer. After digestion , 5 pul of spp. strains were coded and sent to cooperating

  13. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of Campylobacter spp. contamination of turkey cecal contents and carcasses during and following the slaughtering process.

    PubMed

    Bily, Lise; Petton, Julie; Lalande, Françoise; Rouxel, Sandra; Denis, Martine; Chemaly, Marianne; Salvat, Gilles; Fravalo, Philippe

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed to document quantitatively and qualitatively the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. of turkey samples during slaughtering. Four Campylobacter-positive turkey flocks were investigated at the slaughterhouse at three different stages: evisceration (cecal content), after carcass rinses but before chilling (neck skin), and after breast meat cut (meat). In each case, the studied flock was slaughtered first thing in the morning any given day of the week. The efficiency of cleaning and disinfecting operations was examined in the facility prior to processing the studied flock. For each flock, 90 samples were collected from cecal contents, neck skins, and meat pieces and checked quantitatively and qualitatively for Campylobacter. Identification of Campylobacter species was determined by PCR, and genetic patterns were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Campylobacter contamination levels of ceca range from 2 to more than 7 Log CFU/g, while those of neck skin range from 0.5 to 3.5 Log CFU/g and those of meat range from 0.1 to 1.9 Log CFU/g. These differences in Campylobacter counts were not associated with a modification of Campylobacter species ratio; however, in the Campylobacter jejuni population, four genetic groups identified from the ceca were not recovered during slaughtering operations and two other genetic groups were only detected after chilling at the cutting stage of the breast meat. The present study suggests that the slaughtering process did not affect Campylobacter species populations; however, it might have influenced the strain population. Finally, the Campylobacter populations found on breast meat were similar to those isolated from the digestive tract of the birds.

  14. Developing Alternatives to Antibiotics Use: Reduction of Campylobacter counts on chicken wingettes by a chitosan based coating or use of probiotic (Lactobacillus spp.) isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of Campylobacter on poultry products remains one of the leading causes for foodborne illness. The reduction in the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture has increased the need for alternative forms of improving food safety. The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a bio-preservative/...

  15. Relationship of Campylobacter isolated from poultry and from darkling beetles in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bates, C; Hiett, K L; Stern, N J

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter, a foodborne pathogen closely associated with poultry, is considered to be an important agent of human gastroenteritis in New Zealand. The pathways involved in the contamination of poultry flocks remain unclear; however, many vectors, such as insects, rodents, and wild birds, have been implicated. Infestation of poultry houses by insects, particularly darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus), is difficult to control. Furthermore, darkling beetles are known vectors for a variety of pathogens that include Salmonella, infectious bursal disease virus, Aspergillus, Escherichia coli, and Marek's disease virus. In this investigation, the relationship between darkling beetles and Campylobacter contamination of poultry flocks was investigated. A New Zealand breeder flock and four of its progeny broiler flocks were included in the study. Samples of beetles and of intestinal excreta of the birds were cultured for the presence of Campylobacter spp. A subset of the recovered isolates was subsequently genotyped using flaA short variable region (SVR) DNA sequence analysis. A large number of Campylobacter subtypes were isolated, indicating that Campylobacter colonization of poultry is likely to arise from a number of different reservoirs. However, a set of genetically distinct isolates were found to be common to the broiler flocks and to the beetles. This research provides data that indicates that Alphitobius diaperinus may serve as a source of Campylobacter contamination of poultry. A more thorough understanding of the relationship between beetle infestation and the Campylobacter status of poultry flocks should enable progress in further development of biosecurity control measures.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jonker, A; Picard, J A

    2010-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multi-resistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  17. Campylobacter spp. distribution in biofilms on different surfaces in an agricultural watershed (Elk Creek, British Columbia): using biofilms to monitor for Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Maal-Bared, Rasha; Bartlett, Karen H; Bowie, William R; Hall, Eric R

    2012-04-01

    Despite its relevance to public health, presence and concentrations of Campylobacter spp. in biofilms in natural aquatic environments has not been investigated. This study examined the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in biofilms on a variety of surfaces (river rock, slate rock, wood, Lexan™, sandpaper, and sediment) and in water from December 2005 to December 2006 to find a substratum that facilitated campylobacters detection in natural aquatic environments. Samples were collected at four sites in an agricultural watershed (Elk Creek, British Columbia). Campylobacter spp. presence was determined using culturing methods. Correlations between chemical, physical and microbiological water quality parameters and Campylobacter spp. distribution on different surface types were also investigated. Campylobacter spp. had a prevalence of 13% in the wet season, but was not recovered in the dry season. Its prevalence was highest in sediment (27%), followed by slate rock (22%), Lexan and wood (13%), river rock (9%) and water (8%), respectively. No Campylobacter spp. was found in sandpaper biofilms. Several other criteria were used to assess substrata effectiveness, such as correlation amongst Campylobacter spp., indicator bacteria and water quality parameters, cost and availability of substratum, potential for standardizing substratum, ease of biofilm removal and probability of substratum loss in situ. Results show that sediment, slate rock or wood could be used as substrata for Campylobacter spp. monitoring. The study also highlights the potential use of nitrates and enterococci as faecal contamination indicators to protect public health.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates from retail meat in the United States between 2002 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Young, S R; Tong, E; Abbott, J W; Womack, N; Friedman, S L; McDermott, P F

    2010-12-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. has been a growing public health concern globally. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter spp. recovered by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) retail meat program. Retail meat samples (n = 24,566) from 10 U.S. states collected between 2002 and 2007, consisting of 6,138 chicken breast, 6,109 ground turkey, 6,171 ground beef, and 6,148 pork chop samples, were analyzed. A total of 2,258 Campylobacter jejuni, 925 Campylobacter coli, and 7 Campylobacter lari isolates were identified. Chicken breast samples showed the highest contamination rate (49.9%), followed by ground turkey (1.6%), whereas both pork chops and ground beef had <0.5% contamination. The most common resistance was to doxycycline/tetracycline (46.6%), followed by nalidixic acid (18.5%), ciprofloxacin (17.4%), azithromycin and erythromycin (2.8%), telithromycin (2.4%), clindamycin (2.2%), and gentamicin (<0.1%). In a subset of isolates tested, no resistance to meropenem and florfenicol was seen. C. coli isolates showed higher resistance rates to antimicrobials, with the exception of doxycycline/tetracycline, than those seen for C. jejuni. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting resulted in 1,226 PFGE profiles among the 2,318 isolates, with many clones being widely dispersed throughout the 6-year sampling period.

  19. Heat Resistance in Liquids of Enterococcus spp., Listeria spp., Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to collect, evaluate, summarize and compare heat resistance data reported for Campylobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Listeria, Salmonella and Yersinia spp. The work was limited to resistance in liquids with pH values 6–8. Results obtained under similar experimental conditions were sought. Thermal destruction lines for the various bacterial groups studied were constructed using log10 D values and treatment temperatures. There was a good linear relationship between log10 D and temperature with Escherichia coli, listerias and salmonellas. For campylobacters, enterococci and yersinias the relationships were weaker but, nevertheless, present. Using the slopes of the lines and their 95% confidence limits, z values and their 95% confidence limits were calculated. z values were compared with z values obtained from reports. The equations for the lines were also used for calculation of predicted means of D values at various treatment temperatures. 95% confidence limits on predicted means of D values and on predicted individual D values were also calculated. Lines and values are shown in figures and tables. Differences in heat resistance noted between and within the bacterial groups studied are discussed. PMID:14650540

  20. Longitudinal prevalence, faecal shedding and molecular characterisation of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-11-01

    Faecal excretion of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica in sheep in Australia was determined using a quantitative multiplex PCR (qPCR) targeting the Campylobacter spp. purine biosynthesis gene (PurA) and the S. enterica outer membrane protein (ompF). The mutiplex qPCR was specific and Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were each detected with a sensitivity of 5 organisms/µL faecal DNA extract. This multiplex qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica in 3412 faecal samples collected from 1189 lambs on eight farms across South Australia (n = 2 farms), New South Wales (n = 1), Victoria (n = 2) and Western Australia (n = 3) at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter). The overall prevalences of Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica were 13.3% and 5.0%, respectively, with the highest prevalence for Campylobacter spp. in South Australia and the highest prevalence for S. enterica in New South Wales. Campylobacter jejuni was the only Campylobacter sp. identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the 16S locus. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was the only serovar of S. enterica identified from a subset of 120 positive samples sequenced at the ompF locus. Across all states, Campylobacter spp. had the highest median bacterial concentration in faeces at weaning and post-weaning (medians of 3.4 × 10(6) and 1.1 × 10(5), respectively), whereas S. enterica had the highest median bacterial concentration at pre-slaughter (1.8 × 10(5)/g faeces).

  1. Typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from live broilers and retail broiler meat by flaA-RFLP, MSLT, PFGE, and REP-PCR.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We analyzed a selection of 101 Campylobacter spp. isolates sampled from Grenada, Puerto Rico and Alabama in order to evaluate the discriminatory strength of four prominent molecular fingerprinting methods: restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene (flaA-RFLP), pulsed-field gel electr...

  2. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Neumann, Norman F.; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  3. Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P < 0.0001). Well water samples from the Eastern Townships were also tested. Five (10%) of 53 samples from private surface wells were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, of which only 2 were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from edible bivalve molluscs purchased from Bangkok markets, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soonthornchaikul, Nantika; Garelick, Hemda

    2009-10-01

    Campylobacter species have been recognized as the most commonly reported cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The increase of resistance rates to drugs of choice used for treatment in campylobacteriosis is becoming a public health concern. In parallel, the increased use of antimicrobials in aquaculture may lead to the emergence of resistant microorganisms and is likely to cause additional health risk to humans through food consumption. The study assesses the presence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species isolated from three groups of bivalve molluscs (bloody cockles, green mussels, and oysters) purchased from markets in Bangkok. Thirty samples were collected from each group. Susceptibility to three antimicrobials was determined using the Epsilometer test. Rates of erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter isolates were 72-84%, 28-40%, and 21-25%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of each antimicrobial resistance between the three groups. This study demonstrates a significant level of antimicrobial resistance in the Campylobacter spp. isolated from molluscs with a particular high rate of resistance to erythromycin. Consumption of raw molluscs contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter spp. may therefore result in resistant infections in humans.

  5. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in Swedish dogs and characterization of C. jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Mia; Rosendal, Thomas; Engvall, Eva O; Ohlson, Anna; Lindberg, Ann

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter species in Swedish dogs, to identify the species of the Campylobacter isolates and to genotype the C. jejuni isolates. Young and healthy dogs were targeted and the sampling was performed at 11 veterinary clinics throughout Sweden from October 2011 to October 2012. Faecal swab samples were collected and sent to the laboratory at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) for isolation of Campylobacter, speciation and genotyping. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 67 of the 180 sampled dogs which yields an overall prevalence of 37%. The most prevalent species of Campylobacter among the participating dogs was C. upsaliensis with 52 of the 67 identified isolates. A lower prevalence was observed for C. jejuni with seven identified isolates and one isolate was identified as C. helveticus. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out on the seven C. jejuni isolates and all sequence types that were found are also commonly found in humans. The dogs were divided into three age groups; 1) under 12 months, 2) 12 to 23 months and 3) 24 months and older. The highest prevalence was found in the two younger age groups. Dogs shedding C. jejuni were between 3-12 months of age while dogs shedding C. upsaliensis were found in all ages. The present investigation finds that Campylobacter spp. known to cause campylobacteriosis in humans are present in Swedish dogs. The results suggest an age predisposition where dogs under 2 years of age are more likely to shed Campylobacter spp. than older dogs. The most commonly isolated species was C. upsaliensis followed by C. jejuni, which was only detected in dogs up to 12 months of age. All C. jejuni isolates identified in the present study were of the same MLST types that have previously been described both in humans and in animals. The awareness of the Campylobacter risk of healthy young dogs may be an important way to reduce the transmission from dogs to infants

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  7. Detection of gyrA mutation among clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni isolated in Egypt by MAMA-PCR.

    PubMed

    Said, Mayar M; El-Mohamady, Hanan; El-Beih, Fawkia M; Rockabrand, David M; Ismail, Tharwat F; Monteville, Marshall R; Ahmed, Salwa F; Klena, John D; Salama, Mohamed S

    2010-10-04

    Campylobacter spp are the major cause of enteritis in humans and more than 90% of reported infections are caused by Campylobacter jejuni. Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin are the antibiotics of choice for treatment. An increase in the frequency of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter has been reported globally due to a single base mutation (C-257 to T) in codon 86 of the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene altering the amino acid sequence from threonine at position 86 to isoleucine (Thr-86 to Ile). Campylobacter spp (n = 118) were selected from a collection of Egyptian isolates spanning 1998 to 2005. The presence of C. jejuni gyrA gene was confirmed in each isolate by a PCR assay amplifying 368 bp portion of the gyrA gene. C to T alteration was detected by the mismatch amplification mutation assay MAMA PCR. The MIC of nalidixic acid (NA) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) was determined by E-test. C. jejuni gyrA gene was detected in 100 of the Campylobacter spp studied; the other 18 isolates were found to be Campylobacter coli by lpxA PCR. The mutation was detected in 89 C. jejuni resistant isolates with MIC values (NA; 8 - >256 μg/ml) and (CIP; 4 - >32 μg/ml). The other 11 sensitive C. jejuni isolates with MIC values (NA; 0.38 - 3 µg/ml) and (CIP; 0.03 - 0.125 µg/ml) were not amplified by the MAMA primers. There was 100% congruence with MAMA PCR, MIC results and gyrA gene sequence analysis. In Egypt the main mechanism for resistance to fluoroquinolones is an alteration in the gyrA QRDR. MAMA PCR provides an economical and rapid means for screening fluoroquinolone resistance.

  8. Space-time patterns of Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler flocks, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, M E; Norström, M; Sandberg, M; Ersbøll, A K; Hofshagen, M

    2010-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate space-time patterns of Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler flocks in Norway. Data on the Campylobacter spp. status at the time of slaughter of 16 054 broiler flocks from 580 farms between 2002 and 2006 was included in the study. Spatial relative risk maps together with maps of space-time clustering were generated, the latter by using spatial scan statistics. These maps identified the same areas almost every year where there was a higher risk for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp. during the summer months. A modified K-function analysis showed significant clustering at distances between 2.5 and 4 km within different years. The identification of geographical areas with higher risk for Campylobacter spp. colonization in broilers indicates that there are risk factors associated with Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler flocks varying with region and time, e.g. climate, landscape or geography. These need to be further explored. The results also showed clustering at shorter distances indicating that there are risk factors for Campylobacter spp. acting in a more narrow scale as well.

  9. Prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD typing of Campylobacter species isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Adzitey, Frederick; Rusul, Gulam; Huda, Nurul; Cogan, Tristan; Corry, Janet

    2012-03-15

    We report for the first time on the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD types of Campylobacter species in ducks and duck related environmental samples in Malaysia. Samples were examined by enrichment in Bolton Broth followed by plating onto modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and/or plating directly onto mCCDA. A total of 643 samples were screened, and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in samples from different sources ranged from 0% to 85%. The method of isolation had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the isolation rate. One hundred and sixteen Campylobacter isolates, comprising of 94 Campylobacter jejuni, 19 Campylobacter coli and three Campylobacter lari, were examined for their sensitivity to 13 antibiotics. Majority of the C. jejuni isolates were resistant to cephalothin (99%), tetracycline (96%), suphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (96%), and very few were resistant to gentamicin (5%), chloramphenicol (7%) and erythromycin (1%). All C. coli isolates were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and tetracycline but susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin. The three C. lari isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics tested except chloramphenicol and gentamicin (1/3 and 2/3 susceptible, respectively). Genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolates were determined using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). C. jejuni and C. coli isolates belong to fifty-eight and twelve RAPD types, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Accurate detection of Campylobacter spp. antigens by immunochromatography and enzyme immunoassay in routine microbiological laboratory.

    PubMed

    Regnath, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms, and their detection by culture depends on the freshness of the stool sample and the skills of the laboratory staff. To improve laboratory diagnosis, assays for the detection of specific antigens have been developed. Here, we evaluated two assays for the detection of Campylobacter spp.-specific antigens, i.e., one immunochromatographic test and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA), in 38 frozen Campylobacter spp.-positive specimens and prospectively in 533 fresh stool samples with a conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and culture. Both assays were positive for 36 samples with Campylobacter jejuni and one with Campylobacter coli among 38 Campylobacter spp.-positive frozen samples. One Campylobacter lari-positive sample was identified by the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) only. In a prospective study performed within the course of routine microbiology, both assays were positive for 24/25 C. jejuni culture-positive samples (positive percent agreement, 96.0% [95% CI: 78.9-100%]). ICA and EIA also were positive for 14 and 10 culture-negative samples, respectively (negative percent agreement: ICA, 97.2% [95% CI: 95.4-98.4%]; EIA, 98.0% [95% CI: 96.4-99.0%]). In conclusion, the high agreement between both antigen-detection assays and culture indicates that both assays may be initially performed followed by culture only upon a positive test result.

  11. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter.

  12. Seroepidemiological studies indicate frequent and repeated exposure to Campylobacter spp. during childhood.

    PubMed

    Ang, C W; Teunis, P F M; Herbrink, P; Keijser, J; Van Duynhoven, Y H T P; Visser, C E; Van Pelt, W

    2011-09-01

    The annual number of episodes of clinical gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter spp. in The Netherlands is estimated to be 75 000, i.e. once per 200 person life-years. This number is based on extrapolation of culture results from population-based studies. The number of culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection peaks in the first 3 years of life and again between the ages of 20 and 25 years. The seroepidemiology of Campylobacter describes the relationship between age and exposure to Campylobacter and reflects both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Using a validated ELISA system, antibodies to Campylobacter were measured in an age-stratified sample (n=456) of the PIENTER serum collection of the Dutch general population. The seroprevalence of Campylobacter IgG antibodies increased with age, reaching almost 100% at age 20 years. Antibody levels steadily increased with age until young adulthood, suggesting repeated exposure to Campylobacter. In conclusion, seroepidemiological data demonstrated repeated exposures to Campylobacter throughout life, most of which do not lead to clinical symptoms. From young adulthood, >95% of the population in The Netherlands had serological evidence for exposure to Campylobacter.

  13. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-06-10

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P < 0.05). An elevated risk of Campylobacter infection was associated with other animals (mainly laying hens, cattle and sheep) being bred in the farm, the farm staff not wearing their work clothing exclusively in the poultry houses, uncemented poultry-house floors and the use of cartons that transport chicks from the hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan against Campylobacter spp. and other microorganisms and its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Ganan, M; Carrascosa, A V; Martínez-Rodríguez, A J

    2009-08-01

    The antimicrobial activities of three chitosans with different molecular masses against six gram-negative and three gram-positive bacteria were examined. Campylobacter spp. were the microorganisms most sensitive to chitosan, regardless of their molecular mass. The MIC of chitosan for Campylobacter ranged from 0.005 to 0.05%, demonstrating the global sensitivity of campylobacters to chitosan. Chitosan caused a loss in the membrane integrity of Campylobacter, measured as an increase in cell fluorescence due to the uptake of propidium iodide, a dye that is normally excluded from cells with intact membranes. As cells entered the stationary phase, there was a change in cell membrane resistance toward a loss of integrity caused by chitosan. This study demonstrates that chitosans could be a promising antimicrobial to control Campylobacter.

  15. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae in Australia.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Jillian M; De Jong, Amanda J; Blackall, P J; Miflin, Jeanette K

    2006-12-01

    Campylobacter infection is the most frequently reported notifiable food-borne disease in humans in Australia. Our studies investigated the persistence of Campylobacter spp. in or on darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae. Our results in analyses with chickens confirm that, unless very short turnaround times are used (<72 h), beetles colonized in one production cycle (i.e., one batch of chickens) are most unlikely to still be colonized during the next cycle of chickens.

  16. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in Darkling Beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Their Larvae in Australia▿

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Jillian M.; De Jong, Amanda J.; Blackall, P. J.; Miflin, Jeanette K.

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is the most frequently reported notifiable food-borne disease in humans in Australia. Our studies investigated the persistence of Campylobacter spp. in or on darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae. Our results in analyses with chickens confirm that, unless very short turnaround times are used (<72 h), beetles colonized in one production cycle (i.e., one batch of chickens) are most unlikely to still be colonized during the next cycle of chickens. PMID:17012593

  17. In vitro activities of 47 antimicrobial agents against three Campylobacter spp. from pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Gebhart, C J; Ward, G E; Kurtz, H J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activities of 47 antimicrobial agents against 30 isolates of Campylobacter species from pigs were determined by the agar dilution technique. The isolates were obtained from pigs with proliferative enteritis and included 10 strains each of Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter sputorum subsp. mucosalis, and "Campylobacter hyointestinalis Gebhart et al." (this name is not on the Approved Lists). Carbadox, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, and dimetridazole were the most active drugs, inhibiting all three Campylobacter species with a MIC for 50% of the isolates of 2 micrograms/ml or less. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cefazolin, sulfachloropyridazine, novobiocin, vancomycin, sulfathiazole, cyclohexamide, bacitracin, p-arsanilic acid, and colistin were the least active, with MICs for 50% of the isolates ranging from 16 to greater than or equal to 128 micrograms/ml. PMID:3985597

  18. Lipopolysaccharide Structures in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, and Vibrio Cholerae are Immunologically Related to Campylobacter Spp

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-28

    MBER Fort Detrick Frederick, MD 21702-5012 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Contract Title: Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for... Campylobacter spp. GUILLERM(O 1. PEREZ-PEREZ.1 - JAN ET A. H0PKINS.? %i).MARTIN J. BLASEIR" Depairtmntc of &wctri tlogy,’ ln-is’ifuo tit Soluhrufida N...8217 Received I August 1985 Accepted 28 Scptcrnher 1985 To determine whether lipopolys.Accharide (LI’S structures of Campylobacter species are immunologicall-t

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. in chicken broiler flocks in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Reichardt, Jef; Denis, Martine; Cardinale, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine Campylobacter prevalence in broiler chicken flocks in Reunion Island and to define specific practices associated with the presence of Campylobacter spp. Infection in Reunionese broiler flocks. Fifty broiler flocks were studied in Reunion Island from May 2007 to February 2009. A questionnaire was submitted to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were collected to assess the flock's Campylobacter status. Fifty four percent of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.: 30% (95% CI: 28.71-31.29) were infected with Campylobacter coli and 17% (95% CI: 15.95-18.05) with Campylobacter jejuni; only 7% (95% CI: 6.28-7.72) were infected by both species at the same time. Several poultry houses in the farm (OR=11.2; [1.05-92]) and cleaning without any detergent (OR=13.1; [2.1-78.3]) increased the risk of Campylobacter infection. A distance higher than 500 m between broiler farms (OR=0.27; [0.1-0.8]) and use of disinfectant during the rearing period decreased this risk of infection (OR=0.15; [0.1-0.75]).

  20. Identification of Campylobacter spp. and discrimination from Helicobacter and Arcobacter spp. by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified cpn60 sequences and comparison to cpnDB, a chaperonin reference sequence database.

    PubMed

    Hill, Janet E; Paccagnella, Ana; Law, Kee; Melito, Pasquale L; Woodward, David L; Price, Lawrence; Leung, Amy H; Ng, Lai-King; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Goh, Swee Han

    2006-04-01

    A robust method for the identification of Campylobacter spp. based on direct sequencing of PCR-amplified partial cpn60 sequences and comparison of these to a reference database of cpn60 sequences is reported. A total of 53 Campylobacter isolates, representing 15 species, were identified and distinguished from phenotypically similar Helicobacter and Arcobacter strains. Pairwise cpn60 sequence identities between Campylobacter spp. ranged from 71 to 92 %, with most between 71 and 79 %, making discrimination of these species obvious. The method described overcomes limitations of existing PCR-based methods, which require time-consuming and complex post-amplification steps such as the cloning of amplification products. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for use of the reference chaperonin sequence database, cpnDB, as a tool for identification of bacterial isolates based on cpn60 sequences amplified with universal primers.

  1. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Moisés; Rivera, Isabel; Jara, Luis M; Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Francisco M; Shiva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.

  2. A Charcoal- and Blood-Free Enrichment Broth for Isolation and PCR Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. is a Gram negative bacterium and is the major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The microaerophilic nature of Campylobacter and its requirement of ~5% O2 for growth have complicated its recovery from foods. This is achieved with the addition to the enrichment media of ...

  3. Diversity of Campylobacter isolates from retail poultry carcasses and from humans as demonstrated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dickins, M Avery; Franklin, Sharon; Stefanova, Rossina; Schutze, Gordon E; Eisenach, Kathleen D; Wesley, Irene; Cave, M Donald

    2002-06-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a major contaminant of poultry. Eating undercooked chicken and handling raw poultry have been identified as risk factors for campylobacteriosis in humans. Previous studies have found Campylobacter spp. on 90% of poultry carcasses. In the present study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to assess the genetic diversity of strains on retail poultry carcasses. PFGE patterns of isolates from campylobacteriosis cases were compared to those from the poultry isolates. Over a 1-year study period (March 2000 through February 2001), whole fresh young chickens (n = 72) were obtained from three retail outlets in an urban community in the south-central United States. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 82% of these carcasses. Strains (n = 70) were defined on the basis of their PFGE pattern. Sixty-seven percent of the carcasses from which Campylobacter spp. were isolated were contaminated with more than one PFGE-distinguishable strain. During the 1-year study period, most of the PFGE patterns (59%) were limited to isolates obtained from a single carcass. Forty-one percent of the PFGE-distinguishable strains were recovered from more than one carcass. Ninety-seven percent of the carcasses contaminated with the same strain were purchased at the same time from the same store. To examine the degree of genetic stability, four strains were followed in vitro over an estimated 1,000 doublings. The PFGE pattern of one of these isolates underwent minor changes during in vitro growth. The data indicate extensive variability in the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from humans and from poultry carcasses. In spite of difficulties caused by such diversity and the fact that some carcasses are contaminated with more than one strain, the pattern variation provides a useful method for linking a particular strain to its source.

  4. Characterization of a Differentially Translated Protein, OMP85, from Two Campylobacter jejuni Isolates with Different Colonization Potentials in Broiler Chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp., considered a leading bacterial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in humans, is commonly associated with poultry. However, the factors involved in colonization of poultry with Campylobacter spp. remain unclear. Determination of colonization-associated factors should facilitate ou...

  5. Polycarbonate filtration technique is noninferior to mCCDA for isolation of Campylobacter species from stool samples.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    A total of 5963 diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. with use of modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) plates as well as a polycarbonate (PC) filter technique on blood agar plates. A total of 376 Campylobacter jejuni/coli were isolated from both PC and mCCDA. Six and three were isolated from PC and mCCDA only, respectively (P = ns). The PC technique is noninferior to mCCDA for isolation of C. jejuni/coli.

  6. Effects of postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite to control Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli on commercial broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Hawk, Christopher; Bilgili, Sacit F; Warf, C Cayce; Kemp, G Kere

    2004-10-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the reduction of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler carcasses by postchill dip applications of acidified sodium chlorite. Carcass rinses were collected before the inside-outside-bird washer (IOBW), post-IOBW, postchill, and after the postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite. Prevalence and counts of Campylobacter spp. and E. coli were determined. The mean values for Campylobacter spp. and E. coli counts differed significantly at sampling sites. The IOBW reduced the bacterial counts significantly in only one experiment. The chiller reduced Campylobacter counts significantly in both experiments but failed to significantly reduce the counts of E. coli in one experiment. No major reduction in the prevalence after enrichment for Campylobacter spp. was detected post-IOBW or postchill. However, a significant reduction in Campylobacter spp. and in E. coli counts and Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen after the postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite. These results demonstrate that the antimicrobial effect of acidified sodium chlorite applied postchill may be used to significantly reduce Campylobacter spp. and E. coli in commercial broiler carcasses. Postchill systems may eventually be used in different applications, such as mist, spray, or bath, which could be applied closer to the final stages in processing.

  7. A Review of Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  8. Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry—a Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  9. Clonal distribution and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolates in blood.

    PubMed

    Feodoroff, Benjamin; de Haan, Caroline P A; Ellström, Patrik; Sarna, Seppo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2013-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni bacteria are highly diverse enteropathogens. Seventy-three C. jejuni isolates from blood collected in Finland were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and serum resistance. Approximately half of the isolates belonged to the otherwise uncommon sequence type 677 clonal complex. Isolates of this clonal complex were more resistant than other isolates to human serum.

  10. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

    1981-12-01

    Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01).

  11. Occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. in slaughter pigs and consequences for meat inspection, slaughtering, and dressing procedures.

    PubMed

    Nesbakken, Truls; Eckner, Karl; Høidal, Hilde Kristin; Røtterud, Ole-Johan

    2003-02-15

    The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. in the lymphoid tissues and intestinal tract in pigs and the risk for contamination during the compulsory meat inspection procedures and the procedures during slaughtering and dressing. Another objective of the investigation was to compare traditional isolation methods, the use of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method (BUGS'n BEADS bacterial DNA isolation kit) and an ELISA method (VIDAS CAM) as tools in risk management in the slaughterhouse. The results indicate that the compulsory procedure for the incision of the submaxillary lymph nodes represents a cross-contamination risk for virulent Yersinia. In the screening of 97 animals in 1999, 5.2% of the samples were positive, and by the sampling of 24 samples in 2000-2001, 12.5% of the samples were positive. In the last case, Y. enterocolitica O:3 was found in the kidney region in one of the subsequent carcasses that was only touched by the meat inspection personnel before sampling. In addition, incision of the mesenteric lymph nodes might represent a cross-contamination risk since 8.3% of the samples were positive. The association between antibody titres and the occurrence of virulent yersiniae in the tonsils (21-18) was striking, with virulent yersiniae found in the tonsils in most pigs with high titres. The contents of the stomach, ileum, caecum, and colon also represent contamination risks for Y. enterocolitica O:3 if the slaughterhouse personnel cuts into the viscera with their knives by accident; the frequency of virulent Yersinia varied from 4.2% to 16.7% within these sections. Campylobacter was detected in the gastrointestinal tract of all pigs, and the high contamination of tonsils (66.7%) and intestinal tract (100%) might represent an occupational health hazard. There was no statistical difference between the traditional method for isolation of Y. enterocolitica [International

  12. A comparison of procedures for the isolation of campylobacters from seagull faeces.

    PubMed Central

    Fricker, C. R.; Girdwood, R. W.; Munro, D.

    1983-01-01

    Two enrichment broths (Preston and Roman & Doyle's) and four solid media (Preston, Skirrow's, Butzler's and Blaser's) were compared to determine their relative efficiencies in recovering campylobacters from 389 freshly voided seagull faeces, 276 of which were found to contain campylobacters by one or more of the procedures used. A combination of enrichment in Preston medium followed by plating on to Preston agar gave the highest number of isolates (263). Enrichment in fluid media was shown to be an important part of the technique, as only 85 (30.8%) of the 276 isolations were made as a result of direct plating. Very little difference was seen between the two forms of enrichment (P greater than 0.5) but of the four selective media, Butzler's was significantly less efficient than any of the other three (P less than 0.01), because it failed to grow more than a few strains of Campylobacter coli and the NARTC group, which together made up nearly two-thirds of the total number od Campylobacter spp. isolated. PMID:6663060

  13. A comparison of procedures for the isolation of campylobacters from seagull faeces.

    PubMed

    Fricker, C R; Girdwood, R W; Munro, D

    1983-12-01

    Two enrichment broths (Preston and Roman & Doyle's) and four solid media (Preston, Skirrow's, Butzler's and Blaser's) were compared to determine their relative efficiencies in recovering campylobacters from 389 freshly voided seagull faeces, 276 of which were found to contain campylobacters by one or more of the procedures used. A combination of enrichment in Preston medium followed by plating on to Preston agar gave the highest number of isolates (263). Enrichment in fluid media was shown to be an important part of the technique, as only 85 (30.8%) of the 276 isolations were made as a result of direct plating. Very little difference was seen between the two forms of enrichment (P greater than 0.5) but of the four selective media, Butzler's was significantly less efficient than any of the other three (P less than 0.01), because it failed to grow more than a few strains of Campylobacter coli and the NARTC group, which together made up nearly two-thirds of the total number od Campylobacter spp. isolated.

  14. Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Levels in Raw Milk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Christidis, T; Pintar, K D M; Butler, A J; Nesbitt, A; Thomas, M K; Marshall, B; Pollari, F

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal disease internationally, contributing significantly to the enteric illness burden. Cases have been associated with the consumption of raw milk, a behavior that has garnered attention recently. Estimates of the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter spp. in raw milk are lacking, which hinders risk assessment attempts. This article is a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported prevalence and levels of zoonotic Campylobacter spp. in the raw milk of cows, goats, and sheep in Canada, the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. The relevant literature was reviewed, and trained reviewers examined the results for inclusion of articles in the meta-analysis. Relevant data (prevalence and/or level of Campylobacter in raw milk, country of origin, animal species, sample source, Campylobacter species identified, etc.) were extracted, and a meta-analysis was performed in Stata v. 12 (Metaprop command). The weighted mean prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw milk samples was 1.18%. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine how prevalence varied by study characteristics, with the highest prevalence values in studies from the United Kingdom (by country, 6.4%), about cows (by animal species, 1.3%), and including samples taken from inline filters (by sample source, 1.75%) and in studies that included species that are not pathogenic to humans (by Campylobacter species, 1.14%). Two articles each included a single Campylobacter level, 0.16 ± 0.3 and approximately 0.047 most probable number per ml. Despite a relatively low prevalence, consumption of raw milk is inherently risky because no treatment has been used to inactivate pathogens. This potential risk further supports maintaining regulations to limit the sales of raw milk.

  15. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2013-05-03

    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p<0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p<0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain.

  16. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  17. Microscale electrodes integrated on COP for real sample Campylobacter spp. detection.

    PubMed

    Morant-Miñana, M Carmen; Elizalde, J

    2015-08-15

    Campylobacter spp. are responsible for acute bacterial diseases in human worldwide. Nowadays campilobacteriosis is considered the most common foodborne illness in the European Union. In this paper the first electrochemical genosensor based on thin-film gold electrodes deposited onto Cyclo Olefin Polymer (COP) substrates was fabricated for the detection of Campylobacter spp in food matrices. The sensing element is characterized by several surface techniques and the sensitivity of the biosensor have been studied. A good linear relationship was obtained for the concentrations of PCR amplicon of Campylobacter spp. between 1 and 25 nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 90 pM. Real samples have been validated with poultry meat samples and results were comparable with the PCR product samples. This is the last step for the fabrication of a Lab on a Chip (LOC), a biodevice integrating DNA sensor technology into microfluidic system, believed to perform an automated and complete assay, including sample preparation, PCR amplification, and electrochemical detection of Campylobacter spp. in raw poultry meat samples.

  18. Effects of thymol and diphenyliodonium chloride against Campylobacter spp. during pure and mixed culture in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial associated human foodborne illness in the United States, causing greater than 1.9 million illnesses at a cost of more than $1.2 billion annually. The aim of this study was to determine if the purported deaminase inhibitors diphenyliodonium chlorid...

  19. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and filters from US dairies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. is an important zoonotic microaerophilic bacterial pathogen that caused the majority of US outbreaks associated with nonpasteurized milk from 2007 to 2012. Bulk tank milk and milk filter samples were collected from 236 dairy operations in 17 top dairy states from March through Jul...

  20. Isolation method (direct plating or enrichment) does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter from chicken carcasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine if Campylobacter isolation method influenced antimicrobial susceptibility results, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine antimicrobials were compared for 291 pairs of Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcass rinse samples using direct plating and an enrichment...

  1. Isolation of a Campylobacter lanienae-like bacterium from laboratory chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger).

    PubMed

    Turowski, E E; Shen, Z; Ducore, R M; Parry, N M A; Kirega, A; Dewhirst, F E; Fox, J G

    2014-12-01

    Routine necropsies of 27 asymptomatic juvenile chinchillas revealed a high prevalence of gastric ulcers with microscopic lymphoplasmacytic gastroenteritis and typhlocolitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using Campylobacter genus-specific partial 16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of Campylobacter spp. DNA in the faeces of 12 of 27 animals (44.4%). Species-specific partial 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing confirmed that these animals were colonized with Campylobacter lanienae, a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that was first identified on routine faecal screening of slaughterhouse employees and subsequently isolated from faeces of livestock. Campylobacter lanienae was isolated from the faeces of six PCR-positive animals and identified with species-specific PCR and full 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates clustered with C. lanienae strain NCTC 13004. PCR analysis of DNA extracted from gastrointestinal tissues revealed the presence of C. lanienae DNA in the caecum and colon of these chinchillas. Gastrointestinal lesions were scored and compared between C. lanienae-positive and C. lanienae-negative animals. There was no correlation between colonization status and lesion severity in the stomach, liver, duodenum, or colon. Possible routes of C. lanienae infection in chinchillas could include waterborne transmission and faecal-oral transmission from wild mice and rats or livestock. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that C. lanienae colonizes the lower bowel of chinchillas in the absence of clinical disease. This is the first report of C. lanienae in any rodent species. Campylobacter lanienae isolates from different mammalian species demonstrate heterogeneity by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. Analysis using rpoB suggests that isolates and clones currently identified as C. lanienae may represent multiple species or subspecies.

  2. Indicator medium for isolation of Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, D M; Mendes, E N; Rocha, G A

    1987-01-01

    The use of a new indicator culture medium, Belo Horizonte medium, is proposed for better colony recognition and a presumptive identification of Campylobacter pylori. This medium, containing brain heart infusion sheep blood agar, was supplemented with 40 mg of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride per liter in addition to vancomycin, nalidixic acid, and amphotericin B. On Belo Horizonte medium, Campylobacter pylori present unique golden colonies. PMID:3429628

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii Recovered from Campylobacter Selective Medium

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Dinesh M.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Patidar, Rakesh; Lapen, David R.; Talbot, Guylaine; Topp, Edward; Kumar, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause multidrug resistant infections. This organism has primarily been isolated from clinical environments and its environmental reservoirs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we recovered seven isolates of A. baumannii growing under conditions selective for Campylobacter spp. (microaerophilic at 42°C and in the presence of antibiotics) from dairy cattle manure storage tank or surface water impacted by livestock effluents. Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that all of these isolates were less susceptible to at least two different clinically relevant antibiotics, compared to the type strain A. baumannii ATCC17978. Expression of resistance-nodulation-division efflux pumps, an important mechanism of intrinsic resistance in these organisms, was analyzed, and adeB was found to be overexpressed in one and adeJ was overexpressed in three isolates. Comparison of these isolates using genomic DNA Macro-Restriction Fragment Pattern Analysis (MRFPA) revealed relatively low relatedness among themselves or with some of the clinical isolates from previous studies. This study suggests that A. baumannii isolates are capable of growing under selective conditions for Campylobacter spp. and that this organism can be present in manure and water. PMID:27917170

  4. Genotypes, Antibiotic Resistance, and ST-8 Genetic Clone in Campylobacter Isolates from Sheep and Goats in Grenada.

    PubMed

    Stone, Diana M; Chander, Yogesh; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Goyal, Sagar M; Hariharan, Harry; Tiwari, Keshaw; Chikweto, Alfred; Sharma, Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    Rectal swabs from 155 sheep and 252 goats from Grenada were evaluated to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance, and multilocus sequence types. Fifteen Campylobacter isolates were obtained (14 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli). The prevalence (3.7%) did not differ significantly between sheep (4.5%) and goats (3.2%). Among the seven antimicrobials tested, resistance was only detected for tetracycline (30.8%) and metronidazole (38.5%). Campylobacter isolates showed no significant difference between sheep and goats for type of antimicrobial resistance or percent of resistant isolates. Twelve of the isolates were successfully genotyped consisting of four recognized clonal complexes and three novel sequence types. Importantly, one isolate from one goat was identified as the C. jejuni sequence type-8, a zoonotic and tetracycline-resistant clone reported to be a highly virulent clone associated with ovine abortion in the USA. Although most samples were from comingled sheep and goat production units, there were no shared sequence types between these two host species. None of the sequence types identified in this study have previously been reported in poultry in Grenada, suggesting sheep- and goat-specific Campylobacter clones in Grenada. This is the first report of genotyping of Campylobacter isolates from sheep and goats in the Eastern Caribbean.

  5. Rapid methods for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. in foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan

    2002-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most commonly reported bacterial cause of acute diarrheal disease in humans throughout the world. Traditional cultural methods for the detection and quantitation of Campylobacterspp. are slow and tedious; therefore, specific, sensitive, and rapid methods for campylobacters are needed to collect sufficient data for risk assessment and food safety policy development. We developed several rapid methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA hybridization, hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs), and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). A PCR assay targeting C. jejuni, combined with a simple sample preparation procedure, detects as few as 0.3 most probable number (MPN)/mL C. jejuni in naturally contaminated chicken rinses after 20-24 h enrichment. An HGMF-EIA method using a commercial polyclonal antibody for Campylobacter detects and enumerates thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from spiked chicken rinse and milk, and naturally contaminated chicken rinses. A C. jejuni-specific probe in an HGMF-DNA hybridization protocol specifically detects and quantitates C. jejuni in food samples. A dot-blot EIA combined with an MPN procedure quantitates thermophilic campylobacters from samples that might be difficult to filter through HGMFs.

  6. Mitigation strategies for Campylobacter spp. in broiler at pre-harvest and harvest level.

    PubMed

    Klein, Günter; Jansen, Wiebke; Kittler, Sophie; Reich, Felix

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other foodborne zoonotic agents an elimination of Campylobacter spp. from animal production, especially poultry production, seems not to be feasible. Therefore mitigation strategies focus on reduction of the Campylobacter spp. concentration in primary production and further minimalisation during processing. In primary production biosecurity measures (incl. hygiene barriers and restricted access) are the methods applied most commonly and most effectively so far. Experimental approaches and few field trials also showed that bacteriophages, electrolyzed oxidizing water, organic acids or medium chain fatty acids (applied via drinking water) are also effective in reducing Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration However this reduction cannot be transferred in all cases to the situation in the slaughterhouse. Therefore additional measures have to be taken in account in the slaughterhouse to prevent cross-contamination. Logistic or scheduled slaughter can prevent cross-contamination but cannot further reduce Campylobacter concentration. Process parameters like elevated scalding temperature can contribute to such a reduction, but may also alter the product quality. Therefore no single pre- or harvest measure is sufficient for the reduction of Campylobacter concentration, but a combination of measures in both production levels is needed.

  7. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans

  8. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment.

    PubMed

    Olkkola, Satu; Kovanen, Sara; Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans.

  9. Identification of Possible Virulence Marker from Campylobacter jejuni Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, James W.; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Siddiqui, Fariha; Korbrisate, Sunee; Bukhari, Habib; Tra, My Phan Vu; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Bryant, Juliet; Campbell, James I.; Studholme, David J.; Wren, Brendan W.; Baker, Stephen; Titball, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    A novel protein translocation system, the type-6 secretion system (T6SS), may play a role in virulence of Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated 181 C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, and environmental sources in Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom for T6SS. The marker was most prevalent in human and chicken isolates from Vietnam. PMID:24856088

  10. Identification of possible virulence marker from Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Harrison, James W; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Siddiqui, Fariha; Korbrisate, Sunee; Bukhari, Habib; Tra, My Phan Vu; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Bryant, Juliet; Campbell, James I; Studholme, David J; Wren, Brendan W; Baker, Stephen; Titball, Richard W; Champion, Olivia L

    2014-06-01

    A novel protein translocation system, the type-6 secretion system (T6SS), may play a role in virulence of Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated 181 C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, and environmental sources in Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom for T6SS. The marker was most prevalent in human and chicken isolates from Vietnam.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermotolerant Campylobacter strains isolated from food animals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Tesfaye; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Asrat, Daniel

    2007-01-17

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are frequent causes of diarrhoea in humans worldwide mostly originating from poultry. It has been suggested that extensive veterinary use of antibiotics is largely responsible for resistance in human isolates. During a 4-month period from January to April 2004, 192 Campylobacter spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 485 healthy food animals. The in vitro susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Among the 192 Campylobacter spp. isolated, 135 (70.3%) were identified to be C. jejuni, 51 (26.6%) were C. coli and 6 (3.1%) were C. lari. C. jejuni was the most prevalent species in chickens (80.8%) versus 16.2% C. coli and 3.0% C. lari. All isolates found in pigs were C. coli. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin and all were resistant to cephalothin. More than 90% of the strains were sensitive to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Resistance was found against ampicillin in 20% and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in 37.5%. Resistance was not statistically different among C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari (p>0.05). Multidrug resistance to two or more drugs was detected in 14.5% of strains. In conclusion, the study showed that antimicrobial resistance is found only at relatively low frequencies for most antimicrobial agents tested except for ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. The low percentages of resistance to most antimicrobial agents tested in this study may be the result of low/no usage of these agents as a growth promoters or treatment in the Ethiopian animal farm setting. The detection of multidrug resistant isolates may pose a threat to humans and further limits therapeutic options.

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:26153978

  13. Development and stability of bacteriocin resistance 1 in Campylobacter spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: Several bacteriocins (BCNs) identified from chicken commensal bacteria dramatically reduced Campylobacter colonization in poultry and aredirected toward on farm control of this important food-borne human pathogen. BCN resistance in C. jejuni is very difficult to develop in vitro. In this study...

  14. Temporal prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from beef cattle in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A; Entz, T; Olson, M E; Yanke, L J; Read, R R

    2006-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in Alberta. All calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. Fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [SD] = 3 days) after arrival (i.e., interim sample), and 189 days (SD = 33 days) after arrival (i.e., exit sample) at the feedlot. In total, 1,586 Campylobacter isolates consisting of Campylobacter coli (n = 154), Campylobacter fetus (n = 994), Campylobacter jejuni (n = 431), Campylobacter hyointestinalis (n = 4), and Campylobacter lanienae (n = 3) were recovered and characterized. The administration of antimicrobials did not decrease carriage rates of campylobacters, and minimal resistance (< or =4%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and meropenem was observed. In contrast, substantive increases in the prevalence of isolates resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline (56 to 89%) for C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, as well as in the number of animals (7 to 42%) from which resistant isolates were recovered, were observed during the feedlot period. Increased resistance to erythromycin (total isolates and carriages rates) was also observed in isolates of C. coli over the three isolation times. The majority of C. fetus isolates recovered were resistant to nalidixic acid, but this was independent of when they were isolated. A relatively limited number of multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered and consisted primarily of C. coli resistant to tetracyclines and erythromycin (10% of isolates). Over the course of the feedlot period, considerable increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed in C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, but with the exception of erythromycin

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Aarestrup, F M; Nielsen, E M; Madsen, M; Engberg, J

    1997-01-01

    The MICs of 16 antimicrobial agents were determined for 202 Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 123 Campylobacter coli isolates, and 6 Campylobacter lari isolates from humans and food animals in Denmark. The C. jejuni isolates originated from humans (75), broilers (95), cattle (29), and pigs (3); the C. coli isolates originated from humans (7), broilers (17), and pigs (99); and the C. lari isolates originated from broilers (5) and cattle (1). All isolates were susceptible to apramycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Only a few C. jejuni isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to tetracycline was more common among C. jejuni isolates from humans (11%) than among C. jejuni isolates from animals (0 to 2%). More resistance to streptomycin was found among C. jejuni isolates from cattle (10%) than among those from humans (4%) or broilers (1%). A greater proportion of C. coli than of C. jejuni isolates were resistant to the other antimicrobial agents tested. Isolates were in most cases either coresistant to tylosin, spiramycin, and erythromycin or susceptible to all three antibiotics. More macrolide-resistant isolates were observed among C. coli isolates from swine (79%) than among C. coli isolates from broilers (18%) and humans (14%). Twenty-four percent of C. coli isolates from pigs were resistant to enrofloxacin, whereas 29% of C. coli isolates from humans and none from broilers were resistant. More resistance to streptomycin was observed among C. coli isolates from swine (48%) than among C. coli isolates from broilers (6%) or humans (0%). The six C. lari isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents except ampicillin and nalidixic acid. This study showed that antimicrobial resistance was found only at relatively low frequencies among C. jejuni and C. lari isolates. Among C. coli isolates, especially from swine, there was a high level of resistance to macrolides and streptomycin. Furthermore, this study showed differences in the resistance

  16. Occurrence and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. during the processing of Chilean broilers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thermotolerant Campylobacter is among the more prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in chicken carcasses and processing plant stations (chilling water, scalding water, defeathering machinery, evisceration machine, and transport crates) in two of the Chilean main slaughterhouses. In addition, the isolation rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter during evisceration and following chiller processing were compared. Results The overall slaughterhouse contamination with thermotolerant Campylobacter was 54%. Differences were evident when the results from each plant were compared (plant A and plant B was 72% and 36%, respectively). The sampling points with the greatest contamination rates in both plants were after evisceration (90% and 54%, for plants A and B respectively). The decrease of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination after chilling was significant (2 and 1.6 logs for plant A and B respectively P < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that chilling process has a limited effect in the final products Campylobacter contamination because poultry enter the slaughter processing with high counts of contamination. This may represent a health risk to consumers, if proper cooking practices are not employed. The levels and frequencies of Campylobacter found during the processing of Chilean poultry appear to be similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. PMID:19445680

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella, Yersinia and Campylobacter spp. in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) and masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Iwata, T; Nakadai, A; Kato, T; Hayama, S; Taniguchi, T; Hayashidani, H

    2011-09-01

    To estimate the public and animal health risk that alien species pose, the prevalence of Salmonella, Yersinia, and Campylobacter spp. in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor, n=459) and masked palm civets (Paguma larvata, n=153), which are abundant alien species in Japan, was investigated in urban and suburban areas of Japan. Salmonella enterica was detected from 29 samples [26 raccoons, 5.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8-3.5%; three masked palm civets, 2.0%, 95% CI 4.2-0%]. Many of the isolates belonged to serovars that are commonly isolated from human gastroenteritis patients (e.g. S. Infantis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Thompson). The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that 26.9 % of the isolates from raccoons were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, whereas none of the isolates from masked palm civets were resistant. Yersinia sp. was detected from 193 samples (177 raccoons, 38.6%, 95% CI 43.0-34.1%; 16 masked palm civets, 10.5%, 95% CI 15.3-5.6%). All virulent Yersinia strains belonged to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which was isolated from seven (1.5%, 95% CI 2.6-0.4%) raccoons and six (3.9%, 95% CI 7.0-0.8%) masked palm civets. According to the detection of virulence factors, all the Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonged to the Far Eastern systemic pathogenicity type. Campylobacter spp. was detected from 17 samples (six raccoons, 1.3%, 95% CI 2.3-0.3%; 11 masked palm civets, 7.2%, 95% CI 11.3-3.1%). Among these, three isolates from raccoons were identified as C. jejuni. These results showed that these pathogens can be transmitted by human activities, other wild animals, and the environment to feral raccoons and masked palm civets, and vice versa. As these animals have omnivorous behaviour and a wide range of habitats, they can play an important role in the transmission of the enteric pathogens.

  18. Ability of lactate and pyruvate to stimulate aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with fumarate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are human, foodborne, and bacterial pathogens that are frequently isolated from live poultry and processed poultry products. These pathogens are classified as microaerophiles; therefore, Campylobacter cultures are generally grown in atmospheres with reduced oxygen levels and elev...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  20. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  1. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates obtained in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 2002 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Boucher, France; Gilbert, Huguette; Bekal, Sadjia

    2014-07-01

    From 2002 to 2013 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 38 Campylobacter coli isolates were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than 440 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolates (18.4% versus 1.8%; P = 0.00005), of which the 148 isolates acquired abroad were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than the 292 isolates acquired locally (5.4% versus 0%; P = 0.0001).

  3. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  4. Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Collette

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacter continues to be one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrheal illness in the United States and worldwide. Infection with Campylobacter causes a spectrum of diseases including acute enteritis, extraintestinal infections, and postinfectious complications. The most common species of Campylobacter associated with human illness is Campylobacter jejuni, but other Campylobacter species can also cause human infections. This comprehensive review includes discussion of the taxonomy, clinical manifestations of infection, epidemiology and the different methods of laboratory detection of Campylobacter. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Seasonal occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in surface waters and their correlation with standard indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Pacha, R E; Clark, G W; Williams, E A

    1987-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and a Campylobacter-like organism were isolated from a number of natural water sources in central Washington, including ponds, lakes, and small mountain streams at elevations ranging from 1,460 to 5,400 feet (ca. 445 to 1,646 m) above sea level. At the two sites where extensive sampling was done, the bacteria were recovered throughout the year. Generally, the recovery rates were highest in the fall and winter months and lowest during the spring and summer months. Campylobacter density did not show significant correlation with microbiological (plate counts of fecal and total coliforms, fecal streptococci, and heterotrophic bacteria) or physical (water temperature, pH, and conductivity) parameters.

  6. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (US) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established Campylobacter taxa, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was unde...

  7. Development and stability of bacteriocin resistance in Campylobacter spp

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoang, Ky; Stern, Norman J.; Lin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Aims Several bacteriocins (BCNs) that were identified from chicken commensal bacteria dramatically reduced Campylobacter colonization in poultry and are being directed toward on-farm control of this important foodborne human pathogen. A recent study has shown that BCN resistance in C. jejuni is very difficult to develop in vitro. In this study, in vivo development and stability of BCN resistance in Campylobacter was examined. Methods and Results Chickens infected with C. jejuni NCTC 11168 were treated with BCN E-760 at the dose of 5 mg/kg body weight/day via oral gavages for three consecutive days, which selected BCN-resistant (BCNr) mutants in the treated birds. However, all the in vivo-selected mutants only displayed low-levels of resistance to BCN (MIC = 2–8 mg/L) when compared to parent strain (MIC = 0.5 mg/L). Inactivation of CmeABC efflux pump of the BCNr mutants led to increased susceptibility to BCN (8–32 fold MIC reduction). Three different BCNr Campylobacter strains (in vitro- or in vivo-derived) were examined for the stability of BCN resistance using both in vitro and in vivo systems. The low-level of BCN resistance in these strains was not stable in vitro or in vivo in the absence of BCN selection pressure. Conclusions Usage of BCN E-760 only selected low-level BCNr C. jejuni mutants in vivo and the low-level BCN resistance was not stable in vitro and in vivo. Significance and Impact of the Study The study provides helpful information for risk assessment of the future practical application of the anti-Campylobacter BCNs in animals. PMID:21973216

  8. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in biofilms isolated from chicken houses.

    PubMed

    Trachoo, N; Frank, J F; Stern, N J

    2002-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a thermophilic and microaerophilic enteric pathogen associated with poultry. Biofilms may be a source of C. jejuni in poultry house water systems since they can protect constituent microorganisms from environmental stress. In this study, the viability of C. jejuni in biofilms of gram-positive chicken house isolates (P1, Y1, and W1) and a Pseudomonas sp. was determined using a cultural method (modified brucella agar) and direct viable count (DVC). Two-day biofilms grown on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coupons in R2A broth at 12 and 23 degrees C were incubated with C. jejuni for a 6-h attachment period. Media were then refreshed every 24 h for 7 days to allow biofilm growth. Two-day biofilms of P1, Y1, and Pseudomonas spp. enhanced attachment (P < 0.01) of C. jejuni (4.74, 4.62, and 4.78 log cells/cm2, respectively) compared to W1 and controls without preexisting biofilm (4.31 and 4.22 log cells/cm2, respectively). On day 7, isolates P1 and Y1 and Pseudomonas biofilms covered 5.4, 7.0, and 21.5% of the surface, respectively, compared to 4.9% by W1. Viable C. jejuni on the surface decreased (P < 0.05) with time, with the greatest reduction occurring on surfaces without a preexisting biofilm. The number of viable C. jejuni determined by DVC was greater than that determined by the cultural method, indicating that C. jejuni may form a viable but nonculturable state within the biofilm. Both DVC and the cultural method indicate that biofilms enhance (P < 0.01) the survival of C. jejuni during incubation at 12 and 23 degrees C over a 7-day period.

  9. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Serovars in Retail Chicken, Turkey, Pork, and Beef from the Greater Washington, D.C., Area

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cuiwei; Ge, Beilei; De Villena, Juan; Sudler, Robert; Yeh, Emily; Zhao, Shaohua; White, David G.; Wagner, David; Meng, Jianghong

    2001-01-01

    A total of 825 samples of retail raw meats (chicken, turkey, pork, and beef) were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella serovars, and 719 of these samples were also tested for Campylobacter spp. The samples were randomly obtained from 59 stores of four supermarket chains during 107 sampling visits in the Greater Washington, D.C., area from June 1999 to July 2000. The majority (70.7%) of chicken samples (n = 184) were contaminated with Campylobacter, and a large percentage of the stores visited (91%) had Campylobacter-contaminated chickens. Approximately 14% of the 172 turkey samples yielded Campylobacter, whereas fewer pork (1.7%) and beef (0.5%) samples were positive for this pathogen. A total of 722 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 159 meat samples; 53.6% of these isolates were Campylobacter jejuni, 41.3% were Campylobacter coli, and 5.1% were other species. Of the 212 chicken samples, 82 (38.7%) yielded E. coli, while 19.0% of the beef samples, 16.3% of the pork samples, and 11.9% of the turkey samples were positive for E. coli. However, only 25 (3.0%) of the retail meat samples tested were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in the bacterial contamination rates were observed for the four supermarket chains. This study revealed that retail raw meats are often contaminated with food-borne pathogens; however, there are marked differences in the prevalence of such pathogens in different meats. Raw retail meats are potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases, and our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis of critical control point (HACCP) and consumer food safety education efforts. PMID:11722889

  11. Arsenic resistance and prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meats.

    PubMed

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2013-08-07

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4-2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (4-2048 μg/mL), arsenate (16-8,192 μg/mL) and arsenite (4-2,048 μg/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli) were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB) by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512-2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (512-2,048 μg/mL), and arsenate (128-1,024 μg/mL), but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4-16 μg/mL). Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3), 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR). The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  12. The chicken embryo as a model for campylobacter invasion: comparative virulence of human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed Central

    Field, L H; Headley, V L; Underwood, J L; Payne, S M; Berry, L J

    1986-01-01

    Eleven-day-old chicken embryos were used to compare the relative virulence of minimally passaged human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Graded doses of bacteria were inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane, and 50% lethal doses were calculated at 72 h postinfection. Strains varied markedly in their ability to invade the chorioallantoic membrane and kill the embryos. The 50% lethal doses varied by about 6 logs for 25 strains of C. jejuni, and by 2 logs for 5 strains of C. coli. Although both outbred and inbred embryos were employed in the study, the latter were found to be more susceptible to infection with most strains. All isolates were screened for plasmid DNA, but there was no apparent relationship between plasmid content and virulence of strains for the embryos. Neither could virulence be associated with the production of siderophores by the strains. The ability of selected strains of C. jejuni to invade the liver of embryos was also studied. The number of campylobacters culturable from the liver was found to be inversely related to the 50% lethal dose of the strain. By inoculating 11-day-old embryos intravenously, it was possible to demonstrate that a strain of C. jejuni which was poorly virulent after chorioallantoic inoculation was relatively noninvasive. Invasiveness alone, however, could not fully account for the lethality of two highly virulent strains of C. jejuni administered by the intravenous route. Finally, there was no correlation between motility and virulence in this model system. PMID:3759232

  13. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiological Typing of Campylobacter Isolates from Meat Processing Plants by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Fatty Acid Profile Typing, Serotyping, and Biotyping

    PubMed Central

    Steele, M.; McNab, B.; Fruhner, L.; DeGrandis, S.; Woodward, D.; Odumeru, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Foods of animal origin, particularly undercooked poultry, are common sources of Campylobacter species associated with disease in humans. A collection of 110 Campylobacter jejuni and 31 C. coli human and environmental isolates from different Ontario, Canada, abattoirs were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. Previously collected serotyping data for the same isolates were also analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was found to be the most discriminatory of the typing methods, followed by serotyping, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. A wide variety of typing profiles were observed within the isolates, suggesting that several different Campylobacter sp. strains were present within the abattoirs. PMID:9647797

  15. Epidemiological typing of Campylobacter isolates from meat processing plants by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, serotyping, and biotyping.

    PubMed

    Steele, M; McNab, B; Fruhner, L; DeGrandis, S; Woodward, D; Odumeru, J A

    1998-07-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Foods of animal origin, particularly under-cooked poultry, are common sources of Campylobacter species associated with disease in humans. A collection of 110 Campylobacter jejuni and 31 C. coli human and environmental isolates from different Ontario, Canada, abattoirs were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. Previously collected serotyping data for the same isolates were also analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was found to be the most discriminatory of the typing methods, followed by serotyping, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. A wide variety of typing profiles were observed within the isolates, suggesting that several different Campylobacter sp. strains were present within the abattoirs.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni Isolation/Enumeration from Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Hiett, Kelli L

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no universally accepted standard media or method for the recovery of Campylobacter species. This is likely due to the ubiquity of the organism in nature, the complex sample matrices from which the organism is often recovered, as well as the fragile/viable-but nonculturable state the organism assumes in response to stress. The use of a sterile filter placed upon a nonselective Brucella Agar Blood Plate (BAB), followed by incubation at 37 °C in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere (Campycheck), is one method to recover stressed and emerging Campylobacter spp. from complex environmental matrices; however, this technique does not currently allow for the enumeration of the recovered organisms. Enumeration is performed using serial dilutions of sample homogenate plated onto modified Campy-Cefex media followed by incubation at either 37 °C or 42 °C in a microaerobic atmosphere.

  17. Analysis of in vitro and in vivo effects of probiotics against Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Bratz, Katharina; Gölz, Greta; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Alter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter (C.) spp. are well recognised as the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrheal disease worldwide, with C. jejuni and C. coli as the most important species: C. coli is highly abundant in pigs and pork meat has often been implicated as a source for human infection. Intestinal colonisation of C. coli in pigs plays a role in carcass contamination during slaughter. Different pre-harvest intervention measures are proposed to reduce the C. coli burden in the porcine intestine. Among others, the use of probiotics to prevent or reduce the colonisation of intestinal pathogens is discussed. One aim of this study was to screen a variety of probiotics to evaluate their inhibitory activity against Campylobacter spp. in vitro. Therefore, cell-free culture supernatants of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415, and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were tested against C. jejuni and C. coli by a well-diffusion agar assay. Seven out of eleven Lactobacillus strains showed an inhibitory activity against at least one of the three tested Campylobacter strains. This antagonistic activity against Campylobacter spp. was caused by the production of organic acids that lowered the pH. Application with pH neutralised cell-free culture supernatants abolished this inhibitory effect. Other tested strains with probiotic properties showed no inhibitory activity against any Campylobacter spp. strain. The strain E. faecium NCIMB 10415 was chosen to test its inhibitory activity against C. coli in vivo. Twenty weaned piglets were allocated into two groups, a probiotic group and a control group.The diet of the probiotic group was supplemented with E. faecium NCIMB 10415 (10(9) cfu/kg feed, Cylactin) since weaning, whereas the control group received no probiotic treatment. All piglets were naturally colonised with C. coli. The excretion load of C. coli was monitored for 28 days. The results indicate that dietary supplementation of E. faecium NCIMB

  18. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in water in Northern Ireland: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Moore, J E; Caldwell, P S; Millar, B C; Murphy, P G

    2001-11-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter spp was examined in a variety of waters in Northern Ireland. Conventional cultural techniques were employed with 768 water specimens, including drinking waters (tap, spring, bore hole and bottled) and recreational waters (swimming pool, lough, river and sea). Positive waters included 1/11 (9.1%) drinking water from untreated well water, as well as 5/12 (41.7%) untreated surface waters from loughs and 7/8 (87.5%) untreated river waters. Overall, untreated surface waters may represent a source of contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Northern Ireland, where they have a recreational involvement or are used as a drinking source by man or agricultural livestock. Therefore waterborne campylobacteriosis should be considered in patients presenting with acute enteritis and a history of participation in water sports/activities. As faecal coliform organisms have been previously shown to be poor markers of water quality, especially for Campylobacter spp, new criteria should be established to assess the risk of this infection and to evaluate and monitor the quality of water used for recreational purposes.

  19. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    PubMed

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  20. First isolation of Mycobacterium spp. in Mullus spp. in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sevim, P; Ozer, S; Rad, F

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. poses health risks both to fish and humans. In this study, the presence of ichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. was investigated in red mullet (Mullus barbatus barbatus) and surmullet (Mullus surmuletus), widely caught species in the Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea. A total of 208 fish samples, provided from fishermen of Mersin province (Turkey) were studied. Using conventional methods, Mycobacterium spp. was isolated and identified at the genus level by PCR and at the species level by PCR-RFLP. Thirteen Mycobacterium spp. were detected in 13 (6.25%) fish samples. Four mycobacteria were identified as M. genavense, three as M. fortuitum, three as M. scrofulaceum, one as M. marinum, one as M. vaccae and one as M. aurum. No signs of mycobacteriosis were observed in fish samples. Findings of this study can contribute to future studies of onichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. in seafood. PMID:27175166

  1. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations subjected to freezing, refrigeration, minor salt concentration, and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; De Zutter, Lieven; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-02-28

    The survival of Campylobacter spp. under defined conditions of freezing (-22 degrees C) was studied in naturally contaminated chicken skin and minced chicken meat. A decline of approximately one log(10) cfu/g was observed after 1 day of freezing. No further significant reduction was achieved by prolonged storage in the freezer, although a tendency for further gradual reduction of the numbers of Campylobacter spp. present was noted. Campylobacter spp. could still be detected qualitatively (per 0.1g) after 84 days. In a second part of this study, the survival of Campylobacter spp. in a typical minced meat preparation (minced meat supplemented with 1.5% salt (NaCl)) stored at refrigeration (4 degrees C) or frozen (-22 degrees C) was studied. No significant reduction of the pathogen was observed if the minced chicken meat was kept at 4 degrees C for 14 days, opposite to approximately one log(10) cfu/g reduction after 1 day when the minced meat preparation was stored in the freezer (-22 degrees C) for 14 days. The latter reduction is imputed to the effect of freezing as mentioned above and not due to the supplementation of NaCl to minced meat or the combination of NaCl and freezing, because similar reductions of Campylobacter spp. were noticed when minced meat (without addition of NaCl) was frozen. Finally, in a third part of the study, the survival of Campylobacter spp. subjected to a heat treatment, conform to consumer-based pan-frying, in inoculated (4.5+/-0.2 cfu/g) as well as naturally contaminated chicken burgers (2.1+/-0.1 cfu/g) was studied. The Campylobacter spp. numbers declined after 2 min (internal temperature reached circa 38 degrees C), where after 4 min (internal temperature reached circa 57.5 degrees C) they dropped below detectable levels (<10 cfu/g).

  2. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison to classic culturing and enrichment.

    PubMed

    de Boer, P; Rahaoui, H; Leer, R J; Montijn, R C; van der Vossen, J M B M

    2015-10-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and broiler caeca in The Netherlands in 2007, were subjected to three different real-time PCR detection methods: one targeting the Campylobacter jejuni hipO gene, one targeting the Campylobacter coli glyA gene, and one generically targeting Campylobacter spp. 16S rDNA sequence. The PCR results from the three different PCR protocols were compared to the work of Nauta et al. (2009) who analyzed the same set of samples collected from 62 broiler flocks by means of enrichment culturing. The results indicate that the generic 16S campylobacter PCR detection is equally reliable but much faster (4 h instead of ≥2 days) than detection by means of culturing. Moreover, PCR detection targeting the hipO and the glyA gene provide the possibility of C. jejuni and C. coli species discrimination. The generic Campylobacter spp. PCR analysis also confirmed the high incidence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry samples (∼90%) and the species specific PCR showed the simultaneous presence of C. jejuni and C. coli in ∼24% of the samples. Furthermore, the results from the three PCR analyses suggested the occurrence of alternative Campylobacter species in almost 10% of the samples. The campylobacter PCR detection methods reported here can replace traditional culturing because of being quicker and more reliable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of changing from staining to culture techniques on detection rates of Campylobacter spp. in routine stool samples in Chile.

    PubMed

    Porte, Lorena; Varela, Carmen; Haecker, Thomas; Morales, Sara; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, but sensitive diagnostic methods such as culture are expensive and often not available in resource limited settings. Therefore, direct staining techniques have been developed as a practical and economical alternative. We analyzed the impact of replacing Campylobacter staining with culture for routine stool examinations in a private hospital in Chile. From January to April 2014, a total of 750 consecutive stool samples were examined in parallel by Hucker stain and Campylobacter culture. Isolation rates of Campylobacter were determined and the performance of staining was evaluated against culture as the gold standard. Besides, isolation rates of Campylobacter and other enteric pathogens were compared to those of past years. Campylobacter was isolated by culture in 46 of 750 (6.1 %) stool samples. Direct staining only identified three samples as Campylobacter positive and reached sensitivity and specificity values of 6.5 and 100 %, respectively. In comparison to staining-based detection rates of previous years, we observed a significant increase of Campylobacter cases in our patients. Direct staining technique for Campylobacter had a very low sensitivity compared to culture. Staining methods might lead to a high rate of false negative results and an underestimation of the importance of campylobacteriosis. With the inclusion of Campylobacter culture, this pathogen became a leading cause of intestinal infection in our patient population.

  4. Characterization of erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from pig offal in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harrow, S A; Gilpin, B J; Klena, J D

    2004-01-01

    To determine the level and mechanism(s) of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter isolates obtained from human and environmental sources from South Canterbury, New Zealand. A total of 251 Campylobacter isolates were tested for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline using disc diffusion assays. Five pig offal isolates were observed to be highly erythromycin resistant, with minimal inhibitory concentrations determined to be >/=256 microg ml(-1). Nucleotide sequencing of the 23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in these resistant isolates identified an A --> G change at Escherichia coli position 2059 that has been previously implicated in erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter coli. Macrorestriction profiling using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed these isolates were nonclonal. The majority of Campylobacter isolates from South Canterbury remain sensitive to the most clinically relevant antimicrobial agents. Our results support other reports showing that specific variations in the 23S rDNA contribute to erythromycin resistance. This study defines the baseline frequency of antimicrobial resistance associated with Campylobacter isolates from South Canterbury, and discusses the likely molecular mechanisms conferring erythromycin resistance in this organism. Resistance to erythromycin in these isolates is not linked to a dominant Campylobacter clone and has likely arisen independently in different genetic lines exposed to selective antimicrobial pressure.

  5. Characterization of Campylobacter-like organisms isolated from homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Fennell, C L; Totten, P A; Quinn, T C; Patton, D L; Holmes, K K; Stamm, W E

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen Campylobacter-like organisms (CLOs) isolated from rectal cultures from homosexual men were studied. Like catalase-positive Campylobacter species, CLOs were curved gram-negative rods that did not grow aerobically, were motile, were oxidase- and catalase-positive, and did not utilize glucose. However, CLOs could not be classified within any of the Campylobacter species because they grew slowly and had unusual colony morphology; did not grow at 25 C, hydrolyze hippurate, produce H2S in triple sugar-iron agar, or tolerate 2% NaCl; were inhibited by 30-micrograms disks of nalidixic acid; and tolerated 1% glycine and 0.04% triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Three groups of CLOs were identified based on differences in nitrate reduction, growth at 42 C, and sensitivity to cephalothin. By the colony hybridization technique, whole-cell DNA isolated from a strain in each CLO group hybridized with DNA from other strains in the same group, but not with strains in other groups or with reference strains of catalase-positive Campylobacter species.

  6. Cardamom, Cumin, and Dill Weed Essential Oils: Chemical Compositions, Antimicrobial Activities, and Mechanisms of Action against Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Mutlu-Ingok, Aysegul; Karbancioglu-Guler, Funda

    2017-07-15

    Natural antimicrobials as well as essential oils (EOs) have gained interest to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms and to control food borne diseases. Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causative agents of gastroenteritis. In this study, cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial action. Chemical compositions of EOs were also tested by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that cardamom and dill weed EOs possess greater antimicrobial activity than cumin with larger inhibition zones and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations. The permeability of cell membrane and cell membrane integrity were evaluated by determining relative electric conductivity and release of cell constituents into supernatant at 260 nm, respectively. Moreover, effect of EOs on the cell membrane of Campylobacter spp. was also investigated by measuring extracellular ATP concentration. Increase of relative electric conductivity, extracellular ATP concentration, and cell constituents' release after treatment with EOs demonstrated that tested EOs affected the membrane integrity of Campylobacter spp. The results supported high efficiency of cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs to inhibit Campylobacter spp. by impairing the bacterial cell membrane.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from ducks in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bai; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kang, Min; Roh, Jae-Hee; Seo, Hye-Suk; Yoon, Ran-Hee; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-12-01

    Campylobacter is a food-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter bacteria are commensal in the intestines of many food production animals, including ducks and chickens. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in domestic ducks, and the agar dilution method was used to determine resistance of the isolates to eight antibiotics. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs) of selected Campylobacter isolates. Between May and September 2012, 58 duck farms were analyzed, and 56 (96.6%) were positive for Campylobacter. Among the isolates, 82.1% were Campylobacter jejuni, 16.1% were C. coli, and one was unidentified by PCR. Of the 46 C. jejuni isolates, 87.0%, 10.9%, and 21.7% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin, respectively. Among the C. coli isolates, all 9 strains were resistant to ampicillin, and 77.8% and 33.3% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, respectively. The majority of the Campylobacter isolates were classified as multidrug resistant. Twenty-eight STs were identified, including 20 STs for C. jejuni and 8 STs for C. coli. The most common clonal complexes in C. jejuni were the ST-21 complex and the ST-45 complex, while the ST-828 complex predominated in C. coli. The majority of isolates were of STs noted in ducks and humans from earlier studies, along with seven STs previously associated only with human disease. These STs overlapped between duck and human isolates, indicating that Campylobacter isolates from ducks should be considered potential sources of human infection.

  8. PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting of atypical campylobacter strains isolated from surface and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Jacob, J; Feuerpfeil, I; Schulze, E

    1996-09-01

    This study shows that typing through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to differentiate between strains of Campylobacter and Arcobacter, whereas by means of conventional biotyping Arcobacter might be identified as atypical Campylobacter. Microaerophilic "campylobacter-like" organisms were isolated from several drinking water treatment plants as well as environmental sources. The strains were characterized by biotyping and PCR amplification of Campylobacter flaA/flaB and 16s-rRNA Arcobacter butzleri-specific genes.

  9. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-08-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P < .0001). The polycarbonate filter is superior to the commonly used cellulose acetate filter for detection of C. concisus.

  10. Comparison of genetic profiles of Campylobacter strains isolated from poultry, pig and Campylobacter human infections in Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Kempf, I; Rivoal, K; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2009-02-01

    Five hundred eighty-two Campylobacter isolates (177 from humans, 319 from poultry and 86 from pig) collected in Brittany, France, in 2003 and 2004 were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The number of human cases increased during the hot season, particularly for C. jejuni. Twelve genetic groups out of 27 contained human isolates collected over the two years. These groups had 21.3 and 17.0% of the isolates obtained in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In four cases, isolates from 2003 have the same Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile as isolates from 2004. Six PFGE profiles common to poultry and human isolates were identified. Poultry isolates were found in 47 clusters containing human isolates. Caeca from farms and slaughterhouses accounted for 66% of these isolates, with chicken legs obtained from supermarkets accounting for the other 34%. Pig isolates never clustered with poultry and human isolates. In conclusion, the analysis of the genetic profiles of Campylobacter resulting from human cases showed that there were few identical or genetically close isolates between the human cases declared in 2003 and those declared in 2004. This highlighted a great genetic diversity in the isolates and indicated that it should be difficult to bind the human infections with groups of Campylobacter isolates presenting particular genetic profiles. The Campylobacter isolates obtained from the two animal production systems had different genotypes, and isolates from pigs differed genetically from isolates obtained from humans. We found that 44.6% of human Campylobacter isolates were genetically related to genotypes found in poultry and a part of these campylobacteriosis are due to contact with poultry. This is not particularly surprising in Brittany, a farming area with many animal-rearing farms and slaughterhouses. This work highlights the implication of the poultry in the French human cases and that handling of poultry is also an important risk for Campylobacter

  11. Detection of sorbitol-negative and sorbitol-positive Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, and Salmonella spp. in dairy farm environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Murinda, S E; Nguyen, L T; Nam, H M; Almeida, R A; Headrick, S J; Oliver, S P

    2004-01-01

    Six visits were conducted to four dairy farms to collect swab, liquid, and solid dairy farm environmental samples (165 to 180/farm; 15 sample types). The objective of the study was to determine on-farm sources of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which might serve as reservoirs for transmission of pathogens. Samples were analyzed using mostly U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual protocols; however, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and STEC were co-enriched in universal pre-enrichment broth. Campylobacter jejuni were enriched in Bolton broth containing Bolton broth supplement. Pathogens were isolated on agar media, typed biochemically, and confirmed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction protocols. Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, Sorbitol-negative (SN)-STEC O157:H7, and sorbitol-positive (SP)-STEC, respectively, were isolated from 5.06%, 3.76%, 6.51%, 0.72%, and 17.3% of samples evaluated. Whereas other pathogens were isolated from all four farms, SN-STEC O157:H7 were isolated from only two farms. Diverse serotypes of SP-STEC including O157:H7, O26:H11, O111, and O103 were isolated. None of the five pathogen groups studied were isolated from bulk tank milk (BTM). Most pathogens (44.2%) were isolated directly from fecal samples. Bovine fecal samples, lagoon water, bedding, bird droppings, and rat intestinal contents constituted areas of major concern on dairy farms. Although in-line milk filters from two farms tested positive for Salmonella or L. monocytogenes, none of the pathogens were detected in the corresponding BTM samples. Good manure management practices, including control of feral animals, are critical in assuring dairy farm hygiene. Identification of on-farm pathogen reservoirs could aid with implementation of farm-specific pathogen reduction programs.

  12. Influence of process parameter on Campylobacter spp. counts on poultry meat in a slaughterhouse environment.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Y; Reich, F; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most important food-borne pathogens in broilers. Exposure of the consumer can be influenced by the reduction of contaminated broiler meat at various steps along the production line. This study was performed at a poultry slaughterhouse in Germany. Steps within the slaughter process were defined by the slaughterhouse quality control for potential Campylobacter reduction. Their impact was tested for two process variations. The first process variation was the increase of the temperature of the scalding water from 53.0 to 53.9 °C. The second step was the application of an additional outside sprayer which was placed after plucking. The increase of the scalding water temperature was the most effective measure (>2 log reduction), but resulted in defects to the broiler skin. This would limit marketing of fresh broiler meat with skin. The additional water spray after plucking had no additional effect. In fact, numbers of Campylobacter were lower before introduction of the sprayer. In conclusion, modifications of the processing technology have to be evaluated carefully, but can have additional effects for Campylobacter reduction.

  13. [Cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in food--potentials and limitations of diagnostic tools in the context of official food control].

    PubMed

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Thärigen, Diana; Fella, Christiane; Schreiner, Hermann; Busch, Ulrich; Höller, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. rank among the most important foodborne pathogens in Germany. Therefore a necessity for rapid and routinely useable detection methods exists also in the area of food microbiology. A reliable, cultura qualitative, but also quantitative detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. pose a challenge, at least concerning special food matrices, especially because in the context of official food control the cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is needed. This was the reason, why different cultural detection methods, beside the standard procedure of ISO 10272:2006, in combination with molecular and immunological screening methods were tested at the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) during the last years for the use in routine diagnostic using different food matrices of animal and plant origin. The results of the comparative studies showed clearly that no enrichment broth tested gave completely satisfactory results for an only culture-based detection the combination with a screening method is therefore recommended for a rapid and reliable detection. But in this case the user should take into account that the sensitivity of such molecular and immunological methods is normally so high that in some cases, depending on the food matrix and processing step, the isolation of the pathogen would not be possible in samples, which were positive in the screening methods.

  14. Seasonal Variability of Thermophilic Campylobacter Spp. in Raw Milk Sold by Automatic Vending Machines in Lombardy Region

    PubMed Central

    Bertasi, Barbara; Losio, Marina Nadia; Daminelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Guido; Serraino, Andrea; Piva, Silvia; Giacometti, Federica; Massella, Elisa; Ostanello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In temperate climates, a seasonal trend was observed in the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, with peaks reported in spring and autumn in some countries, or in summer in others; a similar trend was observed in Campylobacter spp. dairy cattle faecal shedding, suggesting that cattle may play a role in the seasonal peak of human infection. The objectives of this study were to assess if a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk exists and to evaluate a possible relation between this and the increase of human campylobacteriosis incidence in summer months. The results showed a mean prevalence of 1.6% of milk samples positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. with a wide range (0.0-3.1%) in different months during the three years considered. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.01) of the prevalence of positive samples for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between warmer and cooler months (2.3 vs 0.6%). The evidence of a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk sold for direct consumption, with an increase of the prevalence in warmer months, may represent one of the possible links between seasonal trend in cattle faecal shedding and seasonal trend in human campylobacteriosis. PMID:27853714

  15. Seasonal Variability of Thermophilic Campylobacter Spp. in Raw Milk Sold by Automatic Vending Machines in Lombardy Region.

    PubMed

    Bertasi, Barbara; Losio, Marina Nadia; Daminelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Guido; Serraino, Andrea; Piva, Silvia; Giacometti, Federica; Massella, Elisa; Ostanello, Fabio

    2016-06-03

    In temperate climates, a seasonal trend was observed in the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, with peaks reported in spring and autumn in some countries, or in summer in others; a similar trend was observed in Campylobacter spp. dairy cattle faecal shedding, suggesting that cattle may play a role in the seasonal peak of human infection. The objectives of this study were to assess if a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk exists and to evaluate a possible relation between this and the increase of human campylobacteriosis incidence in summer months. The results showed a mean prevalence of 1.6% of milk samples positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. with a wide range (0.0-3.1%) in different months during the three years considered. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.01) of the prevalence of positive samples for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between warmer and cooler months (2.3 vs 0.6%). The evidence of a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk sold for direct consumption, with an increase of the prevalence in warmer months, may represent one of the possible links between seasonal trend in cattle faecal shedding and seasonal trend in human campylobacteriosis.

  16. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. contamination in French broiler-chicken flocks at the end of the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Refrégier-Petton, J; Rose, N; Denis, M; Salvat, G

    2001-07-19

    Our objectives were to identify risk factors for contamination of French broiler flocks by Campylobacter. We used 75 broiler farms in western France. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the Campylobacter status of the broiler flocks. 42.7% of the flocks were positive for Campylobacter spp. The risk of contamination of the broiler flocks by Campylobacter was increased in summer/autumn, in houses with static air distribution, when two or more people took care of the flock, in poultry farms with three or more houses and when the drinking water for the chickens was acidified. The presence of litter-beetles in the change room also increased the risk of contamination. The administration of an antibiotic treatment following a disease decreased the risk of a flock being contaminated by Campylobacter.

  17. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  18. Combination of different methods for detection of Campylobacter spp. in young children with moderate to severe diarrhea.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Veras, Herlice; da Silva Quetz, Josiane; Lima, Ila Fernanda Nunes; Rodrigues, Tamara Silva; Havt, Alexandre; Rey, Luís Carlos; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Soares, Alberto Melo; Singhal, Mitra; Weigl, Bernhard; Guerrant, Richard; Lima, Aldo Angelo Moreira

    2016-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. were detected - using culture, ELISA, PCR, and qPCR - among children (0-36months) with moderate to severe diarrhea in Northeastern Brazil. Our data showed that either the qPCR alone or PCR along with ELISA might be an alternative to culture to diagnose Campylobacter due to their enhanced sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Health burden in the Netherlands due to infection with thermophilic Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Havelaar, A. H.; de Wit, M. A.; van Koningsveld, R.; van Kempen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Infection with thermophilic Campylobacter spp. usually leads to an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Occasionally, more severe diseases may be induced, notably Guillain Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis. For some, the disease may be fatal. We have integrated available data in one public health measure, the Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY). DALYs are the sum of Years of Life Lost by premature mortality and Years Lived with Disability, weighted with a factor between 0 and 1 for the severity of illness. The mean health burden of campylobacter-associated illness in the Dutch population in the period 1990-5 is estimated as 1400 (90% CI 900-2000) DALY per year. The main determinants of health burden are acute gastroenteritis (440 DALY), gastroenteritis related mortality (310 DALY) and residual symptoms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (340 DALY). Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that alternative model assumptions produced results in the above-mentioned range. PMID:11218201

  20. Rapid detection and differentiation of important Campylobacter spp. in poultry samples by dot blot and PCR.

    PubMed

    Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Cecchini, Francesca; Comi, Giuseppe; Manzano, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    The detection of Campylobacter, the most commonly reported cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the European Union, is very important for human health. The most commonly recognised risk factor for infection is the handling and/or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. The methods typically applied to evaluate the presence/absence of Campylobacter in food samples are direct plating and/or enrichment culture based on the Horizontal Method for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. (ISO 10272-1B: 2006) and PCR. Molecular methods also allow for the detection of cells that are viable but cannot be cultivated on agar media and that decrease the time required for species identification. The current study proposes the use of two molecular methods for species identification: dot blot and PCR. The dot blot method had a sensitivity of 25 ng for detection of DNA extracted from a pure culture using a digoxigenin-labelled probe for hybridisation; the target DNA was extracted from the enrichment broth at 24 h. PCR was performed using a pair of sensitive and specific primers for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli after 24 h of enrichment in Preston broth. The initial samples were contaminated by 5 × 10 C. jejuni cells/g and 1.5 × 10(2)C. coli cells/g, thus the number of cells present in the enrichment broth at 0 h was 1 or 3 cell/g, respectively.

  1. Associations between antimicrobial exposure and resistance in fecal Campylobacter spp. from grow-finish pigs on-farm in Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Leigh B; Waldner, Cheryl L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso

    2009-03-01

    Campylobacter spp. (n = 405), isolated from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in 20 herds, were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials representing seven classes. Twelve percent of the isolates were susceptible to all drugs, while 64% were resistant to two or more antimicrobial classes. Resistance was most common to clindamycin, azithromycin, and erythromycin (71% each), and 10% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. An antimicrobial use risk-factor analysis and a variance analysis explored the connection between antimicrobial resistance and the herd. The antimicrobial exposure of each production phase of each herd, through feed and water, was evaluated as a potential risk factor for resistance to macrolides and quinolones. Every 100,000 pig days of macrolide exposure in nursery pigs increased the odds of resistance to macrolides by a factor of 1.3. In contrast, the odds of resistance to a quinolone were nine times higher in Campylobacter from herds without beta-lactam exposure in grow-finish pigs compared with those with exposure. The variance analysis identified remarkably high clustering between isolates within herds; the intraclass correlations for resistances ranged from 0.52 to 0.82. Such extreme clustering demonstrates the potential for herd-level interventions to influence antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter. The three key findings of this study, i.e., the prevalent resistance to macrolides, the association between macrolide exposure and Campylobacter resistance to macrolides, and the high clustering of resistance within herds, illustrate the need for continued study of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on pig farms and the importance of judicious antimicrobial use in pork production.

  2. Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from poultry, cattle and humans in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ngulukun, S; Oboegbulem, S; Klein, G

    2016-08-01

    To determine the genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Nigeria and to identify the association between multilocus sequence types and hosts (poultry, cattle and humans). Isolates were identified using multiplex PCR assays. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the genetic diversity of 36 Camp. jejuni and 24 Camp. coli strains isolated from poultry, cattle and humans. Of the 36 Camp. jejuni genotyped, 21 sequence types (ST) were found, 9 (43%) were new while of the 24 Camp. coli isolates genotyped, 22 STs were identified with 14 (64%) being new. The most prevalent sequence type was ST1932 followed by ST1036 and ST607 while the prevalent clonal complexes were CC-828, CC-460 and CC-353. Campylobacter isolates from Nigeria were found to be diverse with novel genotypes. There was overlap of CC-828, CC-460 and CC-353 between the poultry, cattle and human isolates. Genetic exchange was also detected in two of the Camp. coli isolates. This study highlights the genetic diversity of Campylobacter strains in Nigeria, demonstrating that Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli isolates are diverse and have both local and global strains. The predominant sequence types and clonal complexes found in this study differ from other countries; this exemplifies that different predominant Campylobacter populations exist between countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Kitchen practices used in handling broiler chickens and survival of Campylobacter spp. on cutting surfaces in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wanyenya, Irene; Muyanja, Charles; Nasinyama, George William

    2004-09-01

    Cross-contamination during food preparation has been identified as an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. Handling practices used during preparation of broiler chickens in 31 fast-food restaurants and 86 semisettled street stands (street vendors) were assessed by use of a standard checklist. These establishments used wood, plastic, or metal cutting surfaces during the preparation of broiler chickens. The survival of Campylobacter spp. on kitchen cutting surfaces was determined by inoculating approximately 10(6) CFU of Campylobacter jejuni onto sterile plastic, wooden, and metal cutting boards. The concentrations of the organisms were then assessed in triplicate on each type of cutting board over a 3-h period using standard microbiological methods for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. In 87% of food establishments, the same work area was used for preparation of raw and cooked chicken, and in 68% of these establishments the same cutting boards were used for raw and cooked chicken. None of the establishments applied disinfectants or sanitizers when washing contact surfaces. Campylobacter spp. survived on wooden and plastic but not on metal cutting boards after 3 h of exposure. The handling practices in food preparation areas, therefore, provide an opportunity for cross-contamination of Campylobacter spp. to ready-to-eat foods.

  4. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mary C; Wegener, Henrik C

    2003-04-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers.

  5. Molecular epidemiology and public health relevance of Campylobacter isolated from dairy cattle and European starlings in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Sanad, Yasser M; Closs, Gary; Kumar, Anand; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2013-03-01

    Dairy cattle serve as a potential source for Campylobacter infection in humans. Outbreaks associated with consumption of either Campylobacter contaminated raw milk or contaminated milk after treatment were previously recorded in the United States. Further, starlings have been implicated in the spread of bacterial pathogens among livestock. Here, we determined the prevalence, genotypic, and phenotypic properties of Campylobacter isolated from fecal samples of dairy cattle and starlings found on the same establishment in northeastern Ohio. Campylobacter were detected in 83 (36.6%) and 57 (50.4%) out of 227 dairy and 113 starling fecal samples, respectively. Specifically, 79 C. jejuni, five C. coli, and two other Campylobacter spp. were isolated from dairy feces, while all isolates from starlings (n=57) were C. jejuni. Our results showed that the prevalence of C. jejuni in birds was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in dairy cattle. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that C. jejuni were genotypically diverse and host restricted; however, there were several shared genotypes between dairy cattle and starling isolates. Likewise, many shared clonal complexes (CC) between dairy cattle and starlings were observed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. As in humans, both in cattle and starlings, the CC 45 and CC 21 were the most frequently represented CCs. As previously reported, CC 177 and CC 682 were restricted to the bird isolates, while CC 42 was restricted to dairy cattle isolates. Further, two new sequence types (STs) were detected in C. jejuni from dairy cattle. Interestingly, cattle and starling C. jejuni showed high resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. In conclusion, our results highlight starlings as potential reservoirs for C. jejuni, and they may play an important role in the epidemiology of clinically important C. jejuni in dairy population.

  6. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P < 0.05). Furthermore, direct plating was a more sensitive method to detect Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in the efficacies of PA, mCCDA, and CLA in detecting Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all

  7. Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, and Salmonella enterica and their simultaneous occurrence in German fattening pig herds and their environment.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Grüning, P; Fruth, A; Verspohl, J; Blaha, T; Kreienbrock, L; Merle, R

    2013-10-01

    Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia enterocolitica are common causes of foodborne infections in humans with pork as a potential source. Monitoring programs at farm level are, to date, only implemented for S. enterica, while epidemiological knowledge of the other two pathogens is still lacking. This study aimed to assess the pathogen load (in the pigs' environment) in fattening pig herds, their simultaneous occurrence, and the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica in herds in different Salmonella risk categories. In 50 fattening pig herds in northern Germany, four pooled fecal samples and 10 swab samples from the pigs' direct environment (pen walls, nipple drinkers), indirect environment (hallways, drive boards), and flies and rodent droppings were collected from each herd and submitted for cultural examination. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 38.1% of fecal, 32.7% of direct environment, 5.3% of indirect environment, and 4.6% of flies/pests samples collected, and Y. enterocolitica in 17.1, 8.1, 1.2, and 3.1% and S. enterica in 11.2, 7.7, 4.1, and 1.5%, respectively. For Campylobacter spp., Y. enterocolitica, and S. enterica, 80, 48, and 32% of herds were positive, respectively; 22 herds were positive for both Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica, 12 for Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica, and 7 for Y. enterocolitica and S. enterica. There was no significant association between the pathogens at herd level. Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica were found more often in samples from the low Salmonella risk category (odds ratio, 0.51; confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.73, and 0.3, 0.17 to 0.57), and this was also the case for Y. enterocolitica at herd level (odds ratio, 0.08; confidence interval, 0.02 to 0.3). This study provides evidence that the pigs' environment should be accounted for when implementing control measures on farms against Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica. An extrapolation from the current Salmonella

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans.

  10. Isolation of Campylobacters from the canals of Bangkok metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Dhamabutra, N; Kamol-Rathanakul, P; Pienthaweechai, K

    1992-06-01

    The 100 ml of canal water samples of 36 canals in Bangkok Metropolitan Area were examined in three periods starting from July-September 1988, November 1988-January 1989 and February-April 1989. Each time the 52 water samples were checked. Of 156 water samples, 116 strains of Campylobacter species were isolated. They were 63.79 per cent (74 strains) of C. cryaerophila and 36.21 per cent (42 strains) of C. cryaerophila-like organisms. The differentiation was determined by urease activity test. C. cryaerophila was isolated from 44.23 per cent (23 strains), 51.19 per cent (27 strains) and 46.15 per cent (24 strains) and also C. cryaerophila-like organism from 28.85 per cent (15 strains), 19.23 per cent (10 strains) and 32.69 per cent (17 strains) of the 52 samples during each period respectively. Since C. cryaerophila and C. cryaerophila-like are aerotolerant Campylobacter, they grow well in aerobic conditions at 25 degrees-36 degrees C. On the contrary, thermophilic Campylobacter such as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis require atmosphere containing 5 per cent O2, 10 per cent CO2, 85 per cent N2 and temperature at 36 degrees-42 degrees C, so the environment in the canals is unfavorable for their growth. The etiological role of C. cryaerophila in pathogenesis in humans is still unknown, and requires furthers study. This study shows that canals can be an important source of these two Campylobacter species that might be potential pathogens in the future.

  11. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates of poultry, swine, and cattle origin collected from slaughterhouses in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Nóra; Dán, Ádám; Kaszanyitzky, Éva; Samu, Péterné; Tóth, Ádám György; Varga, János; Damjanova, Ivelina

    2011-06-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in Hungary, and the aim of this study was to identify the distribution, genotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter species in the most important food-producing animals at the time of slaughter during 2008 and 2009. Of 1,110 samples, 266 were identified as Campylobacter coli (23.9%) and 143 as C. jejuni (12.9%) by real-time PCR. Resistance to enrofloxacin-ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was significant, especially in C. jejuni (73.3%) and C. coli (77.2%) from broilers. Higher erythromycin (P = 0.043) and tetracycline (P = 1.865e-14) resistance rates were found among C. coli isolates (9.7 and 74.1%, respectively) than among C. jejuni isolates (3.1 and 36.6%, respectively). A total of 47 fla short variable region sequences were identified among 73 selected C. coli and C. jejuni isolates, with 35 fla types detected only once. At the nucleotide level, fla types A66 and A21 were the most common. Using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method, 66% of strains exhibited unique profiles after Sma I digestion. Forty-two isolates assigned to 18 Sma I clusters were further typed by Kpn I, and of these, 24 were assigned to 10 Kpn I clusters. For isolates in five Kpn I clusters, epidemiological links were observed. Stable C. jejuni and C. coli clones were detected, indicating that further studies involving broiler and human isolates need to be conducted to elucidate the importance of these stable clones in human infections.

  12. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures.

    PubMed Central

    van de Giessen, A. W.; Tilburg, J. J.; Ritmeester, W. S.; van der Plas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved. Isolates of Campylobacter spp. were typed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The results indicate that broiler flocks become infected from environmental sources. The typing results suggest that on one farm transmission of Campylobacter spp. occurred from cattle to broilers via the farmer's footwear. After several campylobacter positive broiler cycles hygiene measures, including thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures, change of footwear at the entrance of each broiler house, control of vermin and other hygienic precautions, were introduced on both farms in order to prevent transmission of Campylobacter spp. from the farm environment to the broilers. The results indicate that the application of hygiene measures significantly reduced campylobacter infections of broiler flocks on both farms. PMID:9747756

  13. Restoring the selectivity of modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar for the isolation of Campylobacter species using tazobactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; McGill, Kevina; Gibbons, James; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli have emerged as a contaminant on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) when attempting to selectively isolate Campylobacter spp. from poultry. E. coli are particularly problematic given their ability to grow under microaerophilic conditions and have been shown to outcompete Campylobacter species making Campylobacter detection or enumeration difficult. This paper recommends a novel method for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA using tazobactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor. The method significantly inhibited ESBL E. coli growth in spiked or naturally contaminated broiler caecal samples (p≤0.01) when compared to conventional mCCDA. This effect was seen at concentrations as low as 1mg/L tazobactam. TmCCDA(1) was found to inhibit up to 8 log10 CFU/mL of ESBL E. coli in mixed pure cultures and 7.5 log10 CFU/mL in caecal samples. Furthermore TmCCDA concentrations up to 10 mg/L had no statistically significant inhibitory effect (p≥0.05) on the recovery of a panel of 27 Campylobacter jejuni and 5 Campylobacter coli isolates when compared to conventional mCCDA. From this study it is suggested that tazobactam, which is more chemically stable than clavulanic acid or sulbactam, is more suitable for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA for the detection or isolation of campylobacters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Campylobacter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Challenges in Food Safety Antibiotic Resistance and Food Safety Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests Food ... FDA, USDA, and health departments, tracks changes in antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter from humans, retail meats, and food ...

  15. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  16. Campylobacter troglodytis sp. nov., isolated from feces of human-habituated wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelková, Klára J; Taylor, Nancy S; Xu, Shilu; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Paster, Bruce J; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fox, James G

    2011-04-01

    The transmission of simian immunodeficiency and Ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. In this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. Campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for research and tourism purposes at Mahale Mountains National Park) and 0/15 (0%) group 2 (not human habituated but propagated from an introduced population released from captivity over 30 years ago at Rubondo Island National Park) chimpanzees, respectively. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all isolates were virtually identical (at most a single base difference), and the chimpanzee isolates were most closely related to Campylobacter helveticus and Campylobacter upsaliensis (94.7% and 95.9% similarity, respectively). Whole-cell protein profiling, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA, hsp60 sequence analysis, and determination of the mol% G+C content revealed two subgroups among the chimpanzee isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both subgroups represented distinct genomic species. In the absence of differential biochemical characteristics and morphology and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose to classify all isolates into a single novel nomenspecies, Campylobacter troglodytis, with strain MIT 05-9149 as the type strain; strain MIT 05-9157 is suggested as the reference strain for the second C. troglodytis genomovar. Further studies are required to determine whether the organism is pathogenic to chimpanzees and whether this novel Campylobacter colonizes humans and causes enteric disease.

  17. Campylobacter spp. in New Zealand raw sheep liver and human campylobacteriosis cases.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, A J; Nicol, C; Hudson, J A

    2005-03-01

    Sheep liver samples were tested for the presence and numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli during both spring and autumn. Over the same period, isolates were obtained from human clinical cases from the same geographical area as where the food samples were purchased. A subset of the C. jejuni isolates was typed by both Penner serotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzyme SmaI, to estimate the proportion of liver isolate types that were also isolated from human cases of campylobacteriosis. Of the 272 liver samples tested, 180 (66.2%) contained Campylobacter. Most of the positive samples contained <3 MPN/g of the organism, and only 12 (6.7%) were contaminated at a level exceeding 100 MPN/g. A total of 180 C. jejuni isolates were obtained from sheep liver and another 200 from human faeces. Of these, 212 isolates were randomly selected for typing, half from raw liver and half from human faeces. More than half (61.1%) of the 106 C. jejuni isolates from liver were of subtypes that were also isolated from human cases. While the C. jejuni present in sheep liver were mostly of subtypes also isolated from human cases, the significance of this food as a vehicle of human campylobacteriosis needs to be examined further in respect to other factors such as dose-response information, consumption data, frequency of undercooking and cross contamination.

  18. DNA identification and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from cecal samples of chickens in Grenada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To speciate Campylobacter strains from the ceca of chickens in Grenada by PCR and to evaluate DNA-based typing methods for the characterization of these isolates. Isolates were speciated with two multiplex PCR assays and were typed with flaA-RFLP, PFGE and MLST. Results confirmed that C. coli strain...

  19. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Leger, Judy St; Chapman, Mary H; Timmerman, Arjen J; Duim, Birgitta; Foster, Geoffrey; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

  20. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  1. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  2. [The bacteriological and serological prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica in fattening pig herds in Lower Saxony].

    PubMed

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Louis, Anne Lisa; Rösler, Uwe; Alter, Thomas; Beyerbach, Martin; Kreienbrocks, Lothar; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the occurrence of two bacteria that cause zoonoses, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica. The study was carried out in 30 fattening herds in Lower Saxony, Germany, in 2004 and compares the results of bacteriological and serological methods of detection. Bacteriological findings of Campylobacter spp. in the faeces indicated that 69.7% of the fattening pigs were positive, but 81.2% tested positive serologically. All herds tested here were both bacteriologically and serologically positive for Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, only 8.4% tested positive for Yersinia enterocolitica in the faecal samples, but 66.8% of the animals were serologically positive for that bacterium. While bacteriological examination did not detect Yersinia enterocolitica in 56.7% of the herds tested, serological testing showed that only 16.7% of the units were without reacting animals. The great difference between the results of bacteriological and serological testing, especially in the case of Yersinia enterocolitica, can be explained by the intermittent intestinal excretion and predominance of this bacterium in the animals' tonsils. Low faecal excretion is also the reason for the low detection rate of 3.4% of Yersinia enterocolitica in the environmental samples, while that of Campylobacter spp. was 33.3%. These results indicate that the environment plays only a secondary role in the distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica in pig herds.

  3. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU

    PubMed Central

    CABALLERO, Moisés; RIVERA, Isabel; JARA, Luis M.; ULLOA-STANOJLOVIC, Francisco M.; SHIVA, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coliwere isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents. PMID:26603225

  4. Enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in environmental farm samples and processing plant carcass rinses from commercial broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Roy D; Thayer, Stephan G; Law, Bibiana F; Mild, Rita M; Hofacre, Charles L; Singer, Randall S

    2013-07-01

    A prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the prevalences and loads of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in farm and processing plant samples collected from 55 commercial broiler chicken flocks. Environmental samples were collected from broiler houses within 48 h before slaughter, and carcass rinses were performed on birds from the same flocks at 4 different stages of processing. Salmonella was detected in farm samples of 50 (90.9%) flocks and in processing samples of 52 (94.5%) flocks. Campylobacter was detected in farm samples of 35 (63.6%) flocks and in processing samples of 48 (87.3%) flocks. There was a significant positive relationship between environmental farm samples and processing plant carcass rinses with respect to both Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads. Campylobacter loads were significantly higher than Salmonella loads, and the correlations between samples collected from the same flocks were higher for Campylobacter than they were for Salmonella. Boot socks were the most sensitive sample type for detection of Salmonella on the farm, whereas litter samples had the strongest association with Salmonella loads in pre- and postchill carcass rinses. Boot socks, drag swabs, and fecal samples all had similar sensitivities for detecting Campylobacter on the farm, and all were more strongly associated with Campylobacter loads in carcass rinses than were litter samples. Farm samples explained a greater proportion of the variability in carcass rinse prevalences and loads for Campylobacter than they did for Salmonella. Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads both decreased significantly as birds progressed through the processing plant.

  5. Enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Farm Samples and Processing Plant Carcass Rinses from Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Stephan G.; Law, Bibiana F.; Mild, Rita M.; Hofacre, Charles L.; Singer, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the prevalences and loads of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in farm and processing plant samples collected from 55 commercial broiler chicken flocks. Environmental samples were collected from broiler houses within 48 h before slaughter, and carcass rinses were performed on birds from the same flocks at 4 different stages of processing. Salmonella was detected in farm samples of 50 (90.9%) flocks and in processing samples of 52 (94.5%) flocks. Campylobacter was detected in farm samples of 35 (63.6%) flocks and in processing samples of 48 (87.3%) flocks. There was a significant positive relationship between environmental farm samples and processing plant carcass rinses with respect to both Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads. Campylobacter loads were significantly higher than Salmonella loads, and the correlations between samples collected from the same flocks were higher for Campylobacter than they were for Salmonella. Boot socks were the most sensitive sample type for detection of Salmonella on the farm, whereas litter samples had the strongest association with Salmonella loads in pre- and postchill carcass rinses. Boot socks, drag swabs, and fecal samples all had similar sensitivities for detecting Campylobacter on the farm, and all were more strongly associated with Campylobacter loads in carcass rinses than were litter samples. Farm samples explained a greater proportion of the variability in carcass rinse prevalences and loads for Campylobacter than they did for Salmonella. Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads both decreased significantly as birds progressed through the processing plant. PMID:23624481

  6. Typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from live broilers and retail broiler meat by flaA-RFLP, MLST, PFGE and REP-PCR.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Megan; Miller, William G; Oyarzabal, Omar A

    2011-02-01

    We analyzed 100 Campylobacter spp. isolates (C. jejuni and C. coli) from Grenada, Puerto Rico and Alabama, which were collected from live broilers or retail broiler meat. We analyzed these isolates with four molecular typing methods: restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene (flaA-RFLP), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and automated repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) using the DiversiLab system. All methods performed similarly for the typing of C. jejuni and C. coli. The DNA extraction method appears to influence the results obtained with REP-PCR. This method was better for the typing of C. jejuni than C. coli, however both REP-PCR and flaA-RFLP generated types that were indistinguishable between C. jejuni and C. coli and appeared to be random, without any relationship to species, location, or source of isolates. PFGE and MLST generated typing results that had a better correlation with the geographic location of the isolates and showed higher concordance with the Wallace coefficient. The adjusted Rand coefficient did not show higher concordance among the methods, although the PFGE/MLST combination exhibited the highest concordance. PFGE and MLST revealed a better discriminatory power for C. coli isolates than REP-PCR or flaA-RFLP. The use of readily available online tools to calculate the confidence interval of the Simpson's index of diversity and the adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients helped estimate the discriminatory power of typing methods. Further studies using different C. jejuni and C. coli strains may expand our understanding of the benefits and limitations of each of these typing methods for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter spp.

  7. Stable concentrated emulsions of the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) with microbicidal activities against the food-borne bacteria Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thormar, Halldor; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2006-01-01

    Of 11 fatty acids and monoglycerides tested against Campylobacter jejuni, the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) was the most active in killing the bacterium. Various monocaprin-in-water emulsions were prepared which were stable after storage at room temperature for many months and which retained their microbicidal activity. A procedure was developed to manufacture up to 500 ml of 200 mM preconcentrated emulsions of monocaprin in tap water. The concentrates were clear and remained stable for at least 12 months. They were active against C. jejuni upon 160- to 200-fold dilution in tap water and caused a >6- to 7-log(10) reduction in viable bacterial count in 1 min at room temperature. The addition of 0.8% Tween 40 to the concentrates as an emulsifying agent did not change the microbicidal activity. Emulsions of monocaprin killed a variety of Campylobacter isolates from humans and poultry and also killed strains of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, indicating a broad anticampylobacter activity. Emulsions of 1.25 mM monocaprin in citrate-lactate buffer at pH 4 to 5 caused a >6- to 7-log(10) reduction in viable bacterial counts of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in 10 min. C. jejuni was also more susceptible to monocaprin emulsions at low pH. The addition of 5 and 10 mM monocaprin emulsions to Campylobacter-spiked chicken feed significantly reduced the bacterial contamination. These results are discussed in view of the possible utilization of monocaprin emulsions in controlling the spread of food-borne bacteria from poultry to humans.

  8. Stable Concentrated Emulsions of the 1-Monoglyceride of Capric Acid (Monocaprin) with Microbicidal Activities against the Food-Borne Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thormar, Halldor; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2006-01-01

    Of 11 fatty acids and monoglycerides tested against Campylobacter jejuni, the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) was the most active in killing the bacterium. Various monocaprin-in-water emulsions were prepared which were stable after storage at room temperature for many months and which retained their microbicidal activity. A procedure was developed to manufacture up to 500 ml of 200 mM preconcentrated emulsions of monocaprin in tap water. The concentrates were clear and remained stable for at least 12 months. They were active against C. jejuni upon 160- to 200-fold dilution in tap water and caused a >6- to 7-log10 reduction in viable bacterial count in 1 min at room temperature. The addition of 0.8% Tween 40 to the concentrates as an emulsifying agent did not change the microbicidal activity. Emulsions of monocaprin killed a variety of Campylobacter isolates from humans and poultry and also killed strains of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, indicating a broad anticampylobacter activity. Emulsions of 1.25 mM monocaprin in citrate-lactate buffer at pH 4 to 5 caused a >6- to 7-log10 reduction in viable bacterial counts of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in 10 min. C. jejuni was also more susceptible to monocaprin emulsions at low pH. The addition of 5 and 10 mM monocaprin emulsions to Campylobacter-spiked chicken feed significantly reduced the bacterial contamination. These results are discussed in view of the possible utilization of monocaprin emulsions in controlling the spread of food-borne bacteria from poultry to humans. PMID:16391087

  9. Confirmation of human Campylobacter concisus isolates misidentified as Campylobacter mucosalis and suggestions for improved differentiation between the two species.

    PubMed

    On, S L

    1994-09-01

    A strain from human diarrhea originally identified as Campylobacter mucosalis (NCTC 12408) was examined by using 64 phenotypic characters. The similarity of this strain to 297 isolates of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Arcobacter, and related taxa was then determined with a computer-supported data analysis program, MVSP. NCTC 12408 showed closest similarity to 20 type, reference, and field isolates of Campylobacter concisus. These strains were clearly separated from those of C. mucosalis in the numerical analysis of phenotypic tests; a table was constructed from the data used to aid in differentiating these two species in the clinical laboratory. The identity of NCTC 12408 was confirmed as C. concisus by visual comparison of its sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel whole-cell protein electrophoregram with those of type strains of C. concisus and C. mucosalis. These data suggest that genuine human infection with C. mucosalis has not yet been reported.

  10. Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov., a novel member of the Campylobacter lari group isolated from wild bird faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Alberto; Muñoz, Ivo; Iraola, Gregorio; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Collado, Luis

    2017-06-01

    During a study on the prevalence and diversity of campylobacteria in wild birds faecal samples from the city of Valdivia (southern Chile) 17 Gram-stain-negative, curved-rod-shaped isolates, were initially identified as Campylobacter lari by PCR-RFLP. Further identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that they formed a distinct group in the genus Campylobacter. This unique position was confirmed by the results of analysis of rpoB, atpA and cpn60 gene sequences. The average nucleotide identity between the representative strain WBE38T and the type strain of the most closely related taxon C. larisubsp.concheus (LMG 11760) was 90.8 %. The oxidase and urease activity of the novel isolates enabled them to be phenotypically differentiated from species of the genus Campylobacter with validly published names. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic, genetic and genomic characterizations, the results of this study clearly indicate that these strains represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain WBE38T (=CECT 9147T=LMG 29815T).

  11. An immunomagnetic separation/loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid direct detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. during poultry production.

    PubMed

    Romero, M R; D'Agostino, M; Arias, A Pérez; Robles, S; Casado, C Fernández; Iturbe, L Orueta; Lerma, O Gurrutxaga; Andreou, M; Cook, N

    2016-02-01

    To develop a rapid test for thermotolerant Campylobacter in poultry faeces. The reported method is based on immunomagnetic separation and loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (IMS/LAMP). This LAMP assay is specific (demonstrated using 10 Campylobacter strains and 13 non-Campylobacter bacterial species) and sensitive (95% probability of detecting 22 genome copies). A competitive internal amplification control (IAC) has been incorporated to give unambiguous determination of negative results. Immunoseparation of Campylobacter allows direct LAMP detection from poultry boot swab samples in 90 min without enrichment or DNA purification (74% probability of detecting 10(4) CFU ml(-1) of a boot swab suspension). The analysis of 17 samples from commercial turkey farms showed 100% correlation with parallel results obtained by standard microbiological methods. A rapid test has been developed for direct detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in boot swab samples, thus bypassing culture enrichment or DNA extraction. The test has potential to be carried out by farm personnel on site. The method offers an inexpensive approach to monitor poultry infection in near real time, assisting flock management and controls to prevent introduction of Campylobacter into the food chain. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection.

  13. Genetic and epidemiological relationships among Campylobacter isolates from humans.

    PubMed

    Höök, Helena; Ekegren, Maj-Britt; Ericsson, Henrik; Vågsholm, Ivar; Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise

    2004-01-01

    84 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Swedish patients with domestic infection were characterized with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the subtype information considered in relation to epidemiological data. Based on pattern combinations from restriction cleavage with SmaI and SalI, 52 different PFGE types were identified. Types with an average pattern similarity of at least 82% and 63% were assembled in groups and clusters, respectively. The 2 largest clusters included 71% of the isolates. The distribution in time varied between different groups and clusters, where some were isolated sporadically during the whole period and others appeared more concentrated in time. Types in 1 cluster were significantly more often isolated in summer than other types in the study. Isolates from children showed lower pattern similarity to other isolates than isolates from adults. Sets of type and time related cases, possibly representing small outbreaks, were identified when indistinguishable PFGE patterns were found in isolates from temporally related cases. Our results indicate that although a large number of genotypes may be found among C. jejuni strains infecting humans, a large proportion of these may be genetically related, and that different genotypes may appear during different seasons and infect individuals of different ages.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry Production Units in Southern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, Emer; Buckley, James F.; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul; Fanning, Séamus

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the sources and routes of transmission of Campylobacter in intensively reared poultry farms in the Republic of Ireland. Breeder flocks and their corresponding broilers housed in three growing facilities were screened for the presence of Campylobacter species from November 2006 through September 2007. All breeder flocks tested positive for Campylobacter species (with C. jejuni and C. coli being identified). Similarly, all broiler flocks also tested positive for Campylobacter by the end of the rearing period. Faecal and environmental samples were analyzed at regular intervals throughout the rearing period of each broiler flock. Campylobacter was not detected in the disinfected house, or in one-day old broiler chicks. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from environmental samples including air, water puddles, adjacent broiler flocks and soil. A representative subset of isolates from each farm was selected for further characterization using flaA-SVR sub-typing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to determine if same-species isolates from different sources were indistinguishable or not. Results obtained suggest that no evidence of vertical transmission existed and that adequate cleaning/disinfection of broiler houses contributed to the prevention of carryover and cross-contamination. Nonetheless, the environment appears to be a potential source of Campylobacter. The population structure of Campylobacter isolates from broiler farms in Southern Ireland was diverse and weakly clonal. PMID:22163024

  15. Genomic variations leading to alterations in cell morphology of Campylobacter spp

    PubMed Central

    Esson, Diane; Mather, Alison E.; Scanlan, Eoin; Gupta, Srishti; de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Bailey, David; Harris, Simon R.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Méric, Guillaume; Berry, Sophia K.; Mastroeni, Pietro; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Christie, Graham; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Parkhill, Julian; Maskell, Duncan J.; Grant, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease, is normally helical. However, it can also adopt straight rod, elongated helical and coccoid forms. Studying how helical morphology is generated, and how it switches between its different forms, is an important objective for understanding this pathogen. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic factors involved in generating the helical shape of Campylobacter. A C. jejuni transposon (Tn) mutant library was screened for non-helical mutants with inconsistent results. Whole genome sequence variation and morphological trends within this Tn library, and in various C. jejuni wild type strains, were compared and correlated to detect genomic elements associated with helical and rod morphologies. All rod-shaped C. jejuni Tn mutants and all rod-shaped laboratory, clinical and environmental C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli contained genetic changes within the pgp1 or pgp2 genes, which encode peptidoglycan modifying enzymes. We therefore confirm the importance of Pgp1 and Pgp2 in the maintenance of helical shape and extended this to a wide range of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. Genome sequence analysis revealed variation in the sequence and length of homopolymeric tracts found within these genes, providing a potential mechanism of phase variation of cell shape. PMID:27910897

  16. Evaluation of a disk method for detection of hippurate hydrolysis by Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cacho, J B; Aguirre, P M; Hernanz, A; Velasco, A C

    1989-01-01

    A disk method for detecting hippurate hydrolysis by Campylobacter spp. was evaluated and compared with the conventional tube test used at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (G.K. Morris and C.M. Patton, p. 302-308, in E.H. Lennette, A. Balows, W.J. Hausler, Jr., and H.J. Shadomy, ed., Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 4th ed., 1985) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 118 Campylobacter strains were tested. Eighty-seven strains (74%) were hippurate positive by the HPLC method, and the remaining 31 (26%) were found to be hippurate negative. By using HPLC as the reference technique, the CDC method showed a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 81%; the disk method showed a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 94%. The disk method can be performed with a small inoculum of bacteria, did not present problems of interpretation, and showed better results than the CDC method (P = 0.015). PMID:2644300

  17. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates obtained from retail chicken meat and offal products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hidano, Arata; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    A rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter has been posing a serious concern for human health. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the overall trend in antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates obtained from chicken meat and offal products collected from a wide geographic area throughout Japan. Resistance to Enrofloxacin was most frequently observed, with significantly higher rate of resistance among isolates obtained from offal (55.6%) than from meat (27.3%) samples (p = 0.05). These results highlight need for a better understanding of the characteristics of Campylobacter isolates obtained from chicken meat and offal products.

  18. Prevalence of Putative Virulence Genes in Campylobacter and Arcobacter Species Isolated from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Hassena, Amal Ben; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C. jejuni and 8 C. coli. All the Campylobacter isolates were positive for the cadF gene. The plasmid gene virB11 was not detected in any strain. The invasion associated marker was not detected in C. jejuni. Lower detection rates were observed for flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC. The presence of nine putative Arcobacter virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, tlyA, irgA, hecA, and hecB) was checked in a set of 22 Arcobacter butzleri and 4 Arcobacter cryaerophilus isolates. The pldA and mviN genes were predominant (88.64%). Lower detection rates were observed for tlyA (84.76%), ciaB (84.61%), cadF and cj1349 (76.92%), IrgA and hecA (61.53%), and hecB (57.69%). The findings revealed that a majority of the Campylobacteraceae strains have these putative virulence genes that may lead to pathogenic effects in humans.

  19. Campylobacter volucris sp. nov., isolated from black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus).

    PubMed

    Debruyne, Lies; Broman, Tina; Bergström, Sven; Olsen, Björn; On, Stephen L W; Vandamme, Peter

    2010-08-01

    During a study of the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus) in Sweden, three isolates, strains LMG 24379, LMG 24380T and LMG 24381, were initially identified as Campylobacter lari. Further characterization by both AFLP and whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE analyses revealed that they formed a distinct group in the genus Campylobacter. This unique position was confirmed by phenotypic characterization, 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridizations. The combined data confirm that these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter volucris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 24380T (=CCUG 57498T).

  20. Detection of pathogenic Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in wastewater by PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Si; Pignata, C; Lorenzi, E; De Ceglia, M; Meucci, L; Bonetta, Sa; Gilli, G; Carraro, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the occurrence of pathogenic Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli virulence genes and Salmonella spp. in different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using a method based on an enrichment step and PCR. This method was sensitive enough to detect low levels (∼2 CFU100 ml(-1) of raw sewage) of all the investigated pathogens. In the WWTP samples, E. coli O157:H7 DNA and the eae gene were never found, but 33 % of influents and effluents exhibited amplicons corresponding to Shiga-like toxin I. Twenty-five percent of the influent and 8 % of the effluent exhibited the presence of Shiga-like toxin II. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli DNA were identified in 50 and 25 % of the influents and in 8 and 25 % of the effluents, respectively. Salmonella spp. DNA was present in all the samples. Considering the results obtained, the method tested here offers a reliable and expeditious tool for evaluating the efficiency of the effluent treatment in order to mitigate contamination risk. Influent contamination by Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. provides indirect information about their circulation; moreover, their presence in effluents underlines the role of WWTPs in the contamination of the receiving surface waters, which affects public health directly or indirectly.

  1. Isolation of Plasmids Encoding Tetracycline Resistance from Campylobacter jejuni Strains Isolated from Simians

    PubMed Central

    Tenover, F. C.; Bronsdon, M. A.; Gordon, K. P.; Plorde, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen isolates of tetracycline-resistant Campylobacter jejuni were recovered from stool samples of cynomologous monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) housed at the University of Washington Primate Research Center, Seattle. Resistance was associated with carriage of a 38-megadalton plasmid which was transmissible to other strains of C. jejuni but not to Escherichia coli. Seven isolates also contained a 2.6-megadalton plasmid which was phenotypically cryptic. Images PMID:6838189

  2. Evaluation of frequency of isolation and trends in antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter isolates over 11 year period.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N G; Zafar, A; Hasan, R

    2004-06-01

    To analyze frequency of isolation and trends in antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter isolates over 11 year period in Microbiology Laboratory, Aga Khan University from the year 1992-2002. Total 52,777 stool specimens were processed during the study period. Enteric pathogens isolated from 8,483 stool samples were further analyzed for frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance. Statistical Analysis was done by using descriptive statistics of SPSS version 10. Values were expressed as percentages, mean and rates. Campylobacter species were third in frequency of isolation with an isolation rate of 24.8%. C. jejuni was the predominant pathogen followed by C.coli. Isolation rate of Campylobacter was higher (45.7%) among children under 2 years of age as compared to other age groups. A steady rise in resistance among Campylobacter isolates against ampicillin; tetracycline and ofloxacin has been noted whereas resistance against erythromycin remained fairly low. The isolation of Campylobacter is higher from stool specimens of children of less than two years of age rendering Campylobacteriosis to be an important cause of gastroenteritis in pediatric population. This study also demonstrates a steady rise in antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolates especially against quinolones with fall in resistance against erythromycin throughout the study period.

  3. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  4. Temporal variation in the prevalence and species richness of Campylobacter spp. in a prairie watershed impacted by urban and agricultural mixed inputs.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Boa, Tyler; Aryal, Bijaya; Yost, Christopher K

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a substantial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Human infection can result from ingestion of contaminated food or water from a variety of sources, including the consumption of fresh produce that is contaminated with the pathogen via the use of contaminated irrigation water. Using molecular methods, we investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter in the Qu'Appelle River watershed, an important source of irrigation water for vegetable producers in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Water samples were collected from 7 sampling sites from April to September 2009 (145 samples), and from 5 sampling sites from May to October 2013 (116 samples). Campylobacter was detected in 57% and 16% of the samples collected in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Campylobacter detection was highest in May and June for both sampling years. In 2009, the predominant species were Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter jejuni, with prevalences of 84% and 41%, respectively. Other Campylobacter spp. were detected less frequently. Only C. lari was detected in 2013. The results in 2009 demonstrate the species richness of Campylobacter in water sources within the watershed. The occurrence of Campylobacter in the study area also underscores the importance of monitoring irrigation water used to irrigate fresh produce from a public health prospective.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand.

  6. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken in farms and at time of slaughter in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Pergola, S; Franciosini, M P; Comitini, F; Ciani, M; De Luca, S; Bellucci, S; Menchetti, L; Casagrande Proietti, P

    2017-05-01

    Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. Campylobacter sp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from the neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex PCR. Characterization by single amplified fragment length polymorphism (s-AFLP) revealed a specific genotype of Campylobacter for each farm. Minimal inhibitory concentration showed high prevalence of fluoroquinolones (70%), tetracycline (70%) and erythromycin (30%) resistance among C. coli isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates showed lower prevalence of fluoroquinolone (39%) and tetracycline (10%) resistance, and all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. The S-AFLP types of the C. coli and C. jejuni isolates were associated with their antimicrobial resistance profiles (P < 0·001). The genetic diversity detected in Campylobacter isolates suggested that a specific genotype was harboured in each farm. A considerable number of C. coli isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Campylobacter coli was detected more frequently than C. jejuni in contrast to common findings for poultry. The high prevalence of 30% resistance to erythromycin in C. coli strains isolated from poultry is worrisome, as this is the first antibiotic of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Microtiter Assay for Detecting Campylobacter spp. and Helicobacter pylori with Surface Gangliosides Which Bind Cholera Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Sack, David A.; Lastovica, Albert J.; Chang, Sunny H.; Pazzaglia, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni with Gm1 ganglioside in the core of its lipopolysaccharide has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Since this epitope may be of considerable pathophysiologic importance and since this ganglioside binds cholera toxin, a rapid screening assay to detect bacteria that bind cholera toxin as an indication of Gm1 on their surfaces was developed. In the assay, bacterial lawns were grown on agar plates, harvested with phosphate-buffered saline, boiled, and incubated with a standard concentration of cholera B subunit. Preparations from strains with Gm1 were observed to inhibit the binding of cholera B subunit to Gm1 in a microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. By using this assay with two groups of strains, 37 positive strains were detected among the 197 tested. Species with positive isolates included C. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Helicobacter pylori. The assay is capable of testing large numbers of isolates and should prove useful in future clinical and epidemiological studies of bacteria with this epitope. PMID:9650959

  8. Enumeration and Diversity of Campylobacters and Bacteriophages Isolated during the Rearing Cycles of Free-Range and Organic Chickens

    PubMed Central

    El-Shibiny, A.; Connerton, P. L.; Connerton, I. F.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacters and Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages were isolated and enumerated during the rearing cycle of free-range (56 days) and organic chickens (73 days) at 3-day intervals from hatching until slaughter. In both flocks Campylobacter jejuni was the initial colonizer but Campylobacter coli was detected more frequently from 5 weeks of age. The diversity of the Campylobacter isolates was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested genomic DNA and antimicrobial resistance typing. Bacteriophages were isolated from 51% (19 of 37 birds) of Campylobacter-positive organic birds (log10 2.5 to log10 5.7 PFU/g of cecal contents). The bacteriophages were all typical group III Campylobacter bacteriophages in terms of genomic size but could be characterized in terms of their host range and placed into five different groups. In contrast to the organic birds, anti-Campylobacter activity (bacteriocin-like) was observed in 26% (10 of 38 birds) of Campylobacter-positive free-range birds, and only one bacteriophage was isolated. Appearance of either bacteriophages or anti-Campylobacter activity was associated with changes in the levels of colonization and the predominant genotypes and species isolated. The frequency and potential influence of naturally occurring bacteriophages and/or inhibitory substances on the diversity and fluctuations of populations of campylobacters have not previously been reported in either free-range or organic chickens. PMID:15746327

  9. Evaluation of real-time PCR assays and standard curve optimisation for enhanced accuracy in quantification of Campylobacter environmental water isolates.

    PubMed

    Gosselin-Théberge, Maxime; Taboada, Eduardo; Guy, Rebecca A

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter is a major public health and economic burden in developed and developing countries. This study evaluated published real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for detection of Campylobacter to enable selection of the best assays for quantification of C. spp. and C. jejuni in environmental water samples. A total of 9 assays were compared: three for thermotolerant C. spp. targeting the 16S rRNA and six for C. jejuni targeting different genes. These assays were tested in the wet-lab for specificity and sensitivity against a collection of 60, genetically diverse, Campylobacter isolates from environmental water. All three qPCR assays targeting C. spp. were positive when tested against the 60 isolates, whereas, assays targeting C. jejuni differed among each other in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Three C. jejuni-specific assays that demonstrated good specificity and sensitivity when tested in the wet-lab showed concordant results with in silico-predicted results obtained against a set of 211 C. jejuni and C. coli genome sequences. Two of the assays targeting C. spp. and C. jejuni were selected to compare DNA concentration estimation, using spectrophotometry and digital PCR (dPCR), in order to calibrate standard curves (SC) for greater accuracy of qPCR-based quantification. Average differences of 0.56±0.12 and 0.51±0.11 log fold copies were observed between the spectrophotometry-based SC preparation and the dPCR preparation for C. spp. and C. jejuni, respectively, demonstrating an over-estimation of Campylobacter concentration when spectrophotometry was used to calibrate the DNA SCs. Our work showed differences in quantification of aquatic environmental isolates of Campylobacter between qPCR assays and method-specific bias in SC preparation. This study provided an objective analysis of qPCR assays targeting Campylobacter in the literature and provides a framework for evaluating novel assays. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. and Fecal Indicator Bacteria during the Northern Migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Vogel, Jason; Santo Domingo, Jorge; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The risk to human health of the annual sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska, which is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution of the central Platte River, is unknown. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and three fecal indicator bacterial groups (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Bacteroidetes) was assayed by PCR from crane excreta and water samples collected during their stopover at the Platte River, Nebraska, in 2010. Genus-specific PCR assays and sequence analyses identified Campylobacter jejuni as the predominant Campylobacter species in sandhill crane excreta. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 48% of crane excreta, 24% of water samples, and 11% of sediment samples. The estimated densities of Enterococcus spp. were highest in excreta samples (mean, 4.6 × 108 cell equivalents [CE]/g), while water samples contained higher levels of Bacteroidetes (mean, 5.1 × 105 CE/100 ml). Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. were significantly increased in river water and sediments during the crane migration period, with Enterococcus sp. densities (∼3.3 × 105 CE/g) 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than those of Bacteroidetes (4.9 × 103 CE/g), E. coli (2.2 × 103 CE/g), and Campylobacter spp. (37 CE/g). Sequencing data for the 16S rRNA gene and Campylobacter species-specific PCR assays indicated that C. jejuni was the major Campylobacter species present in water, sediments, and crane excreta. Overall, migration appeared to result in a significant, but temporary, change in water quality in spring, when there may be a C. jejuni health hazard associated with water and crops visited by the migrating birds. PMID:23584775

  11. Farm level risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Taylor, N M; Wales, A D; Ridley, A M; Davies, R H

    2016-10-01

    Data on husbandry practices, performance, disease and drug use were collected during a cross-sectional survey of 89 poultry meat farms in England and Wales to provide information on possible risk factors for the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant bacteria. Faeces samples were used to classify farms as "affected" or "not affected" by FQ-resistant (FQr) Escherichia coli or Campylobacter spp. Risk factor analysis identified the use of FQ on the farms as having by far the strongest association, among the factors considered, with the occurrence of FQr bacteria. Resistant E. coli and/or Campylobacter spp. were found on 86% of the farms with a history of FQ use. However, a substantial proportion of farms with no history of FQ use also yielded FQr organisms, suggesting that resistant bacteria may transfer between farms. Further analysis suggested that for Campylobacter spp., on-farm hygiene, cleaning and disinfection between batches of birds and wildlife control were of most significance. By contrast, for E. coli biosecurity from external contamination was of particular importance, although the modelling indicated that other factors were likely to be involved. Detailed studies on a small number of sites showed that FQr E. coli can survive routine cleaning and disinfection. It appears difficult to avoid the occurrence of resistant bacteria when FQ are used on a farm, but the present findings provide evidence to support recommendations to reduce the substantial risk of the incidental acquisition of such resistance by farms where FQ are not used.

  12. Biphasic microtiter method for campylobacter recovery and enumeration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We developed a biphasic method for recovery and enumeration of campylobacters. The biphasic system was composed of 96-well microtiter plates containing Campy-Line Agar (CLA) prepared 2X for all ingredients except for 1X agar (0.1 ml per well). Samples of pure Campylobacter spp. isolates, post-chi...

  13. Occurrence and molecular characterization of reptilian Campylobacter fetus strains isolated in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Min; Shia, Wei-Yau; Jhou, Yi-Jyun; Shyu, Ching-Lin

    2013-05-31

    The number of people who raise reptiles as pets has increased, but information about zoonotic Campylobacter carried by reptiles is limited. A survey of zoonotic Campylobacter species isolated from reptiles was undertaken to understand the possibility of this zoonotic bacterial pathogen causing human infection. A total of 179 fresh reptile fecal samples were collected from human-raised, pet shop and wild reptiles to survey the Campylobacter species. Basic biochemical reactions and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to identify the Campylobacter species. In the 179 fecal samples, 6.7% (12/179) were Campylobacter positive; all positive samples were identified as Campylobacter fetus. For the different reptile species, the prevalence of C. fetus in turtles was 9.7% (10/103), 1.7% (1/56) in lizards and 5.0% (1/20) in snakes. Based on published C. fetus subspecies-specific sequences, 9 of the C. fetus bacterial isolates were identified as C. fetus subsp. fetus by multiplex PCR. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to analyze the Campylobacter epidemiology and population genetics. Most of the C. fetus strains isolated from the reptiles were genetically distinct from classical mammalian C. fetus. Only the new type of ST-43, isolated from Chelonoidis carbonaria (turtle), was closely related to mammalian strains. Strain Campy-pet-3 possesses a urease activity in this study is the first to be described in C. fetus and this strain is the only one of lizard origin. This study provides the first information of Campylobacter species distribution in reptilian feces and supports the possibility of zoonotic Campylobacter infectious diseases caused by reptiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel Campylobacter isolation method using hydrophobic grid membrane filter and semisolid medium.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso; Harris, Kathleen; Riche, Edward; Campbell, Stephanie; Jarvie, Anne; Popa, Maria; Deckert, Anne; Reid-Smith, Richard; Rahn, Kris

    2007-02-01

    Culture procedures for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from food matrices are complex, labor intensive, and time-consuming. Most available methods include the use of antibiotics as selective agents to prevent the growth of competing microflora. A simple procedure for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters after enrichment in Rosef's enrichment broth was developed using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) on semisolid medium (SSM). SSM contains no antibiotics, and the HGMF physically separates Campylobacter from the enrichment broth, allowing isolation based on differential motility. The HGMF-SSM method was compared to the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Food Safety Procedures Manual (FSPM-10) method (Isolation of Thermophilic Campylobacters from Fresh Pork, Beef Veal, Poultry and Ready-to-Eat Meat Products), which includes the use of selective antibiotics. During the initial study, after enrichment the HGMF-SSM method yielded pure cultures of campylobacters after 16 to 18 h (overnight) compared with 48 h for the FSPM-10 method. Ninety-four turkey samples collected at local retail stores and 38 frozen pig fecal samples were processed by both methods. Thirty-five samples (26.5%) were positive by the HGMF-SSM method; 24 (18.2%) of these positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni and 11 (8.3%) contained Campylobacter coli. With the FSPM-10 method, 25 samples (18.9%) were positive: 21 (15.9%) with C. jejuni and 4 (3%) with C. coli. For a subsequent field study, only the HGMF-SSM method was used to isolate Campylobacter from 1,200 chicken samples and 454 turkey samples sold at retail. Analysis of five subisolates from various samples indicated that only one type of Campylobacter was recovered by the HGMF-SSM method, as ascertained by MICs for 10 antimicrobials, sequencing of the short variable region of the flaA gene, and fingerprinting based on amplified fragment length polymorphism. The absence of antibiotics in the SSM may explain the higher

  15. Antimicrobial activities of isothiocyanates against Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Virginie; Alazzam, Bachar; Ermel, Gwennola; Thepaut, Marion; Rossero, Albert; Tresse, Odile; Baysse, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes. We have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), and benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human infections, and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains NCTC11168 and 81-176. AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial activity against C. jejuni. BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial effect (MIC of 1.25-5 μg mL(-1)) compared to AITC (MIC of 50-200 μg mL(-1)). Both compounds are bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic. The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni isolates against isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT (γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase) encoding gene in the genome, with antibiotic resistance nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate compared to wild-type when exposed to ITC. This work determined the MIC of two ITC against a panel of C. jejuni isolates, showed that both compounds are bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic, and highlighted the role of GGT enzyme in the survival rate of C. jejuni exposed to ITC.

  16. Analysis of simultaneous space-time clusters of Campylobacter spp. in humans and in broiler flocks using a multiple dataset approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU and the epidemiology of sporadic campylobacteriosis, especially the routes of transmission, is to a great extent unclear. Poultry easily become colonised with Campylobacter spp., being symptom-less intestinal carriers. Earlier it was estimated that internationally between 50% and 80% of the cases could be attributed to chicken as a reservoir. In a Norwegian surveillance programme all broiler flocks under 50 days of age were tested for Campylobacter spp. The aim of the current study was to identify simultaneous local space-time clusters each year from 2002 to 2007 for human cases of campylobacteriosis and for broiler flocks testing positive for Campylobacter spp. using a multivariate spatial scan statistic method. A cluster occurring simultaneously in humans and broilers could indicate the presence of common factors associated with the dissemination of Campylobacter spp. for both humans and broilers. Results Local space-time clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. occurring simultaneously were identified in all investigated years. All clusters but one were identified from May to August. Some municipalities were included in clusters all years. Conclusions The simultaneous occurrence of clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. combined with the knowledge that poultry meat has a nation-wide distribution indicates that campylobacteriosis cases might also be caused by other risk factors than consumption and handling of poultry meat. Broiler farms that are positive could contaminate the environment with further spread to new broiler farms or to humans living in the area and local environmental factors, such as climate, might influence the spread of Campylobacter spp. in an area. Further studies to clarify the role of such factors are needed. PMID:20860801

  17. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  18. Nonpeptidic mimics of host defense proteins as antimicrobial agents for E. coli O104:H4, campylobacter spp. and other foodborne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Foodborne illness is a serious public health problem. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illness in the United States, causing more disease than Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. combined. The CDC estima...

  19. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter isolates from conventional and antibiotic-free chicken products.

    PubMed

    Price, Lance B; Johnson, Elizabeth; Vailes, Rocio; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2005-05-01

    The use of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in poultry production is an important issue in public health today. In February 2002, two prominent U.S. poultry companies pledged to stop using FQs for flock-wide treatment. One year later, we began a survey of Campylobacter isolates on chicken products from these two companies and from two producers claiming total abstention from antibiotic use. Using both standard isolation methods and new methods modified to enhance detection of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, we compared rates of FQ-resistant Campylobacter among these products. Four major findings were drawn from this study: a) antibiotic-free brands were not more likely to be contaminated with Campylobacter; b) a high percentage of products from the two conventional brands were contaminated with FQ-resistant Campylobacter (43 and 96%); c) these conventional brands had significantly higher odds of carrying resistant strains compared with antibiotic-free products; and d) supplementing media with FQs increased the sensitivity of detecting FQ-resistant strains among mixed populations of Campylobacter, thus reducing a bias toward underestimating the prevalence of FQ-resistant Campylobacter on samples. These results suggest that FQ resistance may persist in the commercial poultry environment in the absence of FQ-selective pressure and that these strains contaminate a larger proportion of foods than reported previously.

  20. Risk Factors for Sporadic Infection With Campylobacter Spp. Among Children in Israel: A Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Bassal, Ravit; Ovadia, Adi; Bromberg, Michal; Stein, Michal; Shainberg, Bracha; Loewenthal, Shulamit; Somekh, Eli; Cohen, Daniel; Shohat, Tamy

    2016-03-01

    Campylobacter spp. has been identified as one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. In recent years, an increase in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in several countries, including Israel, was demonstrated. The incidence rate of campylobacteriosis in Israel increased from 22.3 per 100,000 in 1997 to 77.4 per 100,000 in 2009. The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for sporadic infection with Campylobacter among young children in Israel. A matched case-control study was performed to investigate risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection among 113 affected children of 1-5 years of age and 113 age-matched, gender-matched and neighborhood-matched controls. Information about exposure to potential risk factors was obtained via telephone interview and was evaluated by conditional logistic regression analysis. In the multivariable model, for each additional chicken meal consumed during the week before the onset of illness, the odds for Campylobacter infection increased by 32% [adjusted matched odds ratios (aMOR): 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.72; P = 0.04], whereas consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased the odds for Campylobacter infection by 97% (aMOR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.00-0.28; P < 0.01), and for each additional child living in the household, the odds for infection decreased by 48% (aMOR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83; P < 0.01). Using diaper increased the odds for campylobacteriosis (aMOR: 7.36; 95% CI: 1.66-32.70; P < 0.01). Interventions that focus on proper handling of chicken and chicken products, hand washing and encouraging consumption of fruits and vegetables could help in controlling Campylobacter infections.

  1. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Species Isolates with a Horizontally Acquired rRNA Methylase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Maojun; Deng, Fengru; Shen, Zhangqi; Wu, Congming; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter constitutes a serious threat to public health, and resistance to macrolides is of particular concern, as this class of antibiotics is the drug of choice for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Very recently, a horizontally transferrable macrolide resistance mediated by the rRNA methylase gene erm(B) was reported in a Campylobacter coli isolate, but little is known about the dissemination of erm(B) among Campylobacter isolates and the association of erm(B)-carrying isolates with clinical disease. To address this question and facilitate the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, we determined the distribution of erm(B) in 1,554 C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates derived from food-producing animals and clinically confirmed human diarrheal cases. The results revealed that 58 of the examined isolates harbored erm(B) and exhibited high-level resistance to macrolides, and most were recent isolates, derived in 2011-2012. In addition, the erm(B)-positive isolates were all resistant to fluoroquinolones, another clinically important antibiotic used for treating campylobacteriosis. The erm(B) gene is found to be associated with chromosomal multidrug resistance genomic islands (MDRGIs) of Gram-positive origin or with plasmids of various sizes. All MDRGIs were transferrable to macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni by natural transformation under laboratory conditions. Molecular typing of the erm(B)-carrying isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified diverse genotypes and outbreak-associated diarrheal isolates. Molecular typing also suggested zoonotic transmission of erm(B)-positive Campylobacter. These findings reveal an emerging and alarming trend of dissemination of erm(B) and MDRGIs in Campylobacter and underscore the need for heightened efforts to control their further spread. PMID:24982085

  2. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and coli strains isolated in turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    associated with significant foodborne disease. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two most prevalent species contributing to human diarrheal disease. The objective of this study was to determine the routes of transmission for Campylobacter throughout turkey production and processing. A floc...

  3. Large-scale feasibility of organic acids as a permanent preharvest intervention in drinking water of broilers and their effect on foodborne Campylobacter spp. before processing.

    PubMed

    Jansen, W; Reich, F; Klein, G

    2014-06-01

    Evaluating the effect of a commercially available organic acid water additive in conventional broiler production on Campylobacter spp. The organic acid water additive was added to the drinking water from chick housing to catching in three consecutive rearing cycles. The broiler performance data were evaluated, and the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was analysed in water, feed and the environment as well as determined in caecum content and on carcasses at the abattoir according to ISO 10272:1.2-2002. The results indicated that permanent application of acidified drinking water did not have detrimental effects on production parameters or animal welfare. The quantitative results obtained at slaughter were ambiguous, but suggested a reduced carriage of Campylobacter spp. by the flock and in caecum content. Such reduction did not result in lower Campylobacter carriage of the carcasses after slaughter. Organic acids in drinking water of broilers can partly reduce the caecal Campylobacter spp. load, but this did not reduce carcass contamination. Broiler meat is a major source of foodborne campylobacteriosis. The public health would considerably benefit from controlling Campylobacter in the food chain. The addition of organic acid to drinking water of broilers can potentially lower the caecal carriage in primary production. However, in this field trial, a commercial product failed to have an impact on the bacterial load after slaughter. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Campylobacter geochelonis sp. nov. isolated from the western Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni).

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Alessandra; Niero, Giulia; Calleros, Lucía; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Iraola, Gregorio

    2016-09-01

    During a screening study to determine the presence of species of the genus Campylobacter in reptiles, three putative strains (RC7, RC11 and RC20T) were isolated from different individuals of the western Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni). Initially, these isolates were characterized as representing Campylobacterfetus subsp. fetus by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Further whole- genome characterization revealed considerable differences compared to other Campylobacter species. A polyphasic study was then undertaken to determine the exact taxonomic position of the isolates. The three strains were characterized by conventional phenotypic tests and whole genome sequencing. We generated robust phylogenies that showed a distinct clade containing only these strains using the 16S rRNA and atpA genes and a set of 40 universal proteins. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates their designation as representing a novel species and this was further confirmed using whole- genome average nucleotide identity within the genus Campylobacter (~80 %). Compared to most Campylobacter species, these strains hydrolysed hippurate, and grew well at 25 °C but not at 42 °C. Phenotypic and genetic analyses demonstrate that the three Campylobacter strains isolated from the western Hermann's tortoise represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobactergeochelonis sp. nov. is proposed, with RC20T (=DSM 102159T=LMG 29375T) as the type strain.

  5. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P < 0.05). Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter.

  6. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products

    PubMed Central

    El-Zamkan, Mona A.; Hameed, Karima G. Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each) were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Results: Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6%) samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Conclusion: Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard. PMID:27847427

  7. Campylobacter Insulaenigrae: First Isolation Report from South American sea lion (Otaria Flavescens, (Shaw, 1800).

    PubMed

    González, Mario; Paz Villanueva, Maria; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fernández, Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

  8. Campylobacter Insulaenigrae: First Isolation Report from South American sea lion (Otaria Flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)

    PubMed Central

    González, Mario; Paz Villanueva, Maria; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fernández, Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae. PMID:24031630

  9. A comparison of different culture methods for the recovery of Campylobacter species from pets.

    PubMed

    Acke, E; McGill, K; Golden, O; Jones, B R; Fanning, S; Whyte, P

    2009-11-01

    Five culture methods for the recovery of Campylobacter species (spp.) were evaluated on 361 rectal swabs collected from cats and dogs in Ireland. Speciation using PCR methods was performed on all isolates to assess the sensitivity of each culture method for isolation of Campylobacter spp., and to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. upsaliensis, C. lari and C. helveticus. Overall 163 of 361 (45.2%) samples were confirmed Campylobacter spp. positive. Direct plating onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) with cefoperazone, amphotericin and teicoplanin (CAT) selective supplement yielded a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter spp. (33.0%) than each of the other four methods (P < or = 0.05). This method was also the most sensitive method for isolation of C. upsaliensis compared with any of the other four methods used in the current study (P < or = 0.05). A direct plating method onto mCCDA agar with CCDA selective supplement and a filtration method onto blood agar after pre-enrichment in CAT supplemented broth yielded lower Campylobacter spp. prevalences of 19.7% and 17.5% respectively. A filtration method onto CAT agar and pre-enrichment in Preston broth before plating onto mCCDA agar were less sensitive for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. Speciation results of Campylobacter isolates revealed the majority of Campylobacter isolates were C. upsaliensis (50.0%) and C. jejuni (41.9%). A small number of isolates were C. coli (2.6%), C. lari (1.5%) and C. helveticus (1.1%). The overall detection of Campylobacter spp. in the 361 pets sampled was significantly increased by using a combination of isolation methods (P < or = 0.05), producing a more accurate determination of the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pets in Ireland and of the actual Campylobacter species. As the majority of Campylobacter spp. were recovered by direct plating onto mCCDA agar with CAT supplement, this method is the method of choice if

  10. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis Accurately Predicts Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Tyson, G H; Chen, Y; Li, C; Mukherjee, S; Young, S; Lam, C; Folster, J P; Whichard, J M; McDermott, P F

    2015-10-30

    The objectives of this study were to identify antimicrobial resistance genotypes for Campylobacter and to evaluate the correlation between resistance phenotypes and genotypes using in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 114 Campylobacter species isolates (82 C. coli and 32 C. jejuni) obtained from 2000 to 2013 from humans, retail meats, and cecal samples from food production animals in the United States as part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System were selected for study. Resistance phenotypes were determined using broth microdilution of nine antimicrobials. Genomic DNA was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform, and resistance genotypes were identified using assembled WGS sequences through blastx analysis. Eighteen resistance genes, including tet(O), blaOXA-61, catA, lnu(C), aph(2″)-Ib, aph(2″)-Ic, aph(2')-If, aph(2″)-Ig, aph(2″)-Ih, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-If, aac(6')-Im, aadE, sat4, ant(6'), aad9, aph(3')-Ic, and aph(3')-IIIa, and mutations in two housekeeping genes (gyrA and 23S rRNA) were identified. There was a high degree of correlation between phenotypic resistance to a given drug and the presence of one or more corresponding resistance genes. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation was 100% for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin/nalidixic acid, and erythromycin, and correlations ranged from 95.4% to 98.7% for gentamicin, azithromycin, clindamycin, and telithromycin. All isolates were susceptible to florfenicol, and no genes associated with florfenicol resistance were detected. There was a strong correlation (99.2%) between resistance genotypes and phenotypes, suggesting that WGS is a reliable indicator of resistance to the nine antimicrobial agents assayed in this study. WGS has the potential to be a powerful tool for antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs.

  11. OLED-based DNA biochip for Campylobacter spp. detection in poultry meat samples.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Marisa; Cecchini, Francesca; Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Melpignano, Patrizia

    2015-04-15

    Integrated biochips are the ideal solution for producing portable diagnostic systems that uncouple diagnosis from centralized laboratories. These portable devices exploit a multi-disciplinary approach, are cost effective and have several advantages including broader accessibility, high sensitivity, quick test results and ease of use. The application of such a device in food safety is considered in this paper. Fluorescence detection of a specific biological probe excited by an optical source is one of the most commonly used methods for quantitative analysis on biochips. In this study, we designed and characterized a miniaturized, highly-sensitive DNA biochip based on a deep-blue organic light-emitting diode. The molecular design of the diode was optimized to excite a fluorophore-conjugated DNA probe and tested using real meat samples to obtain a high sensitivity and specificity against one of the most common poultry meat contaminants: Campylobacter spp. Real samples were analyzed also by classical plate methods and molecular methods to validate the results obtained by the new DNA-biochip. The high sensitivity obtained by the OLED based biochip (0.37ng/μl) and the short time required for the results (about 24h) indicate the usefulness of the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rising fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from feedlot cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yizhi; Sahin, Orhan; Pavlovic, Nada; LeJeune, Jeff; Carlson, James; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-03-29

    Antibiotic resistance, particularly to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, in the major foodborne pathogen Campylobacter is considered a serious threat to public health. Although ruminant animals serve as a significant reservoir for Campylobacter, limited information is available on antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter of bovine origin. Here, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 320 C. jejuni and 115 C. coli isolates obtained from feedlot cattle farms in multiple states in the U.S. The results indicate that fluoroquinolone resistance reached to 35.4% in C. jejuni and 74.4% in C. coli, which are significantly higher than those previously reported in the U.S. While all fluoroquinolone resistant (FQ(R)) C. coli isolates examined in this study harbored the single Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA, FQ(R) C. jejuni isolates had other mutations in GyrA in addition to the Thr-86-Ile change. Notably, most of the analyzed FQ(R) C. coli isolates had similar PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) patterns and the same MLST (multilocus sequence typing) sequence type (ST-1068) regardless of their geographic sources and time of isolation, while the analyzed C. jejuni isolates were genetically diverse, suggesting that clonal expansion is involved in dissemination of FQ(R) C. coli but not C. jejuni. These findings reveal the rising prevalence of FQ(R) Campylobacter in the U.S. and provide novel information on the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter in the ruminant reservoir.

  13. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    PubMed

    Trajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana; Novaković, Budimka; Martinov-Cvejin, Mirjana; Gusman, Vera; Bijelović, Sanja; Dragnić, Natasa; Balać, Dragana

    2010-08-01

    According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heat-treated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphito-reducting Clostridia) were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8%) samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1%) out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely to occur among samples with Campylobacter spp

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates from humans and chickens in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ewnetu, Desalegne; Mihret, Adane

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the isolation and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains from chickens and humans in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, were analyzed. Two hundred and ten human and 220 chicken samples were analyzed between October 2007 and April 2008. Seventeen human and 160 chicken Campylobacter species were isolated. The overall prevalence of thermophilic campylobacters was 8% and 72.7% in humans and chickens, respectively. In humans, 94.1% of the isolates were C. jejuni and 5.9% were C. coli. C. jejuni was a predominant species of thermophilic campylobacters in all categories of patients. In chicken, 92.5% of thermophilic campylobacters isolated were C. jejuni and 7.5% were C. coli. Among the 16 isolates of C. jejuni in humans, 18.8%, 12.5%, 12.5%, 18.8%, 25%, and 22.2% were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline, respectively, whereas among the 148 C. jejuni isolates from chicken, 17.5%, 14.9%, 12.2%, and 13.5% were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Among the 12 isolates of C. coli in chicken, 16.6%, 8.3%, and 16.6% were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline, respectively. The overall level of resistance was not significantly different in C. jejuni and C. coli isolates of both humans and poultry. The detection of resistant isolates for commonly used antimicrobials may cause a threat to humans and chickens by limiting therapeutic options.

  15. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. An enhanced technique combining pre-enrichment and passive filtration increases the isolation efficiency of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from water and animal fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Cassandra C; Koot, Jacqueline M; Carrillo, Catherine D; Gannon, Victor P J; Jardine, Claire M; Mutschall, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Taboada, Eduardo N

    2012-12-01

    Improved isolation techniques from environmental water and animal samples are vital to understanding Campylobacter epidemiology. In this study, the efficiency of selective enrichment in Bolton Broth (BB) followed by plating on charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (CCDA) (conventional method) was compared with an approach combining BB enrichment and passive filtration (membrane method) adapted from a method previously developed for testing of broiler meat, in the isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from surface water and animal fecal samples. The conventional method led to recoveries of Campylobacter from 36.7% of the water samples and 78.0% of the fecal samples and similar numbers, 38.3% and 76.0%, respectively, were obtained with the membrane method. To investigate the genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli obtained by these two methods, isolates were analyzed using Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting, a high-resolution subtyping technique. The conventional and membrane methods yielded similar numbers of Campylobacter subtypes from water (25 and 28, respectively) and fecal (15 and 17, respectively) samples. Although there was no significant difference in recovery rates between the conventional and membrane methods, a significant improvement in isolation efficiency was obtained by using the membrane method, with a false-positive rate of 1.6% compared with 30.7% obtained using the conventional method. In conclusion, although the two methods are comparable in sensitivity, the membrane method had higher specificity, making it a cost-effective procedure for the enhanced isolation of C. jejuni and C. coli from water and animal fecal samples.

  17. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Campylobacter coli Isolates from the Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Program in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Johan F.; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Valencia, María Fernanda; León, Maribel; Gómez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Fernando; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter coli, along with Campylobacter jejuni, is a major agent of gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. We report the whole-genome sequences of two multidrug-resistance C. coli strains, isolated from the Colombian poultry chain. The isolates contain a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline. PMID:26988048

  18. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Campylobacter coli Isolates from the Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Johan F; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Valencia, María Fernanda; León, Maribel; Gómez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Fernando; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-03-17

    Campylobacter coli, along with Campylobacter jejuni, is a major agent of gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. We report the whole-genome sequences of two multidrug-resistance C. coli strains, isolated from the Colombian poultry chain. The isolates contain a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline. Copyright © 2016 Bernal et al.

  19. Molecular characterization and genotypic antimicrobial resistance analysis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from broiler flocks in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Andrighetto, C; Rossi, F; Lombardi, A; Rizzotti, L; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2012-12-01

    Genetic variability and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from commercial broiler farms were investigated in this study. Campylobacter isolates were genetically characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flaA-SVR and flaB-SVR sequence-based typing. Eight RAPD types were identified in C. jejuni and three in C. coli, while 16 fla profiles were detected among all isolates. Further, 13 flaA-SVR and 13 flaB-SVR alleles were identified. Both typing methods detected a high level of genetic diversity, but fla-SVR typing showed a higher discriminatory power. Indeed, Simpson's index of fla typing (D=0.920) was higher than that of RAPD typing (D=0.814). Moreover, the association of flaA-SVR and flaB-SVR sequence analysis showed a higher discriminatory power compared with the sequence analysis of single loci. Isolates were also analysed by the mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR test and the detection of cmeB gene to determine the occurrence of genetic determinants of AMR to macrolides and fluoroquinolones and multidrug resistance. The A2074C and A2075G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, the C257T mutation in the gyrA gene, and the cmeB gene were higher in C. coli (19.0%, 67.0%, 100.0% and 100.0%, respectively) than in C. jejuni (0.0%, 3.1%, 48.3% and 48.3%, respectively). This study showed a high degree of genetic diversity and a high prevalence of genetic determinants of macrolide resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance and multidrug resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from Italian commercial broiler farms.

  20. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  1. Applications and consequences of bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  2. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  3. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus clinical isolate RIGS 9880

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal infections, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the firs...

  4. Biofiltration for stormwater harvesting: Comparison of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli removal under normal and challenging operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasena, G. I.; Deletic, A.; McCarthy, D. T.

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of pathogen removal in stormwater biofilters (also known as stormwater bioretention systems or rain gardens) has predominately been determined using bacterial indicators, and the removal of reference pathogens in these systems has rarely been investigated. Furthermore, current understanding of indicator bacteria removal in these systems is largely built upon laboratory-scale work. This paper examines whether indicator organism removal from urban stormwater using biofilters in laboratory settings are representative of the removal of pathogens in field conditions, by studying the removal of Escherichia coli (a typical indicator microorganism) and Campylobacter spp. (a typical reference pathogen) from urban stormwater by two established field-scale biofilters. It was found that E. coli log reduction was higher than that of Campylobacter spp. in both biofilters, and that there was no correlation between E. coli and Campylobacter spp. log removal performance. This confirms that E. coli behaves significantly differently to this reference pathogen, reinforcing that single organisms should not be employed to understand faecal microorganism removal in urban stormwater treatment systems. The average reduction in E. coli from only one of the tested biofilters was able to meet the log reduction targets suggested in the current Australian stormwater harvesting guidelines for irrigating sports fields and golf courses. The difference in the performance of the two biofilters is likely a result of a number of design and operational factors; the most important being that the biofilter that did not meet the guidelines was tested using extremely high influent volumes and microbial concentrations, and long antecedent dry weather periods. As such, the E. coli removal performances identified in this study confirmed laboratory findings that inflow concentration and antecedent dry period impact overall microbial removal. In general, this paper emphasizes the need for the

  5. A new selective medium for isolating Pseudomonas spp. from water.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, C L; Sheikh, W

    1987-01-01

    A new medium, pseudomonas selective isolation agar, was developed to isolate Pseudomonas spp. from water. It consists of 350 micrograms of nitrofurantoin per ml and 2 micrograms of crystal violet per ml in a nutrient agar base. It is more selective for Pseudomonas spp. than are available commercial media. Its ingredients are inexpensive and readily available, and it is easy to prepare. PMID:3579287

  6. Campylobacter hepaticus sp. nov., isolated from chickens with spotty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Elshagmani, Eltaher; Gor, Mian Chee; Scott, Peter C; Moore, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Ten strains of an unknown Campylobacter species were isolated from the livers of chickens with spotty liver disease in Australia. The strains were Gram-stain-negative, microaerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive and urease-negative. Unlike most other species of the genus Campylobacter, most of the tested strains of this novel species hydrolysed hippurate and half of them could not reduce nitrate. All strains showed resistance, or intermediate resistance, to nalidixic acid and most of them were resistant to cephalothin. Examination of negatively stained cells under transmission electron microscopy revealed that they were S-shaped, with bipolar unsheathed flagella. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene and the heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) gene sequences indicated that the strains formed a robust clade that was clearly distinct from recognized Campylobacter species. Unusually, they had a DNA G+C content of 27.9 mol%, lower than any previously described Campylobacter species, and they showed less than 84 % average nucleotide identity to the nearest sequenced species. Taken together, these data indicate that the strains belong to a novel Campylobacter species, for which the name Campylobacter hepaticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HV10T (=NCTC 13823T=CIP 111092T).

  7. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis Accurately Predicts Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, G. H.; Chen, Y.; Li, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Young, S.; Lam, C.; Folster, J. P.; Whichard, J. M.; McDermott, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify antimicrobial resistance genotypes for Campylobacter and to evaluate the correlation between resistance phenotypes and genotypes using in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 114 Campylobacter species isolates (82 C. coli and 32 C. jejuni) obtained from 2000 to 2013 from humans, retail meats, and cecal samples from food production animals in the United States as part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System were selected for study. Resistance phenotypes were determined using broth microdilution of nine antimicrobials. Genomic DNA was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform, and resistance genotypes were identified using assembled WGS sequences through blastx analysis. Eighteen resistance genes, including tet(O), blaOXA-61, catA, lnu(C), aph(2″)-Ib, aph(2″)-Ic, aph(2′)-If, aph(2″)-Ig, aph(2″)-Ih, aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-If, aac(6′)-Im, aadE, sat4, ant(6′), aad9, aph(3′)-Ic, and aph(3′)-IIIa, and mutations in two housekeeping genes (gyrA and 23S rRNA) were identified. There was a high degree of correlation between phenotypic resistance to a given drug and the presence of one or more corresponding resistance genes. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation was 100% for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin/nalidixic acid, and erythromycin, and correlations ranged from 95.4% to 98.7% for gentamicin, azithromycin, clindamycin, and telithromycin. All isolates were susceptible to florfenicol, and no genes associated with florfenicol resistance were detected. There was a strong correlation (99.2%) between resistance genotypes and phenotypes, suggesting that WGS is a reliable indicator of resistance to the nine antimicrobial agents assayed in this study. WGS has the potential to be a powerful tool for antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. PMID:26519386

  8. Efficacy of Syringe Filtration for the Selective Isolation of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Young-Ji; Sung, Kidon; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the efficacy of syringe filtration for selective isolation of Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinse by combining syringe filtration with the conventional culture method. Whole chicken carcass rinses were incubated in Bolton enrichment broth, set aside or subjected to syringe filtration, and streaked on Campy-Cefex agar with or without cefoperazone antibiotic supplement. Compared with the conventional method without filtration, 0.65-μm-pore-size syringe filtration resulted in a significantly higher number of Campylobacter-positive samples (23.8 to 37.5% versus 70.0 to 72.5%; P < 0.05), a lower number of plates contaminated with non-Campylobacter (93.8% versus 6.3 to 26.3%), and a lower growth index (1 = growth of a few colonies; 2 = growth of colonies on about half of the plate; and 3 = growth on most of the plate) for competing microbiota (2.9 to 3.0 versus 1.2 to 1.4). When syringe filtration was applied, agar plates containing the antibiotic had significantly less contamination (6.3% versus 26.3%; P < 0.05) and a lower growth index (1.2 versus 1.4) compared with plates without the antibiotic, although the Campylobacter isolation rate was similar (P > 0.05). Syringe filtration combined with conventional enrichment improved the rate and selectivity of Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcasses.

  9. Motility of Campylobacter concisus isolated from saliva, feces, and gut mucosal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, Sandra; Kirk, Karina Frahm; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but the species is also found in healthy subjects. The heterogeneous genome of C. concisus increases the likelihood of varying virulence between strains. Flagella motility is a crucial virulence factor for the well-recognized Campylobacter jejuni; therefore, this study aimed to analyze the motility of C. concisus isolated from saliva, gut biopsies, and feces of patients with IBD, gastroenteritis, and healthy subjects. The motility zones of 63 isolates from 52 patients were measured after microaerobic growth in soft-agar plates for 72 hours. The motility of C. concisus was significantly lower than that of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. The motility of C. concisus varied between isolates (4-22 mm), but there was no statistical significant difference between isolates from IBD patients and healthy subjects (p = 0.14). A tendency of a larger motility zones was observed for IBD gut mucosa isolates, although it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.13), and no difference was found between oral or fecal isolates between groups. In conclusion, the varying motility of C. concisus could not be related to disease outcome or colonization sites. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lipooligosaccharide locus classes and putative virulence genes among chicken and human Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Nilsson, Anna; Rautelin, Hilpi; Olsson Engvall, Eva

    2016-11-21

    Campylobacter cause morbidity and considerable economic loss due to hospitalization and post infectious sequelae such as reactive arthritis, Guillain Barré- and Miller Fischer syndromes. Such sequelae have been linked to C. jejuni harboring sialic acid structures in their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) layer of the cell wall. Poultry is an important source of human Campylobacter infections but little is known about the prevalence of sialylated C. jejuni isolates and the extent of transmission of such isolates to humans. Genotypes of C. jejuni isolates from enteritis patients were compared with those of broiler chicken with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to study the patterns of LOS biosynthesis genes and other virulence associated genes and to what extent these occur among Campylobacter genotypes found both in humans and chickens. Chicken and human isolates generally had similar distributions of the putative virulence genes and LOS locus classes studied. However, there were significant differences regarding LOS locus class of PFGE types that were overlapping between chicken and human isolates and those that were distinct to each source. The study highlights the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Campylobacter isolates from humans and chickens and suggests possible patterns of transmission between the two species.

  11. Inaccuracy of the disk diffusion method compared with the agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Lehtopolku, Mirva; Kotilainen, Pirkko; Puukka, Pauli; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Siitonen, Anja; Eerola, Erkki; Huovinen, Pentti; Hakanen, Antti J

    2012-01-01

    The agar dilution method has been standardized by the CLSI for the susceptibility testing of Campylobacter species, and according to these standards, the disk diffusion method should be used only in screening for macrolide and ciprofloxacin resistance. Nevertheless, the disk diffusion test is currently widely used, since it is easy to perform in clinical microbiology laboratories. In this study, the disk diffusion method was compared to the agar dilution method by analyzing the in vitro activities of seven antimicrobial agents against 174 Campylobacter strains collected in Finland between 2003 and 2008. Recommendations of the CLSI were followed using Mueller-Hinton agar plates with 5% of sheep blood. For each strain, the disk diffusion tests were performed two to four times. Of the 33 erythromycin-resistant strains (MIC, ≥16 μg/ml), 24 (73%) constantly showed a 6-mm erythromycin inhibition zone (i.e., no inhibition), while for seven strains the inhibition zone varied from 6 to 44 mm in repeated measurements. Among the 141 erythromycin-susceptible strains (MIC, <16 μg/ml), erythromycin inhibition zones varied between 6 and 61 mm. Of the 87 ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, 47 (54%) showed 6-mm inhibition zones, while 40 strains showed inhibition zones between 6 and 60 mm. Significant differences between the repetitions were observed in the disk diffusion for all antimicrobial agents and all strains except for the macrolide-resistant strains regarding the macrolides. For 17 (10%) strains, the variation in repeated measurements was substantial. These results show that the disk diffusion method may not be a reliable tool for the susceptibility testing of Campylobacter spp. Further studies are needed to assess whether the disk diffusion test could be improved or whether all susceptibilities of campylobacters should be tested using an MIC-based method.

  12. Evaluation of a real-time multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp./EIEC, and Yersinia enterocolitica in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Van Lint, P; De Witte, E; De Henau, H; De Muynck, A; Verstraeten, L; Van Herendael, B; Weekx, S

    2015-03-01

    Conventional diagnosis of infectious diarrhea caused by bacteria is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and has a suboptimal sensitivity. We have therefore developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), and Yersinia enterocolitica in fecal samples. No cross reactivity between the different pathogens was observed, and the multiplex setup of the assay did not have an impact on the sensitivity of the PCR. The analytical sensitivity was 87 CFU/mL for C. jejuni, 61 CFU/mL for Shigella spp./EIEC, 5,528 CFU/mL for Salmonella spp., and 1,306 CFU/mL for Y. enterocolitica. An extensive validation of the assay was performed by testing 1,687 patient samples by both PCR and with conventional techniques. The use of PCR increased the overall clinical sensitivity from 78 to 100 % (p < 0.0001), the specificity was 99.4 % for the PCR, compared with 99.9 % for conventional culture. The novel PCR assay allows for rapid, sensitive, inexpensive, and high-throughput testing of the most common bacterial causes of gastroenteritis.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni human and chicken isolates from two health units.

    PubMed

    Deckert, Anne E; Taboada, Eduardo; Mutschall, Steven; Poljak, Zvonimir; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Tamblyn, Susan; Morrell, Larry; Seliske, Patrick; Jamieson, Frances B; Irwin, Rebecca; Dewey, Catherine E; Boerlin, Patrick; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted over a 2-year period in the Perth District and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph health units in Ontario, with an objective of using comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF) with a 40-gene assay (CGF40) to investigate the association between human cases of campylobacteriosis and spatially and temporally related Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. CGF results were available for isolates from 115 human cases and 718 retail chicken samples. These data were combined with CGF results from a large reference database of Campylobacter isolates. Isolates were categorized into types based on >90% CGF40 fingerprint similarity (CGF-90%). CGF-90% types were categorized as chicken associated (CA90) when the proportion of animal isolates in the given type that originated from chicken was at least 80% and was statistically significant. Risk factor data were collected from cases by questionnaire. Urban cases were significantly more likely than rural cases to be CA90 and there were significantly fewer CA90 cases in the second year of the study. Due to the population distribution in Canada and most industrialized countries, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases are urban dwellers. Therefore, the association between urban cases and chicken-associated types of Campylobacter emphasizes the importance of educational and food safety efforts to reduce the impact of Campylobacter from retail chicken on public health. Sources other than chicken may be more important for rural dwellers.

  14. Comparison of Campylobacter populations isolated from a free-range broiler flock before and after slaughter.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Sheppard, Samuel K; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2010-02-28

    Relatively little is known about the Campylobacter genotypes colonizing extensively reared broiler flocks and their survival through the slaughter process, despite the increasing demand for free-range and organic products by the consumer. Campylobacter isolates from a free-range boiler flock, sampled before and after slaughter, were genotyped by MLST (multilocus sequence typing) and sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR). The Campylobacter genotypes isolated before and after slaughter were diverse, with up to five sequence types (STs) (seven-locus allelic profiles resulting from MLST) identified per live bird, up to eight STs identified per carcass and 31 STs identified in all. The majority (72.0%) of isolates sampled from carcasses post-slaughter were indistinguishable from those isolated from the live flock before slaughter by ST and flaA SVR type, however, sampling 'on-farm' failed to capture all of the diversity seen post-slaughter. There were statistically significant increases in the genetic diversity of Campylobacter (p=0.005) and the proportion of C. coli (p=0.002), with some evidence for differential survival of genotypes contaminating the end product. C. coli genotypes isolated after slaughter were more similar to those from free-range and organic meat products sampled nationally, than from the live flock sampled previously. This study demonstrated the utility of MLST in detecting genetic diversity before and after the slaughter process.

  15. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method

    PubMed Central

    Colles, F. M.; Rodgers, J. D.; McCarthy, N. D.; Davies, R. H.; Maiden, M. C. J.; Clifton-Hadley, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645 C. jejuni and 106 C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. For C. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms for C. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% for C. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacter in broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical. PMID:26873321

  16. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Engberg, J.; Aarestrup, F. M.; Taylor, D. E.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Nachamkin, I.

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections has increased markedly in many parts of the world in the last decade as has the number of quinolone-resistant and, to a lesser extent, macrolide-resistant Campylobacter strains causing infections. We review macrolide and quinolone resistance in Campylobacter and track resistance trends in human clinical isolates in relation to use of these agents in food animals. Susceptibility data suggest that erythromycin and other macrolides should remain the drugs of choice in most regions, with systematic surveillance and control measures maintained, but fluoroquinolones may now be of limited use in the empiric treatment of Campylobacter infections in many regions. PMID:11266291

  17. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter coli in Different Ecological Guilds and Taxa of Migrating Birds†

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Jonas; Broman, Tina; Carlsson, Inger; Hasselquist, Dennis; Achterberg, René P.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Olsen, Björn

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1,794 migrating birds trapped at a coastal site in southern Sweden were sampled for detection of Campylobacter spp. All isolates phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni and a subset of those identified as non-C. jejuni were identified to the species level by PCR-based techniques. C. jejuni was found in 5.0% of the birds, Campylobacter lari was found in 5.6%, and Campylobacter coli was found in 0.9%. An additional 10.7% of the tested birds were infected with hippurate hydrolysis-negative Campylobacter spp. that were not identified to the species level. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed significantly between ecological guilds of birds. Shoreline-foraging birds feeding on invertebrates and opportunistic feeders were most commonly infected (76.8 and 50.0%, respectively). High prevalence was also shown in other ground-foraging guilds, i.e., ground-foraging invertebrate feeders (11.0%), ground-foraging insectivores (20.3%), and plant-eating species (18.8%). Almost no Campylobacter spp. were found in ground-foraging granivores (2.3%), arboreal insectivores (0.6%), aerial insectivores (0%), or reed- and herbaceous plant-foraging insectivores (3.5%). During the autumn migration, a high proportion of samples from juveniles were positive (7.1% in passerines, 55.0% in shorebirds), indicating transmission on the breeding grounds or during the early part of migration. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was associated with increasing body mass among passerine bird species. Furthermore, prevalence was higher in short-distance migrants wintering in Europe than in long-distance migrants wintering in Africa, the Middle East, or Asia. Among ground-foraging birds of the Muscicapidae, those of the subfamily Turdinae (i.e., Turdus spp.) showed a high prevalence of Campylobacter spp., while the organism was not isolated in any member of the subfamily Muscicapinae (i.e., Erithacus and Luscinia). The prevalence of Campylobacter infection in wild birds thus

  18. Novel gentamicin resistance genes in Campylobacter isolated from humans and retail meats in the USA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shaohua; Mukherjee, Sampa; Chen, Yuansha; Li, Cong; Young, Shenia; Warren, Melissa; Abbott, Jason; Friedman, Sharon; Kabera, Claudine; Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2015-05-01

    To understand the molecular epidemiology of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter and investigate aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms. One-hundred-and-fifty-one gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter isolates from humans (n = 38 Campylobacter jejuni; n = 41, Campylobacter coli) and retail chickens (n = 72 C. coli), were screened for the presence of gentamicin resistance genes by PCR and subtyped using PFGE. A subset of the isolates (n = 41) was analysed using WGS. Nine variants of gentamicin resistance genes were identified: aph(2″)-Ib, Ic, Ig, If, If1, If3, Ih, aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-Ia and aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-If2. The aph(2″)-Ib, Ic, If1, If3, Ih and aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-If2 variants were identified for the first time in Campylobacter. Human isolates showed more diverse aminoglycoside resistance genes than did retail chicken isolates, in which only aph(2″)-Ic and -Ig were identified. The aph(2″)-Ig gene was only gene shared by C. coli isolates from human (n = 27) and retail chicken (n = 69). These isolates displayed the same resistance profile and similar PFGE patterns, suggesting that contaminated retail chicken was probably the source of human C. coli infections. Human isolates were genetically diverse and generally more resistant than the retail chicken isolates. The most frequent co-resistance was to tetracycline (78/79, 98.7%), followed by ciprofloxacin/nalidixic acid (46/79, 58.2%), erythromycin and azithromycin (36/79, 45.6%), telithromycin (32/79, 40.5%) and clindamycin (18/79, 22.8%). All human and retail meat isolates were susceptible to florfenicol. This study demonstrated that several new aminoglycoside resistance genes underlie the recent emergence of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter, and that, in addition to contaminated retail chicken, other sources have also contributed to gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter infections in humans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  19. Lipopolysaccharide structures in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae are immunologically related to Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Perez, G I; Hopkins, J A; Blaser, M J

    1986-01-01

    To determine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structures of Campylobacter species are immunologically related to those of 11 other gram-negative organisms, we immunoblotted from polyacrylamide gels the LPS of these strains with immune rabbit serum raised against six Campylobacter jejuni strains and two Campylobacter fetus strains. The LPS studied were from Salmonella minnesota wild type and Ra to Re mutants, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. None of the 11 LPS preparations was recognized by the eight antisera, but antisera to each of the Campylobacter strains recognized core determinants of some LPS preparations. Antiserum directed against the most serum-sensitive C. jejuni strain, 79-193, was the only antiserum sample that recognized core regions of the rough Salmonella mutants. In converse experiments, when LPS preparations from five Campylobacter strains were blotted with antiserum to Salmonella lipid A, recognition of core structures of each was shown; data from an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed this result. In contrast, antiserum to Salmonella typhimurium Re LPS showed no reactivity. We conclude that LPS of Campylobacter strains share lipid A antigenic determinants with the core region of LPS of several other gram-negative organisms. Images PMID:3079730

  20. Helicobacter marmotae and novel Helicobacter and Campylobacter species isolated from the livers and intestines of prairie dogs

    PubMed Central

    Beisele, Maike; Shen, Zeli; Parry, Nicola; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S.; Buckley, Ellen; Abedin, Mohammad Z.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used to study the aetiology and prevention of gallstones because of the similarities of prairie dog and human bile gallstone composition. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a connection between infection with Helicobacter species and cholesterol cholelithiasis, cholecystis and gallbladder cancer. Ten of the 34 prairie dogs in this study had positive Helicobacter species identified by PCR using Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Ten of 34 prairie dogs had positive Campylobacter species identified in the intestine by PCR with Campylobacter genus-specific primers. Six Helicobacter sp. isolates and three Campylobacter sp. isolates were identified taxonomically by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The prairie dog helicobacters fell into three clusters adjacent to Helicobacter marmotae. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three strains in two adjacent clusters were included in the species H. marmotae. Three strains were only 97.1 % similar to the sequence of H. marmotae and can be considered a novel species with the provisional designation Helicobacter sp. Prairie Dog 3. The prairie dog campylobacters formed a single novel cluster and represent a novel Campylobacter sp. with the provisional designation Campylobacter sp. Prairie Dog. They branched with Campylobacter cuniculorum at 96.3 % similarity and had the greatest sequence similarity to Campylobacter helveticus at 97.1 % similarity. Whether H. marmotae or the novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp. identified in prairie dogs play a role in cholesterol gallstones or hepatobiliary disease requires further studies. PMID:21546560

  1. Helicobacter marmotae and novel Helicobacter and Campylobacter species isolated from the livers and intestines of prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Beisele, Maike; Shen, Zeli; Parry, Nicola; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S; Buckley, Ellen; Abedin, Mohammad Z; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Fox, James G

    2011-09-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used to study the aetiology and prevention of gallstones because of the similarities of prairie dog and human bile gallstone composition. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a connection between infection with Helicobacter species and cholesterol cholelithiasis, cholecystis and gallbladder cancer. Ten of the 34 prairie dogs in this study had positive Helicobacter species identified by PCR using Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Ten of 34 prairie dogs had positive Campylobacter species identified in the intestine by PCR with Campylobacter genus-specific primers. Six Helicobacter sp. isolates and three Campylobacter sp. isolates were identified taxonomically by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The prairie dog helicobacters fell into three clusters adjacent to Helicobacter marmotae. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three strains in two adjacent clusters were included in the species H. marmotae. Three strains were only 97.1 % similar to the sequence of H. marmotae and can be considered a novel species with the provisional designation Helicobacter sp. Prairie Dog 3. The prairie dog campylobacters formed a single novel cluster and represent a novel Campylobacter sp. with the provisional designation Campylobacter sp. Prairie Dog. They branched with Campylobacter cuniculorum at 96.3 % similarity and had the greatest sequence similarity to Campylobacter helveticus at 97.1 % similarity. Whether H. marmotae or the novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp. identified in prairie dogs play a role in cholesterol gallstones or hepatobiliary disease requires further studies.

  2. Development of microbiological field methodology for water and food-chain hygiene analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia spp. in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Hakalehto, Elias; Nyholm, Outi; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kagambega, Assèta; Rissanen, Kari; Heitto, Anneli; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    Field-adaptable research methods for identifying Campylobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and other pathogenic and indicator bacteria were designed in Finland and tested in Burkina Faso. Several bacterial groups were also validated from artificially contaminated samples. Campylobacter strains were cultivated using an innovative gas generation system: The 'Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit' (PMEU) which provides microaerobic gas flow into the enrichment broth. This enhanced cultivation system produced rapid growth of several isolates of campylobacteria from water and chicken samples. The latter were obtained from local marketplace samples. No yersinias were found in the field studies, whereas they were readily recovered from the spiked samples, as well as Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli strains. The PMEU method turned out to be reliable for monitoring of water and food hygiene in remote locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D.; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce. PMID:23908278

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull.

    PubMed

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Gioffre, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce.

  5. Comparison of Poultry Exudate and Carcass Rinse Sampling Methods for the Recovery of Campylobacter spp. Subtypes Demonstrates Unique Subtypes Recovered from Exudate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The carcass rinse procedure is a method commonly used for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on processed poultry products. Alternatively, carcass exudate (weep or drip), a viscous fluid comprised of blood and water that leaks into packaging, can also be sampled. It is unknown however if these me...

  6. Temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...

  7. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance determinants among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus isolated from Swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: The importance of Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus as carriers of antimicrobial resistance is well known, but limited work has been done to examine the relationship between this phenotypic characteristic and genotypic attributes among strains isolated in similar set...

  8. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    PubMed

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from stool cultures in Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    García, Patricia C; Valenzuela, Natalia S; Rodríguez, M Victoria L; León, Eugenia C; Fernández, Heríberto J

    2009-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common agent of enterocolitis in humans. Campylobacteriosis has been recognized as a zoonotic disease whose reservoir is the intestinal flora of poultry. The reposition of fluid and electrolytes is the recommended treatment, and antimicrobials are required only in severe and/or in prolonged disease. Given the emergence of resistance to drugs commonly used in the treatment of acute diarrhea, we studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from stool culture. The antimicrobials tested were: erythromycin, azithromycin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Of the 73 strains tested by E-test, 32.4% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 6.4% were resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to erythromycin and azithromycin was not detected. The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni is important in the evaluation of empirically used antimicrobials in the treatment of bacterial enterocolitis.

  10. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Arsi, K; Donoghue, A M; Woo-Ming, A; Blore, P J; Donoghue, D J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is the use of oral probiotics, but this produces variable results, possibly because the probiotics are destroyed in the stomach's acidic environment. Protection (e.g., encapsulation) of isolates may overcome this problem, but there is no assurance that these isolates will have efficacy in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, screening candidate isolates by directly placing them in the lower intestinal tract via cloacal inoculation may eliminate the time and expense of encapsulating ineffective isolates. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect bacterial isolates with anti-Campylobacter activity in vitro and evaluate their efficacy in vivo upon either oral or intracloacal administration. Bacterial isolates were collected from healthy birds and were evaluated for efficacy against C. jejuni in vitro. Isolates having generally regarded as safe status and demonstrating in vitro anti-Campylobacter properties were evaluated after oral or intracloacal inoculation into chicks on day 1 (n = 10 birds per isolate per route of administration). On day 7, birds were dosed by oral gavage with a four-strain mixture of wild-type Campylobacter containing at least 1 × 10(7) CFU/ml organisms. On day 14, birds were euthanized and the ceca were collected aseptically for Campylobacter enumeration. When dosed orally, only one isolate had a 1-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts, whereas when administered intracloacally, six of these isolates produced a 1- to 3-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts in 14-day-old chickens. These results support the strategy of evaluating the efficacy of potential probiotic isolates via cloacal inoculation prior to undergoing the effort of encapsulating isolates for oral administration.

  11. Genetic Characterization of Campylobacter Jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Broilers Using flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Seifi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thermophilic campylobacters, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the main agents of human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products is the most important source of foodborne gastroenteritis. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical for understanding the epidemiology of this bacterium and developing effective control strategies against Campylobacter infections and other related disorders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from broiler fecal samples in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods: Ninety Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broiler feces using enrichment process followed by cultivation method. The isolates were species typing on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16SrRNA and multiplex PCR for determining two thermophilic species. To evaluate strain diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed using DdeI restriction enzyme. Results: All 90 Campylobacter isolates confirmed by m-PCR were successfully typed using flaA-PCR-RFLP. Eleven different types were defined according to flaA-typing method and the RFLP patterns were located at three separate clusters in RFLP image analysis dendrogram. Conclusions: Campylobacter jejuni isolates significantly showed more variety than C. coli isolates. A relatively low genetic diversity existed among C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from broilers in Shiraz, southern Iran. In our knowledge, this was the first report of genetic diversity among broiler originated human pathogen thermophilic campylobacters in Shiraz, southern Iran. PMID:26060566

  12. Multicenter Evaluation of the BD Max Enteric Bacterial Panel PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni and C. coli), and Shiga Toxin 1 and 2 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Doern, C.; Fader, R.; Ferraro, M. J.; Pillai, D. R.; Rychert, J.; Doyle, L.; Lainesse, A.; Karchmer, T.; Mortensen, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea due to enteric bacterial pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. However, bacterial pathogens may be infrequently identified. Currently, culture and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the primary methods used by clinical laboratories to detect enteric bacterial pathogens. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the BD Max enteric bacterial panel (EBP) PCR assay in comparison to culture for the detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli and an EIA for Shiga toxins 1 and 2. A total of 4,242 preserved or unpreserved stool specimens, including 3,457 specimens collected prospectively and 785 frozen, retrospective samples, were evaluated. Compared to culture or EIA, the positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) values for the BD Max EBP assay for all specimens combined were as follows: 97.1% and 99.2% for Salmonella spp., 99.1% and 99.7% for Shigella spp., 97.2% and 98.4% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 97.4% and 99.3% for Shiga toxins, respectively. Discrepant results for prospective samples were resolved with alternate PCR assays and bidirectional sequencing of amplicons. Following discrepant analysis, PPA and NPA values were as follows: 97.3% and 99.8% for Salmonella spp., 99.2% and 100% for Shigella spp., 97.5% and 99.0% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 100% and 99.7% for Shiga toxins, respectively. No differences in detection were observed for samples preserved in Cary-Blair medium and unpreserved samples. In this large, multicenter study, the BD Max EBP assay showed superior sensitivity compared to conventional methods and excellent specificity for the detection of enteric bacterial pathogens in stool specimens. PMID:25740779

  13. Multicenter evaluation of the BD max enteric bacterial panel PCR assay for rapid detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni and C. coli), and Shiga toxin 1 and 2 genes.

    PubMed

    Harrington, S M; Buchan, B W; Doern, C; Fader, R; Ferraro, M J; Pillai, D R; Rychert, J; Doyle, L; Lainesse, A; Karchmer, T; Mortensen, J E

    2015-05-01

    Diarrhea due to enteric bacterial pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. However, bacterial pathogens may be infrequently identified. Currently, culture and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the primary methods used by clinical laboratories to detect enteric bacterial pathogens. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the BD Max enteric bacterial panel (EBP) PCR assay in comparison to culture for the detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli and an EIA for Shiga toxins 1 and 2. A total of 4,242 preserved or unpreserved stool specimens, including 3,457 specimens collected prospectively and 785 frozen, retrospective samples, were evaluated. Compared to culture or EIA, the positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) values for the BD Max EBP assay for all specimens combined were as follows: 97.1% and 99.2% for Salmonella spp., 99.1% and 99.7% for Shigella spp., 97.2% and 98.4% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 97.4% and 99.3% for Shiga toxins, respectively. Discrepant results for prospective samples were resolved with alternate PCR assays and bidirectional sequencing of amplicons. Following discrepant analysis, PPA and NPA values were as follows: 97.3% and 99.8% for Salmonella spp., 99.2% and 100% for Shigella spp., 97.5% and 99.0% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 100% and 99.7% for Shiga toxins, respectively. No differences in detection were observed for samples preserved in Cary-Blair medium and unpreserved samples. In this large, multicenter study, the BD Max EBP assay showed superior sensitivity compared to conventional methods and excellent specificity for the detection of enteric bacterial pathogens in stool specimens.

  14. Quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in poultry based meat preparations as one of the factors to support the development of risk-based microbiological criteria in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Uyttendaele, M; Baert, K; Ghafir, Y; Daube, G; De Zutter, L; Herman, L; Dierick, K; Pierard, D; Dubois, J J; Horion, B; Debevere, J

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to do an exercise in risk assessment on Campylobacter spp. for poultry based meat preparations in Belgium. This risk assessment was undertaken on the demand of the competent national authorities as one of the supportive factors to define risk-based microbiological criteria. The quantitative risk assessment model follows a retail to table approach and is divided in different modules. The contamination of raw chicken meat products (CMPs) was represented by a normal distribution of the natural logarithm of the concentration of Campylobacter spp. (ln[Camp]) in raw CMPs based on data from surveillance programs in Belgium. To analyse the relative impact of reducing the risk of campylobacteriosis associated with a decrease in the Campylobacter contamination level in these types of food products, the model was run for different means and standard deviations of the normal distribution of the ln[Camp] in raw CMPs. The limitation in data for the local situation in Belgium and on this particular product and more precisely the semi-quantitative nature of concentration of Campylobacter spp. due to presence/absence testing, was identified as an important information gap. Also the knowledge on the dose-response relationship of Campylobacter spp. was limited, and therefore three different approaches of dose-response modelling were compared. Two approaches (1 and 2), derived from the same study, showed that the reduction of the mean of the distribution representing the ln[Camp] in raw CMPs is the best approach to reduce the risk of Campylobacter spp. in CMPs. However, for the simulated exposure and approach 3 it was observed that the reduction of the standard deviation is the most appropriate technique to lower the risk of campylobacteriosis. Since the dose-response models used in approach 1 and 2 are based on limited data and the reduction of the mean corresponds with a complete shift of the contamination level of raw CMPs, demanding high efforts

  15. Campylobacter coli infection in pet birds in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pace, Antonino; Romano, Violante; D'Orazio, Stefano; Varriale, Lorena; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2017-01-06

    Avian species are considered as the main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, few data are available on the presence of this microorganism in pet birds. This study was therefore performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pet birds bred in southern Italy. Faecal samples were collected from 88 cages housing different species of pet birds and examined by bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 13.6% of the cage samples were positive for Campylobacter coli. Other Campylobacter spp. were not found. The study shows that C. coli can be isolated from the cages of apparently healthy pet birds, which should therefore be considered as potential carriers of C. coli and a possible source of infection for humans and companion animals.

  16. Observational trial of safe food handling behavior during food preparation using the example of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ≤10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ≥60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases.

  17. In-vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities, against clinical isolates of Campylobacter species and Entamoeba histolytica, of local medicinal plants from the Venda region, in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Samie, A; Obi, C L; Lall, N; Meyer, J J M

    2009-03-01

    In the quest for alternative treatments against Campylobacter jejuni and Entamoeba histolytica, which are both aetiological agents of diarrhoea world-wide, the in-vitro activities against the two pathogens of extracts of 18 South African medicinal plants have recently been assessed. Forty extracts from the 18 plant species were prepared and tested against 110 clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. In addition, extracts from eight of the plant species were tested against a standard strain (HM-1:IMSS) of E. histolytica, and the cytotoxicity of each of 19 extracts from 15 of the plant species was explored using Vero cell cultures and microdilution assays. At least one extract of each plant species investigated was found to be active against some of the Campylobacter isolates. Extracts of Lippia javanica and Pterocarpus angolensis had the highest antibacterial activity, each giving a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 90 microg/ml. Of the extracts tested against E. histolytica, however, only those of P. angolensis and Syzigium cordatum were found to have anti-amoebic activity, with MIC of 1.2 and 7.5 mg/ml, respectively. Although most of the extracts showed little toxicity against Vero cells, with most of the median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) recorded exceeding 400 microg/ml, an extract of Bauhinia galpini was quite toxic, with an IC(50) of just 2.7 microg/ml. Acetone and methanol extracts of several of the plants show promise as templates for the design of new anti-diarrhoeal therapies.

  18. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Sherry J; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A; Townsend, Hugh G G

    2009-10-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10,000 to > 40,000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86-88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86-90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85-88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66-71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58-70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67-72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta.

  19. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Sherry J.; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L.; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.

    2009-01-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10 000 to > 40 000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86–88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86–90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85–88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66–71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58–70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67–72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta. PMID:20046629

  20. Quantitative Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance genes, and veterinary antibiotics in surface and ground water following manure application: Influence of tile drainage control.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Khan, Izhar U H; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Lapen, David R

    2015-11-01

    This work investigated chlortetracycline, tylosin, and tetracycline (plus transformation products), and DNA-based quantitative Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tetracycline antibiotic resistant genes (tet(O)) in tile drainage, groundwater, and soil before and following a liquid swine manure (LSM) application on clay loam plots under controlled (CD) and free (FD) tile drainage. Chlortetracycline/tetracycline was strongly bound to manure solids while tylosin dominated in the liquid portion of manure. The chlortetracycline transformation product isochlortetracycline was the most persistent analyte in water. Rhodamine WT (RWT) tracer was mixed with manure and monitored in tile and groundwater. RWT and veterinary antibiotic (VA) concentrations were strongly correlated in water which supported the use of RWT as a surrogate tracer. While CD reduced tile discharge and eliminated application-induced VA movement (via tile) to surface water, total VA mass loading to surface water was not affected by CD. At both CD and FD test plots, the biggest 'flush' of VA mass and highest VA concentrations occurred in response to precipitation received 2d after application, which strongly influenced the flow abatement capacity of CD on account of highly elevated water levels in field initiating overflow drainage for CD systems (when water level <0.3m below surface). VA concentrations in tile and groundwater became very low within 10d following application. Both Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) genes were present in groundwater and soil prior to application, and increased thereafter. Unlike the VA compounds, Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) gene loadings in tile drainage were reduced by CD, in relation to FD.

  1. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from free range domestic duck (Cairina moschata) in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Muhairwa, A P

    2010-02-01

    Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from free-ranging ducks was determined in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Ninety intestinal contents from ducks were screened for thermophilic Campylobacter using Skirrow's protocol. Of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 50 were tested for sensitivity to 12 antibiotics. Overall prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter was 80%. The prevalence of Campylobacter in adult ducks (91.3%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than ducklings (68.2%). The isolation rate of C. jejuni (81.9%) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than C. coli (18.1%). All C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin and amikacin. Forty eight percent, 74% and 82% of isolates were resistant to cefuroxime sodium, tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Between 20-50% of isolates were resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin, cloxacillin and amoxicillin. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin had lower C. jejuni resistance of 10% and 16% respectively. C. jejuni isolates from adult ducks showed significantly higher rates of resistance (p < 0.05) to most antibiotics than did duckling isolates. High prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in ducks could be of public health significance in Morogoro municipality. The observed multidrug resistance in this study poses a threat of transfer of antibiotic resistance to human pathogens because of the close contact between ducks and human.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. carcass contamination in broiler chickens slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Quessy, Sylvain; Boulianne, Martine

    2007-08-01

    An observational study was conducted to estimate prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. carcass contamination in broiler chickens. Eighty-two lots were sampled in four slaughterhouses located in the province of Québec, Canada, over a 10-month period. Carcass contamination was evaluated by the carcass rinse technique for about 30 birds per lot. Exposure to potential risk factors was evaluated based on data from questionnaires, meteorology, and cecal cultures. Multivariable binomial negative regression models were used for risk factor analysis at the lot level. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive carcasses was 21.2% (95% confidence interval: 15.7 to 26.7%). Significant risk factors (P < 0.05) associated with a higher proportion of positive carcasses within lots were Salmonella-positive cecal culture, low rainfall during transportation to the slaughterhouse, temperature of > or = 0 degree C during transportation to the slaughterhouse, and a > or = 4-h waiting period in shipping crates before slaughtering. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive carcasses was 35.8% (95% confidence interval: 27.1 to 44.5%). Lots containing birds with Campylobacter-positive cecal culture results, lots of birds that were slaughtered at the end of the week, and lots with at least 20% of birds with digestive contents detected in the jejunum at time of slaughtering had a significantly higher proportion (P < 0.05) of contaminated carcasses. These results support the importance of preharvest control measures implemented during rearing to reduce contamination of the final product. Weather during transportation to slaughter and the day of the week that birds were slaughtered also were associated with carcass contamination; further studies are needed to determine the underlying mechanisms by which these factors influence carcass contamination.

  4. ERIC-PCR Genotyping of Some Campylobacter jejuni Isolates of Chicken and Human Origin in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Heba A; El Hofy, Fatma I; Ammar, Ahmed M; Abd El Tawab, Ashraf A; Hefny, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    The public health importance of the genus Campylobacter is attributed to several species causing diarrhea in consumers. Poultry and their meat are considered the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, 287 samples from chicken (131 cloacal swabs, 39 chicken skin, 78 chicken meat, and 39 cecal parts) obtained from retail outlets as well as 246 stool swabs from gastroenteritis patients were examined. A representative number of the biochemically identified Campylobacter jejuni isolates were identified by real-time PCR, confirming the identification of the isolates as C. jejuni. Genotyping of the examined isolates (n = 31) by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) revealed a high discriminatory index of ERIC-PCR (D = 0.948), dividing C. jejuni isolates of chicken and human origins into 18 profiles and four clusters. The 18 profiles obtained indicated the heterogeneity of C. jejuni. Dendrogram analysis showed that four clusters were generated; all human isolates fell into clusters I and III. These observations further support the existence of a genetic relationship between human and poultry isolates examined in the present study. In conclusion, the results obtained support the speculation that poultry and poultry meat have an important role as sources of infection in the acquisition of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Animals, Foods, and Humans in Spain in 1997–1998

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz, Yolanda; Zarazaga, Myriam; Lantero, Marta; Gastañares, M. José; Baquero, Fernando; Torres, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Colonization by Campylobacter strains was investigated in human, broiler, and pig fecal samples from 1997- 1998, as well as in foods of animal origin, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out for these strains. Campylobacter strains were isolated in the foods of animal origin (55 of 101 samples; 54.4%), intestinal samples from broilers (85 of 105; 81%), and pigs (40 of 45; 88.9%). A total of 641 Campylobacter strains were isolated from 8,636 human fecal samples of clinical origin (7.4%). Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently isolated species from broilers (81%) and humans (84%), and Campylobacter coli was most frequently isolated from pigs (100%). An extremely high frequency of ciprofloxacin resistance was detected among Campylobacter strains, particularly those isolated from broilers and pigs (99%), with a slightly lower result for humans (72%); cross-resistance with nalidixic acid was almost always observed. A higher frequency of resistance to erythromycin (81.1%), ampicillin (65.7%), gentamicin (22.2%), and amikacin (21.6%) was detected in C. coli strains isolated from pigs compared to those isolated from humans (34.5, 29.3, 8.6, and 0%, respectively). A low frequency of erythromycin resistance was found in C. jejuni or C. coli isolated from broilers. A greater resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin (47.4 and 11.9%, respectively) was detected in C. jejuni isolated from broilers than in human strains (38 and 0.4%, respectively). β-Lactamase production was found in 81% of the Campylobacter strains tested, although 44% of them were characterized as ampicillin susceptible. The increasing rates of Campylobacter resistance make advisable a more conservative policy for the use of antibiotics in farm animals. PMID:10639348

  6. Prevalence and Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Retail Chicken in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Su, Yulan; Ma, Luyao; Ma, Lina; Li, Ping; Du, Xinjun; Gölz, Greta; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2017-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen worldwide; however, there is a lack of information on the prevalence and antibiotic-resistant profile of C. jejuni in the People's Republic of China. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of C. jejuni on the retail level in Tianjin, one of the five national central cities in China. A total of 227 samples of chicken wings, legs, and breasts were collected from supermarkets and wet markets; 42 of these samples were confirmed to be positive for Campylobacter contamination. The contamination rates of C. jejuni and other Campylobacter species were 13.7% (31 of 227 samples) and 5.7% (13 of 227 samples), respectively. A group of 31 C. jejuni isolates was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All (100%) the selected isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid; 77.4% were resistant to tetracycline, 67.7% to doxycycline, 35.5% to gentamicin, 25.8% to clindamycin and florfenicol, 19.4% to chloramphenicol, and 12.9% to erythromycin and azithromycin. A remarkably high proportion (41.9%) of multidrug-resistant isolates was identified. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted to study the population structure of the C. jejuni strains and their relationship to human isolates. The correlation between antimicrobial resistance traits and certain sequence types (STs) or clonal complexes was determined as well. A great genetic diversity of poultry isolates was identified, with 11 STs belonging to 6 clonal complexes and 11 singleton STs. The novel STs accounted for 40.9% (n = 9) of the 22 STs. ST-21, ST-353, ST-354, ST-443, ST-607, and ST-828 complexes had been previously identified from human isolates. This study revealed an extensive level of antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity in C. jejuni isolated from chicken products in Tianjin, highlighting the necessity of performing enforced interventions to reduce Campylobacter prevalence in China.

  7. Mapping the carriage of flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism Campylobacter genotypes on poultry carcasses through the processing chain and comparison to clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Lesley L; Blackall, Patrick J; Cobbold, Rowland N; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-06-01

    Poultry are considered a major source for campylobacteriosis in humans. A total of 1866 Campylobacter spp. isolates collected through the poultry processing chain were typed using flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism to measure the impact of processing on the genotypes present. Temporally related human clinical isolates (n = 497) were also typed. Isolates were obtained from whole chicken carcass rinses of chickens collected before scalding, after scalding, before immersion chilling, after immersion chilling and after packaging as well as from individual caecal samples. A total of 32 genotypes comprising at least four isolates each were recognised. Simpson's Index of Diversity (D) was calculated for each sampling site within each flock, for each flock as a whole and for the clinical isolates. From caecal collection to after packaging samples the D value did not change in two flocks, decreased in one flock and increased in the fourth flock. Dominant genotypes occurred in each flock but their constitutive percentages changed through processing. There were 23 overlapping genotypes between clinical and chicken isolates. The diversity of Campylobacter is flock dependant and may alter through processing. This study confirms that poultry are a source of campylobacteriosis in the Australian population although other sources may contribute. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiological relationships of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and chickens in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Young; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Wei, Bai; Jang, Hyung-Kwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Hyeon; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kang, Min-Su

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Of all isolates tested, over 94% contained seven virulence associated genes (flaA, cadF, racR, dnaJ, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC). All isolates were classified into 39 types by PFGE clustering with 90% similarity. Some chicken isolates were incorporated into some PFGE types of human isolates. MLST analysis for the 39 human isolates and 38 chicken isolates resulted in 14 and 23 sequence types (STs), respectively, of which 10 STs were new. STs overlapped in both chicken and human isolates included ST-21, ST-48, ST-50, ST-51, and ST-354, of which ST-21 was the predominant ST in both human and chicken isolates. Through combined analysis of PFGE types and STs, three chicken isolates were clonally related to the three human isolates associated with food poisoning (VII-ST-48, XXII-ST-354, and XXVIII-ST-51). They were derived from geographically same or distinct districts. Remarkably, clonal spread of food poisoning pathogens between animals and humans was confirmed by population genetic analysis. Consequently, contamination of campylobacters with quinolone resistance and potential virulence genes in poultry production and consumption may increase the risk of infections in humans.

  9. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  10. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  11. Simultaneous occurrence of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica along the pork production chain from farm to meat processing in five conventional fattening pig herds in Lower Saxony.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Jana-Kristin; Alter, Thomas; Gölz, Greta; Tietze, Erhard; Fruth, Angelika; Rabsch, Wolfgang; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Merle, Roswitha; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to gather data on the occurrence of Salmonella (S.) enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica along the pork production chain and to further analyze detected Salmonella isolates by additionally applying MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis). In total, 336 samples were collected at primary production, slaughter and meat processing from five conventional fattening pig farms and one common slaughterhouse. At farm level, S. enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica were detected in 19.4%, 38.9% and 11.1% of pooled fecal samples of fattening pigs. At slaughter, more than two-thirds of examined carcasses, 24% of carcass surfaces samples and about 60% of cecal content samples were positive for at least one of the examined pathogens. An amount of 4% of meat samples were positive for non-human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Identical MLVA patterns of Salmonella isolates from farm- and associated slaughterhouse samples demonstrated transmission across both production stages. Other MLVA patterns found at slaughter indicated possible colonization of pigs during transport or lairage and/or cross-contamination during slaughter. Identical MLVA patterns from risk tissues and the nearby carcass surface evidenced a direct contamination of carcasses as well. Overall, our data showed wide distribution ranges for all three examined pathogens within the pig production chain and underline the need for appropriate intervention strategies at pre- and postharvest.

  12. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni pulsotypes isolated from humans and poultry in Split and Dalmatia County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Ana; Carev, Merica; Tripković, Ingrid; Srečec, Siniša; Siško-Kraljević, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of poultry is considered to be an important source of human infection with Campylobacter. In the period from 2008 to 2010, 50 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from human faeces were analysed and compared with 61 isolates from poultry by pulsed field gel electrophoresis using SmaI and KpnI. Based on the analysis of SmaI macrorestriction profiles, 86 isolates (77.5 %) were assigned to 15 S clusters: 31 (62 %) from humans and 55 from poultry (90.2 %). Altogether 21 isolates (19 %) exhibited macrorestriction profiles common to both humans and poultry after restriction with SmaI and KpnI. A total of five identical pulsotypes were isolated from both poultry and patients and one of them appeared in eight different locations in the time interval of one year. These results indicate that poultry could be an important source of Campylobacter infection in Split and Dalmatia County which is the biggest County in Croatia and the most important tourist destination.

  13. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method.

    PubMed

    Vidal, A B; Colles, F M; Rodgers, J D; McCarthy, N D; Davies, R H; Maiden, M C J; Clifton-Hadley, F A

    2016-04-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coliisolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645C. jejuniand 106C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuniisolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. ForC. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms forC. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% forC. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacterin broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical. Copyright © 2016 Vidal et al.

  15. A charcoal- and blood-free enrichment broth for isolation and PCR detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken.

    PubMed

    Solís-Soto, Luisa Y; García, Santos; Wesley, Irene; Heredia, Norma

    2011-02-01

    The microaerophilic nature of Campylobacter and its requirement of ∼5% O(2) for growth have complicated its recovery from foods. The addition to the enrichment media of oxygen quenchers such as charcoal or blood could interfere with PCR for its detection. In this study, a two-step simple aerobic method for Campylobacter detection is proposed. A modification of the Tran blood-free enrichment broth (BFEB), in which charcoal was excluded from the medium (M-BFEB), was compared with the original formulation and other enrichment broths. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were screened by PCR directly from the enrichment media. Various levels of pure cultures of C. jejuni and C. coli combined with Escherichia coli were inoculated into Preston, Bolton, BFEB, and the modified BFEB (M-BFEB). In addition, Campylobacter was inoculated onto retail purchased chicken skin and recovery was quantified. Rates of recovery after 24 to 48 h of enrichment at 42 °C under aerobic incubation for BFEB and M-BFEB and microaerobic incubations for Preston and Bolton broths were determined. Overall, our results indicated that the most sensitive medium was Bolton's, followed by either BFEB or M-BFEB; the least sensitive was Preston's. M-BFEB was directly coupled to a PCR assay to detect Campylobacter, avoiding intermediate plating. Campylobacter was detected in the presence of up to 10(8) E. coli cells per ml. M-BFEB facilitated detection of both C. jejuni and C. coli artificially inoculated onto chicken skin samples. M-BFEB coupled to PCR is a rapid and attractive alternative for isolation and identification of C. coli and C. jejuni from poultry. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  16. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Yersiniabactin and other siderophores produced by clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Kaznowski, Adam

    2004-01-15

    We analyzed the ability of extraintestinal strains of Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. to employ different siderophore-mediated strategies of iron acquisition. All strains produced iron-chelating compounds. Cross-feeding assays indicated that most isolates of both Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. excreted catecholate siderophore enterobactin, less produced aerobactin, and single strains excreted hydroxamates different from aerobactin. Besides, we analyzed if the strains had the ability to produce the siderophore yersiniabactin coded by the Yersinia high-pathogenicity island (HPI). The presence of HPI genes was observed in single isolates of three species: E. cloaceae, E. aerogenes and C. koseri. A detailed polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed differences in the genetic organization of the HPIs; however, in a cross-feeding test we proved that yersiniabactin was produced and the island was functional.

  18. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and detection of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-02-19

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations.

  19. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  20. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter Sakazakii) from Artisanal Mozzarella

    PubMed Central

    Rippa, Paola; Battaglia, Luciana; Parisi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21%) of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this present study helps

  1. Biosecurity-based interventions and strategies to reduce Campylobacter spp. on poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Newell, D G; Elvers, K T; Dopfer, D; Hansson, I; Jones, P; James, S; Gittins, J; Stern, N J; Davies, R; Connerton, I; Pearson, D; Salvat, G; Allen, V M

    2011-12-01

    The prevention and control of Campylobacter colonization of poultry flocks are important public health strategies for the control of human campylobacteriosis. A critical review of the literature on interventions to control Campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. Although the focus of the review was on aspects appropriate to the United Kingdom poultry industry, the research reviewed was gathered from worldwide literature. Multiple electronic databases were employed to search the literature, in any language, from 1980 to September 2008. A primary set of 4,316 references was identified and scanned, using specific agreed-upon criteria, to select relevant references related to biosecurity-based interventions. The final library comprised 173 references. Identification of the sources of Campylobacter in poultry flocks was required to inform the development of targeted interventions to disrupt transmission routes. The approach used generally involved risk factor-based surveys related to culture-positive or -negative flocks, usually combined with a structured questionnaire. In addition, some studies, either in combination or independently, undertook intervention trials. Many of these studies were compromised by poor design, sampling, and statistical analysis. The evidence for each potential source and route of transmission on the poultry farm was reviewed critically, and the options for intervention were considered. The review concluded that, in most instances, biosecurity on conventional broiler farms can be enhanced and this should contribute to the reduction of flock colonization. However, complementary, non-biosecurity-based approaches will also be required in the future to maximize the reduction of Campylobacter-positive flocks at the farm level.

  2. Biosecurity-Based Interventions and Strategies To Reduce Campylobacter spp. on Poultry Farms▿

    PubMed Central

    Newell, D. G.; Elvers, K. T.; Dopfer, D.; Hansson, I.; Jones, P.; James, S.; Gittins, J.; Stern, N. J.; Davies, R.; Connerton, I.; Pearson, D.; Salvat, G.; Allen, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevention and control of Campylobacter colonization of poultry flocks are important public health strategies for the control of human campylobacteriosis. A critical review of the literature on interventions to control Campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. Although the focus of the review was on aspects appropriate to the United Kingdom poultry industry, the research reviewed was gathered from worldwide literature. Multiple electronic databases were employed to search the literature, in any language, from 1980 to September 2008. A primary set of 4,316 references was identified and scanned, using specific agreed-upon criteria, to select relevant references related to biosecurity-based interventions. The final library comprised 173 references. Identification of the sources of Campylobacter in poultry flocks was required to inform the development of targeted interventions to disrupt transmission routes. The approach used generally involved risk factor-based surveys related to culture-positive or -negative flocks, usually combined with a structured questionnaire. In addition, some studies, either in combination or independently, undertook intervention trials. Many of these studies were compromised by poor design, sampling, and statistical analysis. The evidence for each potential source and route of transmission on the poultry farm was reviewed critically, and the options for intervention were considered. The review concluded that, in most instances, biosecurity on conventional broiler farms can be enhanced and this should contribute to the reduction of flock colonization. However, complementary, non-biosecurity-based approaches will also be required in the future to maximize the reduction of Campylobacter-positive flocks at the farm level. PMID:21984249

  3. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Wild Birds in Sweden†

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Jonas; Mevius, Dik; Veldman, Kees; Broman, Tina; Hasselquist, Dennis; Olsen, Björn

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the occurrence and frequency of resistant strains of the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni and to establish baseline MICs in isolates from an environmental reservoir, the resistance profiles of 10 antimicrobial substances were determined for 137 C. jejuni isolates from wild birds in Sweden. Observed MICs were generally low, with only low to moderate incidence of resistance to the tested compounds. One isolate, however, was resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, indicating that quinolone-resistant genotypes of C. jejuni have the potential to spread to wild bird hosts. PMID:15870331

  5. [Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 29428 from inoculated fried pork meat and roasted chicken].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Martínez, M L; Sánchez-Sánchez, S; Rodríguez-Montaño, R; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Lugo de la Fuente, G; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    1993-01-01

    The human gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni in some industrialized countries is higher than gastroenteritis produced by Salmonella and Shigella. This has induced the development of techniques to demonstrate the presence of the microorganism in different foods using some culture media combinations. There is not a method to isolate C. jejuni from roasted chicken and fried pork meat, which are popular foods in México. The sensitivity of two culture media combinations was compared: Rama broth (RB)-Rama agar (RA) and Preston broth (PB)-Skirrow agar (SA) to isolate C. jejuni from these foods. The RB-RA combination demonstrated to be the best one to isolate C. jejuni.

  6. Relationship between Presence of Anti-Campylobacter FliD Protein Antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni Isolation from Broiler Chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry products are regarded as a major source of this bacterium for human infection. Although this bacterium is a commensal in chicken cecal microbiome, Campylobacte...

  7. Associations between Campylobacter levels on chicken skin, underlying muscle, caecum and packaged fillets.

    PubMed

    Hansson, I; Nyman, A; Lahti, E; Gustafsson, P; Olsson Engvall, E

    2015-06-01

    A study was performed with the aim to investigate associations between Campylobacter in chicken caecum, carcass skin, underlying breast muscle and packaged breast fillets. Samples were taken from 285 chickens from 57 flocks and analysed according to ISO 10272. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from caecal samples from 41 flocks. From birds of the same 41 flocks Campylobacter could be detected and quantified in 194 (68%) skin samples. Moreover, Campylobacter spp. were enumerated in 13 (5%) underlying muscle samples originating from 9 of the 41 flocks. The mean number of Campylobacter spp. in the 194 skin samples which could be counted was 2.3 log cfu/g and for the 13 underlying muscle samples 1.3 log cfu/g. Campylobacter could only be quantified in those breast muscle samples with a finding in corresponding skin sample. Five packaged chicken fillets were taken from each 25 of the 57 flocks and analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In qualitative analysis Campylobacter was detected in 79 (63%) fillets from 16 flocks and quantified in 24 (19%) samples from 11 flocks. The results showed a significant association (P < 0.05) between findings of Campylobacter on carcass skin (log cfu/g) and the proportion of Campylobacter positive breast muscle samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Macrolide resistance mechanisms and virulence factors in erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter species isolated from chicken and swine feces and carcasses

    PubMed Central

    LIM, Suk-Kyung; MOON, Dong-Chan; CHAE, Myung Hwa; KIM, Hae Ji; NAM, Hyang-Mi; KIM, Su-Ran; JANG, Gum-Chan; LEE, Kichan; JUNG, Suk-Chan; LEE, Hee-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobials was measured in 73 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and 121 isolates of Campylobacter coli (C. coli) from chicken and swine feces and carcasses in Korea. Both bacterial species showed the highest resistance to (fluoro) quinolones (ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid) out of the nine antimicrobials tested. Erythromycin resistance was much higher in C. coli (19.0%, 23/121) than in C. jejuni (6.8%, 5/73). The mutation in the 23S rRNA gene was primarily responsible for macrolide resistance in Campylobacter isolates. Several amino acid substitutions in the L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins may play a role in the mechanism of resistance, but the role requires further evaluation. A total of eight virulence genes were detected in 28 erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter isolates. All C. jejuni isolates carried more than four such genes, while C. coli isolates carried fewer than three such genes. The high rate of resistance highlights the need to employ more prudent use of critically important antimicrobials, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, in swine and poultry production, and to more carefully monitor antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter isolates in food animals. PMID:27593510

  9. The isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages from free range and indoor poultry.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jane; Barton, Mary D; Heuzenroeder, Michael W

    2013-02-22

    Six hundred and sixty one samples - primarily fresh chicken faeces - were processed to isolate wild type Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages, via overlay agar methods using C. jejuni NCTC 12662. The aims of this study were to isolate and purify bacteriophages and then test for their ability to lyse field strains of C. jejuni in vitro. Of all samples processed, 130 were positive for bacteriophages. A distinct difference was observed between samples from different poultry enterprises. No bacteriophages could be isolated from indoor broilers. The majority of bacteriophages were isolated from free range poultry - both broilers and egg layers. Bacteriophages were purified and then selected for characterization based on their ability to produce clear lysis on plaque assay, as opposed to turbid plaques. Two hundred and forty one C. jejuni field isolates were tested for sensitivity to the bacteriophages. Lysis was graded subjectively and any minimal lysis was excluded. Using this system, 59.0% of the C. jejuni isolates showed significant sensitivity to at least one bacteriophage. The sensitivity to individual bacteriophages ranged from 10.0% to 32.5% of the C. jejuni isolates. Five bacteriophages were examined by electron microscopy and determined to belong to the Myoviridae family. The physical size, predicted genetic composition and genome size of the bacteriophages correlated well with other reported Campylobacter bacteriophages. The reasons for the observed difference between indoor broilers and free range poultry is unknown, but are postulated to be due to differences in the Campylobacter population in birds under different rearing conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients].

    PubMed

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat

    2016-10-01

    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of Aeromonas spp. from an unchlorinated domestic water supply.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, V; Robinson, J; Gracey, M; Peterson, D; Meyer, N; Haley, V

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of Aeromonas spp. from the unchlorinated water supply for a Western Australian city of 21,000 people was monitored at several sampling points during a period of 1 year. Membrane filtration techniques were used to count colonies of Aeromonas spp., coliforms, and Escherichia coli in water sampled before entry to service reservoirs, during storage in service reservoirs, and in distribution systems. Aeromonas spp. were identified by subculture on blood agar with ampicillin, oxidase tests, and the use of Kaper medium and then were tested for production of enterotoxins and hemolysins. During the same period, two-thirds of all fecal specimens sent for microbiological examination were cultured on ampicillin-blood agar for Aeromonas spp. Recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water supplies at distribution points correlated with fecal isolations and continued during autumn and winter. Coliforms and E. coli were found most commonly in late summer to autumn. This pattern differs from the summer peak of Aeromonas isolations both from water and from patients with Aeromonas spp.-associated gastroenteritis in Perth, Western Australia, a city with a chlorinated domestic water supply. Of the Aeromonas strains from water, 61% were enterotoxigenic, and 64% produced hemolysins. PMID:6486783

  12. Prevalence, quantification and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on chicken neck-skins at points of slaughter in 5 major cities located on 4 continents.

    PubMed

    Garin, Benoit; Gouali, Malika; Wouafo, Marguerite; Perchec, Anne-Marie; Pham, Minh Thu; Ravaonindrina, Noro; Urbès, Florence; Gay, Manu; Diawara, Abdoulaye; Leclercq, Alexandre; Rocourt, Jocelyne; Pouillot, Régis

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative data on Campylobacter contamination of food are lacking, notably in developing countries. We assessed Campylobacter contamination of chicken neck-skins at points of slaughter in 5 major cities in Africa (Dakar in Senegal, Yaounde in Cameroon), Oceania (Noumea in New Caledonia), the Indian Ocean (Antananarivo in Madagascar) and Asia (Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam. One hundred and fifty slaughtered chickens were collected in each of the 5 major cities from semi-industrial abattoirs or markets (direct slaughter by the seller), and 65.5% (491/750) were found to be Campylobacter-positive. Two cities, Yaounde and Noumea, demonstrated high prevalence Campylobacter detection rates (92.7% and 96.7% respectively) in contrast with HCMC (15.3%). Four species were identified among 633 isolates, namely C. jejuni (48.3%), C. coli (37.3%), C. lari (11.7%) and C. upsaliensis (1%). HCMC was the only city with C. lari isolation as was Antananarivo for C. upsaliensis. C. coli was highly prevalent only in Yaounde (69.5%). Among the 491 samples positive in Campylobacter detection, 329 were also positive with the enumeration method. The number of Campylobacter colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of neck-skin in samples positive in enumeration was high (mean of the log(10): 3.2 log(10) CFU/g, arithmetic mean: 7900CFU/g). All the cities showed close enumeration means except HCMC with a 1.81 log(10) CFU/g mean for positive samples. Semi-industrial abattoir was linked to a significant lower count of Campylobacter contamination than direct slaughter by the seller (p=0.006). On 546 isolates (546/633, 86.3%) tested for antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin was observed for respectively 11%, 19% and 50%. HCMC was the city where antibiotic resistant rates were the highest (95%, p=0.014). Considering the 329 positive chickens in Campylobacter enumeration, the mean number of resistant isolates to at least 2 different antibiotic

  13. Isolation and drug-resistant patterns of Campylobacter strains cultured from diarrheic children in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Dolatabadi, Samaneh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2007-07-01

    To detect campylobacteriosis and determine the drug susceptibility of causative organisms, we acquired 500 diarrheic samples in Cary-Blair transfer medium from two pediatric hospitals in Tehran between October 2004 and October 2005. The samples were also enriched in Preston broth (with supplements) and defibrinated sheep blood (7%). They were plated from both media on Brucella agar containing antibiotics and blood. Isolates were identified through biochemical tests and by the polymerase chain reaction method. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. In total, 40 Campylobacter strains were isolated (8%). C. jejuni was the dominant species (85.8%) followed by C. coli (14.2%). The rates of resistance to antimicrobial agents were as follows: ciprofloxacin (61.7%), ceftazidime (47%), carbenicillin (35%), tetracycline (20.5%), cefotaxime (14.7%), ampicillin (11.7%), neomycin erythromycin and chloramphenicol (2.9%), gentamicin, streptomycin, imipenem and colistin (0.0%). Campylobacter is an important cause of diarrhea among Iranian children. The detection of Campylobacter increases by 25% if samples are treated in enrichment broth prior to plating. The high rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin is alarming, and further investigation into the possible reasons for this is imperative.

  14. An alternative bacteriological medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Taylor, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two solid bacteriologic media were compared for cultivating Aeromonas spp. from piscine sources: the Rimler-Shotts (RS) medium and a starch-glutamate-ampicillin-penicillin-based medium (SGAP-10C) used for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water samples. The selective and differential capacities of the media were assessed March through October 1992 by recovery rate and phenotype of 99 isolates representing 15 genera of bacteria. Recovery frequency of Aeromonas spp. (n = 62) was similar at 97% on RS and 95% on SGAP-10C. The SGAP-10C medium proved to be more specific than RS toward Aeromonas species (P ≤ 0.005). Use of SGAP-10C at 24 C for 48 hr offers a better choice for the laboratory recovery of Aeromonas spp. from clinical fish specimens.

  15. Genotype and antibiotic resistance analyses of Campylobacter isolates from ceca and carcasses of slaughtered broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Simone E; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter; Korczak, Bozena M

    2010-10-01

    To obtain genetic information about Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from broilers and carcasses at slaughterhouses, we analyzed and compared 340 isolates that were collected in 2008 from the cecum right after slaughter or from the neck skin after processing. We performed rpoB sequence-based identification, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and flaB sequence-based typing; we additionally analyzed mutations within the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes that confer resistance to macrolide and quinolone antibiotics, respectively. The rpoB-based identification resulted in a distribution of 72.0% C. jejuni and 28.0% C. coli. The MLST analysis revealed that there were 59 known sequence types (STs) and 6 newly defined STs. Most of the STs were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CC) that are typical for poultry (CC21, CC45, CC257, and CC828), and these represented 61.8% of all of the investigated isolates. The analysis of 95 isolates from the cecum and from the corresponding carcass neck skin covered 44 different STs, and 54.7% of the pairs had matching genotypes. The data indicate that cross-contamination from various sources during slaughter may occur, although the majority of Campylobacter contamination on carcasses appeared to originate from the slaughtered flock itself. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene were found in 3.1% of C. coli isolates, although no mutations were found in C. jejuni isolates. Mutations in the gyrA gene were observed in 18.9% of C. jejuni and 26.8% of C. coli isolates, which included two C. coli strains that carried mutations conferring resistance to both classes of antibiotics. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance/susceptibility was observed.

  16. Biological characterization of Aeromonas spp. isolated from the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Z.; Khan, S. I.; Chopra, A. K.

    2004-01-01

    Cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) is a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infections caused by Aeromonas spp. The cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act) was detected in 32 out of 69 environmental isolates of Aeromonas spp. by hybridization with the act gene probe. To evaluate the pathogenic potential of the act gene probe-positive isolates, 32 act gene probe-positive and 31 randomly selected act gene probe-negative isolates were tested for enterotoxicity in a suckling mice assay (SMA), for haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates, for the presence of CAMP-like factors, and for cytotoxicity in a Vero cell line. The act gene probe-positive isolates significantly differed from the toxin gene probe-negative ones with respect to enterotoxicity in the SMA (P=0.009) and haemolytic activity (P=0.005). The CAMP-haemolysin phenotype was significantly associated with the rabbit ileal loop assay (P= 0.08), Vero cell assay (P= 0.064), and haemolysin production under the microaerophilic conditions (P= 0.056) of the act gene probe-positive isolates of Aeromonas spp. These data indicated the role of Act in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas infections and that the enterotoxic potential of Aeromonas spp. could be assessed by simply performing a CAMP-haemolysin assay. PMID:15310164

  17. Isolation of Campylobacter from feral swine (Sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak investigation in California.

    PubMed

    Jay-Russell, M T; Bates, A; Harden, L; Miller, W G; Mandrell, R E

    2012-08-01

    We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California, during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the United States. Campylobacter species were cultured from buccal and rectal-anal swabs, colonic faeces and tonsils using a combination of selective enrichment and antibiotic-free membrane filtration methods. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, Bruker Daltonics, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA) was used to identify species followed by confirmatory multiplex PCR or 16S rRNA sequencing. Genetic relatedness of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA allele sequencing. Altogether, 12 (40%) of 30 feral swine gastrointestinal and oral cavity specimens were positive, and six species were isolated: Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalsis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lanienae and Campylobacter sputorum. Campylobacter jejuni subtypes were closely related to MLST sequence type 21 (ST-21) and had identical porA sequences. Campylobacter coli subtypes were unrelated to isolates in the pubMLST/porA database. This feral swine population lived in close association with a 'grassfed' beef cattle herd adjacent to spinach and other leafy green row crop fields. The findings underscore the importance of protecting raw vegetable crops from faecal contamination by wild or feral animals. The study also illustrates a potential risk of Campylobacter exposure for hunters during handling and processing of wild swine meat. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The effect of different isolation protocols on detection and molecular characterization of Campylobacter from poultry.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Wassenaar, T M; Gómez-Barrero, S; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Domínguez, L

    2013-11-01

    We determined whether different methods to isolate Campylobacter (including the ISO standard 10272:2006-1) affected the genotypes detectable from poultry, at three points during slaughter: caecal content, neck skin and meat. Carcasses from 28 independent flocks were thus sampled (subset A). In addition, ten neck skin samples from four flocks, ten caecal samples from ten different flocks and ten unrelated meat samples obtained from local supermarkets were collected (subset B). Campylobacter was isolated using eight different protocols: with and without enrichment using Bolton broth, Preston broth or Campyfood broth (CFB), followed by culture on either modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate Agar (mCCDA) or Campyfood agar (CFA). All obtained isolates were genotyped for flaA-SVR, and over half of the isolates were also typed by MLST. The strain richness, as a measure of number of detected fla-genotypes, obtained from subset A neck skin and caecal samples was higher than that of meat samples. In half of the cases, within a flock, at least one identical fla-genotype was obtained at all three slaughter stages, suggestive of autologous contamination of carcasses. Enrichment reduced the observed richness of isolates, while CFA plates increased richness compared to mCCDA plates, irrespective of inclusion of an enrichment step. Because the isolation protocol used influences both the yield and the fla-genotype richness obtained from poultry, this variable should be taken into account when different studies are being compared.

  19. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from food].

    PubMed

    Korotkevich, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% - from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of isolates and 38% isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17-40% - among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10-50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains - Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the .46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics.

  20. Simple media and conditions for inter-laboratory transport of Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Omurtag, Irem; Aydin, Fuat; Paulsen, Peter; Hilbert, Friederike; Smulders, Frans J M

    2011-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important agents of zoonotic disease. Production as well as companion animals can be the infectious source for Campylobacteriosis in humans. Hence, epidemiological research on animal colonization, survival in food of animal origin, and human Campylobacteriosis is of high priority. As such studies involve worldwide co-operations and should include further typing of isolates in reference centers, using a reliable method for transportation is essential. In the case of C. jejuni, a pathogenic and microaerophilic bacterium, special safety precautions as well as particular transport conditions that guarantee survival of isolates are required. The purpose of this study was to test various media and temperatures for the transportation of C. jejuni under aerobic conditions and to identify a cheap, effective and easy method that is appropriate for long distance transportation and can be applied by most veterinary/medical laboratories with a basic infrastructure. We examined Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar with and w/o 2% horse blood and m-CCDA at room temperature and 2 ± 2 (SD)°C under atmospheric conditions for survival of Campylobacter strains. MH agar with 2% horse blood, suitable transport vials, and an optimum temperature of 2 ± 2°C provided survival of three Campylobacter type strains for at least one month under atmospheric conditions. This was validated by a transport test in which 101 isolates were shipped from Turkey to Austria. All isolates could be recultured and 97% survived more than one month in the transport medium. These findings indicate that the described approach is suitable for inter-laboratory transport of C. jejuni isolates.

  1. Isolation of Campylobacter subsp. jejuni from Oriental and American cockroaches caught in kitchens and poultry houses in Vom, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umunnabuike, A C; Irokanulo, E A

    1986-09-01

    A total of 690 adult cockroaches (Periplaneta americana (L.), the American cockroach, and Blatta orientalis (L.), the oriental cockroach) were captured alive within domestic kitchens and near poultry houses in Vom. Using selective media, their external surfaces and internal (gut) contents, after adequate decontamination of the external surfaces, were culturally examined for the presence of campylobacters. 4 isolates of Campylobacter subsp jejuni were made (0.5%); 3 from the gut contents and 1 from the external surface. Nocardia asteroides was isolated from the gut contents of a batch of ten cockroaches. The low isolation rate notwithstanding, our results suggest that cockroaches may be a potential vector of campylobacters from other sources to human food. The somewhat fortuitous isolation of Nocardia asteroides and its significance are discussed.

  2. Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004–5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Results Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. Conclusions These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens. PMID:23855904

  3. Incidence of campylobacters in the intestine of avian species in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, O A; Conner, D E; Hoerr, F J

    1995-01-01

    Avian species necropsied at the C. S. Roberts Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama, from December 1993 until May 1994 were examined for the incidence of intestinal campylobacters. Ninety-one intestinal swabs, representing 66 separate cases and 17 different avian species, were collected and placed into Cary-Blair transport medium. Selective enrichment and culture media were used for initial isolation of Campylobacter spp. Presumptive colonies were identified as Campylobacter spp. by phase-contrast microscopy and Gram stain, and they were confirmed by serological latex agglutination. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 18 (19.7%) of the 66 cases. From the remainder of the cases, 13 (15%) yielded presumptive colonies on Campy-Cefex agar; however, they were not confirmed serologically as Campylobacter spp. Use of Cary-Blair transport medium held in refrigeration for up to 24 days did not hinder the determination of campylobacters in intestinal samples. A variety of avian species, including chicken, emu, hawk, ostrich, and parrot, harbored commensal campylobacters and therefore should be considered potential reservoirs.

  4. Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Its Association with Virulence Genes Related to Adherence, Invasion, and Cytotoxicity in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Animals, Meat, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Lisette; Gatica, María A; Riquelme, Víctor; Vergara, Constanza; Yañez, José Manuel; San Martín, Betty; Sáenz, Leonardo; Vidal, Maricel; Martínez, María Cristina; Araya, Pamela; Flores, Roberto; Duery, Oscar; Vidal, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. A high percentage of Campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specifically ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Moreover, we observed a wide distribution of virulence genes within the analyzed strains. C. jejuni strains were more susceptible to antimicrobials, and showed greater number of virulence genes than C. coli strains. Genes related to invasion capability, such as racR, ciaB, and pldA, were associated with antimicrobial-susceptible strains in both species. The genes cdtA and dnaJ, a citotoxin unit and an adherence-related gene, respectively, were associated with antimicrobial-resistant strains in both species. In conclusion, Campylobacter strains show a statistically significant association between antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of virulence genes.

  5. Campylobacter and fluoroquinolones: a bias data set?

    PubMed

    Silley, Peter

    2003-04-01

    There is no universally accepted standard method for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and it is considered that currently available isolation media are not yet optimal for the recovery of Campylobacter spp. from a range of sample types. Almost all methods incorporate antibiotics into the isolation media to inhibit growth of other bacteria within the sample. It is established that the incorporation of such antibiotics into isolation media will inhibit the growth of some Campylobacter spp. as well as other bacteria. The results of the use of such suboptimal isolation methods are that the isolates which 'survive' the isolation procedure will be those which: (i) are able to 'out compete' the rest of the bacteria in the sample, i.e. they are able to grow faster; (ii) are resistant to the antibiotics used in the isolation media; and (iii) are randomly selected by the laboratory technician as being a 'typical'Campylobacter spp. It is clear that such a procedure is intrinsically biased and will mean that species resistant to the antibiotics used in the media will be isolated. This introduces real doubt that the bacteria isolated are truly representative of those initially found on the sample. It is also becoming clear that Campylobacter spp. are rather difficult to isolate as pure cultures and many are in fact mixtures of more than one strain. Again this introduces great uncertainty as to the prevalence and distribution of respective species from the different sample types. This is especially true when considering isolation of Campylobacter spp. causing disease in man as there is no certainty that the selected isolate is that which was responsible for disease. The incorporation of antibiotics into the isolation media not only introduces the issue of species bias but perhaps more importantly exposes the Campylobacter spp. to a cocktail of antibiotics thereby providing the potential for them to 'switch on' antibiotic resistance mechanisms. It might be argued that this has

  6. [Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni isolation methods and the effect of moisture content on colony morphology].

    PubMed

    Diker, K S; Yardimci, H

    1986-07-01

    Several isolation methods and media and the effect of moisture content on colony morphology were compared for the primary isolation of Campylobacter jejuni. Of the 200 rectal swabs from cattle and sheep tested for the isolation of C. jejuni, 19.5% were positive on Butzler medium and 16.5% were positive on Skirrow medium. The transportation of samples in modified Cary-Blair medium increased the isolation rate. Of the 300 gallbladder from cattle and sheep tested for the isolation of C. jejuni, 5% were positive by direct inoculation of bile, 27% were positive by swabbing and 31% were positive by selective enrichment method. The organism produced two different type of colonies on fresh and dried media.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter: prevalence and trends in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igimi, S; Okada, Y; Ishiwa, A; Yamasaki, M; Morisaki, N; Kubo, Y; Asakura, H; Yamamoto, S

    2008-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most frequently diagnosed bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in Japan and throughout the world. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans has emerged in many countries during the past 15 years because fluoroquinolones are the drug of choice for the treatment of suspected bacterial gastroenteritis. Food contaminated with Campylobacter is the usual source of human infection; therefore, the presence of antimicrobial resistance strains in the food chain has raised concerns that the treatment of human infections will be compromised. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals and in veterinary medicine is suspected to be correlated with an increase in quinolone-resistant strains of Campylobacter in food animals, especially in poultry products. In contrast to macrolide resistance in C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans showing a stable low rate, resistant Campylobacter spp. to quinolones have emerged in Japan. The paper summarizes food-borne Campylobacter infection in Japan, and the prevalence and trends of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter from the authors' data and other Japanese papers which reported the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter.

  8. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  9. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample.

  10. Differential Distribution of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Correlates with Lack of Shared Environments.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Bruce M; Louwen, Rogier; van Baarlen, Peter; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2015-09-02

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are sequence-specific adaptive defenses against phages and plasmids which are widespread in prokaryotes. Here we have studied whether phylogenetic relatedness or sharing of environmental niches affects the distribution and dissemination of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems, first in 132 bacterial genomes from 15 phylogenetic classes, ranging from Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria. There was clustering of distinct Type II CRISPR-Cas systems in phylogenetically distinct genera with varying G+C%, which share environmental niches. The distribution of CRISPR-Cas within a genus was studied using a large collection of genome sequences of the closely related Campylobacter species Campylobacter jejuni (N = 3,746) and Campylobacter coli (N = 486). The Cas gene cas9 and CRISPR-repeat are almost universally present in C. jejuni genomes (98.0% positive) but relatively rare in C. coli genomes (9.6% positive). Campylobacter jejuni and agricultural C. coli isolates share the C. jejuni CRISPR-Cas system, which is closely related to, but distinct from the C. coli CRISPR-Cas system found in C. coli isolates from nonagricultural sources. Analysis of the genomic position of CRISPR-Cas insertion suggests that the C. jejuni-type CRISPR-Cas has been transferred to agricultural C. coli. Conversely, the absence of the C. coli-type CRISPR-Cas in agricultural C. coli isolates may be due to these isolates not sharing the same environmental niche, and may be affected by farm hygiene and biosecurity practices in the agricultural sector. Finally, many CRISPR spacer alleles were linked with specific multilocus sequence types, suggesting that these can assist molecular epidemiology applications for C. jejuni and C. coli. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Differential Distribution of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Correlates with Lack of Shared Environments

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Bruce M.; Louwen, Rogier; van Baarlen, Peter; van Vliet, Arnoud H.M.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are sequence-specific adaptive defenses against phages and plasmids which are widespread in prokaryotes. Here we have studied whether phylogenetic relatedness or sharing of environmental niches affects the distribution and dissemination of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems, first in 132 bacterial genomes from 15 phylogenetic classes, ranging from Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria. There was clustering of distinct Type II CRISPR-Cas systems in phylogenetically distinct genera with varying G+C%, which share environmental niches. The distribution of CRISPR-Cas within a genus was studied using a large collection of genome sequences of the closely related Campylobacter species Campylobacter jejuni (N = 3,746) and Campylobacter coli (N = 486). The Cas gene cas9 and CRISPR-repeat are almost universally present in C. jejuni genomes (98.0% positive) but relatively rare in C. coli genomes (9.6% positive). Campylobacter jejuni and agricultural C. coli isolates share the C. jejuni CRISPR-Cas system, which is closely related to, but distinct from the C. coli CRISPR-Cas system found in C. coli isolates from nonagricultural sources. Analysis of the genomic position of CRISPR-Cas insertion suggests that the C. jejuni-type CRISPR-Cas has been transferred to agricultural C. coli. Conversely, the absence of the C. coli-type CRISPR-Cas in agricultural C. coli isolates may be due to these isolates not sharing the same environmental niche, and may be affected by farm hygiene and biosecurity practices in the agricultural sector. Finally, many CRISPR spacer alleles were linked with specific multilocus sequence types, suggesting that these can assist molecular epidemiology applications for C. jejuni and C. coli. PMID:26338188

  12. Comparative genotypic and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of zoonotic Campylobacter species isolated from broilers in a nationwide survey, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Ana Cláudia; Clemente, Lurdes; Rocha, Teresa; Tavares, Alcina; Geraldes, Margarida; Barahona, Maria José; Botelho, Ana; Cunha, Mónica V

    2012-12-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of human foodborne disease worldwide and has been associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry. The prevalence of Campylobacter species in broiler flocks from more than 200 producers widespread in mainland Portugal was assessed in 2008 in response to Commission Decision 2007/516/EC. Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 83.3% of 424 pooled cecal samples, with a higher prevalence of Campylobacter coli (61.2%) than Campylobacter jejuni (38.8%). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the flaA gene (flaA-RFLP) of 112 C. coli isolates and 67 C. jejuni isolates yielded 11 flaA-RFLP patterns with HinfI (Hunter Gaston diversity index [HGDI] = 0.62) and 48 flaA-RFLP patterns with DdeI (HGDI = 0.89), indicating a high level of genetic diversity. A wide geographic distribution of the most frequent restriction pattern was observed. MICs of five antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline) were determined for 215 C. coli isolates and 136 C. jejuni isolates. The occurrence of non-wild-type isolates, exhibiting an acquired resistance phenotype, was higher for C. coli than C. jejuni for all antimicrobials tested. Sixty-three percent of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were considered non-wild type based on their response to both ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, which are frequently used in the treatment of human infections. The high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter strains detected supports the need for increased epidemiological surveillance and prevention in a country where large amounts of poultry meat are consumed.

  13. Complete Annotated Genome Sequences of Three Campylobacter jejuni Strains Isolated from Naturally Colonized Farm-Raised Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Taveirne, Michael E.; Dunham, Drew T.; Perault, Andrew; Beauchamp, Jessica M.; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterially derived foodborne illness. Human illness is commonly associated with the handling and consumption of contaminated poultry products. Three C. jejuni strains were isolated from cecal contents of three different naturally colonized farm-raised chickens. The complete genomes of these three isolates are presented here. PMID:28126931

  14. Molecular characterization of Campylobacter lanienae strains isolated from food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Nóra; Damjanova, Ivelina; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Ursu, Krisztina; Samu, Péterné; Tóth, Adám György; Varga, János; Dán, Adám

    2011-05-01

    During 2008 and 2009, within the framework of the Hungarian monitoring program of antibiotic resistance of zoonotic agents from food-producing animals, a significant number (43 strains) of Campylobacter lanienae were detected for the first time in Hungary. The isolates were genotyped using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using three different restriction enzymes. The antimicrobial resistance of the isolates was determined by microtiter broth dilution. C. lanienae isolation was successful only from swine but not from other animal species. According to phylogenetic analysis, clustering of the isolates shows the same extensive genetic diversity as other Campylobacter species. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene showed that additional variations exist in variable regions Vc2 and Vc6. SmaI restriction enzyme proved to be the most efficient for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of C. lanienae. A significant tetracycline resistance (60.9%) and the presence of erythromycin-, enrofloxacin-, and multiresistant C. lanienae strains were found. Although the pathogenic potential of C. lanienae in humans is currently unknown, this study demonstrates that C. lanieanae is common in pigs in the country, provides further details on the genotypic and phenotypic properties of C. lanienae, and offers a genotyping method for use in source tracing.

  15. Quantitative risk assessment of human campylobacteriosis by consumption of salad cross-contaminated with thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from broiler meat in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Signorini, M L; Zbrun, M V; Romero-Scharpen, A; Olivero, C; Bongiovanni, F; Soto, L P; Frizzo, L S; Rosmini, M R

    2013-04-01

    Here, we developed a quantitative risk assessment for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. related to the consumption of salad prepared alongside broiler meat. The assessment considered initial contamination levels, cross-contamination and decontamination events during the broiler slaughter process and distribution, and storage and consumption patterns in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The model predicted an infection risk of 3.32×10(-4) per serving. This estimation was variable according to the dose-response model used. Considering the number of chickens slaughtered annually in Argentina, the estimated number of people who could suffer campylobacteriosis related to poultry meat consumption was, on average, 484,304. The risk of human campylobacteriosis was most sensitive to the probability of infection from a Campylobacter (r=0.72), the number of Campylobacter spp. per serving (r=0.40), the frequency of washing the cutting board (r=-0.31), the preparation of raw poultry before salad using the same cutting board (r=0.14), and the frequency of hand washing (r=-0.14). The most sensitive stages of the process identified through the risk assessment can be used as a basis for measures of risk management. Public campaigns on hygiene habits during food preparation at home should focus on the importance of washing the cutting board before preparing raw and ready-to-eat foods and of washing the hands during food preparation.

  16. Campylobacter contamination of broiler caeca and carcasses at the slaughterhouse and correlation with Salmonella contamination.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier; Allain, Virginie; Laisney, Marie-José; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Lalande, Françoise; Petetin, Isabelle; Rouxel, Sandra; Quesne, Ségolène; Gloaguen, Pierre-Yves; Picherot, Mélanie; Santolini, Julien; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Salvat, Gilles; Chemaly, Marianne

    2011-08-01

    In order to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. on broiler chicken carcasses and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in caeca, 58 French slaughterhouses were investigated in 2008. Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. was also performed in order to study the relation between caeca and carcass contamination. A pool of 10 caeca and one carcass were collected from 425 different batches over a 12-month period in 2008. Salmonella was isolated on 32 carcasses leading to a prevalence of 7.5% ([5.0-10.0](95%CI)). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 77.2% ([73.2-81.2](95%CI)) in caeca and 87.5% ([84.4-90.7](95%CI)) on carcasses. No significant correlation was found between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Positive values of Campylobacter were normally distributed and the average level was 8.05 log(10) cfu/g ([7.94-8.16](95%CI)) in caeca and 2.39 cfu/g ([2.30-2.48](95%CI)) on carcasses. A positive correlation (r = 0.59) was found between the mean of Campylobacter in caeca and on carcasses (p < 0.001). Thus, carcasses from batches with Campylobacter-positive caeca had significantly (p < 0.001) higher numbers of Campylobacter per gram than batches with negative caeca. These results show that Campylobacter can be present in both matrices and reduction in caeca could be a possible way to reduce the amount of bacteria on carcasses. Of the 2504 identifications performed, 3 species of Campylobacter (Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari) were identified. The main species recovered were C. jejuni and C. coli, which were isolated in 55.3% and 44.5% of positive samples, respectively. These two species were equally represented in caeca but C. jejuni was the most frequently isolated on carcasses with 57.1% and 42.5% of positive carcasses for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. This study underlines that target a reduction of Campylobacter on final products requires a decrease of contamination in caeca. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd

  17. Discrepancy between Penner serotyping and polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting of Campylobacter isolated from poultry and other animal sources.

    PubMed

    Aarts, H J; van Lith, L A; Jacobs-Reitsma, W F

    1995-06-01

    Thirty-four Campylobacter jejuni or coli strains, isolated from various livestock and darkling beetles from two Dutch poultry farms during different broiler production cycles, were subjected to Penner serotyping and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprint analysis. Ten different Penner serotypes were determined in the isolates. Visual scoring of the PCR fingerprints resulted in 14 clearly different profiles. Some strains with identical Penner serotypes exhibited different PCR fingerprints and conversely strains with different serotypes produced identical PCR fingerprints. Discrepancies between Penner serotyping and PCR fingerprinting were most obvious between isolates from different animal sources. Indications for the occurrence of genomic rearrangements were found. The inconsistency between serotyping and fingerprinting of Campylobacter strains suggests that conventional typing methods should be used in combination with fingerprinting if the epidemiological factors that contribute to Campylobacter colonization of live chickens are to be assessed reliably.

  18. Combined Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Rapid Testing and Molecular Epidemiology in Conventional Broiler Flocks.

    PubMed

    Schallegger, G; Muri-Klinger, S; Brugger, K; Lindhardt, C; John, L; Glatzl, M; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial zoonosis, most often transmitted by contaminated poultry meat. From an epidemiological and risk assessment perspective, further knowledge should be obtained on Campylobacter prevalence and genotype distribution in primary production. Consequently, 15 Austrian broiler flocks were surveyed in summer for their thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination status. Chicken droppings, dust and drinking water samples were collected from each flock at three separate sampling periods. Isolates were confirmed by PCR and subtyped. We also compared three alternative methods (culture-based enrichment in Bolton broth, culture-independent real-time PCR and a lateral-flow test) for their applicability in chicken droppings. Twelve flocks were found to be positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. during the entire sampling period. Seven flocks (46.6%) were contaminated with both, C. jejuni and C. coli, five flocks harboured solely one species. We observed to a majority flock-specific C. jejuni and C. coli genotypes, which dominated the respective flock. Flocks within a distance <2 km shared the same C. jejuni genotypes indicating a cross-contamination event via the environment or personnel vectors. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of C. jejuni revealed that the majority of isolates were assigned to globally distributed clonal complexes or had a strong link to the human interface (CC ST-446 and ST4373). The combination of techniques poses an advantage over risk assessment studies based on cultures alone, as, in the case of Campylobacter, occurrence of a high variety of genotypes might be present among a broiler flock. We suggest applying the lateral-flow test under field conditions to identify 'high-shedding' broiler flocks at the farm level. Consequently, poultry farmers and veterinarians could improve hygiene measurements and direct sanitation activities, especially during the thinning period. Ultimately, real-time PCR could

  19. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  20. Class 1 Integron-Associated Tobramycin-Gentamicin Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from the Broiler Chicken House Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Margie D.; Sanchez, Susan; Zimmer, Martha; Idris, Umelaalim; Berrang, Mark E.; McDermott, Patrick F.

    2002-01-01

    Using PCR, we screened 105 isolates of poultry-associated Campylobacter jejuni for the presence of class 1 integrons. Of those isolates, 21% (22 of 105) possessed the integrase gene, but only 5 isolates produced an amplicon in a 5′-3′ conserved sequence PCR directed toward amplification of the resistance cassettes. DNA sequencing demonstrated that all five isolates possessed the aminoglycoside resistance gene, aacA4. PMID:12384387

  1. A possible mechanism of macrolide resistance among multiple resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from Thai children during 1991-2000.

    PubMed

    Serichantalergs, Oralak; Jensen, L B; Pitarangsi, C; Mason, C J; Dalsgaard, A

    2007-05-01

    A total of 495 Campylobacterjejuni and 122 C. coli isolated from Thai children were screened for macrolide (erythromycin and azithromycin) resistance by disk diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for erythromycin, azithromycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin and chloramphenicol were further determined for these macrolide-resistant Campylobacter isolates. Presence of known point mutations resulting in reduced susceptibility to macrolides was investigated by PCR and DNA sequencing. Seventeen percent (23/122) of C. coli and 2.4% (12/495) of C. jejuni isolates were resistant to macrolides. By sequencing domain V of the 23S ribosomal DNA from all 35 macrolide-resistant isolates, a known point mutation of 23S rRNA associated with reduced susceptibility to macrolides was detected in all isolates except one. Among the macrolide-resistant isolates, all were multiply resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, of which the latter is the preferred antimicrobial used for diarrheal treatment in Thailand. Furthermore, most macrolide-resistant isolates were also resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin. The spread of macrolide and quinolone resistant Campylobacter should be monitored closely in Thailand and elsewhere as these antimicrobials are preferred drugs for treatment of diarrhea.

  2. Fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler slaughterhouses in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Arguello, Yuli M; Perdoncini, G; Morgan, R B; Salle, C T P; Moraes, H L S; Gomes, Marcos J P; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as a leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The over-use of antimicrobials in the human population and in animal husbandry has led to an increase in antimicrobial-resistant infections, particularly with fluoroquinolones and macrolides. The aim of the present study was to provide information of the current status of antimicrobial resistance patterns in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry sources. Fifty strains were recovered from broiler slaughterhouses in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, 2012. The strains were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility against three agents (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and erythromycin) by minimal inhibitory concentrations. The strains were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for detection of the Thr-86 mutation that confers resistance to ciprofloxacin. In addition, all the strains were tested for the presence of efflux systems (cmeB gene) conferring antimicrobial resistance. The minimum inhibitory concentrations results showed that 98% of isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and most isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (94%) and nalidixic acid (90%). A complete correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentrations and PCR-RFLP assay. Finally, the cmeB gene that is responsible for multidrug resistance was detected in 16 isolates out the 50 strains (32%).

  3. Cluster Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni Genotypes Isolated from Small and Medium-Sized Mammalian Wildlife and Bovine Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S K; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms (eight beef, eight swine and nine dairy) in 2010, we assessed clustering of molecular subtypes of C. jejuni based on a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative genomic fingerprinting assay (CGF40) subtypes, using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis, and multiple correspondence analysis. Exact logistic regression was used to determine which genes differentiate wildlife and livestock subtypes in our study population. A total of 33 bovine livestock (17 beef and 16 dairy), 26 wildlife (20 raccoon (Procyon lotor), five skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and one mouse (Peromyscus spp.) C. jejuni isolates were subtyped using CGF40. Dendrogram analysis, based on UPGMA, showed distinct branches separating bovine livestock and mammalian wildlife isolates. Furthermore, two-dimensional multiple correspondence analysis was highly concordant with dendrogram analysis showing clear differentiation between livestock and wildlife CGF40 subtypes. Based on multilevel logistic regression models with a random intercept for farm of origin, we found that isolates in general, and raccoons more specifically, were significantly more likely to be part of the wildlife branch. Exact logistic regression conducted gene by gene revealed 15 genes that were predictive of whether an isolate was of wildlife or bovine livestock isolate origin. Both multiple correspondence analysis and exact logistic regression revealed that in most cases, the presence of a particular gene (13 of 15) was associated with an isolate being of livestock rather than wildlife origin. In conclusion, the evidence gained from dendrogram analysis, multiple correspondence analysis and exact logistic regression indicates that mammalian wildlife carry CGF40 subtypes of C. jejuni distinct from those carried by bovine livestock. Future studies focused on source attribution of C. jejuni in human infections will help determine whether wildlife

  4. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Milk

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, Martin; Weilmeier, Denise; Dineen, Sean S.; Ralyea, Robert; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2000-01-01

    Putative Pseudomonas spp. isolated predominantly from raw and processed milk were characterized by automated ribotyping and by biochemical reactions. Isolates were biochemically profiled using the Biolog system and API 20 NE and by determining the production of proteases, lipases, and lecithinases for each isolate. Isolates grouped into five coherent clusters, predominated by the species P. putida (cluster A), P. fluorescens (cluster B), P. fragi (as identified by Biolog) or P. fluorescens (as identified by API 20 NE) (cluster C), P. fragi (as identified by Biolog) or P. putida (as identified by API 20 NE) (cluster D), and P. fluorescens (cluster E). Isolates within each cluster also displayed similar enzyme activities. Isolates in clusters A, C, and D were generally negative for all three enzyme activities; isolates in cluster B were predominantly positive for all three enzyme activities; and isolates in cluster E were negative for lecithinase but predominantly positive for protease and lipase activities. Thus, only isolates from clusters B and E produced enzyme activities associated with dairy product flavor defects. Thirty-eight ribogroups were differentiated among the 70 isolates. Ribotyping was highly discriminatory for dairy Pseudomonas isolates, with a Simpson's index of discrimination of 0.955. Isolates of the same ribotype were never classified into different clusters, and ribotypes within a given cluster generally showed similar ribotype patterns; thus, specific ribotype fragments may be useful markers for tracking the sources of pseudomonads in dairy production systems. Our results suggest that ribogroups are generally homogeneous with respect to nomenspecies and biovars, confirming the identification potential of ribotyping for Pseudomonas spp. PMID:10788386

  5. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H.; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. PMID:26394042

  6. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  7. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Campylobacter Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Campylobacter Infections Print A ... Doctor? en español Infecciones por campylobacter What Are Campylobacter Infections? Campylobacter bacteria are one of the main ...

  8. Determination of antimicrobial sensitivities of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from commercial turkey farms in Germany.

    PubMed

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Hotzel, Helmut; Düpre, Sabine; Tomaso, Herbert; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-12-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates recovered from turkeys has increased dramatically. Monitoring the progress of this resistance becomes a growing public health issue. The aim of the present study was to provide information of the current status of antibiotic resistance patterns in Campylobacter jejuni from turkeys. Seventy-six C. jejuni isolates were recovered from 67 epidemiologically unrelated meat turkey flocks in different regions of Germany in 2010 and 2011. The isolates were typed by flaA genotyping and were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility against 12 antibiotics by using a broth microdilution test as well as testing the genetic determination of ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin resistance. All isolates (n = 76) were sensitive to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. The numbers of isolates that were sensitive to streptomycin, erythromycin, neomycin, and amoxicillin were 69 (90.8%), 61 (80.2%), 58 (76.4%), and 44 (57.9%), respectively. Only one isolate was sensitive to all tested antibiotics. The emergence of a high resistance rate and multidrug resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents were observed. The resistance against sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, naladixic acid, and tetracycline was 58 (76.3%), 58 (76.3%), 53 (69.7%), 51 (67.1%), and 42 (55.3%), respectively. None of the isolates was resistant to all antibiotics. Multidrug resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents was found and ranged from 3.9% to 40.8%. Replacement of the Thr-86-->Ile in gyrA gene and detection of the tet(O) gene were the main resistance mechanisms for fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, respectively, while the lack of mutation in position 2074 and 2075 on the 23S rRNA gene was responsible for macrolide resistance. The phenotypic and genotypic resistance profiles were compatible in the case of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline but were not completely congruent with

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli and enterococci associated with pigs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hart, W S; Heuzenroeder, M W; Barton, M D

    2004-06-01

    The major influences on the amplification and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are the therapeutic use of antibiotics in human medicine and their use in livestock for therapy, prophylaxis and growth promotion. The use of veterinary antibiotics has many benefits to the livestock industries ensuring animal health and welfare, but use at subtherapeutic levels also exerts great selective pressure on emergence of resistant bacteria. The possible effect on human health is a problem of current debate. This study involved sampling pig carcasses, pig meat and assessing the level of resistance in zoonotic enteric bacteria of concern to human health. In South Australian pigs, thermophilic Campylobacter species showed widespread resistance (60-100%) to tylosin, erythromycin, lincomycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. No resistance was seen to ciprofloxacin. The enterococci demonstrated little resistance (0-30%) to vancomycin or virginiamycin, but the overall results from the antibiotic sensitivity testing of the enterococci have demonstrated how widespread their resistance has become. Escherichia coli strains showed widespread resistance to tetracycline and moderately common resistance (30-60%) to ampicillin and sulphadiazine. Resistance to more than one antibiotic was common. Pigs from New South Wales were also sampled and differences in resistance patterns were noted, perhaps reflecting different antibiotic use regimens in that state.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter in broiler flocks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haruna, M; Sasaki, Y; Murakami, M; Ikeda, A; Kusukawa, M; Tsujiyama, Y; Ito, K; Asai, T; Yamada, Y

    2012-06-01

    Campylobacter was isolated from 67 (47.2%) of 142 broiler flocks between September 2009 and February 2010. The prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks was significantly lower during January and February than it was from September to December. Campylobacter colonization was more common in flocks that were not provided with a disinfected water supply, which was consistent with the findings of a previous study. The prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. was investigated, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of eight antimicrobial agents were determined for 122 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 46 Campylobacter coli isolates from broiler flocks between 2007 and 2010. In this study, 29.5% (36/122) of C. jejuni isolates and 41.3% (19/46) of C. coli isolates were resistant to enrofloxacin (ERFX), whereas all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. Furthermore, the ERFX-resistant isolates were tested for susceptibility to other classes of antimicrobial agents, and 55.6% (20/36) of ERFX-resistant C. jejuni isolates and 47.4% (9/19) of ERFX-resistant C. coli isolates were resistant to at least one of aminobenzyl penicillin, dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline. To avoid an impact of antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. on the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for human campylobacteriosis, prudent use of antimicrobial agents is a requisite. The use of antimicrobial agents should be accompanied by various approaches such as prevention of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks with the aim of lowering the occurrence of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  11. Screening of Feral Pigeon (Colomba livia), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Graylag Goose (Anser anser) Populations for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Avian Influenza Virus and Avian Paramyxovirus

    PubMed Central

    Lillehaug, A; Jonassen, C Monceyron; Bergsjø, B; Hofshagen, M; Tharaldsen, J; Nesse, LL; Handeland, K

    2005-01-01

    A total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in April. Also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in August. In addition, samples were taken from 200 feral pigeons and five mallards. The cultivation of bacteria detected Campylobacter jejuni jejuni in six of the pigeons, and in one of the mallards. Salmonella diarizona 14:k:z53 was detected in one graylag goose, while all pigeons and mallards were negative for salmonellae. No avian paramyxovirus was found in any of the samples tested. One mallard, from an Oslo river, was influenza A virus positive, confirmed by RT-PCR and by inoculation of embryonated eggs. The isolate termed A/Duck/Norway/1/03 was found to be of H3N8 type based on sequence analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments, and serological tests. This is the first time an avian influenza virus has been isolated in Norway. The study demonstrates that the wild bird species examined may constitute a reservoir for important bird pathogens and zoonotic agents in Norway. PMID:16398331

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli isolated from retail grain-fed veal meat from Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cook, Angela; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Irwin, Rebecca J; McEwen, Scott A; Young, Virginia; Ribble, Carl

    2011-08-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli isolates in fresh retail grain-fed veal obtained in Ontario, Canada. The prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns were examined for points of public health significance. Veal samples (n = 528) were collected from February 2003 through May 2004. Twenty-one Salmonella isolates were recovered from 18 (4%) of 438 samples and underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was found in 6 (29%) of 21 Salmonella isolates; 5 (24%) of 21 isolates were resistant to five or more antimicrobials. No resistance to antimicrobials of very high human health importance was observed. Ampicillin-chloramphenicolstreptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline resistance was found in 5 (3%) of 21 Salmonella isolates. Campylobacter isolates were recovered from 5 (1%) of 438 samples; 6 isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was documented in 3 (50%) of 6 Campylobacter isolates. No Campylobacter isolates were resistant to five or more antimicrobials or category I antimicrobials. E. coli isolates were recovered from 387 (88%) of 438 samples; 1,258 isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was found in 678 (54%) of 1,258 E. coli isolates; 128 (10%) of 1,258 were resistant to five or more antimicrobials. Five (0.4%) and 7 (0.6%) of 1,258 E. coli isolates were resistant to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone, respectively, while 34 (3%) of 1,258 were resistant to nalidixic acid. Ciprofloxacin resistance was not detected. There were 101 different resistance patterns observed among E. coli isolates; resistance to tetracycline alone (12.7%, 161 of 1,258) was most frequently observed. This study provides baseline prevalence and antimicrobial resistance data and highlights potential public health concerns.

  13. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-05-04

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola.

  14. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840

  15. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.

  16. Triclosan in Campy-Cefex Agar to aid in Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Ceca

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Detecting and enumerating Campylobacter from poultry samples can be difficult without highly selective media because of competing microflora. We have found that adding 0.1 µg/ mL of Triclosan, an antibacterial agent, to Bolton enrichment broth prevents overgrowth of non-Campylobacter bacteria and si...

  17. Genome sequencing and annotation of a Campylobacter coli strain isolated from milk with multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun C; Jinneman, Karen C; Neal-McKinney, Jason; Wu, Wen-Hsin; Rice, Daniel H

    2016-06-01

    As the most prevalent bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis, food-borne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) is a tool providing quick and inexpensive approaches for analysis of food-borne pathogen epidemics. Here we report the WGS and annotation of a Campylobacter coli strain, FNW20G12, which was isolated from milk in the United States in 1997 and carries multidrug resistance. The draft genome of FNW20G12 (DDBJ/ENA/GenBank accession number LWIH00000000) contains 1, 855,435 bp (GC content 31.4%) with 1902 annotated coding regions, 48 RNAs and resistance to aminoglycoside, beta-lactams, tetracycline, as well as fluoroquinolones. There are very few genome reports of C. coli from dairy products with multidrug resistance. Here the draft genome of FNW20G12, a C. coli strain isolated from raw milk, is presented to aid in the epidemiology study of C. coli antimicrobial resistance and role in foodborne outbreak.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of quinolone, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance among Campylobacter isolates from initial stages of broiler production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Boto, D; Herrera-León, S; García-Peña, F J; Abad-Moreno, J C; Echeita, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanisms of quinolones, macrolides and tetracycline in campylobacter isolates from grandparent and parent broiler breeders in Spain. Twenty-six isolates were investigated for quinolone resistance, three isolates for macrolide resistance and 39 for tetracycline resistance. All of the quinolone-resistant isolates possessed the mutation Thr86Ile in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA and one isolate possessed the mutation Pro104Ser. Only one Campylobacter coli population (defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction of flaA and pulsed field gel electrophoresis) was resistant to erythromycin, and the mutation A2075G (23S rDNA) was responsible for macrolide resistance. The tetO gene was found in all of the tetracycline-resistant isolates. Twenty-two out of the 39 isolates investigated by Southern blot possessed chromosomic location of tetO and 17 were located on plasmids. Most of the plasmids with tetO were of around 60 kb and conjugation was demonstrated in a selection of them. In conclusion, we showed that Thr86Ile is highly prevalent in quinolone-resistant isolates as well as mutation A2075G in macrolide-resistant isolates of poultry origin. More variability was found for tetO. The possibility of horizontal transmission of tetO among campylobacter isolates is also an issue of concern in public health.

  19. Selective medium for isolation and enumeration of Bifidobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoa, F J; Pares, R

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the isolation and enumeration of Bifidobacterium spp. from natural aquatic environments. The method was based on the utilization of a new medium, Bifidobacterium iodoacetate medium 25, and resuscitation techniques were used to isolate injured bifidobacteria. The new medium was tested with a nonselective reference medium on sewage and sewage-polluted surface waters. Relatively little colonial growth of any other bacterial genera occurred; when such colonies did grow, Bifidobacterium could be easily differentiated by its colonial morphology or, after Gram staining, by its typical bifidobacterial morphology. PMID:3415235

  20. Comparison of epidemiologically linked Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human and poultry sources.

    PubMed

    Lajhar, S A; Jennison, A V; Patel, B; Duffy, L L

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for most foodborne bacterial infections worldwide including Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of typing methods in the characterizati