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Sample records for campylorhamphus trochilirostris notabilis

  1. Polyphyly of Campylorhamphus, and description of a new genus for C. pucherani (Dendrocolaptinae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Chesser, R. Terry; Eleixo, Alexandre; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Campylorhamphus pucherani using DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes and a nuclear intron, as well as 84 morphological characters from the skeleton, the integument, and the musculature. The molecular phylogeny indicated that C. pucherani is not part of Campylorhamphus; instead, it is the sister species to Drymornis bridgesii, in a clade that also contains Lepidocolaptes. The morphological phylogeny also placed C. pucherani in a clade that contains Drymornis and Lepidocolaptes. Using a morphometric analysis of size and shape diversity, we demonstrated that the inclusion of C. pucherani in Drymornis would create an excessively heterogeneous genus compared with other dendrocolaptine genera. Because no generic name is available for C. pucherani, we describe the new genus Drymotoxeres for this species.

  2. The Prominent moth, Disphragis notabilis Schaus, in Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four described taxa in the Disphragis notabilis species group are reviewed including the types and their dissected genitalia. D. hemicera st. rev.is elevated to species rank. D. nomula is retained as a synonym of D. notabilis. D. sobialis is confirmed as distinct from D. hemicera and D. bi...

  3. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    PubMed

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Gajdon, Gyula K; Schwing, Raoul; Vogl, Wolfgang; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Thaller, Denise; Weissenböck, Herbert; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds' brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds.

  4. Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2013-01-01

    Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants.

  5. Cryptic Diversity in the Ubiquist Species Parisotoma notabilis (Collembola, Isotomidae): A Long-Used Chimeric Species?

    PubMed Central

    Porco, David; Potapov, Mikhail; Bedos, Anne; Busmachiu, Galina; Weiner, Wanda M.; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Parisotoma notabilis is the most common species of Collembola in Europe and is currently designated as ubiquist. This species has been extensively used in numerous studies and is considered as well characterized on a morphological ground. Despite the homogeneity of its morphology, the sequencing of the barcoding fragment (5′ end of COI) for several populations throughout Europe and North America revealed four distinct genetic lineages. The divergence found between these lineages was similar to the genetic distance among other species of the genus Parisotoma included in the analysis. All four lineages have been confirmed by the nuclear gene 28S. This congruence between mitochondrial and nuclear signals, as well as the geographical distribution pattern of lineages observed in Europe, supports the potential specific status of these lineages. Based on specimens from the type locality (Hamburg), the species name was successfully assigned to one of these lineages. This finding raises several problems as Parisotoma notabilis has been widely used in many ecological studies. Accumulation of new data for the different lineages detected, especially ecological information and life history traits, is needed to help resolve this situation. PMID:23049931

  6. Ancient and Contemporary DNA Reveal a Pre-Human Decline but No Population Bottleneck Associated with Recent Human Persecution in the Kea (Nestor notabilis)

    PubMed Central

    Dussex, Nicolas; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Robertson, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of population bottlenecks is an important factor to consider when assessing species survival. Population declines can considerably limit the evolutionary potential of species and make them more susceptible to stochastic events. New Zealand has a well documented history of decline of endemic avifauna related to human colonization. Here, we investigate the genetic effects of a recent population decline in the endangered kea (Nestor notabilis). Kea have undergone a long-lasting persecution between the late 1800s to 1970s where an estimated 150,000 kea were culled under a governmental bounty scheme. Kea now number 1,000–5,000 individuals in the wild and it is likely that the recent population decline may have reduced the genetic diversity of the species. Comparison of contemporary (n = 410), historical (n = 15) and fossil samples (n = 4) showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity since the end of the last glaciation (Otiran Glacial) but no loss of overall genetic diversity associated with the cull. Microsatellite data indicated a recent bottleneck for only one population and a range-wide decline in Ne dating back some 300 – 6,000 years ago, a period predating European arrival in NZ. These results suggest that despite a recent human persecution, kea might have experienced a large population decline before stabilizing in numbers prior to human settlement of New Zealand in response to Holocene changes in habitat distribution. Our study therefore highlights the need to understand the respective effects of climate change and human activities on endangered species dynamics when proposing conservation guidelines. PMID:25719752

  7. Ancient and contemporary DNA reveal a pre-human decline but no population bottleneck associated with recent human persecution in the kea (Nestor notabilis).

    PubMed

    Dussex, Nicolas; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Robertson, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    The impact of population bottlenecks is an important factor to consider when assessing species survival. Population declines can considerably limit the evolutionary potential of species and make them more susceptible to stochastic events. New Zealand has a well documented history of decline of endemic avifauna related to human colonization. Here, we investigate the genetic effects of a recent population decline in the endangered kea (Nestor notabilis). Kea have undergone a long-lasting persecution between the late 1800s to 1970s where an estimated 150,000 kea were culled under a governmental bounty scheme. Kea now number 1,000-5,000 individuals in the wild and it is likely that the recent population decline may have reduced the genetic diversity of the species. Comparison of contemporary (n = 410), historical (n = 15) and fossil samples (n = 4) showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity since the end of the last glaciation (Otiran Glacial) but no loss of overall genetic diversity associated with the cull. Microsatellite data indicated a recent bottleneck for only one population and a range-wide decline in Ne dating back some 300 - 6,000 years ago, a period predating European arrival in NZ. These results suggest that despite a recent human persecution, kea might have experienced a large population decline before stabilizing in numbers prior to human settlement of New Zealand in response to Holocene changes in habitat distribution. Our study therefore highlights the need to understand the respective effects of climate change and human activities on endangered species dynamics when proposing conservation guidelines. PMID:25719752

  8. Reasoning by exclusion in the kea (Nestor notabilis).

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mark; Schwing, Raoul; Federspiel, Ira; Gajdon, Gyula K; Huber, Ludwig

    2016-09-01

    Reasoning by exclusion, i.e. the ability to understand that if there are only two possibilities and if it is not A, it must be B, has been a topic of great interest in recent comparative cognition research. Many studies have investigated this ability, employing different methods, but rarely exploring concurrent decision processes underlying choice behaviour of non-human animals encountering inconsistent or incomplete information. Here, we employed a novel training and test method in order to perform an in-depth analysis of the underlying processes. Importantly, to discourage the explorative behaviour of the kea, a highly neophilic species, the training included a large amount of novel, unrewarded stimuli. The subsequent test consisted of 30 sessions with different sequences of four test trials. In these test trials, we confronted the kea with novel stimuli that were paired with either the rewarded or unrewarded training stimuli or with the novel stimuli of previous test trials. Once habituated to novelty, eight out of fourteen kea tested responded to novel stimuli by inferring their contingency via logical exclusion of the alternative. One individual inferred predominantly in this way, while other response strategies, such as one trial learning, stimulus preferences and avoiding the negative stimulus also guided the responses of the remaining individuals. Interestingly, the difficulty of the task had no influence on the test performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for the current hypotheses about the emergence of inferential reasoning in some avian species, considering causal links to brain size, feeding ecology and social complexity. PMID:27209174

  9. Kea (Nestor notabilis) consider spatial relationships between objects in the support problem

    PubMed Central

    Auersperg, Alice M. I.; Gajdon, Gyula K.; Huber, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    The ‘Support Problem’ is a benchmark test to investigate the understanding of spatial relationships between objects. We tested kea parrots' performance in a paradigm that has previously been studied in primates. Kea perform comparably well to tamarins when they are confronted with a choice between two support devices, one of which has a reward resting on it and the other slightly next to it, or when given a choice between a continuous and a disrupted support. Kea did better than chimpanzees in some tasks in which the perceptual connection of the food to the support was altered. The results indicate that kea are capable of assessing the spatial means–end relationships of this problem spontaneously and in a way that is comparable with primates. PMID:19411271

  10. Identification and characterization of Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain genes in mulberry, Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiwei; Ma, Bi; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2016-06-01

    Genes from the plant specific Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) family encode transcriptional regulators that have a variety of functions in various physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, 31 LBD genes were identified in the mulberry genome. The genome features of all MnLBD genes and phylogenetic studies with Arabidopsis LBD protein sequences, accompanied by the expression analysis of each of the Morus LBD genes provide insights into the functional prediction of mulberry LBDs. The genome-wide surveys of the current mulberry genome have resulted in the identification of catalogs of MnLBD genes that may function in the development of leaf, root, and secondary metabolism in Morus sp. PMID:27014591

  11. Identification and characterization of Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain genes in mulberry, Morus notabilis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yiwei; Ma, Bi; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2016-01-01

    Genes from the plant specific Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) family encode transcriptional regulators that have a variety of functions in various physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, 31 LBD genes were identified in the mulberry genome. The genome features of all MnLBD genes and phylogenetic studies with Arabidopsis LBD protein sequences, accompanied by the expression analysis of each of the Morus LBD genes provide insights into the functional prediction of mulberry LBDs. The genome-wide surveys of the current mulberry genome have resulted in the identification of catalogs of MnLBD genes that may function in the development of leaf, root, and secondary metabolism in Morus sp. PMID:27014591

  12. Navigating a tool end in a specific direction: stick-tool use in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    PubMed

    Auersperg, Alice M I; Huber, Ludwig; Gajdon, Gyula K

    2011-12-23

    This study depicts how captive kea, New Zealand parrots, which are not known to use tools in the wild, employ a stick-tool to retrieve a food reward after receiving demonstration trials. Four out of six animals succeeded in doing so despite physical (beak curvature) and ecological (no stick-like materials used during nest construction) constraints when handling elongated objects. We further demonstrate that the same animals can thereafter direct the functional end of a stick-tool into a desired direction, aiming at a positive option while avoiding a negative one. PMID:21636657

  13. The advantage of objects over images in discrimination and reversal learning by kea, Nestor notabilis

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Mark; Huber, Ludwig; Gajdon, Gyula Kopanny

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the same paradigm but employing different methods are often directly compared in the literature. One such paradigm used to assess behavioural flexibility in animals is reversal learning. Commonly, these studies require individuals to learn the reward contingency of either solid objects presented on the ground or images presented on a touchscreen. Once learned, these contingencies are swapped. Researchers often refer to trials required to reach learning criteria from different studies, to compare the flexibility of different species, but rarely take methodological differences into account. A direct evaluation of the validity of such comparisons is lacking. To address this latent question, we confronted kea, an alpine parrot species of New Zealand and known for its behavioural flexibility, with a standard reversal learning paradigm on the touchscreen and a standard reversal learning paradigm with solid objects. The kea required significantly more trials to reach criterion in the acquisition and the reversal on the touchscreen. Also, the absolute increase in the number of trials required for the reversal was significantly greater on the touchscreen. This indicates that it is not valid to compare learning speed across studies that do not correspond in the addressed methodology. Taking into account the kea's ecology and explorative nature we discuss stimulus abstraction (limited depth cues and tactile stimulus feedback) and the spatial relation between reward and stimulus on the touchscreen as possible causes for decreased inhibition in this condition. Contrary to the absolute increase in number of trials required for the reversal, the increase in relation to the acquisition was greater with solid objects. This highlights the need for further research on the mechanisms involved causing methodology-dependent differences, some of which we discuss, in order to increase the validity of interpretations across studies and in respect to the subject's ecology. PMID:25745190

  14. Navigating a tool end in a specific direction: stick-tool use in kea (Nestor notabilis)

    PubMed Central

    Auersperg, Alice M. I.; Huber, Ludwig; Gajdon, Gyula K.

    2011-01-01

    This study depicts how captive kea, New Zealand parrots, which are not known to use tools in the wild, employ a stick-tool to retrieve a food reward after receiving demonstration trials. Four out of six animals succeeded in doing so despite physical (beak curvature) and ecological (no stick-like materials used during nest construction) constraints when handling elongated objects. We further demonstrate that the same animals can thereafter direct the functional end of a stick-tool into a desired direction, aiming at a positive option while avoiding a negative one. PMID:21636657

  15. Genome-wide analysis, expression dynamics and varietal comparison of NAC gene family at various developmental stages in Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-06-01

    NAC genes are important transcription factors and forms a large family in plants. They have shown to play an important role in growth and development and have also been shown to involve in regulation of stress-responsive genes. In the present study, a repertoire of NAC genes in recently published mulberry genome has been identified which consists of a total of 79 members. Structural analysis revealed that most of the NAC genes in mulberry contain two introns. The proteins encoded by them show a wide range of isoelectric points suggestive of their varied roles in varying microcellular environment. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analysis elucidate the presence of 15 sub-groups of these genes along with two novel sub-groups having distinct conserved motifs which are not present in Arabidopsis. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis and cis-element identification from their putative 1 K upstream regulatory region indicates their possible role in important biological processes like organ formation, meristem establishment, senescence, and various biotic and abiotic stresses. Expression analysis across various developmental stages led to identification of their preferential expression in diverse tissues. Taken together, this work provides a solid background information related to structure, function, expression and evolution of NAC gene family in mulberry. PMID:26942603

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs from Mulberry (Morus notabilis) RNA-seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaobo; Sun, Liang; Luo, Haitao; Ma, Qingguo; Zhao, Yi; Pei, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Numerous sources of evidence suggest that most of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed into protein-coding mRNAs and also into a large number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), a group consisting of ncRNAs longer than 200 nucleotides, have been found to play critical roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic gene regulation across all kingdoms of life. However, lncRNAs and their regulatory roles remain poorly characterized in plants, especially in woody plants. In this paper, we used a computational approach to identify novel lncRNAs from a published RNA-seq data set and analyzed their sequences and expression patterns. In total, 1133 novel lncRNAs were identified in mulberry, and 106 of these lncRNAs displayed a predominant tissue-specific expression in the five major tissues investigated. Additionally, functional predictions revealed that tissue-specific lncRNAs adjacent to protein-coding genes might play important regulatory roles in the development of floral organ and root in mulberry. The pipeline used in this study would be useful for the identification of lncRNAs obtained from other deep sequencing data. Furthermore, the predicted lncRNAs would be beneficial towards an understanding of the variations in gene expression in plants. PMID:26938562

  17. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Bao, Yaning; Wang, B O; Liu, Lijun; Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Baloch, Sana Ullah; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used as early auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformation of mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp genomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive, drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seq data suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants. These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development. PMID:27019439

  18. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Bao, Yaning; Wang, B O; Liu, Lijun; Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Baloch, Sana Ullah; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used as early auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformation of mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp genomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive, drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seq data suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants. These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development.

  19. ABA-deficiency results in reduced plant and fruit size in tomato.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, L; Kohlen, W; Oplaat, C; Charnikhova, T; Cristescu, S; Michieli, P; Wolters-Arts, M; Bouwmeester, H; Mariani, C; Vriezen, W H; Rieu, I

    2012-06-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) deficient mutants, such as notabilis and flacca, have helped elucidating the role of ABA during plant development and stress responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). However, these mutants have only moderately decreased ABA levels. Here we report on plant and fruit development in the more strongly ABA-deficient notabilis/flacca (not/flc) double mutant. We observed that plant growth, leaf-surface area, drought-induced wilting and ABA-related gene expression in the different genotypes were strongly correlated with the ABA levels and thus most strongly affected in the not/flc double mutants. These mutants also had reduced fruit size that was caused by an overall smaller cell size. Lower ABA levels in fruits did not correlate with changes in auxin levels, but were accompanied by higher ethylene evolution rates. This suggests that in a wild-type background ABA stimulates cell enlargement during tomato fruit growth via a negative effect on ethylene synthesis.

  20. MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant-insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm-mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb.

  1. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  2. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  3. Ultraviolet plumage reflectance distinguishes sibling bird species.

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, Robert

    2004-11-23

    Realistic studies of plumage color need to consider that many birds can see near-UV light, which normal humans cannot perceive. Although previous investigations have revealed that UV-based plumage reflectance is an important component of various intraspecific social signals, the contribution of UV signals to inter-specific divergence and speciation in birds remains largely unexplored. I describe an avian example of an interspecific phenomenon in which related sympatric species that appear similar to humans (sibling species) differ dramatically in the UV. Both UV video images and physical reflectance spectra indicate that the dorsal plumage of the tanager Anisognathus notabilis has a strong UV-limited reflectance band that readily distinguishes this species from its sibling congener Anisognathus flavinuchus. The main human-visible distinction between A. notabilis (olive back) and coexisting A. flavinuchus (black back) also occurs among different geographic populations of A. flavinuchus. Notably, however, olive- and black-backed taxa interbreed (differentiated populations of A. flavinuchus) unless the additional UV distinction is present (A. notabilis vs. A. flavinuchus). Thus, UV-based reflectance can be an essential component of plumage divergence that relates to reproductive isolation, a key attribute of biological species.

  4. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  5. Low-coverage, whole-genome sequencing of Artocarpus camansi (Moraceae) for phylogenetic marker development and gene discovery1

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Elliot M.; Johnson, Matthew G.; Ragone, Diane; Wickett, Norman J.; Zerega, Nyree J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We used moderately low-coverage (17×) whole-genome sequencing of Artocarpus camansi (Moraceae) to develop genomic resources for Artocarpus and Moraceae. Methods and Results: A de novo assembly of Illumina short reads (251,378,536 pairs, 2 × 100 bp) accounted for 93% of the predicted genome size. Predicted coding regions were used in a three-way orthology search with published genomes of Morus notabilis and Cannabis sativa. Phylogenetic markers for Moraceae were developed from 333 inferred single-copy exons. Ninety-eight putative MADS-box genes were identified. Analysis of all predicted coding regions resulted in preliminary annotation of 49,089 genes. An analysis of synonymous substitutions for pairs of orthologs (Ks analysis) in M. notabilis and A. camansi strongly suggested a lineage-specific whole-genome duplication in Artocarpus. Conclusions: This study substantially increases the genomic resources available for Artocarpus and Moraceae and demonstrates the value of low-coverage de novo assemblies for nonmodel organisms with moderately large genomes. PMID:27437173

  6. Genome-wide Identification and Structural, Functional and Evolutionary Analysis of WRKY Components of Mulberry.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Negi, Nisha; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry is known to be sensitive to several biotic and abiotic stresses, which in turn have a direct impact on the yield of silk, because it is the sole food source for the silk worm. WRKYs are a family of transcription factors, which play an important role in combating various biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 54 genes with conserved WRKY motifs in the Morus notabilis genome. Motif searches coupled with a phylogenetic analysis revealed seven sub-groups as well as the absence of members of Group Ib in mulberry. Analyses of the 2K upstream region in addition to a gene ontology terms enrichment analysis revealed putative functions of mulberry WRKYs under biotic and abiotic stresses. An RNA-seq-based analysis showed that several of the identified WRKYs have shown preferential expression in the leaf, bark, root, male flower, and winter bud of M. notabilis. Finally, expression analysis by qPCR under different stress and hormone treatments revealed genotype-specific responses. Taken together, our results briefs about the genome-wide identification of WRKYs as well as their differential response to stresses and hormones. Importantly, these data can also be utilized to identify potential molecular targets for conferring tolerance to various stresses in mulberry.

  7. Genome-wide Identification and Structural, Functional and Evolutionary Analysis of WRKY Components of Mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Negi, Nisha; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry is known to be sensitive to several biotic and abiotic stresses, which in turn have a direct impact on the yield of silk, because it is the sole food source for the silk worm. WRKYs are a family of transcription factors, which play an important role in combating various biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 54 genes with conserved WRKY motifs in the Morus notabilis genome. Motif searches coupled with a phylogenetic analysis revealed seven sub-groups as well as the absence of members of Group Ib in mulberry. Analyses of the 2K upstream region in addition to a gene ontology terms enrichment analysis revealed putative functions of mulberry WRKYs under biotic and abiotic stresses. An RNA-seq-based analysis showed that several of the identified WRKYs have shown preferential expression in the leaf, bark, root, male flower, and winter bud of M. notabilis. Finally, expression analysis by qPCR under different stress and hormone treatments revealed genotype-specific responses. Taken together, our results briefs about the genome-wide identification of WRKYs as well as their differential response to stresses and hormones. Importantly, these data can also be utilized to identify potential molecular targets for conferring tolerance to various stresses in mulberry. PMID:27477686

  8. Phylogeography of the sand dollar genus Mellita: cryptic speciation along the coasts of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Coppard, Simon E; Zigler, Kirk S; Lessios, H A

    2013-12-01

    Sand dollars of the genus Mellita are members of the sandy shallow-water fauna. The genus ranges in tropical and subtropical regions on the two coasts of the Americas. To reconstruct the phylogeography of the genus we sequenced parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and of 16S rRNA as well as part of the nuclear 28S rRNA gene from a total of 185 specimens of all ten described morphospecies from 31 localities. Our analyses revealed the presence of eleven species, including six cryptic species. Sequences of five morphospecies do not constitute monophyletic molecular units and thus probably represent ecophenotypic variants. The fossil-calibrated phylogeny showed that the ancestor of Mellita diverged into a Pacific lineage and an Atlantic+Pacific lineage close to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Atlantic M. tenuis, M. quinquiesperforata and two undescribed species of Mellita have non-overlapping distributions. Pacific Mellita consist of two highly divergent lineages that became established at different times, resulting in sympatric M. longifissa and M. notabilis. Judged by modern day ranges, not all divergence in this genus conforms to an allopatric speciation model. Only the separation of M. quinquiesperforata from M. notabilis is clearly due to vicariance as the result of the completion of the Isthmus of Panama. The molecular phylogeny calibrated on fossil evidence estimated this event as having occurred ~3 Ma, thus providing evidence that, contrary to a recent proposal, the central American Isthmus was not completed until this date. PMID:23792155

  9. Genome-wide Identification and Structural, Functional and Evolutionary Analysis of WRKY Components of Mulberry.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Negi, Nisha; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry is known to be sensitive to several biotic and abiotic stresses, which in turn have a direct impact on the yield of silk, because it is the sole food source for the silk worm. WRKYs are a family of transcription factors, which play an important role in combating various biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 54 genes with conserved WRKY motifs in the Morus notabilis genome. Motif searches coupled with a phylogenetic analysis revealed seven sub-groups as well as the absence of members of Group Ib in mulberry. Analyses of the 2K upstream region in addition to a gene ontology terms enrichment analysis revealed putative functions of mulberry WRKYs under biotic and abiotic stresses. An RNA-seq-based analysis showed that several of the identified WRKYs have shown preferential expression in the leaf, bark, root, male flower, and winter bud of M. notabilis. Finally, expression analysis by qPCR under different stress and hormone treatments revealed genotype-specific responses. Taken together, our results briefs about the genome-wide identification of WRKYs as well as their differential response to stresses and hormones. Importantly, these data can also be utilized to identify potential molecular targets for conferring tolerance to various stresses in mulberry. PMID:27477686

  10. Inhibitory Effects of (2'R)-2',3'-dihydro-2'-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,6'-bibenzofuran-6,4'-diol on Mushroom Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis in B16-F10 Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Jie; Yan, Gui-Rui; Xu, Zhi-Jian; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Gai-Hong; Wang, Ting; Zhu, Wei-Liang; Hou, Ai-Jun; Wang, He-Yao

    2015-07-01

    (2'R)-2',3'-Dihydro-2'-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,6'-bibenzofuran-6,4'-diol (DHMB) is a natural compound extracted from Morus notabilis. It was found that DHMB acts as a competitive inhibitor against mushroom tyrosinase with a Ki value of 14.77 μM. Docking results further indicated that it could form strong interactions with one copper ion with a distance of 2.7 Å, suggesting the mechanism of inhibition might be due to chelating copper ions in the active site. Furthermore, melanin production in B16-F10 murine melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by DHMB in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. The results of western blotting also showed that DHMB decreased 3-isobuty-1-methxlzanthine-induced mature tyrosinase expression. Taken together, these findings indicated that DHMB may be a new promising pigmentation-altering agent for agriculture, cosmetic, and therapeutic applications.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  12. NODULES WITH ACTIVATED DEFENSE 1 is required for maintenance of rhizobial endosymbiosis in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Haixiang; Luo, Li; Duan, Liujian; Cai, Liuyang; He, Xinxing; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Li, Guoliang; Xiao, Aifang; Duanmu, Deqiang; Cao, Yangrong; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming

    2016-10-01

    The symbiotic interaction between legume plants and rhizobia results in the formation of root nodules, in which symbiotic plant cells host and harbor thousands of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Here, a Medicago truncatula nodules with activated defense 1 (nad1) mutant was identified using reverse genetics methods. The mutant phenotype was characterized using cell and molecular biology approaches. An RNA-sequencing technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic reprogramming of nad1 mutant nodules. In the nad1 mutant plants, rhizobial infection and propagation in infection threads are normal, whereas rhizobia and their symbiotic plant cells become necrotic immediately after rhizobia are released from infection threads into symbiotic cells of nodules. Defense-associated responses were detected in nad1 nodules. NAD1 is specifically present in root nodule symbiosis plants with the exception of Morus notabilis, and the transcript is highly induced in nodules. NAD1 encodes a small uncharacterized protein with two predicted transmembrane helices and is localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. Our data demonstrate a positive role for NAD1 in the maintenance of rhizobial endosymbiosis during nodulation. PMID:27245091

  13. Parallel habitat-driven differences in the phylogeographical structure of two independent lineages of Mediterranean saline water beetles.

    PubMed

    Abellán, P; Millán, A; Ribera, I

    2009-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that species living in small lentic water bodies, because of the short-term geological persistence of their habitat, should show higher dispersal ability, with increased gene flow among populations and a less pronounced phylogeographical structure. Conversely, lotic species, living in more geologically stable habitats, should show reduced dispersal and an increased phylogeographical structure at the same geographical scales. In this work we tested the influence of habitat type in two groups of aquatic Coleoptera (Nebrioporus ceresyi and Ochthebius notabilis groups, families Dytiscidae and Hydraenidae respectively), each of them with closely related species typical of lotic and lentic saline Western Mediterranean water bodies. We used mitochondrial cox1 sequence data of 453 specimens of 77 populations through the range of nine species to compare a lotic vs. a lentic lineage in each of the two groups. Despite the differences in biology (predators vs. detritivorous) and evolutionary history, in both lotic lineages there was a higher proportion of nucleotide diversity among than within groups of populations, and a faster rate of accumulation of haplotype diversity (as measured by rarefaction curves) than in the lentic lineages. Similarly, lotic lineages had a higher absolute phylogenetic diversity, more remarkable considering their smaller absolute geographical ranges. By comparing closely related species, we were able to show the effect of contrasting habitat preferences in two different groups, in agreement with predictions derived from habitat stability.

  14. Kea: A New Tool to Obtain Stellar Parameters from Low to Moderate Signal-to-noise and High-resolution Echelle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we describe Kea a new spectroscopic fitting method to derive stellar parameters from moderate to low signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectra. We developed this new tool to analyze the massive data set of the Kepler mission reconnaissance spectra that we have obtained at McDonald Observatory. We use Kea to determine effective temperatures (T eff), metallicity ([Fe/H]), surface gravity (log g), and projected rotational velocity (v{sin}i). Kea compares the observations to a large library of synthetic spectra that covers a wide range of different T eff, [Fe/H], and log g values. We calibrated Kea on observations of well-characterized standard stars (the Kepler field “platinum” sample) that range in T eff from 5000 to 6500 K, in [Fe/H] from -0.5 to +0.4 dex, and in log g from 3.2 to 4.6 dex. We then compared the Kea results from reconnaissance spectra of 45 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) to stellar parameters derived from higher signal-to-noise spectra obtained with Keck/HIRES. We find typical uncertainties of 100 K in T eff, 0.12 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.18 dex in log g. Named after Nestor notabilis an alpine parrot native to New Zealand.

  15. Disturbance of shallow marine soft-bottom environments and megabenthos assemblages by a huge tsunami induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

    PubMed

    Seike, Koji; Shirai, Kotaro; Kogure, Yukihisa

    2013-01-01

    Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays) in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010) and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012). During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae) and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae) disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae) and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae), varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance.

  16. Sex hormone-binding globulin: not only a transport protein. What news is around the corner?

    PubMed

    Fortunati, N

    1999-03-01

    The plasma Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) transports androgens and estradiol in the blood and regulates their bioavailable fraction and access to target cells. The recent advances in the knowledge of its structure and gene expression, and notabily the demonstration of a specific receptor (SHBG-R) located on membranes of sex steroid responsive cells, gave support to the thesis that SHBG has much more sophisticated functions at cell site. In particular, the receptor-mediated action of SHBG, which uses as a second messenger cAMP, has been linked to the effects of androgens and estradiol. It is conceivable that the SHBG/SHBG-R system works as an additional control mechanism which inhibits or amplifies the effects of DHT and estradiol in cells. In the prostate, it has been suggested that the estradiol-activated SHBG/SHBG-R complex cross-talks with the androgen receptor, and is able to activate AR even in the absence of DHT. Of great interest, for its potential clinical applications, is the observation that in estrogen-dependent breast cancer SHBG, through SHBG-R, cAMP and PKA, specifically inhibits the estradiol-induction of cell proliferation. This anti-proliferative, anti-estrogenic effect of human SHBG has not only increased and continues to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the biology of breast cancer, but could also be exploited as a future therapeutic strategy in the managing of estrogen-dependent tumours.

  17. Disturbance of Shallow Marine Soft-Bottom Environments and Megabenthos Assemblages by a Huge Tsunami Induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Koji; Shirai, Kotaro; Kogure, Yukihisa

    2013-01-01

    Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays) in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010) and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012). During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae) and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae) disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae) and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae), varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance. PMID:23762365

  18. Kea: A New Tool to Obtain Stellar Parameters from Low to Moderate Signal-to-noise and High-resolution Echelle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we describe Kea a new spectroscopic fitting method to derive stellar parameters from moderate to low signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectra. We developed this new tool to analyze the massive data set of the Kepler mission reconnaissance spectra that we have obtained at McDonald Observatory. We use Kea to determine effective temperatures (T eff), metallicity ([Fe/H]), surface gravity (log g), and projected rotational velocity (v{sin}i). Kea compares the observations to a large library of synthetic spectra that covers a wide range of different T eff, [Fe/H], and log g values. We calibrated Kea on observations of well-characterized standard stars (the Kepler field “platinum” sample) that range in T eff from 5000 to 6500 K, in [Fe/H] from ‑0.5 to +0.4 dex, and in log g from 3.2 to 4.6 dex. We then compared the Kea results from reconnaissance spectra of 45 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) to stellar parameters derived from higher signal-to-noise spectra obtained with Keck/HIRES. We find typical uncertainties of 100 K in T eff, 0.12 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.18 dex in log g. Named after Nestor notabilis an alpine parrot native to New Zealand.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analyses of RPS3a gene from mulberry under abiotic stresses and among different mulberry varieties.

    PubMed

    Qian, J; Zhou, H; Zhao, M D; Wang, H; Li, F; Wang, Y H; Fang, R J; Zhao, W G; Kim, H J

    2016-01-01

    A full-length cDNA sequence coding ribosomal protein S3a of mulberry tree, which we designated MmRPS3a (GenBank accession No. KR610331), was cloned based on mulberry expressed sequence tags. Sequence analysis showed that the MmRPS3a is 1089 bp long and contains a 80-bp 5'-UTR (untranslated region) and a 220-bp 3'-UTR. Its open reading frame consists of a 789-bp encoding 262 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 30.053 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.84. Homology analysis revealed that MmRPS3a gene is highly conservative in mulberry and other species including Morus notabilis, Theobroma cacao, and Ricinus communis. Phylogenetic analysis based on MmRPS3a of other species showed that mulberry had a closer relationship with Prunus persica, Arabidopsis thaliana, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Vitis vinifera. The results of quantitative PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional level of MmRPS3a mRNA changed significantly under the conditions of hypothermia, aridity, salt stress, and varieties of differing resistances. PMID:27173298

  20. [Environmental activity of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) and the spatial organization of soil communities].

    PubMed

    Tiunov, A V; Kuznetsova, N A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of feeding and burrowing activities of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) on abiotic characteristics of the soil, biomass and activity of soil microorganisms, and the spatial distribution of Collembola and Lumbricidae species was studied in a Iinden forest near Moscow. The results showed that organic carbon content, nitrogen content, pH, and microbial biomass and basal respiration are considerably higher around L. terrestris burrows than in the surrounding soil. The total density of springtails near the burrows was 1.6-1.7 as high as at the control sites. The most pronounced preference for earthworm burrows was observed in the species dominating in the soils of undisturbed deciduous forests (Isotomiella minor and Isotoma notabilis). The number and biomass of epigeic and endogeic earthworms also increased significantly in the zone of L. terrestris burrows. However, some springtail (Isotoma viridis, Protaphorura cf. nemorata, Lepidocyrtus lignorum) and earthworm species (Aporrectodea rosea) did not accumulate near L. terrestris burrows and even avoided them. Thus, L. terrestris activities create a mosaic of soil microhabitats, which provides for the coexistence of different microcommunities of soil organisms.

  1. A new genus of mellitid sand dollar (Echinoidea: Mellitidae) from the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Coppard, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    Lanthonia gen. nov. Coppard 2016 is a genus of clypeasteroid sand dollar whose members inhabit shallow, sandy waters from Mexico (including the Gulf of California) to Colombia in the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific. Lanthonia includes Lanthonia longifissa (Michelin, 1858) and Lanthonia grantii (Mortensen, 1948), with L. longifissa hereby designated as the type species. Both L. longifissa and L. grantii were previously placed in the genus Mellita (L. Agassiz, 1841). However, levels of genetic divergence between a lineage containing L. longifissa and L. grantii and a lineage containing all other species of Mellita, including the type species M. quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778), indicate genus level differentiation. The systematic interpretation of this group also supports the designation of this new genus as it allows the tree topology to be recovered from the nomenclature and clarifies the historical biogeography of these clades. This has resulted in members of both lineages today being sympatric in the eastern Pacific. Members of Lanthonia are morphologically differentiated from the type species of Mellita and all Pacific Mellita in having very narrow ambulacral regions between the food grooves and the ambulacral lunules on the oral surface, these being very broad in both M. quinquiesperforata and M. notabilis. The dentation of the bidentate pedicellariae also differentiate these genera, with small peripheral teeth present along the edge of the blade in species of Lanthonia and one to three enlarged intersecting teeth present distally in all species of Mellita. PMID:27394905

  2. [Environmental activity of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) and the spatial organization of soil communities].

    PubMed

    Tiunov, A V; Kuznetsova, N A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of feeding and burrowing activities of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) on abiotic characteristics of the soil, biomass and activity of soil microorganisms, and the spatial distribution of Collembola and Lumbricidae species was studied in a Iinden forest near Moscow. The results showed that organic carbon content, nitrogen content, pH, and microbial biomass and basal respiration are considerably higher around L. terrestris burrows than in the surrounding soil. The total density of springtails near the burrows was 1.6-1.7 as high as at the control sites. The most pronounced preference for earthworm burrows was observed in the species dominating in the soils of undisturbed deciduous forests (Isotomiella minor and Isotoma notabilis). The number and biomass of epigeic and endogeic earthworms also increased significantly in the zone of L. terrestris burrows. However, some springtail (Isotoma viridis, Protaphorura cf. nemorata, Lepidocyrtus lignorum) and earthworm species (Aporrectodea rosea) did not accumulate near L. terrestris burrows and even avoided them. Thus, L. terrestris activities create a mosaic of soil microhabitats, which provides for the coexistence of different microcommunities of soil organisms. PMID:11042967

  3. MnTEdb, a collective resource for mulberry transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bi; Li, Tian; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry has been used as an economically important food crop for the domesticated silkworm for thousands of years, resulting in one of the oldest and well-known plant-herbivore interactions. The genome of Morus notabilis has now been sequenced and there is an opportunity to mine the transposable element (TE) data. To better understand the roles of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the mulberry genome, a specific, comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, MnTEdb, was constructed. It was built based on a detailed and accurate identification of all TEs in mulberry. A total of 5925 TEs belonging to 13 superfamilies and 1062 families were deposited in this database. MnTEdb enables users to search, browse and download the mulberry TE sequences. Meanwhile, data mining tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Sequence Extractor and JBrowse were also integrated into MnTEdb. MnTEdb will assist researchers to efficiently take advantage of our newly annotated TEs, which facilitate their studies in the origin, amplification and evolution of TEs, as well as the comparative analysis among the different species. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/mntedb/

  4. Evolution of circoviruses in lorikeets lags behind its hosts.

    PubMed

    Das, Shubhagata; Sarker, Subir; Peters, Andrew; Ghorashi, Seyed A; Phalen, David; Forwood, Jade K; Raidal, Shane R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of endogenous viral elements in host genomes hints towards much older host-virus relationships than predicted by exogenous phylogenies, with highly mutable single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses and RNA viruses often occupying entangled multispecies ecological niches. The difficulty lies in unravelling the long-term evolutionary history of vertebrate virus-host relationships and determining the age of a potentially ancient tree based only fresh shoots at the tips. Resolving such lineages, and the sometimes great discrepancy amongst evolutionary timescales, is problematic, especially when purifying selection or recombination can significantly alter the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Pathogens which occupy entangled multispecies ecological niches add a further layer of complexity but we show that multi-host scenarios may also provide opportunities to identify allopatric or sympatric paleobiological signals that can unlock longer term phylogenies. We identified host-based, cryptic, sympatric differentiation in beak and feather disease virus in the Psittaciformes tribe Loriini along with endogenous circovirus motifs in Kea (Nestor notabilis) and Gondwanan vicariance estimates to infer the evolutionary timescale of the circoviruses. This demonstrated a chronology of psittacine circovirus speciation aligned to conservative Zealandic divergences for relic circovirus motifs in Kea and a 10million year divergence coinciding with the Papuan central range orogeny that triggered the radiation of Loriini and segregation of an antecedent viral clade in Australian lorikeets. Estimates of circovirus speciation in birds highlighted a Gondwanan dominant group in Neoaves with passerine, columbid and larid circoviruses deeply separated from those in waterfowl, consistent with a Triassic divergence of Galloanserae. The circovirus tree had a deep ancestry in invertebrates with a Palaeozoic expansion in fish and mammals. We show that longer term evolutionary

  5. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor SlZFP2 Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Fruit Ripening in Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  6. Characterization and Functional Analysis of 4-Coumarate:CoA Ligase Genes in Mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian; Cai, Yu-Xiang; Zhu, Pan-Pan; Liu, Chang-Ying; Zhao, Ai-Chun; Lü, Rui-Hua; Li, Meng-Jiao; Xu, Feng-Xiang; Yu, Mao-De

    2016-01-01

    A small, multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) that catalyze the ligation of CoA to hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point directing metabolites to flavonoid or monolignol pathways. In this study, we characterized four 4CL genes from M. notabilis Genome Database, and cloned four Ma4CL genes from M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. A tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that Ma4CL3 was expressed at higher levels than the other genes, and that Ma4CL3 was strongly expressed in root bark, stem bark, and old leaves. Additionally, the expression pattern of Ma4CL3 was similar to the trend of the total flavonoid content throughout fruit development. A phylogenetic analysis suggested that Mn4CL1, Mn4CL2, and Mn4CL4 belong to class I 4CLs, and Mn4CL3 belongs to class II 4CLs. Ma4CL genes responded differently to a series of stresses. Ma4CL3 expression was higher than that of the other Ma4CL genes following wounding, salicylic acid, and ultraviolet treatments. An in vitro enzyme assay indicated that 4-coumarate acid was the best substrate among cinnamic acid, 4-coumarate acid, and caffeate acid, but no catalytic activity to sinapate acid and ferulate acid. The results of subcellular localization experiments showed that Ma4CL3 localized to the cytomembrane, where it activated transcription. We used different vectors and strategies to fuse Ma4CL3 with stilbene synthase (STS) to construct four Ma4CL-MaSTS co-expression systems to generate resveratrol. The results indicated that only a transcriptional fusion vector, pET-Ma4CL3-T-MaSTS, which utilized a T7 promoter and lac operator for the expression of MaSTS, could synthesize resveratrol. PMID:27213624

  7. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of mulberry MAPK gene family.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congjin; Liu, Xueqin; Long, Dingpei; Guo, Qing; Fang, Yuan; Bian, Chenkai; Zhang, Dayan; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2014-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play an important role in regulating various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Although MAPKs have been identified and characterized in a few model plants, there is little information available for mulberry Morus sp. L., one of the most ecologically and economically important perennial trees. This study identified 47 mulberry Morus notabilis MAPK (MnMAPK) family genes: 32 MnMAPKKK, five MnMAPKK and ten MnMAPK genes, and cloned ten MnMAPK cDNA genes based on a genome-wide analysis of the morus genome database. Comparative analysis with MAPK gene families from other plants suggested that MnMAPKs could be divided into five subfamilies (groups A, B, C, D and E) and they could have similar functions in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. MnMAPK gene expression analysis of different stresses (high/low temperature, salt and drought) and signal molecules (ABA, SA, H2O2 and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)) revealed that all ten MnMAPK genes responded to high/low temperature, salt and drought stresses, and that nine of the ten MnMAPKs (MnMAPK7 excepted) could be induced by ABA, SA, H2O2 and MeJA, which suggested that MnMAPKs may play pivotal roles in signal transduction pathways. Our results indicated that almost all of the MnMAPKs may be involved in environmental stress and defense responses, which provides the basis for further characterization of the physiological functions of MnMAPKs.

  8. Multi-Allelic Major Effect Genes Interact with Minor Effect QTLs to Control Adaptive Color Pattern Variation in Heliconius erato

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Riccardo; Kapan, Durrell D.; Counterman, Brian A.; Maldonado, Karla; Lindstrom, Daniel P.; Reed, Robert D.; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Hrbek, Tomas; McMillan, W. Owen

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that relatively few genomic regions are repeatedly involved in the evolution of Heliconius butterfly wing patterns. Although this work demonstrates a number of cases where homologous loci underlie both convergent and divergent wing pattern change among different Heliconius species, it is still unclear exactly how many loci underlie pattern variation across the genus. To address this question for Heliconius erato, we created fifteen independent crosses utilizing the four most distinct color pattern races and analyzed color pattern segregation across a total of 1271 F2 and backcross offspring. Additionally, we used the most variable brood, an F2 cross between H. himera and the east Ecuadorian H. erato notabilis, to perform a quantitative genetic analysis of color pattern variation and produce a detailed map of the loci likely involved in the H. erato color pattern radiation. Using AFLP and gene based markers, we show that fewer major genes than previously envisioned control the color pattern variation in H. erato. We describe for the first time the genetic architecture of H. erato wing color pattern by assessing quantitative variation in addition to traditional linkage mapping. In particular, our data suggest three genomic intervals modulate the bulk of the observed variation in color. Furthermore, we also identify several modifier loci of moderate effect size that contribute to the quantitative wing pattern variation. Our results are consistent with the two-step model for the evolution of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius and support a growing body of empirical data demonstrating the importance of major effect loci in adaptive change. PMID:23533571

  9. Phytochrome A and B Function Antagonistically to Regulate Cold Tolerance via Abscisic Acid-Dependent Jasmonate Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhixin; Li, Huizi; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiaojian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    Light signaling and phytohormones both influence plant growth, development, and stress responses; however, cross talk between these two signaling pathways in response to cold remains underexplored. Here, we report that far-red light (FR) and red light (R) perceived by phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB positively and negatively regulated cold tolerance, respectively, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which were associated with the regulation of levels of phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) stress signaling pathway genes. A reduction in the R/FR ratio did not alter cold tolerance, ABA and JA accumulation, and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the CBF pathway genes in phyA mutant plants; however, those were significantly increased in wild-type and phyB plants with the reduction in the R/FR ratio. Even though low R/FR treatments did not confer cold tolerance in ABA-deficient (notabilis [not]) and JA-deficient (prosystemin-mediated responses2 [spr2]) mutants, it up-regulated ABA accumulation and signaling in the spr2 mutant, with no effect on JA levels and signaling in the not mutant. Foliar application of ABA and JA further confirmed that JA functioned downstream of ABA to activate the CBF pathway in light quality-mediated cold tolerance. It is concluded that phyA and phyB function antagonistically to regulate cold tolerance that essentially involves FR light-induced activation of phyA to induce ABA signaling and, subsequently, JA signaling, leading to an activation of the CBF pathway and a cold response in tomato plants. PMID:26527654

  10. Carbon dioxide enrichment alleviates heat stress by improving cellular redox homeostasis through an ABA-independent process in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Ahammed, G J; Zhang, Y Q; Zhang, G Q; Sun, Z H; Zhou, J; Zhou, Y H; Xia, X J; Yu, J Q; Shi, K

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to elevated CO₂ and high temperature are critically regulated through a complex network of phytohormones and redox homeostasis. However, the involvement of abscisic acid (ABA) in plant adaptation to heat stress under elevated CO₂ conditions has not been thoroughly studied. This study investigated the interactive effects of elevated CO₂ (800 μmol·mol(-1) ) and heat stress (42 °C for 24 h) on the endogenous level of ABA and the cellular redox state of two genotypes of tomato with different ABA biosynthesis capacities. Heat stress significantly decreased maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and leaf water potential, but also increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in both genotypes. Heat-induced damage was more severe in the ABA-deficient mutant notabilis (not) than in its parental cultivar Ailsa Craig (Ailsa), suggesting that a certain level of endogenous ABA is required to minimise the heat-induced oxidative damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Irrespective of genotype, the enrichment of CO₂ remarkably stimulated Fv/Fm, MDA and EL in heat-stressed plants towards enhanced tolerance. In addition, elevated CO₂ significantly strengthened the antioxidant capacity of heat-stressed tomato seedlings towards a reduced cellular redox state for a prolonged period, thereby mitigating oxidative stress. However, elevated CO₂ and heat stress did not alter the endogenous level of ABA or the expression of its biosynthetic gene NCED2 in either genotype, indicating that ABA is not involved in elevated CO₂ -induced heat stress alleviation. The results of this study suggest that elevated CO₂ alleviated heat stress through efficient regulation of the cellular redox poise in an ABA-independent manner in tomato plants.

  11. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening.

  12. Multi-allelic major effect genes interact with minor effect QTLs to control adaptive color pattern variation in Heliconius erato.

    PubMed

    Papa, Riccardo; Kapan, Durrell D; Counterman, Brian A; Maldonado, Karla; Lindstrom, Daniel P; Reed, Robert D; Nijhout, H Frederik; Hrbek, Tomas; McMillan, W Owen

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that relatively few genomic regions are repeatedly involved in the evolution of Heliconius butterfly wing patterns. Although this work demonstrates a number of cases where homologous loci underlie both convergent and divergent wing pattern change among different Heliconius species, it is still unclear exactly how many loci underlie pattern variation across the genus. To address this question for Heliconius erato, we created fifteen independent crosses utilizing the four most distinct color pattern races and analyzed color pattern segregation across a total of 1271 F2 and backcross offspring. Additionally, we used the most variable brood, an F2 cross between H. himera and the east Ecuadorian H. erato notabilis, to perform a quantitative genetic analysis of color pattern variation and produce a detailed map of the loci likely involved in the H. erato color pattern radiation. Using AFLP and gene based markers, we show that fewer major genes than previously envisioned control the color pattern variation in H. erato. We describe for the first time the genetic architecture of H. erato wing color pattern by assessing quantitative variation in addition to traditional linkage mapping. In particular, our data suggest three genomic intervals modulate the bulk of the observed variation in color. Furthermore, we also identify several modifier loci of moderate effect size that contribute to the quantitative wing pattern variation. Our results are consistent with the two-step model for the evolution of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius and support a growing body of empirical data demonstrating the importance of major effect loci in adaptive change. PMID:23533571

  13. Characterization and Functional Analysis of 4-Coumarate:CoA Ligase Genes in Mul-berry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-Hong; Yu, Jian; Cai, Yu-Xiang; Zhu, Pan-Pan; Liu, Chang-Ying; Zhao, Ai-Chun; Lü, Rui-Hua; Li, Meng-Jiao; Xu, Feng-Xiang; Yu, Mao-De

    2016-01-01

    A small, multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) that catalyze the ligation of CoA to hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point directing metabolites to flavonoid or monolignol pathways. In this study, we characterized four 4CL genes from M. notabilis Genome Database, and cloned four Ma4CL genes from M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. A tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that Ma4CL3 was expressed at higher levels than the other genes, and that Ma4CL3 was strongly expressed in root bark, stem bark, and old leaves. Additionally, the expression pattern of Ma4CL3 was similar to the trend of the total flavonoid content throughout fruit development. A phylogenetic analysis suggested that Mn4CL1, Mn4CL2, and Mn4CL4 belong to class I 4CLs, and Mn4CL3 belongs to class II 4CLs. Ma4CL genes responded differently to a series of stresses. Ma4CL3 expression was higher than that of the other Ma4CL genes following wounding, salicylic acid, and ultraviolet treatments. An in vitro enzyme assay indicated that 4-coumarate acid was the best substrate among cinnamic acid, 4-coumarate acid, and caffeate acid, but no catalytic activity to sinapate acid and ferulate acid. The results of subcellular localization experiments showed that Ma4CL3 localized to the cytomembrane, where it activated transcription. We used different vectors and strategies to fuse Ma4CL3 with stilbene synthase (STS) to construct four Ma4CL-MaSTS co-expression systems to generate resveratrol. The results indicated that only a transcriptional fusion vector, pET-Ma4CL3-T-MaSTS, which utilized a T7 promoter and lac operator for the expression of MaSTS, could synthesize resveratrol. PMID:27213624

  14. The first species of the genus Caponina from Brazilian Amazonia (Araneae: Caponiidae).

    PubMed

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The genus Caponina Simon, 1891 comprises eleven species of medium-sized, soil-dwelling caponiids. Most members of Caponina have six eyes, but some have five, four, three or two eyes (Brignoli 1977, Platnick 1994). The genus is widespread in South and Central America (Platnick 2012). To date, only three species have been recorded from Brazil: Caponina alegre Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, C. notabilis (Mello-Leitão, 1939) from the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, and C. tijuca Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio de Janeiro (Platnick 1994). In this paper we describe a new species from the state of Pará, in Brazilian Amazonia. Caponina papamanga new species was collected during the "Butantan na Amazonia" project, founded by the Instituto Butantan. The phylogenetic relationships of C. papamanga could not be studied, but the greatly elongated embolus, the dorsal tubercle on the palpal femur (Figs. 7, 9) and the massive epigynal sclerotizations (Fig. 10) suggest that this species belongs to the monophyletic Andean group proposed by Platnick (1994: 7). All morphological observations and illustrations were made using a Leica MZ12 stereomicroscope with camera lucida. The epigynum was dissected and immersed in clove oil for visualization of internal structures following Levi (1965). Descriptions and measurements follow Platnick (1994). Measurements are given in millimeters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken using a Jeol-JSM-5200 with attached SLR digital camera. The material examined was deposited in the collections of the Instituto Butantan, Sgo Paulo (IBSP, curator: D.M. Barros Battesti) and the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém (MPEG, curator: A.B. Bonaldo).

  15. More than one way to see it: Individual heuristics in avian visual computation

    PubMed Central

    Ravignani, Andrea; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Schlumpp, Martin M.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2015-01-01

    Comparative pattern learning experiments investigate how different species find regularities in sensory input, providing insights into cognitive processing in humans and other animals. Past research has focused either on one species’ ability to process pattern classes or different species’ performance in recognizing the same pattern, with little attention to individual and species-specific heuristics and decision strategies. We trained and tested two bird species, pigeons (Columba livia) and kea (Nestor notabilis, a parrot species), on visual patterns using touch-screen technology. Patterns were composed of several abstract elements and had varying degrees of structural complexity. We developed a model selection paradigm, based on regular expressions, that allowed us to reconstruct the specific decision strategies and cognitive heuristics adopted by a given individual in our task. Individual birds showed considerable differences in the number, type and heterogeneity of heuristic strategies adopted. Birds’ choices also exhibited consistent species-level differences. Kea adopted effective heuristic strategies, based on matching learned bigrams to stimulus edges. Individual pigeons, in contrast, adopted an idiosyncratic mix of strategies that included local transition probabilities and global string similarity. Although performance was above chance and quite high for kea, no individual of either species provided clear evidence of learning exactly the rule used to generate the training stimuli. Our results show that similar behavioral outcomes can be achieved using dramatically different strategies and highlight the dangers of combining multiple individuals in a group analysis. These findings, and our general approach, have implications for the design of future pattern learning experiments, and the interpretation of comparative cognition research more generally. PMID:26113444

  16. ITS polymorphisms shed light on hybrid evolution in apomictic plants: a case study on the Ranunculus auricomus complex.

    PubMed

    Hodač, Ladislav; Scheben, Armin Patrick; Hojsgaard, Diego; Paun, Ovidiu; Hörandl, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of reticulate evolutionary histories in plants is still a major methodological challenge. Sequences of the ITS nrDNA are a popular marker to analyze hybrid relationships, but variation of this multicopy spacer region is affected by concerted evolution, high intraindividual polymorphism, and shifts in mode of reproduction. The relevance of changes in secondary structure is still under dispute. We aim to shed light on the extent of polymorphism within and between sexual species and their putative natural as well as synthetic hybrid derivatives in the Ranunculus auricomus complex to test morphology-based hypotheses of hybrid origin and parentage of taxa. We employed direct sequencing of ITS nrDNA from 68 individuals representing three sexuals, their synthetic hybrids and one sympatric natural apomict, as well as cloning of ITS copies in four representative individuals, RNA secondary structure analysis, and landmark geometric morphometric analysis on leaves. Phylogenetic network analyses indicate additivity of parental ITS variants in both synthetic and natural hybrids. The triploid synthetic hybrids are genetically much closer to their maternal progenitors, probably due to ploidy dosage effects, although exhibiting a paternal-like leaf morphology. The natural hybrids are genetically and morphologically closer to the putative paternal progenitor species. Secondary structures of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 were rather conserved in all taxa. The observed similarities in ITS polymorphisms suggest that the natural apomict R. variabilis is an ancient hybrid of the diploid sexual species R. notabilis and the sexual species R. cassubicifolius. The additivity pattern shared by R. variabilis and the synthetic hybrids supports an evolutionary and biogeographical scenario that R. variabilis originated from ancient hybridization. Concerted evolution of ITS copies in R. variabilis is incomplete, probably due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Under the condition of

  17. Xylem sap collection and extraction methodologies to determine in vivo concentrations of ABA and its bound forms by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate quantification of xylem sap ABA concentrations is important to underpin models of root-to-shoot ABA signalling to predict the physiological effects of soil drying. Growing tomato plants in a whole plant pressure chamber allowed sequential xylem sap collection from a detached leaf, the petiole stub of an otherwise intact plant and finally the de-topped root system of the same plant, to determine the impact of xylem sap sampling methodology on xylem ABA concentration. Since xylem sap can contain bound forms of ABA, a novel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure was developed to chemically separate free ABA from two in planta bound ABA forms known as Adducts I and II and ABA-glucose-ester (ABA-GE). Results Xylem sap ABA concentrations were highly dependent on the sampling methodology used: the highest concentrations were detected in sap collected by applying an overpressure to detached leaves following the measurement of leaf water potential. Irrespective of xylem sap source, the wild-type cultivars Ailsa Craig and Rheinlands Ruhm had higher free ABA concentrations than a range of ABA-deficient mutants (notabilis, flacca and sitiens). However, in the mutants, concentrations of bound forms of ABA were similar to wild-type plants, and similar to free ABA concentrations. Conclusions Although xylem concentrations of these bound ABA forms and ABA-GE suggest they have a limited physiological impact on ABA homeostasis in tomato, the methods developed here will allow a more complete understanding of ABA biochemistry and root-to-shoot signalling in species known to have higher concentrations of these compounds. PMID:22439865

  18. Characterization and Expression of Genes Involved in the Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction during Ripening of Mulberry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1–methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID

  19. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID

  20. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida), including two reinstated and five new species

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Matt A.M.; Devos, Nicolas; Patiño, Jairo; Brown, Elizabeth A.; Orme, Andrew; Elgey, Michael; Wilson, Trevor C.; Gray, Lindsey J.; von Konrat, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R. buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to Western

  1. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida), including two reinstated and five new species.

    PubMed

    Renner, Matt A M; Devos, Nicolas; Patiño, Jairo; Brown, Elizabeth A; Orme, Andrew; Elgey, Michael; Wilson, Trevor C; Gray, Lindsey J; von Konrat, Matt J

    2013-01-01

    Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R. buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to Western Australia in R

  2. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening.

  3. Response of biotic communities to salinity changes in a Mediterranean hypersaline stream

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Hernández, Juan; Gutiérrez, Cayetano; Abellán, Pedro; Sánchez, David; Ruiz, Mar

    2006-01-01

    Background This study investigates the relationship between salinity and biotic communities (primary producers and macroinvertebrates) in Rambla Salada, a Mediterranean hypersaline stream in SE Spain. Since the 1980's, the mean salinity of the stream has fallen from about 100 g L-1 to 35.5 g L-1, due to intensive irrigated agriculture in the watershed. Furthermore, large dilutions occur occasionally when the water irrigation channel suffers cracks. Results Along the salinity gradient studied (3.5 – 76.4 g L-1) Cladophora glomerata and Ruppia maritima biomass decreased with increasing salinity, while the biomass of epipelic algae increased. Diptera and Coleoptera species dominated the community both in disturbed as in re-established conditions. Most macroinvertebrates species found in Rambla Salada stream are euryhaline species with a broad range of salinity tolerance. Eight of them were recorded in natural hypersaline conditions (~100 g L-1) prior to important change in land use of the watershed: Ephydra flavipes, Stratyomis longicornis, Nebrioporus ceresyi, N. baeticus, Berosus hispanicus, Enochrus falcarius, Ochthebius cuprescens and Sigara selecta. However, other species recorded in the past, such as Ochthebius glaber, O. notabilis and Enochrus politus, were restricted to a hypersaline source or absent from Rambla Salada. The dilution of salinity to 3.5 – 6.8 gL-1 allowed the colonization of species with low salininty tolerance, such as Melanopsis praemorsa, Anax sp., Simulidae, Ceratopogonidae and Tanypodinae. The abundance of Ephydra flavipes and Ochthebius corrugatus showed a positive significant response to salinity, while Anax sp., Simulidae, S. selecta, N. ceresyi, N. baeticus, and B. hispanicus showed significant negative correlations. The number of total macroinvertebrate taxa, Diptera and Coleoptera species, number of families, Margalef's index and Shannon's diversity index decreased with increasing salinity. However, the rest of community

  4. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida), including two reinstated and five new species.

    PubMed

    Renner, Matt A M; Devos, Nicolas; Patiño, Jairo; Brown, Elizabeth A; Orme, Andrew; Elgey, Michael; Wilson, Trevor C; Gray, Lindsey J; von Konrat, Matt J

    2013-01-01

    Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R. buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to Western Australia in R

  5. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    , 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus) napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus) ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus) orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus) sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) ziczac da Costa, 1898. The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus) lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847. New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837); Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901); Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus) conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835); Kusche

  6. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    , 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus) napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus) ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus) orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus) sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) ziczac da Costa, 1898. The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus) lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847. New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837); Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901); Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus) conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835