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Sample records for campylorhamphus trochilirostris notabilis

  1. Polyphyly of Campylorhamphus, and description of a new genus for C. pucherani (Dendrocolaptinae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Chesser, R. Terry; Eleixo, Alexandre; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Campylorhamphus pucherani using DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes and a nuclear intron, as well as 84 morphological characters from the skeleton, the integument, and the musculature. The molecular phylogeny indicated that C. pucherani is not part of Campylorhamphus; instead, it is the sister species to Drymornis bridgesii, in a clade that also contains Lepidocolaptes. The morphological phylogeny also placed C. pucherani in a clade that contains Drymornis and Lepidocolaptes. Using a morphometric analysis of size and shape diversity, we demonstrated that the inclusion of C. pucherani in Drymornis would create an excessively heterogeneous genus compared with other dendrocolaptine genera. Because no generic name is available for C. pucherani, we describe the new genus Drymotoxeres for this species.

  2. The Prominent moth, Disphragis notabilis Schaus, in Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The four described taxa in the Disphragis notabilis species group are reviewed including the types and their dissected genitalia. D. hemicera st. rev.is elevated to species rank. D. nomula is retained as a synonym of D. notabilis. D. sobialis is confirmed as distinct from D. hemicera and D. bi...

  3. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    PubMed

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Gajdon, Gyula K; Schwing, Raoul; Vogl, Wolfgang; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Thaller, Denise; Weissenböck, Herbert; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds' brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cryptic Diversity in the Ubiquist Species Parisotoma notabilis (Collembola, Isotomidae): A Long-Used Chimeric Species?

    PubMed Central

    Porco, David; Potapov, Mikhail; Bedos, Anne; Busmachiu, Galina; Weiner, Wanda M.; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Parisotoma notabilis is the most common species of Collembola in Europe and is currently designated as ubiquist. This species has been extensively used in numerous studies and is considered as well characterized on a morphological ground. Despite the homogeneity of its morphology, the sequencing of the barcoding fragment (5′ end of COI) for several populations throughout Europe and North America revealed four distinct genetic lineages. The divergence found between these lineages was similar to the genetic distance among other species of the genus Parisotoma included in the analysis. All four lineages have been confirmed by the nuclear gene 28S. This congruence between mitochondrial and nuclear signals, as well as the geographical distribution pattern of lineages observed in Europe, supports the potential specific status of these lineages. Based on specimens from the type locality (Hamburg), the species name was successfully assigned to one of these lineages. This finding raises several problems as Parisotoma notabilis has been widely used in many ecological studies. Accumulation of new data for the different lineages detected, especially ecological information and life history traits, is needed to help resolve this situation. PMID:23049931

  5. Differences in bacterial diversity of host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory.

    PubMed

    Medina, R F; Nachappa, P; Tamborindeguy, C

    2011-04-01

    Host-associated differentiation (HAD) is the presence of genetically divergent, host-associated populations. It has been suggested that microbial symbionts of insect herbivores may play a role in HAD by allowing their insect hosts to use different plant species. The objective of this study was to document if host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory corresponded with differences in the composition of their associated bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the symbionts present in P. notabilis associated with these two tree species through metagenomic analyses using 454 sequencing. Differences in bacterial diversity were found between P. notabilis populations associated with pecan and water hickory. The bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia marcescens, were absent in the P. notabilis water hickory population, whereas both species accounted for more than 69.72% of bacterial abundance in the pecan population. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Visual artificial grammar learning: comparative research on humans, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Stobbe, Nina; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) provides a useful tool for exploring rule learning strategies linked to general purpose pattern perception. To be able to directly compare performance of humans with other species with different memory capacities, we developed an AGL task in the visual domain. Presenting entire visual patterns simultaneously instead of sequentially minimizes the amount of required working memory. This approach allowed us to evaluate performance levels of two bird species, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia), in direct comparison to human participants. After being trained to discriminate between two types of visual patterns generated by rules at different levels of computational complexity and presented on a computer screen, birds and humans received further training with a series of novel stimuli that followed the same rules, but differed in various visual features from the training stimuli. Most avian and all human subjects continued to perform well above chance during this initial generalization phase, suggesting that they were able to generalize learned rules to novel stimuli. However, detailed testing with stimuli that violated the intended rules regarding the exact number of stimulus elements indicates that neither bird species was able to successfully acquire the intended pattern rule. Our data suggest that, in contrast to humans, these birds were unable to master a simple rule above the finite-state level, even with simultaneous item presentation and despite intensive training. PMID:22688635

  7. Ancient and Contemporary DNA Reveal a Pre-Human Decline but No Population Bottleneck Associated with Recent Human Persecution in the Kea (Nestor notabilis)

    PubMed Central

    Dussex, Nicolas; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Robertson, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of population bottlenecks is an important factor to consider when assessing species survival. Population declines can considerably limit the evolutionary potential of species and make them more susceptible to stochastic events. New Zealand has a well documented history of decline of endemic avifauna related to human colonization. Here, we investigate the genetic effects of a recent population decline in the endangered kea (Nestor notabilis). Kea have undergone a long-lasting persecution between the late 1800s to 1970s where an estimated 150,000 kea were culled under a governmental bounty scheme. Kea now number 1,000–5,000 individuals in the wild and it is likely that the recent population decline may have reduced the genetic diversity of the species. Comparison of contemporary (n = 410), historical (n = 15) and fossil samples (n = 4) showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity since the end of the last glaciation (Otiran Glacial) but no loss of overall genetic diversity associated with the cull. Microsatellite data indicated a recent bottleneck for only one population and a range-wide decline in Ne dating back some 300 – 6,000 years ago, a period predating European arrival in NZ. These results suggest that despite a recent human persecution, kea might have experienced a large population decline before stabilizing in numbers prior to human settlement of New Zealand in response to Holocene changes in habitat distribution. Our study therefore highlights the need to understand the respective effects of climate change and human activities on endangered species dynamics when proposing conservation guidelines. PMID:25719752

  8. The advantage of objects over images in discrimination and reversal learning by kea, Nestor notabilis

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Mark; Huber, Ludwig; Gajdon, Gyula Kopanny

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the same paradigm but employing different methods are often directly compared in the literature. One such paradigm used to assess behavioural flexibility in animals is reversal learning. Commonly, these studies require individuals to learn the reward contingency of either solid objects presented on the ground or images presented on a touchscreen. Once learned, these contingencies are swapped. Researchers often refer to trials required to reach learning criteria from different studies, to compare the flexibility of different species, but rarely take methodological differences into account. A direct evaluation of the validity of such comparisons is lacking. To address this latent question, we confronted kea, an alpine parrot species of New Zealand and known for its behavioural flexibility, with a standard reversal learning paradigm on the touchscreen and a standard reversal learning paradigm with solid objects. The kea required significantly more trials to reach criterion in the acquisition and the reversal on the touchscreen. Also, the absolute increase in the number of trials required for the reversal was significantly greater on the touchscreen. This indicates that it is not valid to compare learning speed across studies that do not correspond in the addressed methodology. Taking into account the kea's ecology and explorative nature we discuss stimulus abstraction (limited depth cues and tactile stimulus feedback) and the spatial relation between reward and stimulus on the touchscreen as possible causes for decreased inhibition in this condition. Contrary to the absolute increase in number of trials required for the reversal, the increase in relation to the acquisition was greater with solid objects. This highlights the need for further research on the mechanisms involved causing methodology-dependent differences, some of which we discuss, in order to increase the validity of interpretations across studies and in respect to the subject's ecology. PMID:25745190

  9. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  10. New species and revisions of Pediciidae (Diptera) from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China and Russia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiaqi; Shih, Chungkun; Kopeć, Katarzyna; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Ren, Dong

    2015-05-26

    Two new species of Praearchitipula Kalugina, 1985, P. apprima sp. nov. and P. mirabilis sp. nov., are described and illustrated from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. In addition, we propose to transfer Architipula abnormis Hao & Ren, 2009 (which is from the same locality of Daohugou) from Architipula of Limoniidae to Praearchitipula of Pediciidae: Praearchitipula abnormis (Hao & Ren, 2009) comb. nov. In addition, we propose to transfer Praearchitipula spasskia Kalugina, 1985 to the genus Mesotipula (Limoniidae, Architipulinae). We also suggest treating Praearchitipula lata Kalugina, 1985 as a junior synonym of Praearchitipula notabilis Kalugina, 1985. An emended generic diagnosis of Praearchitipula is provided.

  11. New species and revisions of Pediciidae (Diptera) from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China and Russia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiaqi; Shih, Chungkun; Kopeć, Katarzyna; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Ren, Dong

    2015-05-29

    Two new species of Praearchitipula Kalugina, 1985, P. apprima sp. nov. and P. mirabilis sp. nov., are described and illustrated from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. In addition, we propose to transfer Architipula abnormis Hao & Ren, 2009 (which is from the same locality of Daohugou) from Architipula of Limoniidae to Praearchitipula of Pediciidae: Praearchitipula abnormis (Hao & Ren, 2009) comb. nov. In addition, we propose to transfer Praearchitipula spasskia Kalugina, 1985 to the genus Mesotipula (Limoniidae, Architipulinae). We also suggest treating Praearchitipula lata Kalugina, 1985 as a junior synonym of Praearchitipula notabilis Kalugina, 1985. An emended generic diagnosis of Praearchitipula is provided.

  12. Tomato strigolactones are derived from carotenoids and their biosynthesis is promoted by phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Gómez-Roldán, Victoria; Matusova, Radoslava; Kohlen, Wouter; De Vos, Ric; Verstappen, Francel; Puech-Pages, Virginie; Bécard, Guillaume; Mulder, Patrick; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2008-01-01

    * Strigolactones are rhizosphere signalling compounds that mediate host location in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and parasitic plants. Here, the regulation of the biosynthesis of strigolactones is studied in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). * Strigolactone production under phosphate starvation, in the presence of the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone and in the abscisic acid (ABA) mutant notabilis were assessed using a germination bioassay with seeds of Orobanche ramosa; a hyphal branching assay with Gigaspora spp; and by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. * The root exudates of tomato cv. MoneyMaker induced O. ramosa seed germination and hyphal branching in AM fungi. Phosphate starvation markedly increased, and fluridone strongly decreased, this activity. Exudates of notabilis induced approx. 40% less germination than the wild-type. The LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that the biological activity and changes therein were due to the presence of several strigolactones; orobanchol, solanacol and two or three didehydro-orobanchol isomers. * These results show that the AM branching factors and parasitic plant germination stimulants in tomato root exudate are strigolactones and that they are biosynthetically derived from carotenoids. The dual activity of these signalling compounds in attracting beneficial AM fungi and detrimental parasitic plants is further strengthened by environmental conditions such as phosphate availability.

  13. Auxin Response Factor Genes Repertoire in Mulberry: Identification, and Structural, Functional and Evolutionary Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Negi, Nisha; Khurana, Paramjit

    2017-01-01

    Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) are at the core of the regulation mechanism for auxin-mediated responses, along with AUX/IAA proteins.They are critical in the auxin-mediated control of various biological responses including development and stress. A wild mulberry species genome has been sequenced and offers an opportunity to investigate this important gene family. A total of 17 ARFs have been identified from mulberry (Morus notabilis) which show a wide range of expression patterns. Of these 17 ARFs, 15 have strong acidic isoelectric point (pI) values and a molecular mass ranging from 52 kDa to 101 kDa. The putative promoters of these ARFs harbour cis motifs related to light-dependent responses, various stress responses and hormone regulations suggestive of their multifactorial regulation. The gene ontology terms for ARFs indicate their role in flower development, stress, root morphology and other such development and stress mitigation related activities. Conserved motif analysis showed the presence of all typical domains in all but four members that lack the PB1 domain and thus represent truncated ARFs. Expression analysis of these ARFs suggests their preferential expression in tissues ranging from leaf, root, winter bud, bark and male flowers. These ARFs showed differential expression in the leaf tissue of M. notabilis, Morus laevigata and Morus serrata. Insights gained from this analysis have implications in mulberry improvement programs. PMID:28841197

  14. ABA-deficiency results in reduced plant and fruit size in tomato.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, L; Kohlen, W; Oplaat, C; Charnikhova, T; Cristescu, S; Michieli, P; Wolters-Arts, M; Bouwmeester, H; Mariani, C; Vriezen, W H; Rieu, I

    2012-06-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) deficient mutants, such as notabilis and flacca, have helped elucidating the role of ABA during plant development and stress responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). However, these mutants have only moderately decreased ABA levels. Here we report on plant and fruit development in the more strongly ABA-deficient notabilis/flacca (not/flc) double mutant. We observed that plant growth, leaf-surface area, drought-induced wilting and ABA-related gene expression in the different genotypes were strongly correlated with the ABA levels and thus most strongly affected in the not/flc double mutants. These mutants also had reduced fruit size that was caused by an overall smaller cell size. Lower ABA levels in fruits did not correlate with changes in auxin levels, but were accompanied by higher ethylene evolution rates. This suggests that in a wild-type background ABA stimulates cell enlargement during tomato fruit growth via a negative effect on ethylene synthesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-coverage, whole-genome sequencing of Artocarpus camansi (Moraceae) for phylogenetic marker development and gene discovery1

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Elliot M.; Johnson, Matthew G.; Ragone, Diane; Wickett, Norman J.; Zerega, Nyree J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We used moderately low-coverage (17×) whole-genome sequencing of Artocarpus camansi (Moraceae) to develop genomic resources for Artocarpus and Moraceae. Methods and Results: A de novo assembly of Illumina short reads (251,378,536 pairs, 2 × 100 bp) accounted for 93% of the predicted genome size. Predicted coding regions were used in a three-way orthology search with published genomes of Morus notabilis and Cannabis sativa. Phylogenetic markers for Moraceae were developed from 333 inferred single-copy exons. Ninety-eight putative MADS-box genes were identified. Analysis of all predicted coding regions resulted in preliminary annotation of 49,089 genes. An analysis of synonymous substitutions for pairs of orthologs (Ks analysis) in M. notabilis and A. camansi strongly suggested a lineage-specific whole-genome duplication in Artocarpus. Conclusions: This study substantially increases the genomic resources available for Artocarpus and Moraceae and demonstrates the value of low-coverage de novo assemblies for nonmodel organisms with moderately large genomes. PMID:27437173

  16. [Diversity and abundance of molluscs in Thalassia testudinum prairie of the Bay of Mochinma, Mochima National Park, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Prieto, Antulio; Sant, Sybil; Méndez, Elizabeth; Lodeiros, César

    2003-06-01

    The diversity and abundance of benthic malacological communities associated to Thalassia testudinum beds was studied at four localities of Mochima Bay, Sucre state, Venezuela. At each locality, samples were taken monthly on perpendicular transect at different depths (0-4 m), from January 1991 to December 1991, using a quadrate (0.25 m2) for collecting mollusks and sediments. A total of 2,988 organisms of infauna and epifauna belonging to 81 species of the classes Gastropoda (41) and Bivalvia (40) were collected. More abundant species were Anadara notabilis, Codakia orbicularis, Cerithium litteratum, Cerithium eburneum, Batillaria minima, Modiolus squamosus, Modulus modulus, Chione cancellata, Turritella variegata, Arca zebra, y Laevicardium laevigatum. There were significant differences in number of organisms between depth and month at La Gabarra which presented the highest value of total (4.51 bits/ind) and monthly diversity (2.71-3.90 bits/ind). Biomass and abundance were low in the Mochima Bay while Varadero station presented the highest value. The bivalve A. notabilis and gastropod M. modulus were species common to the four stations.

  17. Two new turrid species (Gastropoda: Pseudomelatomidae) from the Palawan region, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Peter; Fraussen, Koen

    2014-03-26

    Species richness of tropical marine molluscs is considerably underestimated (Bouchet et al. 2002). Indeed, the molluscan faunas of some regions, such as Palawan in the western Pacific, have received little attention and some hyper-diverse groups, such as the turrids (a parapyhletic group of Conoidea, formerly known as Turridae), are barely documented. For example, apart from original descriptions of two turrid taxa that have their type locations in Palawan (Comitas aequatorialis palawanica Powell, 1969 and Mangilia quadrasi Boettger, 1895 = Gingicithara notabilis (E. A. Smith, 1888)), there are no published records of turrids from this region. We have been fortunate to have access to recent collections of turrids from different parts of Palawan. Examination of these materials has revealed existence of several undescribed and potentially endemic species. In the present paper two new Pseudomelatomidae species are described.

  18. Death by chocolate: a fatal problem for an inquisitive wild parrot.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, B D; Reid, C

    2007-06-01

    An adult male kea (Nestor notabilis) in good body condition was found dead at Aoraki/Mt Cook Village, in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The bird had previously been involved in behavioural tests of problem-solving ability. The bird had substantial subcutaneous and abdominal reserves of fat. The crop contained 20 g of what appeared to be dark chocolate; a conservative estimate of the dose of methylxanthines ingested by the bird was 250 mg/kg theobromine, 20 mg/kg caffeine and 3 mg/kg theophylline. Histopathological examination revealed acute degenerative changes to hepatocytes, renal tubules, and cerebrocortical neurons. Acute combination methylxanthine toxicity after opportunistic ingestion of chocolate. This is the first report of the pathological findings of methylxanthine toxicity in a wild parrot, and illustrates the need to ensure that kea are protected from the toxic by-products of human habitation, and the difficulties in ensuring this against a neophilic, inquisitive and innovative parrot.

  19. Phylogeography of the sand dollar genus Mellita: cryptic speciation along the coasts of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Coppard, Simon E; Zigler, Kirk S; Lessios, H A

    2013-12-01

    Sand dollars of the genus Mellita are members of the sandy shallow-water fauna. The genus ranges in tropical and subtropical regions on the two coasts of the Americas. To reconstruct the phylogeography of the genus we sequenced parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and of 16S rRNA as well as part of the nuclear 28S rRNA gene from a total of 185 specimens of all ten described morphospecies from 31 localities. Our analyses revealed the presence of eleven species, including six cryptic species. Sequences of five morphospecies do not constitute monophyletic molecular units and thus probably represent ecophenotypic variants. The fossil-calibrated phylogeny showed that the ancestor of Mellita diverged into a Pacific lineage and an Atlantic+Pacific lineage close to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Atlantic M. tenuis, M. quinquiesperforata and two undescribed species of Mellita have non-overlapping distributions. Pacific Mellita consist of two highly divergent lineages that became established at different times, resulting in sympatric M. longifissa and M. notabilis. Judged by modern day ranges, not all divergence in this genus conforms to an allopatric speciation model. Only the separation of M. quinquiesperforata from M. notabilis is clearly due to vicariance as the result of the completion of the Isthmus of Panama. The molecular phylogeny calibrated on fossil evidence estimated this event as having occurred ~3 Ma, thus providing evidence that, contrary to a recent proposal, the central American Isthmus was not completed until this date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of (2'R)-2',3'-dihydro-2'-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,6'-bibenzofuran-6,4'-diol on Mushroom Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis in B16-F10 Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Jie; Yan, Gui-Rui; Xu, Zhi-Jian; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Gai-Hong; Wang, Ting; Zhu, Wei-Liang; Hou, Ai-Jun; Wang, He-Yao

    2015-07-01

    (2'R)-2',3'-Dihydro-2'-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,6'-bibenzofuran-6,4'-diol (DHMB) is a natural compound extracted from Morus notabilis. It was found that DHMB acts as a competitive inhibitor against mushroom tyrosinase with a Ki value of 14.77 μM. Docking results further indicated that it could form strong interactions with one copper ion with a distance of 2.7 Å, suggesting the mechanism of inhibition might be due to chelating copper ions in the active site. Furthermore, melanin production in B16-F10 murine melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by DHMB in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. The results of western blotting also showed that DHMB decreased 3-isobuty-1-methxlzanthine-induced mature tyrosinase expression. Taken together, these findings indicated that DHMB may be a new promising pigmentation-altering agent for agriculture, cosmetic, and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The response of tundra springtails (Collembola, Hexapoda) to human activity on the Murman coast of the Kola Penisula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejniczak, Izabella; Boniecki, Paweł; Kaliszewicz, Anita; Panteleeva, Ninel

    2018-03-01

    This study was carried out in the Dalne Zelentsy settlement (69°07‧N, 36°03‧E) on the Barents Sea of the Kola Penisula in Russia. Three transects were established: the 'new garden transect'; the 'old garden transect'; and the 'settlement transect'. Overall, the number of springtails increased with distance from the 'settlement' and decreased from the 'old garden' towards the tundra. However, in the case of the 'new garden transect' there were no clear trends in springtail abundance. Eleven species of springtail were found, with Parisotoma notabilis being found at each of the studied areas along the transects. Trends in the species diversity of the springtail communities were not clear, and the values of H‧ ranged from 1.36 to 2.08. The springtail communities located 10 m from the 'new garden' and the 'old garden' were characterized by low species diversity compared with the other sites along the transects (H‧ values of 1.36 and 1.67, respectively). There were no differences in species diversity among the springtail communities along the 'settlement transect'.

  2. A new genus of mellitid sand dollar (Echinoidea: Mellitidae) from the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Coppard, Simon E

    2016-05-13

    Lanthonia gen. nov. Coppard 2016 is a genus of clypeasteroid sand dollar whose members inhabit shallow, sandy waters from Mexico (including the Gulf of California) to Colombia in the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific. Lanthonia includes Lanthonia longifissa (Michelin, 1858) and Lanthonia grantii (Mortensen, 1948), with L. longifissa hereby designated as the type species. Both L. longifissa and L. grantii were previously placed in the genus Mellita (L. Agassiz, 1841). However, levels of genetic divergence between a lineage containing L. longifissa and L. grantii and a lineage containing all other species of Mellita, including the type species M. quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778), indicate genus level differentiation. The systematic interpretation of this group also supports the designation of this new genus as it allows the tree topology to be recovered from the nomenclature and clarifies the historical biogeography of these clades. This has resulted in members of both lineages today being sympatric in the eastern Pacific. Members of Lanthonia are morphologically differentiated from the type species of Mellita and all Pacific Mellita in having very narrow ambulacral regions between the food grooves and the ambulacral lunules on the oral surface, these being very broad in both M. quinquiesperforata and M. notabilis. The dentation of the bidentate pedicellariae also differentiate these genera, with small peripheral teeth present along the edge of the blade in species of Lanthonia and one to three enlarged intersecting teeth present distally in all species of Mellita.

  3. Disturbance of shallow marine soft-bottom environments and megabenthos assemblages by a huge tsunami induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

    PubMed

    Seike, Koji; Shirai, Kotaro; Kogure, Yukihisa

    2013-01-01

    Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays) in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010) and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012). During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae) and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae) disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae) and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae), varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance.

  4. Disturbance of Shallow Marine Soft-Bottom Environments and Megabenthos Assemblages by a Huge Tsunami Induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Koji; Shirai, Kotaro; Kogure, Yukihisa

    2013-01-01

    Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays) in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010) and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012). During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae) and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae) disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae) and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae), varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance. PMID:23762365

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  6. Evidence for increased olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in two nocturnal bird species with well-developed olfactory ability

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Silke S; Fidler, Andrew E; Kempenaers, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, the molecular basis of the sense of smell is encoded by members of a large gene family, namely olfactory receptor (OR) genes. Both the total number of OR genes and the proportion of intact OR genes in a genome may indicate the importance of the sense of smell for an animal. There is behavioral, physiological, and anatomical evidence that some bird species, in particular nocturnal birds, have a well developed sense of smell. Therefore, we hypothesized that nocturnal birds with good olfactory abilities have evolved (i) more OR genes and (ii) more intact OR genes than closely related and presumably less 'olfaction-dependent' day-active avian taxa. Results We used both non-radioactive Southern hybridization and PCR with degenerate primers to investigate whether two nocturnal bird species that are known to rely on olfactory cues, the brown kiwi (Apteryx australis) and the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), have evolved a larger OR gene repertoire than their day-active, closest living relatives (for kiwi the emu Dromaius novaehollandiae, rhea Rhea americana, and ostrich Struthio camelus and for kakapo the kaka Nestor meridionalis and kea Nestor notabilis). We show that the nocturnal birds did not have a significantly higher proportion of intact OR genes. However, the estimated total number of OR genes was larger in the two nocturnal birds than in their relatives. Conclusion Our results suggest that ecological niche adaptations such as daily activity patterns may have shaped avian OR gene repertoires. PMID:19467156

  7. Effects of inorganic amendments (urea, gypsum) on seed germination and seedling recruitment of 20 native plant species used in dryland restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Amber; E Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David J.; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Soil health and functionality are major determining factors for restoration of degraded arid and semi-arid ecosystems. These highly nutrient impoverished soil substrates with low water retention capabilities dictate plant growth and survival in these landscapes that are subject to variable rainfall event and high temperatures (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Anthropogenic disturbances derived from mining activities have contributed to the degradation of soil functionality and have altered plant-soil-water interactions. With unknown positive or negative rehabilitation outcomes, inorganic amendments in the form of urea and gypsum are commonly added to reconstructed soil substrates disturbed by mining to replenish soil nutrients (nitrogen) and improve soil water holding capacity to improve seedling establishment and survival. Methods Using existing protocols for amendment addition to soil substrates, two experiments assessed the effects of urea and gypsum at multiple doses in reconstructed soil substrates (topsoil (TS), waste (W) and, 50:50 blend of both materials (TW) to evaluate its effectiveness as a supplement to improve seed germination, seedling recruitment and plant growth. In the first experiment, 20 species native to the resource-rich biodiverse Pilbara region of Western Australia were grown in 30 °C glasshouse facilities under well-watered conditions for three weeks with seedling emergence scored daily. At the end of the trial, seedlings were harvested and biomass was assessed. In the second experiment, five of the original 20 species (e.g. Acacia bivenosa, Gossypium robinsonii, Eucalyptus gamophylla, Triodia wiseana and, Senna notabilis) were assessed for germination in amended soils by burying nylon sachets in the reconstructed substrates. After three weeks, the sachets were retrieved and seeds were assessed for germination (i.e. radicle emergence was evident). Results and Discussion Total emergence and biomass of seedlings was negatively

  8. More than one way to see it: Individual heuristics in avian visual computation.

    PubMed

    Ravignani, Andrea; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Schlumpp, Martin M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-10-01

    Comparative pattern learning experiments investigate how different species find regularities in sensory input, providing insights into cognitive processing in humans and other animals. Past research has focused either on one species' ability to process pattern classes or different species' performance in recognizing the same pattern, with little attention to individual and species-specific heuristics and decision strategies. We trained and tested two bird species, pigeons (Columba livia) and kea (Nestor notabilis, a parrot species), on visual patterns using touch-screen technology. Patterns were composed of several abstract elements and had varying degrees of structural complexity. We developed a model selection paradigm, based on regular expressions, that allowed us to reconstruct the specific decision strategies and cognitive heuristics adopted by a given individual in our task. Individual birds showed considerable differences in the number, type and heterogeneity of heuristic strategies adopted. Birds' choices also exhibited consistent species-level differences. Kea adopted effective heuristic strategies, based on matching learned bigrams to stimulus edges. Individual pigeons, in contrast, adopted an idiosyncratic mix of strategies that included local transition probabilities and global string similarity. Although performance was above chance and quite high for kea, no individual of either species provided clear evidence of learning exactly the rule used to generate the training stimuli. Our results show that similar behavioral outcomes can be achieved using dramatically different strategies and highlight the dangers of combining multiple individuals in a group analysis. These findings, and our general approach, have implications for the design of future pattern learning experiments, and the interpretation of comparative cognition research more generally. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrative taxonomy of Leptonetela spiders (Araneae, Leptonetidae), with descriptions of 46 new species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Xia; Xu, Xin; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Extreme environments, such as subterranean habitats, are suspected to be responsible for morphologically inseparable cryptic or sibling species and can bias biodiversity assessment. A DNA barcode is a short, standardized DNA sequence used for taxonomic purposes and has the potential to lessen the challenges presented by a biotic inventory. Here, we investigate the diversity of the genus Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978 that is endemic to karst systems in Eurasia using DNA barcoding. We analyzed 624 specimens using one mitochondrial gene fragment (COI). The results show that DNA barcoding is an efficient and rapid species identification method in this genus. DNA barcoding gap and automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) analyses indicated the existence of 90 species, a result consistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses, and supported the existence of extreme male pedipalpal tibial spine and median apophysis polymorphism in Leptonetela species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. Based on the molecular and morphological evidence, we delimit and diagnose 90 Leptonetela species, including the type species Leptonetela kanellisi(Deeleman-Reinhold, 1971). Forty-six of them are previously undescribed. The female of Leptonetela zhai Wang & Li, 2011 is reported for the first time. Leptonetela tianxinensis (Tong & Li, 2008) comb. nov. is transferred from the genus Leptoneta Simon, 1872;the genus Guineta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela gigachela(Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. is transferred from Guineta. The genus Sinoneta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela notabilis(Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. and Leptonetela sexdigiti(Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. are transferred from Sinoneta; Leptonetela sanchahe Wang & Li nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Sinoneta palmata(Chen et al, 2010) because Leptonetela palmata is preoccupied. PMID:29280363

  10. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor SlZFP2 Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Fruit Ripening in Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  11. More than one way to see it: Individual heuristics in avian visual computation

    PubMed Central

    Ravignani, Andrea; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Schlumpp, Martin M.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2015-01-01

    Comparative pattern learning experiments investigate how different species find regularities in sensory input, providing insights into cognitive processing in humans and other animals. Past research has focused either on one species’ ability to process pattern classes or different species’ performance in recognizing the same pattern, with little attention to individual and species-specific heuristics and decision strategies. We trained and tested two bird species, pigeons (Columba livia) and kea (Nestor notabilis, a parrot species), on visual patterns using touch-screen technology. Patterns were composed of several abstract elements and had varying degrees of structural complexity. We developed a model selection paradigm, based on regular expressions, that allowed us to reconstruct the specific decision strategies and cognitive heuristics adopted by a given individual in our task. Individual birds showed considerable differences in the number, type and heterogeneity of heuristic strategies adopted. Birds’ choices also exhibited consistent species-level differences. Kea adopted effective heuristic strategies, based on matching learned bigrams to stimulus edges. Individual pigeons, in contrast, adopted an idiosyncratic mix of strategies that included local transition probabilities and global string similarity. Although performance was above chance and quite high for kea, no individual of either species provided clear evidence of learning exactly the rule used to generate the training stimuli. Our results show that similar behavioral outcomes can be achieved using dramatically different strategies and highlight the dangers of combining multiple individuals in a group analysis. These findings, and our general approach, have implications for the design of future pattern learning experiments, and the interpretation of comparative cognition research more generally. PMID:26113444

  12. Integrative taxonomy of Leptonetela spiders (Araneae, Leptonetidae), with descriptions of 46 new species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Xia; Xu, Xin; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2017-11-18

    Extreme environments, such as subterranean habitats, are suspected to be responsible for morphologically inseparable cryptic or sibling species and can bias biodiversity assessment. A DNA barcode is a short, standardized DNA sequence used for taxonomic purposes and has the potential to lessen the challenges presented by a biotic inventory. Here, we investigate the diversity of the genus Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978 that is endemic to karst systems in Eurasia using DNA barcoding. We analyzed 624 specimens using one mitochondrial gene fragment ( COI ). The results show that DNA barcoding is an efficient and rapid species identification method in this genus. DNA barcoding gap and automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) analyses indicated the existence of 90 species, a result consistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses, and supported the existence of extreme male pedipalpal tibial spine and median apophysis polymorphism in Leptonetela species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. Based on the molecular and morphological evidence, we delimit and diagnose 90 Leptonetela species, including the type species Leptonetela kanellisi (Deeleman-Reinhold, 1971). Forty-six of them are previously undescribed. The female of Leptonetela zhai Wang & Li, 2011 is reported for the first time. Leptonetela tianxinensis (Tong & Li, 2008) comb. nov. is transferred from the genus Leptoneta Simon, 1872; the genus Guineta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela gigachela (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. is transferred from Guineta . The genus Sinoneta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela ; Leptonetela notabilis (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. and Leptonetela sexdigiti (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. are transferred from Sinoneta ; Leptonetela sanchahe Wang & Li nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Sinoneta palmata (Chen et al., 2010) because Leptonetela palmata is preoccupied.

  13. Response of biotic communities to salinity changes in a Mediterranean hypersaline stream

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Hernández, Juan; Gutiérrez, Cayetano; Abellán, Pedro; Sánchez, David; Ruiz, Mar

    2006-01-01

    Background This study investigates the relationship between salinity and biotic communities (primary producers and macroinvertebrates) in Rambla Salada, a Mediterranean hypersaline stream in SE Spain. Since the 1980's, the mean salinity of the stream has fallen from about 100 g L-1 to 35.5 g L-1, due to intensive irrigated agriculture in the watershed. Furthermore, large dilutions occur occasionally when the water irrigation channel suffers cracks. Results Along the salinity gradient studied (3.5 – 76.4 g L-1) Cladophora glomerata and Ruppia maritima biomass decreased with increasing salinity, while the biomass of epipelic algae increased. Diptera and Coleoptera species dominated the community both in disturbed as in re-established conditions. Most macroinvertebrates species found in Rambla Salada stream are euryhaline species with a broad range of salinity tolerance. Eight of them were recorded in natural hypersaline conditions (~100 g L-1) prior to important change in land use of the watershed: Ephydra flavipes, Stratyomis longicornis, Nebrioporus ceresyi, N. baeticus, Berosus hispanicus, Enochrus falcarius, Ochthebius cuprescens and Sigara selecta. However, other species recorded in the past, such as Ochthebius glaber, O. notabilis and Enochrus politus, were restricted to a hypersaline source or absent from Rambla Salada. The dilution of salinity to 3.5 – 6.8 gL-1 allowed the colonization of species with low salininty tolerance, such as Melanopsis praemorsa, Anax sp., Simulidae, Ceratopogonidae and Tanypodinae. The abundance of Ephydra flavipes and Ochthebius corrugatus showed a positive significant response to salinity, while Anax sp., Simulidae, S. selecta, N. ceresyi, N. baeticus, and B. hispanicus showed significant negative correlations. The number of total macroinvertebrate taxa, Diptera and Coleoptera species, number of families, Margalef's index and Shannon's diversity index decreased with increasing salinity. However, the rest of community

  14. Characterization and Expression of Genes Involved in the Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction during Ripening of Mulberry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1–methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID

  15. Auxin-Induced Ethylene Triggers Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Growth Inhibition1

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Hauke; Grossmann, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    -deficient tomato mutants (notabilis, flacca, and sitiens), and quantification of xanthophylls indicate that ABA biosynthesis is influenced, probably through stimulated cleavage of xanthophylls to xanthoxal in shoot tissue. PMID:11080318

  16. Auxin-induced ethylene triggers abscisic acid biosynthesis and growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Grossmann, K

    2000-11-01

    -deficient tomato mutants (notabilis, flacca, and sitiens), and quantification of xanthophylls indicate that ABA biosynthesis is influenced, probably through stimulated cleavage of xanthophylls to xanthoxal in shoot tissue.

  17. Gene expression analyses in tomato near isogenic lines provide evidence for ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis fine-tuning during arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    PubMed

    Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Plant responses to the environment and microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, involve complex hormonal interactions. It is known that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene may be involved in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and that part of the detrimental effects of ABA deficiency in plants is due to ethylene overproduction. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the low susceptibility to mycorrhizal colonization in ABA-deficient mutants is due to high levels of ethylene and whether AM development is associated with changes in the steady-state levels of transcripts of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ethylene and ABA. For that, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ethylene overproducer epinastic (epi) mutant and the ABA-deficient notabilis (not) and sitiens (sit) mutants, in the same Micro-Tom (MT) genetic background, were inoculated with Rhizophagus clarus, and treated with the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The development of AM, as well as the steady-state levels of transcripts involved in ethylene (LeACS2, LeACO1 and LeACO4) and ABA (LeNCED) biosynthesis, was determined. The intraradical colonization in epi, not and sit mutants was significantly reduced compared to MT. The epi mutant completely restored the mycorrhizal colonization to the levels of MT with the application of 10 µM of AVG, probably due to the inhibition of the ACC synthase gene expression. The steady-state levels of LeACS2 and LeACO4 transcripts were induced in mycorrhizal roots of MT, whereas the steady-state levels of LeACO1 and LeACO4 transcripts were significantly induced in sit, and the steady-state levels of LeNCED transcripts were significantly induced in all genotypes and in mycorrhizal roots of epi mutants treated with AVG. The reduced mycorrhizal colonization in sit mutants seems not to be limited by ethylene production via ACC oxidase regulation. Both ethylene overproduction and ABA deficiency impaired AM fungal

  18. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida), including two reinstated and five new species

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Matt A.M.; Devos, Nicolas; Patiño, Jairo; Brown, Elizabeth A.; Orme, Andrew; Elgey, Michael; Wilson, Trevor C.; Gray, Lindsey J.; von Konrat, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R. buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to Western

  19. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    , 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus) napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus) ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus) orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus) sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) ziczac da Costa, 1898. The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus) lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847. New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837); Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901); Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus) conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835