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Sample records for canada leads charge

  1. Lead poisoning in Canada geese in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagley, George E.; Locke, Louis N.; Nightingale, Gordon T.

    1967-01-01

    Trainer and Hunt (9) stated that lead poisoning of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) had been reported from three states: North Carolina, Indiana, and Wisconsin. More recently, the Mississippi Flyway Council (8) cited suspected cases of lead poisoning of Canada geese in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, and Maryland. Hanson and Smith (6) also cited cases in widely separated areas of the country, including Texas and Michigan. this paper reports lead poisoning among Canada geese in Delaware, and presents evidence that it is a recurring problem among wintering flocks of Canada geese along the Middle Atlantic Coast.

  2. Reformulating Lead-Based Paint as a Problem in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Amélie

    2011-01-01

    Leaded gasoline was officially removed from the Canadian market in December 1990. The removal of a major lead source and the subsequent decline in children's blood lead levels marked an important transition point and sparked the emergence of new discourse on lead in Canada. Today, childhood lead poisoning is viewed as a problem of the past or a problem of the United States. Sparse Canadian surveillance data supported this view. Moreover, tensions among federal agencies evolved into a power struggle, with Health Canada ultimately becoming the dominant authority, thereby relegating important research initiatives to obscurity and also shaping a vastly weaker regulatory response to lead than occurred in the United States. PMID:21836119

  3. Lead poisoning in Canada geese on Plum Island, Massachusetts (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hinds, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    During December 1983 and early January 1984, about 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died of lead poisoning at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge on Plum Island, Massachusetts. In an effort to determine the source of lead, 100 bottom samples were taken from a refuge impoundment where much of the mortality/morbidity occurred. An average of 157,150 pellets/ha was found with a range of 64,582 to 322,910 pellets/ha. Water levels in this impoundment were low when Canada geese arrived, making shot more readily available to the geese and contributing to the outbreak. To minimize the risk of Canada geese being exposed to lead shot poisoning at this location in the future, we recommend several corrective manipulations of habitat.

  4. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  5. Study on sources of charging lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the general characteristics of lead acid batteries and two charging methods of these batteries. For charging of lead batteries was used an intelligent power source K 8012 (from Velleman). The power source allows fixing the level of the battery voltage and battery capacity. The intelligent power source uses the joint method (at constant current and, then, at constant voltage) and warning that indicates different situations in the charging process. Other method of charging presented in the paper is at constant voltage using a stabilized power source. In the paper experimental measurements were carried out using data acquisition card SER 10 BIT (from Conrad) for charging/ discharging of a lead acid battery 12V/9Ah (using an intelligent power source) and charging of another high capacity lead acid battery 12V/47Ah/390 A (using a stabilized power source). At the discharging of the lead acid batteries it were used automotive lamps as electric loads.

  6. Pulse charging of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1980-05-01

    Pulse charging, as a method of rapidly and efficiently charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells for an electric vehicle application was investigated. A wide range of charge pulse current square waveforms were investigated and the results were compared to constant current charging at the time averaged pulse current values. Representative pulse current waveforms were: (1) positive waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amperes (amps), discharge pulse-current of zero amps, and a duty cycle of about 50%; (2) Romanov waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amps, peak discharge pulse current of 15 amps, and a duty of 50%; and (3) McCulloch waveform peak charge pulse current of 193 amps, peak discharge pulse current of about 575 amps, and a duty cycle of 94%. Experimental results indicate that on the basis of amp-hour efficiency, pulse charging offered no significant advantage as a method of rapidly charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value. There were, however, some disadvantages of pulse charging in particular a decrease in charge amp-hour and energy efficiencies and an increase in cell electrolyte temperature. The constant current charge method resulted in the best energy efficiency with no significant sacrifice of charge time or amp-hour output. Whether or not pulse charging offers an advantage over constant current charging with regard to the cell charge/discharge cycle life is unknown at this time.

  7. Pulse charging of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Pulse charging, as a method of rapidly and efficiently charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells for an electric vehicle application was investigated. A wide range of charge pulse current square waveforms were investigated and the results were compared to constant current charging at the time averaged pulse current values. Representative pulse current waveforms were: (1) positive waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amperes (amps), discharge pulse-current of zero amps, and a duty cycle of about 50%; (2) Romanov waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amps, peak discharge pulse current of 15 amps, and a duty of 50%; and (3) McCulloch waveform peak charge pulse current of 193 amps, peak discharge pulse current of about 575 amps, and a duty cycle of 94%. Experimental results indicate that on the basis of amp-hour efficiency, pulse charging offered no significant advantage as a method of rapidly charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value. There were, however, some disadvantages of pulse charging in particular a decrease in charge amp-hour and energy efficiencies and an increase in cell electrolyte temperature. The constant current charge method resulted in the best energy efficiency with no significant sacrifice of charge time or amp-hour output. Whether or not pulse charging offers an advantage over constant current charging with regard to the cell charge/discharge cycle life is unknown at this time.

  8. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  9. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  10. Charge transport mechanism in lead oxide revealed by CELIV technique

    PubMed Central

    Semeniuk, O.; Juska, G.; Oelerich, J.-O.; Wiemer, M.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Reznik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although polycrystalline lead oxide (PbO) belongs to the most promising photoconductors for optoelectronic and large area detectors applications, the charge transport mechanism in this material still remains unclear. Combining the conventional time-of-flight and the photo-generated charge extraction by linear increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) techniques, we investigate the transport of holes which are shown to be the faster carriers in poly-PbO. Experimentally measured temperature and electric field dependences of the hole mobility suggest a highly dispersive transport. In order to analyze the transport features quantitatively, the theory of the photo-CELIV is extended to account for the dispersive nature of charge transport. While in other materials with dispersive transport the amount of dispersion usually depends on temperature, this is not the case in poly-PbO, which evidences that dispersive transport is caused by the spatial inhomogeneity of the material and not by the energy disorder. PMID:27628537

  11. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from < 0.01 to 0.585 microgram ml-1, while those of nestling eagles from a reference site indicated normal or background exposure (< 0.01 microgram ml-1). No differences in the prevalence of elevated exposure were detected among genders or age classes (0.5- and > or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed.

  12. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  13. Charging effects in a quantum wire with leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablikov, V. A.; Polyakov, S. V.; Büttiker, M.

    2000-05-01

    We investigate the distribution of the electron density and the potential in a quantum wire coupled to reservoirs, treating this structure as a unified quantum system and taking into account the Coulomb interaction of electrons. The chemical potential difference that exists between a decoupled, isolated quantum wire and the reservoirs gives rise to charge transfer in the coupled system. We show that the quantum wire can be charged positively or negatively or remain neutral as a whole, depending on such factors as the wire radius and the background charge density in the wire. The magnitude of the charge and its sign are to a large extent determined by the exchange interaction of the electrons in the wire. Using a Hartree-Fock approach, we develop a model of a quantum wire which includes the reservoirs. This model allows us to find the self-consistent distribution of the electron density and the potential in the wire both at equilibrium and in the presence of transport. The linear conductance is investigated as a function of the chemical potential. The nonadiabatic transition from the reservoirs to the wire leads to conductance oscillations caused by multiple scattering of electron waves. The period of the oscillations depends on the charge acquired by the wire and the exchange energy. We find that the exchange interaction strongly enhances the Friedel oscillations near the contacts. However, they do not noticeably suppress the conductance because the wire has a finite length and is charged. Under far from equilibrium conditions, which appear when the applied voltage exceeds the Fermi energy in the wire, the system becomes unstable with respect to fluctuations of the electric potential and the electron density. The instability results in the appearance of multistable electron states.

  14. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  15. Polaronic Charge Carrier-Lattice Interactions in Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Christoph; Cho, Himchan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-10-09

    Almost ten years after the renaissance of the popular perovskite-type semiconductors based on lead salts with the general formula AMX3 (A=organic or inorganic cation; M=divalent metal; X=halide), many facets of photophysics continue to puzzle researchers. In this Minireview, light is shed on the low mobilities of charge carriers in lead halide perovskites with special focus on the lattice properties at non-zero temperature. The polar and soft lattice leads to pronounced electron-phonon coupling, limiting carrier mobility and retarding recombination. We propose that the proper picture of excited charge carriers at temperature ranges that are relevant for device operations is that of a polaron, with Fröhlich coupling constants between 1<α<3. Under the aspect of light-emitting diode application, APbX3 perovskite show moderate second order (bimolecular) recombination rates and high third-order (Auger) rate constants. It has become apparent that this is a direct consequence of the anisotropic polar A-site cation in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites and might be alleviated by replacing the organic moiety with an isotropic cation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. New accelerated charge methods using early destratification applied on flooded lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamadou, K.; Nguyen, T. M. P.; Lemaire-Potteau, E.; Glaize, C.; Alzieu, J.

    A traditional charge process for flooded lead acid batteries (FLABs) lasts generally from 8 to 14 h. Nowadays, many applications of FLABs require reduction of the charge duration, for instance, a 4 h-charge for FLABs in grid energy storage or 1 h-charge for FLABs in electric buses. These are called accelerated charge and fast charge. Such reductions of charge time imply the use of a new charge process. One way to reduce the charge duration is to perform an early destratification step without waiting for the end of charge. The new charge method proposed in this paper (early destratification method - ED) focuses on the reduction of the charge time for FLABs using early destratification, which is performed and controlled using charge acceptance measurement during the charge. Laboratory experiments presented here aim first to develop charge acceptance measurements followed by an ED charge method compared to an IUi traditional charge process.

  17. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  18. Lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in Canada.

    PubMed

    Clark, A J; Scheuhammer, A M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the degree of lead exposure, based on tissue-lead concentrations, in 184 raptors of 16 species found dead across Canada. The most prevalent species available for examination were Red-tailed hawks, Great horned owls, and Golden eagles (n = 131). The majority of individuals examined had very low lead accumulation, however 3-4% of total mortality in these 3 most commonly encountered species was attributed to lead poisoning. In addition, 1 of 9 Bald Eagles found dead far from aquatic environments was lead poisoned; and a single Turkey Vulture had a highly elevated bone-lead concentration (58 microg/g dry weight). Evidence from our study, along with other published research, indicates that upland-foraging birds of prey and scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets, are at risk for lead poisoning from the ingestion of lead projectiles from ammunition used in upland hunting. The use of non-lead ammunition for hunting upland game would effectively remove the only serious source of high lead exposure and lead poisoning for upland-foraging raptors.

  19. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent exposure to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that exposure of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1981-01-15

    Charge efficiencies were determined for ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state-of-charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  1. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P; Burlakov, Victor M; Yengel, Emre; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; El-Zohry, Ahmed M; Yang, Chen; Alias, Mohd S; Zhumekenov, Ayan A; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Cho, Namchul; Wehbe, Nimer; Mitra, Somak; Ajia, Idris; Dey, Sukumar; Mansour, Ahmed E; Abdelsamie, Maged; Amassian, Aram; Roqan, Iman S; Ooi, Boon S; Goriely, Alain; Bakr, Osman M; Mohammed, Omar F

    2017-03-08

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface's optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  2. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, Daniel J.; Snyder, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Hatch year (HY) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Basin had higher concentrations of lead in their blood than HY Western Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) (geometric means 0.98 versus 0.28 I?g/g, wet weight). The pattern for adults of both species was similar, although geometric means (1.77 versus 0.41 I?g/g) were higher than in HY birds. HY mallards captured in the CDA River Basin in 1987 contained significantly lower lead concentrations in their blood than in 1994a??95 (0.36 versus 0.98 I?g/g); however, some very young mallards were sampled in 1987, and concentrations in adults were not significantly different in 1987, 1994, or 1995 (1.52, 2.07, 1.55 I?g/g, respectively). Both species in the CDA River Basin in 1994a??95 showed significantly reduced red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to the reference areas: Canada geese (HY a??65.4 to a??86.0%, adults a??82.3%), and mallards (HY a??90.7 to a??95.5%, adults a??94.1%). Canada goose goslings were divided into size classes, and the two smaller classes from the CDA River Basin had significantly elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (protoporphyrin) levels compared to the reference area (15.2?? and 6.9??). HY and adult mallards both had significantly elevated protoporphyrin (5.9?? and 7.5??). Recognizing that interspecific differences exist in response and sensitivity to lead, it appears (at least for hemoglobin and hematocrit) that Canada geese were more sensitive to lead than mallards, i.e., adverse hematologic effects occur at lower blood lead concentrations. Only Canada geese from the CDA River Basin, in spite of lower blood lead concentrations, had significantly reduced mean hemoglobin and hematocrit values. No euthanized Canada geese (all HYs) from CDA River Basin were classified as clinically lead poisoned, but 38 Canada geese found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study succumbed to lead poisoning between 1992 and

  3. Creation of the sole regional laser lead extraction program serving Atlantic Canada: initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kenneth J.; O’Keefe, Scott; Légaré, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing need for laser lead extraction has grown in parallel with the increase of implantation of pacing and defibrillating devices. We reviewed the initial experience of a regional laser-assisted lead extraction program serving Atlantic Canada. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all consecutive patients who underwent laser lead extraction at the Maritime Heart Centre in Halifax, NS, between 2006 and 2015. We conducted univariate and Kaplan–Meier survivorship analyses. Results During the 9-year study period, 108 consecutive patients underwent laser lead extractions (218 leads extracted). The most common indication for extraction was infection (84.3%). Most patients were older than 60 years (73.1%) and had leads chronically implanted; the explanted leads were an average of 7.5 ± 6.8 years old. Procedural and clinical success (resolution of preoperative symptoms) rates and mortality were 96.8%, 97.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. Sternotomy procedures were performed in 3 instances: once for vascular repair due to perforation and twice to ensure that all infected lead material was removed. No minor complications required surgical intervention. Survival after discharge was 98.4% at 30 days and 94% at 12 months. Conclusion Atlantic Canada’s sole surgical extraction centre achieved high extraction success with a low complication rate. Lead extraction in an operative setting provides for immediate surgical intervention and is essential for the survival of patients with complicated cases. Surgeons must weigh the risks versus benefits in patients older than 60 years who have chronically implanted leads (> 1 yr) and infection. PMID:26999473

  4. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  5. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  6. Effect of positive pulse charge waveforms on the energy efficiency of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of four different charge methods on the energy conversion efficiency of 300 ampere hour lead acid traction cells were investigated. Three of the methods were positive pulse charge waveforms; the fourth, a constant current method, was used as a baseline of comparison. The positive pulse charge waveforms were: 120 Hz full wave rectified sinusoidal; 120 Hz silicon controlled rectified; and 1 kHz square wave. The constant current charger was set at the time average pulse current of each pulse waveform, which was 150 amps. The energy efficiency does not include charger losses. The lead acid traction cells were charged to 70 percent of rated ampere hour capacity in each case. The results of charging the cells using the three different pulse charge waveforms indicate there was no significant difference in energy conversion efficiency when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value.

  7. Differences in oxidative stress between young Canada geese and mallards exposed to lead-contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure causes an increase in tissue lipid peroxides and variation in glutathione (GSH) concentration, which can be related to peroxidative damage of cell membranes in Pb poisoned animals. Species and individual variation in sensitivity to Pb poisoning among animals may be due to differential resistance to oxidative stress. We compared the effects of oxidative stress caused by Pb exposure (1.7, 414 and 828 ig/g of diet) for the first six weeks in growing young of two species of waterfowl, Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), with the first species being possibly more sensitive to Pb poisoning based on previous field and laboratory observations. Blood and liver Pb concentrations increased more in mallards than in geese; this may be explained on the basis of body weight, being 3.2 times higher in geese, and hepatic metabolism where GSH-S-transferase activity is 2.9 fold higher in geese and presumably has a role in the binding of Pb to GSH and subsequent biliary excretion. In contrast, mallards showed higher hepatic levels of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX) and GSH reductase (GR). Although both species showed an increase in hepatic GSH concentration with Pb exposure, the increase of lipid peroxidation with Pb exposure was more significant in geese. Within treatment groups, hepatic GSH concentrations were inversely related to liver Pb concentration in both species, which may correspond to the role of GSH in Pb excretion. Hepatic GSH was also inversely related to hepatic lipid peroxidation, but only in mallards and in agreement with the differences observed in GPX and GR activities. The lower resistance to lipid peroxidation of Canada geese may explain why birds of this species found dead in the field by Pb shot ingestion often have a lower number of shot in the gizzard and lower liver Pb concentrations than mallards.

  8. Novel charge/discharge method for lead acid battery by high-pressure crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Naoko; Maeda, Kouji; Moritoki, Masato; Fukui, Keisuke; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Miki, Hideo

    2013-06-01

    The electrical charging and discharging of a battery involves the crystallization of electrolytes or metal oxides on both electrodes. Crystallization technology that can control nucleation, growth, and distribution of solute crystals might be effective for improving battery properties. We performed charge/discharge cycling of a lead acid battery under high pressure. The charging efficiency at high pressure was compared with that at atmospheric pressure. Charging efficiency at high pressure was found to be higher than that at atmospheric pressure under a high charging current. Observation of the positive electrode by scanning electron microscopy revealed that high pressure caused the crystals on the electrode to become extremely fine.

  9. Taking Charge--Leading with Passion and Purpose in the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    "Taking Charge" is a practical guide to the "craft knowledge" of leading schools from an experienced principal, school reformer, and educational consultant. Drawing on his own experiences as well as the experiences of other school leaders, Shaw captures the essence of what principals do and the leadership traits they need to take charge for school…

  10. Taking Charge--Leading with Passion and Purpose in the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    "Taking Charge" is a practical guide to the "craft knowledge" of leading schools from an experienced principal, school reformer, and educational consultant. Drawing on his own experiences as well as the experiences of other school leaders, Shaw captures the essence of what principals do and the leadership traits they need to take charge for school…

  11. Rapid, efficient charging of lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells were rapidly and efficiently charged using a high rate tapered direct current (HRTDC) charge method which could possibly be used for on-the-road service recharge of electric vehicles. The HRTDC method takes advantage of initial high cell charge acceptance and uses cell gassing rate and temperature as an indicator of charging efficiency. On the average, in these preliminary tests, 300 amp-hour nickel-zinc traction cells were given a HRTDC (initial current 500 amps, final current 100 amps) to 78 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 53 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 92 percent and an energy efficiency of 52 percent. Three hundred amp-hour lead-acid traction cells were charged to 69 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 46 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 91 percent with an energy efficiency of 64 percent. In order to find ways to further decrease the recharge times, the effect of periodically (0 to 400 Hz) pulse discharging cells during a constant current charging process (94% duty cycle) was investigated. Preliminary data indicate no significant effect of this type of pulse discharging during charge on charge acceptance of lead-acid or nickel-zinc cells.

  12. Rapid, efficient charging of lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells. [for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells were rapidly and efficiently charged using a high rate taped dc charge (HRTDC) method which could possibly be used for on-the-road service recharge of electric vehicles. The HRTDC method takes advantage of initial high cell charge acceptance and uses cell gassing rate and temperature as an indicator of charging efficiency. On the average, 300 amp-hour nickel-zinc traction cells were given a HRTDC to 78% of rated amp-hour capacity within 53 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 92% and an energy efficiency of 52%. Three-hundred amp-hour lead-acid traction cells were charged to 69% of rated amp-hour capacity within 46 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 91% with an energy efficiency of 64%.

  13. Underestimating a serving size may lead to increased food consumption when using Canada's Food Guide.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Sharona L; Reddigan, Jacinta I; Hamadeh, Mazen J; Jamnik, Veronica K; Rowan, Chip P; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2012-10-01

    It is unclear whether Canadians accurately estimate serving sizes and the number of servings in their diet as intended by Canada's Food Guide (CFG). The objective of this study was to determine if participants can accurately quantify the size of 1 serving and the number of servings consumed per day. White, Black, South Asian, and East Asian adults (n = 145) estimated the quantity of food that constituted 1 CFG serving, and used CFG to estimate the number of servings that they consumed from their 24-h dietary recall. Participants estimated 1 serving size of vegetables and fruit (+43%) and grains (+55%) to be larger than CFG serving sizes (p ≤ 0.05); meat alternatives (-33%) and cheese (-31%) to be smaller than a CFG serving size (p ≤ 0.05); and chicken, carrots, and milk servings accurately (p > 0.05). Serving size estimates were positively correlated with the amount of food participants regularly consumed at 1 meal (p < 0.001). From their food records, all ethnicities estimated that they consumed fewer servings of vegetables and fruit (-15%), grains (-28%), and meat and alternatives (-14%) than they actually consumed, and more servings of milk and alternatives (+26%, p ≤ 0.05) than they actually consumed. Consequently, 68% of participants believed they needed to increase consumption by greater than 200 kcal to meet CFG recommendations. In conclusion, estimating serving sizes to be larger than what is defined by CFG may inadvertently lead to estimating that fewer servings were consumed and overeating if Canadians follow CFG recommendations without guidance. Thus, revision to CFG or greater public education regarding the dietary guidelines is warranted.

  14. Neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R.; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007– July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013–May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (P<0.001). Breed of dam was significantly associated with N. caninum diagnosis, with a higher prevalence in dairy versus beef breeds, and fetuses of 3–6 months gestational age had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. Neospora caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region. PMID:26872927

  15. Effects of nontoxic shot regulations on lead accumulation in ducks and American woodcock in Canada.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A L; Scheuhammer, A M; Chan, H M

    2005-04-01

    Prior to the first nontoxic shot zones being established in Canada, a nationwide survey of lead (Pb) concentrations in wing bones of hatch year (HY) dabbling and diving ducks determined the incidence of elevated Pb exposure in waterfowl in different parts of the country (Scheuhammer and Dickson 1996). The main objectives of the present study were (1) to compare these previously collected data with the incidence of elevated Pb accumulation in the same species several years after the establishment of a national regulation in 1997 prohibiting the use of Pb shot for waterfowl hunting; and (2) to survey waterfowl hunters to determine reported levels of compliance with the nontoxic shot regulation. Average bone-Pb concentrations in dabbling ducks (mallards [Anas platyrhyncos] and American black ducks [Anas rubripes] combined) decreased significantly between 1989+1990 and 2000 (11 microg/g vs. 4.8 microg/g, respectively [p < 0.01]). Ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) showed a similar decrease in mean bone-Pb concentrations, from 28 microg/g to 10 microg/g (p < 0.01). These declines in bone-Pb concentration were consistent with the results of a large anonymous hunter survey, which indicated a high level of reported compliance (>80%) with the nontoxic shot regulation among waterfowl hunters residing in Ontario and British Columbia. Conversely, American woodcock (Scolopax minor), an important upland game species not affected by the nontoxic shot regulation, showed no decrease in mean bone-Pb concentration since the national regulation came into effect (19 microg/g in 1995 vs. 21 microg/g in 2000). A majority (70%) of waterfowl hunters in British Columbia and Ontario who also hunt upland game birds report continued (legal) use of Pb shot for upland game bird hunting.

  16. Influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Manders, J. E.

    To examine the influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries, plates are made from three types of oxides: (i) leady oxide of high quality which contains virtually no bismuth (termed 'control oxide'); (ii) control oxide in which bismuth oxide is blended at bismuth levels from 0.01 to 0.12 wt.%; (iii) leady oxide produced from Pasminco VRLA Refined™ lead (0.05-0.06 wt.%Bi). An experimental tool—the 'conversion indicator'—is developed to assess the charging ability of the test negative plates when cycling under either zero percent state-of-charge (SoC)/full-charge or partial state-of-charge (PSoC) duty. Although the conversion indicator is not the true charging efficiency, the two parameters have a close relationship, namely, the higher the conversion indicator, the greater the charging efficiency. Little difference is found in the charging ability, irrespective of bismuth content and discharge rate, when the plates are subjected to zero percent SoC/full-charge duty; the conversion indicator lies in the range 81-84%. By contrast, there is a marked difference when the negative plates are subjected to PSoC duty, i.e. consecutive cycling through 90-60, 70-40, 80-40 and 90-40% SoC windows. Up to 0.06 wt.%Bi improves the charging ability, especially with a low and narrow PSoC window (40-70% SoC) of the type that will be experienced in 42 V powernet automobile and hybrid electric duties. To maximize this beneficial effect, bismuth must be distributed uniformly in the plates. This is best achieved by using VRLA Refined™ lead for oxide production.

  17. Detection of charged particles with a methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Wei, Haotong; Wei, Wei; Chuirazzi, William; DeSantis, Dylan; Huang, Jinsong; Cao, Lei

    2017-03-01

    Methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite crystals have attracted significant attention due to their attractive performance in various optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, photodetectors, and recently in X-ray detectors. In this study, we demonstrate a possible use of perovskite-based devices for detection of charged particles (which can be applied in basic scientific research, health physics, and environmental analysis) and investigate the mechanism of fundamental charge transport inside perovskite crystals. It was found that inexpensive MAPbBr3 single crystals could be used for measuring the energy spectrum of charged particles through direct collection of the produced charge. After fitting the plot of the centroid peak position versus voltage with the Hecht equation for single-polarity charge transport, the obtained hole mobility-lifetime product was in the range of (0.4-1.6)×10-3 cm2/V.

  18. Charged-Higgs-boson production at the LHC: Next-to-leading-order supersymmetric QCD corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmaier, Stefan; Kraemer, Michael; Spira, Michael; Walser, Manuel

    2011-03-01

    The dominant production process for heavy charged-Higgs bosons at the LHC is the associated production with heavy quarks. We have calculated the next-to-leading-order supersymmetric QCD corrections to charged-Higgs production through the parton processes qq,gg{yields}tbH{sup {+-}} and present results for total cross sections and differential distributions. The QCD corrections reduce the renormalization and factorization scale dependence and thus stabilize the theoretical predictions. We present a comparison of the next-to-leading-order results for the inclusive cross section with a calculation based on bottom-gluon fusion gb{yields}tH{sup {+-}} and discuss the impact of the next-to-leading-order corrections on charged-Higgs searches at the LHC.

  19. Lead-uranium ratio of siliceous pitchblende from Great Bear Lake, N. W. T., Canada, and its possible age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marble, J.P.

    1936-01-01

    1. A sample of pitchblende from LaBine Point, Echo Bay, Great Bear Lake, N. W. T., Canada, yields a "corrected" lead-ratio of 0.193, corresponding to an age of 1323 million years. 2. As the atomic weight and isotopic composition of the lead, and the Pa/UI ratio of this same sample have been determined, ages, etc., calculated by different methods should agree. This agreement has not been obtained in all instances, and possible reasons have been outlined. 3. The age found indicates that a possible Keewatin granite may be the source of the pitch-blende.

  20. High-Sensitivity Charge Detection with a Single-Lead Quantum Dot for Scalable Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, M. G.; Bartlett, I.; Pakkiam, P.; Koch, M.; Peretz, E.; van der Heijden, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Rogge, S.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2016-10-01

    We report the development of a high-sensitivity semiconductor charge sensor based on a quantum dot coupled to a single lead designed to minimize the geometric requirements of a charge sensor for scalable quantum-computing architectures. The quantum dot is fabricated in Si:P using atomic precision lithography, and its charge transitions are measured with rf reflectometry. A second quantum dot with two leads placed 42 nm away serves as both a charge for the sensor to measure and as a conventional rf single-electron transistor (rf SET) with which to make a comparison of the charge-detection sensitivity. We demonstrate sensitivity equivalent to an integration time of 550 ns to detect a single charge with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 compared with an integration time of 55 ns for the rf SET. This level of sensitivity is suitable for fast (<15 μ s ) single-spin readout in quantum-information applications, with a significantly reduced geometric footprint compared to the rf SET.

  1. Higher-order spin and charge dynamics in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Stano, Peter; Noiri, Akito; Ito, Takumi; Loss, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2017-09-22

    Understanding the dynamics of open quantum systems is important and challenging in basic physics and applications for quantum devices and quantum computing. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a good platform to explore the physics of open quantum systems because we can tune parameters including the coupling to the environment or leads. Here, we apply the fast single-shot measurement techniques from spin qubit experiments to explore the spin and charge dynamics due to tunnel coupling to a lead in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system. We experimentally observe both spin and charge time evolution via first- and second-order tunneling processes, and reveal the dynamics of the spin-flip through the intermediate state. These results enable and stimulate the exploration of spin dynamics in dot-lead hybrid systems, and may offer useful resources for spin manipulation and simulation of open quantum systems.

  2. World`s gas-processing expands; Canada, U.S. lead remains steady

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-06-08

    Worldwide gas-processing capacity increased in 1997, led by expansions in North America, Latin America, and the Middle East. Canada and the US continued to dominate the rest of the world in capacity, but those countries` combined share of world capacities and production was kept steady in 1997 by expansions elsewhere. The paper discusses prices of natural gas in the US, Canadian plans, North American activity, world activity, and sulfur recovery capacity.

  3. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  4. Effect of discharge rate on charging a lead-acid battery simulated by mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugnet, Mikael; Liaw, Bor Yann

    To simulate lead-acid battery (LAB) charging has never been an easy task due to the influences of: (1) secondary reactions that involve gas evolution and recombination and grid corrosion, (2) prior end-of-discharge (EOD) and rest conditions; and (3) complexity caused by charging algorithm. In this work, successful results have been obtained with considerations of internal oxygen cycle and gas phase in the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells. The success is first attributed to the satisfactory validation of a mathematical model that has been able to simulate discharge regimes with various rates consistently. The model has been subsequently used to simulate a galvanostatic charge regime performed at C/10. The results give a better understanding of the role each electrode played in the polarization, the nature of the polarization (constituted by reaction kinetics and mass transport), and the charging efficiency. We were able to extrapolate the simulation results to rates beyond what the model has been validated for, and the results are still consistent, confirming some experimental observations, notably the maximum charging rate specified by most LAB manufacturers.

  5. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  6. Deep-hole transfer leads to ultrafast charge migration in DNA hairpins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Nicolas; Harris, Michelle A.; Singh, Arunoday P. N.; Berlin, Yuri A.; Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Lewis, Frederick D.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.

    2016-11-01

    Charge transport through the DNA double helix is of fundamental interest in chemistry and biochemistry, but also has potential technological applications such as for DNA-based nanoelectronics. For the latter, it is of considerable interest to explore ways to influence or enhance charge transfer. In this Article we demonstrate a new mechanism for DNA charge transport, namely ‘deep-hole transfer’, which involves long-range migration of a hole through low-lying electronic states of the nucleobases. Here, we demonstrate, in a combined experimental and theoretical study, that it is possible to achieve such transfer behaviour by changing the energetics of charge injection. This mechanism leads to an enhancement in transfer rates by up to two orders of magnitude and much weaker distance dependence. This transfer is faster than relaxation to the lowest-energy state, setting this mechanism apart from those previously described. This opens up a new direction to optimize charge transfer in DNA with unprecedented charge-transfer rates.

  7. Deep-hole transfer leads to ultrafast charge migration in DNA hairpins.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Nicolas; Harris, Michelle A; Singh, Arunoday P N; Berlin, Yuri A; Ratner, Mark A; Wasielewski, Michael R; Lewis, Frederick D; Grozema, Ferdinand C

    2016-11-01

    Charge transport through the DNA double helix is of fundamental interest in chemistry and biochemistry, but also has potential technological applications such as for DNA-based nanoelectronics. For the latter, it is of considerable interest to explore ways to influence or enhance charge transfer. In this Article we demonstrate a new mechanism for DNA charge transport, namely 'deep-hole transfer', which involves long-range migration of a hole through low-lying electronic states of the nucleobases. Here, we demonstrate, in a combined experimental and theoretical study, that it is possible to achieve such transfer behaviour by changing the energetics of charge injection. This mechanism leads to an enhancement in transfer rates by up to two orders of magnitude and much weaker distance dependence. This transfer is faster than relaxation to the lowest-energy state, setting this mechanism apart from those previously described. This opens up a new direction to optimize charge transfer in DNA with unprecedented charge-transfer rates.

  8. Spin polarized photons from an axially charged plasma at weak coupling: Complete leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Mamo, Kiminad A.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-24

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin aligned, which is a unique P- and CP-odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this “P-odd photon emission rate” in a weak coupling regime at a high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P-even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of the P-odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: (1) Compton and pair annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, (2) soft t- and u-channel contributions with hard thermal loop resummation, (3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal resummation of collinear bremsstrahlung and pair annihilation. In conclusion, we present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P-odd photon emission rate observable.

  9. Understanding charge transport in lead iodide perovskite thin-film field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Yang, Bingyan; Thomas, Tudor H.; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Nair, Bhaskaran; Goedel, Karl; Guha, Suchi; Moya, Xavier; McNeill, Christopher R.; Docampo, Pablo; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the charge transport physics of hybrid lead halide perovskite semiconductors is important for advancing their use in high-performance optoelectronics. We use field-effect transistors (FETs) to probe the charge transport mechanism in thin films of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). We show that through optimization of thin-film microstructure and source-drain contact modifications, it is possible to significantly minimize instability and hysteresis in FET characteristics and demonstrate an electron field-effect mobility (μFET) of 0.5 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Temperature-dependent transport studies revealed a negative coefficient of mobility with three different temperature regimes. On the basis of electrical and spectroscopic studies, we attribute the three different regimes to transport limited by ion migration due to point defects associated with grain boundaries, polarization disorder of the MA+ cations, and thermal vibrations of the lead halide inorganic cages. PMID:28138550

  10. Understanding charge transport in lead iodide perovskite thin-film field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P; Yang, Bingyan; Thomas, Tudor H; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Nair, Bhaskaran; Goedel, Karl; Guha, Suchi; Moya, Xavier; McNeill, Christopher R; Docampo, Pablo; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the charge transport physics of hybrid lead halide perovskite semiconductors is important for advancing their use in high-performance optoelectronics. We use field-effect transistors (FETs) to probe the charge transport mechanism in thin films of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). We show that through optimization of thin-film microstructure and source-drain contact modifications, it is possible to significantly minimize instability and hysteresis in FET characteristics and demonstrate an electron field-effect mobility (μFET) of 0.5 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature. Temperature-dependent transport studies revealed a negative coefficient of mobility with three different temperature regimes. On the basis of electrical and spectroscopic studies, we attribute the three different regimes to transport limited by ion migration due to point defects associated with grain boundaries, polarization disorder of the MA(+) cations, and thermal vibrations of the lead halide inorganic cages.

  11. Spin polarized photons from an axially charged plasma at weak coupling: Complete leading order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-01

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin aligned, which is a unique P - and C P -odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this "P -odd photon emission rate" in a weak coupling regime at a high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P -even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of the P -odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: (1) Compton and pair annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, (2) soft t - and u -channel contributions with hard thermal loop resummation, (3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal resummation of collinear bremsstrahlung and pair annihilation. We present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P -odd photon emission rate observable.

  12. Precision charge amplification and digitization system for a scintillating and lead glass array

    SciTech Connect

    Delchamps, S.W.; Rameika, R.; Arenton, M.; Chen, T.Y.; Conetti, S.; Cox, B.; Etemadi, B.; Fortney, L.; Guffey, K.; Haire, M.

    1989-01-01

    A 544-channel low-noise, high-rate, precision charge amplification and ADC system was constructed for the Fermilab Experiment 705 electromagnetic calorimeter, which employs SCG1-C scintillating glass and SF5 lead glass instrumented with photo-multiplier tubes. A general discussion of the system is given, and the charge amplification, fast trigger pulse generation, and analog to digital conversion aspects of the system are presented in more detail. Performance is evaluated using data from Experiment 705 and from off-line tests. Short and long term pedestal stability, baseline recovery and rate capability, linearity of response, and crosstalk between channels are discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Development of a charge algorithm for the optimized charging of a 120-V flooded lead-acid lighthouse battery with forced electrolyte destratification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D.

    1989-10-01

    Proper charging was identified as the most important requirement for the reliable and economical operation of a battery that is part of the hybrid power system for remote lighthouses. Therefore a charge algorithm was developed to optimize charging of a flooded lead-acid battery with forced electrolyte destratification. This algorithm is independent of the operating temperature, the state of charge and the battery age. It controls charging according to the weakest battery module in the pack and is able in the course of several cycles to automatically equalize the performance of the modules in the battery pack without excessive overcharging. The charge algorithm prevents overheating due to bad battery connectors and quite generally responds to all causes of poor charge acceptance with a gentle treatment of the battery during charging.

  14. Unraveling Charge Carriers Generation, Diffusion, and Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Polycrystalline Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Piotr; Cohen, Boiko; Ponseca, Carlito S; Salado, Manuel; Kazim, Samrana; Ahmad, Shahzada; Sundström, Villy; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2016-01-07

    We report on studies of the formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) perovskite film using time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TRTS) and flash photolysis to explore charge carriers generation, migration, and recombination. The TRTS results show that upon femtosecond excitation above the absorption edge, the initial high photoconductivity (∼75 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) remains constant at least up to 8 ns, which corresponds to a diffusion length of 25 μm. Pumping below the absorption edge results in a mobility of 40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) suggesting lower mobility of charge carriers located at the bottom of the conduction band or shallow sub-bandgap states. Furthermore, analysis of the THz kinetics reveals rising components of <1 and 20 ps, reflecting dissociation of excitons having different binding energies. Flash photolysis experiments indicate that trapped charge carriers persist for milliseconds.

  15. Lead in the tissues of terrestrial raptors in southern Ontario, Canada, 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pamela A; Campbell, Douglas; Hughes, Kimberley; McDaniel, Tana

    2008-02-25

    Terrestrial raptors which feed on upland hunted game species may increase their risk to lead exposure and lead poisoning by ingesting lead shot found in the tissues of prey. Lead exposure in 225 individuals of nineteen species of terrestrial raptors, collected as carcasses in southern Ontario from 1995-2001, was examined through the analysis of bone, liver and kidney tissues. In this study, one red-tailed hawk contained liver lead concentrations and exhibited signs consistent with lead poisoning. Liver and kidney concentrations of one turkey vulture were also significantly higher than that associated with subclinical effects. This same bird, plus another turkey vulture and a northern harrier, had elevated bone lead concentrations (>10 microg/g dw) associated with possible toxicity. Turkey vultures had the highest mean concentrations of lead in bone and kidney compared to other raptor species. While it appeared only a single bird suffered acute lead poisoning, lead levels exceeded threshold concentrations associated with subclinical or acute toxicity in 4 of 225, almost 2%, of terrestrial raptors assessed. Given the association between lead exposure in raptors and hunting of game species reported in other studies, the continued use of lead shot for upland hunting in Ontario likely remains as one of the primary sources of lead and a continued risk to these birds of prey.

  16. Lead-iodide nanowire perovskite with methylviologen showing interfacial charge-transfer absorption: a DFT analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Giorgi, Giacomo

    2014-09-07

    Methylviologen lead-iodide perovskite (MVPb2I6) is a self-assembled one-dimensional (1-D) material consisting of lead-iodide nanowires and intervening organic electron-accepting molecules, methylviologen (MV(2+)). MVPb2I6 characteristically shows optical interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions from the lead-iodide nanowire to MV(2+) in the visible region and unique ambipolar photoconductivity, in which electrons are transported through the three-dimensional (3-D) organic network and holes along the 1-D lead-iodide nanowire. In this work, we theoretically study the electronic band-structure and photocarrier properties of MVPb2I6 by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results clearly confirm the experimentally reported type-II band alignment, whose valence band mainly consists of 5p (I) orbitals of the lead-iodide nanowires and the conduction band of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of MV(2+). The DFT calculation also reveals weak charge-transfer interactions between the lead-iodide nanowires and MV(2+). In addition, the electronic distributions of the valence and conduction bands indicate the 3-D transport of electrons and 1-D transport of holes, supporting the reported experimental result.

  17. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ronda

    2004-06-01

    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  18. Interim report on studies of uranium, thorium, and lead migration at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.B.; Gancarz, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    The redistribution of uranium, thorium, and lead is being examined in samples representing several million cubic meters of sandstone and metamorphased sediments in the Athabasca Basin which is located in the northwest corner of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The region of study includes zones of uranium mineralization at Key Lake. Mineralization occurs at the unconformity between the Athabasca sandstone and the underlying metasediments and in fault zones within the metasediments. Lead isotopes record a radiometric age of 1300 +- 150 m.y. in samples from above and below the unconformity. This age probably reflects the time of deposition of the sandstones and an associated redistribution of uranium and/or lead in the underlying rocks. Many of the samples have been fractionated with respect to radiogenic lead and the actinide parent elements since that time. Sandstones and altered rocks from the region above the unconformity have been a transport path and are a repository for lead. In contrast, mineralized rocks are deficient in radiogenic lead and must be an important source of lead in the local geologic environment. However, the isotopic composition of lead missing from the ores is different from that found in the overlying sandstones. The two types of rocks do not appear to represent complements with respect to a source and a repository for lead.

  19. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lihua E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng E-mail: shi@ou.edu

    2014-02-28

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films.

  20. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception.

    PubMed

    Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition.

  1. Lead, mercury, and organochlorine compound levels in cord blood in Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rhainds, M; Levallois, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    1999-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate blood levels of lead, mercury, and organochlorine compounds in newborns in the Province of Quebec. During 1993 to 1995, we carried out a survey in 10 hospitals located in southern Quebec. During that time, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 1109 newborns, and we analyzed each for lead, mercury, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and 11 chlorinated pesticides. We used the geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the results. Mean concentrations of lead and mercury in cord blood were 0.076 micromol/l (95% CI = 0.074, 0.079) and 4.82 nmol/l (95% CI = 4.56, 5.08), respectively. The mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1260) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene were 0.514 microg/I (95% CI = .493, 0.536) and 0.412 microg/l (95% CI = 0.390, 0.435), respectively. We observed a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and cord blood concentrations of (a) lead, (b) mercury, (c) polychlorinated biphenyls, and (d) dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood lead levels. The cord blood concentrations of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene we measured in our study were the lowest levels recently reported in industrialized countries. The results of this study underline the role of public health authorities in the evaluation of biological levels of environmental contaminants among children for the assessment of risk of adverse health effects.

  2. Triton charge radius to next-to-next-to-leading order in pionless effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanasse, Jared

    2017-02-01

    The triton point charge radius is calculated to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in pionless effective field theory ( EFT (π / )) , yielding a prediction of 1.14 ±0.19 fm (leading order), 1.59 ±0.08 fm (next-to leading order), and 1.62 ±0.03 fm (NNLO) in agreement with the current experimental extraction of 1.5978 ±0.040 fm [Angeli and Marinova, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 99, 69 (2013)], 10.1016/j.adt.2011.12.006. The error at NNLO is due to cutoff variation (˜1 % ) within a reasonable range of calculated cutoffs and from a EFT (π / ) error estimate (˜1.5 % ). In addition new techniques are introduced to add perturbative corrections to bound- and scattering state calculations for short-range effective field theories, but with a focus on their use in EFT (π / ) .

  3. The partial state-of-charge cycle performance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Taisuke; Sawai, Ken; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Shiota, Masashi; Ishimoto, Shinji; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Osumi, Shigeharu

    Negative plate lugs of flooded lead-acid battery were corroded during partial state-of-charge (PSoC) pattern cycle life tests simulated from stop and go vehicle driving. Potential step was applied to Pb-Ca-Sn alloy electrode at various potential and time regimes, and the electrode surface was observed by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) to investigate the corrosion mechanisms during the potential step cycles. It was found out that the severe corrosion occurs when the oxidation of Pb to PbSO 4 and partial reduction of passive layer of PbSO 4 take turns many times. It was also found out that the periodic full charge, the optimization of the alloy composition, addition of the material that may make the reaction mechanism change to electrolyte were effective to suppress the corrosion rate.

  4. Spin polarized photons from an axially charged plasma at weak coupling: Complete leading order

    DOE PAGES

    Mamo, Kiminad A.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-24

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin aligned, which is a unique P- and CP-odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this “P-odd photon emission rate” in a weak coupling regime at a high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P-even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of the P-odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: (1) Comptonmore » and pair annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, (2) soft t- and u-channel contributions with hard thermal loop resummation, (3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal resummation of collinear bremsstrahlung and pair annihilation. In conclusion, we present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P-odd photon emission rate observable.« less

  5. Lead isotope identification of sources of galena from some prehistoric Indian sites in Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Farquhar, R.M.; Fletcher, I.R.

    1980-02-08

    Lead isotopic compositions of 12 galenas from five late Archaic-initial Woodland grave and habitation sites in southern Ontario have made it possible to determine the most likely source areas for the galenas. For one of the oldest sites (Finlan), the most likely source is in the southwestern Upper Mississippi Valley (Wisconsin-Illinois-Iowa) mineral district. The seven Finlan galenas exhibit a range of isotopic ratios; three of the largest specimens have substantial isotopic variations (up to 1.8% in the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206) on a scale of a few centimeters. This suggests that the lead isotopic zoning ascribed to the Upper Mississippi Valley area is not sufficiently well defined to enable us to determine if all the Finlan samples were derived from a single mineral deposit. Galenas from the other sites (Constance Bay, Hind, Bruce Boyd, and Picton) most probably originated in the southeastern Ontario-northwestern New York area. Isotopic differences among the Constance Bay, Hind, and Bruce Boyd galenas, on the one hand, and the Picton galena, on the other, suggest that at least two distinct sources in that region were exploited.

  6. Lead isotope identification of sources of galena from some prehistoric Indian sites in ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, R M; Fletcher, I R

    1980-02-08

    Lead isotopic compositions of 12 galenas from five late Archaic-initial Woodland grave and habitation sites in southern Ontario have made it possible to determine the "most likely" source areas for the galenas. For one of the oldest sites (Finlan), the most likely source is in the southwestern Upper Mississippi Valley (Wisconsin-Illinois-Iowa) mineral district. The seven Finlan galenas exhibit a range of isotopic ratios; three of the largest specimens have substantial isotopic variations (up to 1.8 percent in the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206) on a scale of a few centimeters. This suggests that the lead isotopic zoning ascribed to the Upper Mississippi Valley area is not sufficiently well defined to enable us to determine if all the Finlan samples were derived from a single mineral deposit. Galenas from the other sites (Constance Bay, Hind, Bruce Boyd, and Picton) most probably originated in the southeastern Ontario-northwestern New York area. Isotopic differences among the Constance Bay, Hind, and Bruce Boyd galenas, on the one hand, and the Picton galena, on the other, suggest that at least two distinct sources in that region were exploited.

  7. Unravelling the mechanism of photoinduced charge transfer processes in lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchioro, Arianna; Teuscher, Joël; Friedrich, Dennis; Kunst, Marinus; van de Krol, Roel; Moehl, Thomas; Grätzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E.

    2014-03-01

    Lead halide perovskites have recently been used as light absorbers in hybrid organic-inorganic solid-state solar cells, with efficiencies as high as 15% and open-circuit voltages of 1 V. However, a detailed explanation of the mechanisms of operation within this photovoltaic system is still lacking. Here, we investigate the photoinduced charge transfer processes at the surface of the perovskite using time-resolved techniques. Transient laser spectroscopy and microwave photoconductivity measurements were applied to TiO2 and Al2O3 mesoporous films impregnated with CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and the organic hole-transporting material spiro-OMeTAD. We show that primary charge separation occurs at both junctions, with TiO2 and the hole-transporting material, simultaneously, with ultrafast electron and hole injection taking place from the photoexcited perovskite over similar timescales. Charge recombination is shown to be significantly slower on TiO2 than on Al2O3 films.

  8. Mobile Charge-Induced Fluorescence Intermittency in Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaoming; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan; Sheng, Rui; Chen, Sheng; Ko, Hsien-chen; Green, Martin A

    2015-07-08

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite has emerged as a very promising material for solar cells due to its excellent photovoltaic enabling properties resulting in rapid increase in device efficiency over the last 3 years. Extensive knowledge and in-depth physical understanding in the excited state carrier dynamics are urgently required. Here we investigate the fluorescence intermittency (also known as blinking) in vapor-assisted fabricated CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite. The evident fluorescence blinking is observed in a dense CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite film that is composed of nanoparticles in close contact with each other. In the case of an isolated nanoparticle no fluorescence blinking is observed. The "ON" probability of fluorescence is dependent on the excitation intensity and exhibits a similar power rule to semiconductor quantum dots at higher excitation intensity. As the vapor-assisted fabricated CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite film is a cluster of nanoparticles forming a dense film, it facilitates mobile charge migration between the nanoparticles and charge accumulation at the surface or at the boundary of the nanoparticles. This leads to enhanced Auger-like nonradiative recombination contributing to the fluorescence intermittency observed. This finding provides unique insight into the charge accumulation and migration and thus is of crucial importance for device design and improvement.

  9. Strontium Insertion in Methylammonium Lead Iodide: Long Charge Carrier Lifetime and High Fill-Factor Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez-del-Rey, Daniel; Savenije, Tom J.; Nordlund, Dennis; Schulz, Philip; Berry, Joseph J.; Sessolo, Michele

    2016-09-22

    The addition of Sr2+ in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films enhances the charge carrier collection efficiency of solar cells leading to very high fill factors, up to 85%. The charge carrier lifetime of Sr2+-containing perovskites is in excess of 40 us, longer than those reported for perovskite single crystals.

  10. Lead-carbon electrode designed for renewable energy storage with superior performance in partial state of charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Li; Yin, Jian; Lin, Zhe-Qi; Shi, Jun; Wang, Can; Liu, De-Bo; Wang, Yue; Bao, Jin-Peng; Lin, Hai-Bo

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy storage is a key issue in our modern electricity-powered society. Lead acid batteries (LABs) are operated at partial state of charge in renewable energy storage system, which causes the sulfation and capacity fading of Pb electrode. Lead-carbon composite electrode is a good solution to the sulfation problem of LAB. In this paper, a rice-husk-derived hierarchically porous carbon with micrometer-sized large pores (denoted as RHC) has been used as the component of lead-carbon composite electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of lead-carbon composite electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the charge transfer capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Both full charge-discharge method and charge-discharge method operating at harsh partial state of charge condition have been used to prove the superior energy storage capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Experiment results prove that the micrometer-sized pores of RHC are beneficial to the construction and stability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Microporous carbon material with high surface area is not suitable for the construction of lead-carbon electrode due to the ruin of lead-carbon structure caused by severe electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

  11. Charging Algorithm Extends the Life of Lead-acid Batteries: 2001 R and D 100 Award Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2001-09-27

    Fact sheet describing NREL's work with Recombination Technologies and Optima Batteries to develop a current interrupt charging algorithm to extend the deep life cycle of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries.

  12. A Snapshot of School-Based Mental Health and Substance Abuse in Canada: Where We Are and Where It Leads Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Ian; Short, Kathy H.; Ferguson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada supported a comprehensive research project to determine the current state of mental health and substance use programs and practices in Canadian schools. The School-Based Mental Health and Substance Abuse Consortium is made up of a group of 40 leading Canadian researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. The…

  13. A Snapshot of School-Based Mental Health and Substance Abuse in Canada: Where We Are and Where It Leads Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Ian; Short, Kathy H.; Ferguson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada supported a comprehensive research project to determine the current state of mental health and substance use programs and practices in Canadian schools. The School-Based Mental Health and Substance Abuse Consortium is made up of a group of 40 leading Canadian researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. The…

  14. Electromagnetic Instrumentation for Exploration and the Environment: A Retrospective Look by Canada's Leading Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, M.

    2009-05-01

    Geonics Limited has a very rich and varied history. This talk will provide a historical perspective about how a few key individuals shaped the development of some of the world's most useful electromagnetic (EM) geophysical instrumentation. A brief review of these systems, including the science behind them, will showcase the evolution of each to the market place and emphasize how a combination of business savvy and a constant investment to research is what lead to a successful line of instrumentation. In 1950 a company called Aeromagnetic Surveys Ltd. was established that was considered "the largest and most diversified air- survey firm in the world" (FLIGHT, 1954), for its time. It employed Vaino Ronka and Alex Herz, young engineers, who patented several new EM technologies including an in-phase and quadrature towed bird helicopter EM system (the first commercial transistorized instrument). The two also set new standards for ground based horizontal loop EM systems and won several mining Blue Ribbon Awards. By the end of 1958, Mr. Ronka began offering independent design services for geophysical instruments and it became inevitable that one day he would form his own company. Geonics Limited was incorporated in 1962 by Vaino Ronka and Alex Herz and the EM-16 VLF receiver, first sold in 1965, became the first successful instrument. It's considered the best selling electrical geophysical tool of all-time and is still sold today by the same model name 44 years later. In 1974, the company was purchased by James Duncan McNeill, the former chief engineering physicist of Barringer Research Ltd. During his time as president of Geonics he was responsible for an explosion of new instruments from the 70's, 80's and into the 90's that permanently placed Geonics instruments in virtually every government environmental lab and consulting firm active in near-surface geophysics. His ability to foresee new problem areas and to define new roles that geophysical methods could play in a

  15. Structural changes of active materials and failure mode of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery in rapid-charge and conventional-charge cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, T. G.; Jochim, D. M.

    Spirally wound 12-V valve-regulated lead-acid batteries were subjected to conventional-charge and rapid-charge cycling tests. The cycle life was 250 cycles for the conventional-charge regime and 1000 cycles for the rapid-charge regime. In conventional-charge cycling, the positive active material quickly expanded and developed a coralloid structure in association with lowered utilisation and integrity. In rapid-charge cycling, no coralloid structure developed and the expansion was smaller and much slower. Correspondingly, the particle size of the negative active material grew in both cycling tests, but at a much slower rate in rapid-charge cycling. With the expansion of the positive active material, the negative active material was compressed. In the failed batteries, about one-third of the negative active material in the centre of the electrode was compressed almost into a solid non-porous mass. This densification process also occurred at a much slower rate in rapid-charge cycling. At the point of failure, the discharge capacity of all test batteries was limited by the negative electrode, although it was limited by the positive electrode at the beginning of the cycling tests. The cause of failure for most of the batteries, regardless of the charging regime, was the occurrence of "soak-through" shorts caused by numerous minute lead dendrites formed in the separator. This might have been encouraged by the formation of shorter distances between the two electrodes, created by the compression of the separator as a result of the expansion of the positive active material.

  16. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.; Martin, S.J.; Wessendorf, K.O.; Rumpf, A.N.

    1994-06-01

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to hanges in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the Corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to ({rho}{eta}) {sup {1/2}}, where {rho} is the liquid density and {eta} is the viscosity.

  17. Fuzzy modelling for the state-of-charge estimation of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Claudio; Sáez, Doris; Orchard, Marcos E.; Cárdenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fuzzy model based structure for the characterisation of discharge processes in lead-acid batteries. This structure is based on a fuzzy model that characterises the relationship between the battery open-circuit voltage (Voc), the state of charge (SoC), and the discharge current. The model is identified and validated using experimental data that is obtained from an experimental system designed to test battery banks with several charge/discharge profiles. For model identification purposes, two standard experimental tests are implemented; one of these tests is used to identify the Voc-SoC curve, while the other helps to identify additional parameters of the model. The estimation of SoC is performed using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a state transition equation that is based on the proposed fuzzy model. Performance of the proposed estimation framework is compared with other parametric approaches that are inspired on electrical equivalents; e.g., Thevenin, Plett, and Copetti.

  18. Anisotropic Charge Distribution and Anisotropic van der Waals Radius Leading to Intriguing Anisotropic Noncovalent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hahn; Van Dung Doan; Cho, Woo Jong; Madhav, Miriyala Vijay; Kim, Kwang S.

    2014-01-01

    Although group (IV–VII) nonmetallic elements do not favor interacting with anionic species, there are counterexamples including the halogen bond. Such binding is known to be related to the charge deficiency because of the adjacent atom's electron withdrawing effect, which creates σ/π-holes at the bond-ends. However, a completely opposite behavior is exhibited by N2 and O2, which have electrostatically positive/negative character around cylindrical-bond-surface/bond-ends. Inspired by this, here we elucidate the unusual features and origin of the anisotropic noncovalent interactions in the ground and excited states of the 2nd and 3rd row elements belonging to groups IV–VII. The anisotropy in charge distributions and van der Waals radii of atoms in such molecular systems are scrutinized. This provides an understanding of their unusual molecular configuration, binding and recognition modes involved in new types of molecular assembling and engineering. This work would lead to the design of intriguing molecular systems exploiting anisotropic noncovalent interactions. PMID:25059645

  19. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernosek, R. W.; Martin, S. J.; Wessendorf, K. O.; Rumpf, A. N.

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to changes in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to (rho(eta))(exp (1/2)), where rho is the liquid density and eta is the viscosity.

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  1. Production of leading charged particles and leading charged-particle jets at small transverse momenta in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-12-01

    The per-event yield of the highest transverse momentum charged particle and charged-particle jet, integrated above a given pminT threshold starting at pminT=0.8 and 1 GeV, respectively, is studied in pp collisions at s√=8 TeV. Furthermore, the particles and the jets are measured in the pseudorapidity ranges |η|<2.4 and 1.9, respectively. Our data are sensitive to the momentum scale at which parton densities saturate in the proton, to multiple partonic interactions, and to other key aspects of the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes in hadronic collisions.

  2. Spectral Features and Charge Dynamics of Lead Halide Perovskites: Origins and Interpretations.

    PubMed

    Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Xing, Guichuan; Lim, Swee Sien; Chong, Wee Kiang; Giovanni, David; Dewi, Herlina Arianita

    2016-02-16

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells are presently the forerunner among the third generation solution-processed photovoltaic technologies. With efficiencies exceeding 20% and low production costs, they are prime candidates for commercialization. Critical insights into their light harvesting, charge transport, and loss mechanisms have been gained through time-resolved optical probes such as femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (fs-TAS), transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Specifically, the discoveries of long balanced electron-hole diffusion lengths and gain properties in halide perovskites underpin their significant roles in uncovering structure-function relations and providing essential feedback for materials development and device optimization. In particular, fs-TAS is becoming increasingly popular in perovskite characterization studies, with commercial one-box pump-probe systems readily available as part of a researcher's toolkit. Although TAS is a powerful probe in the study of charge dynamics and recombination mechanisms, its instrumentation and data interpretation can be daunting even for experienced researchers. This issue is exacerbated by the sensitive nature of halide perovskites where the kinetics are especially susceptible to pump fluence, sample preparation and handling and even degradation effects that could lead to disparate conclusions. Nonetheless, with end-users having a clear understanding of TAS's capabilities, subtleties, and limitations, cutting-edge work with deep insights can still be performed using commercial setups as has been the trend for ubiquitous spectroscopy instruments like absorption, fluorescence, and transient photoluminescence spectrometers. Herein, we will first briefly examine the photophysical processes in lead halide perovskites, highlighting their novel properties. Next, we proceed to give a succinct overview of the fundamentals of pump-probe spectroscopy in relation

  3. Trends in the leading causes of injury mortality, Australia, Canada, and the United States, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Mack, Karin; Clapperton, Angela; Macpherson, Alison; Sleet, David; Newton, Donovan; Murdoch, James; Mackay, J Morag; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Wilkins, Natalie; Marr, Angela; Ballesteros, Michael; McClure, Roderick

    2017-06-16

    The aim of this study was to highlight the differences in injury rates between populations through a descriptive epidemiological study of population-level trends in injury mortality for the high-income countries of Australia, Canada and the United States. Mortality data were available for the US from 2000 to 2014, and for Canada and Australia from 2000 to 2012. Injury causes were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision external cause codes, and were grouped into major causes. Rates were direct-method age-adjusted using the US 2000 projected population as the standard age distribution. US motor vehicle injury mortality rates declined from 2000 to 2014 but remained markedly higher than those of Australia or Canada. In all three countries, fall injury mortality rates increased from 2000 to 2014. US homicide mortality rates declined, but remained higher than those of Australia and Canada. While the US had the lowest suicide rate in 2000, it increased by 24% during 2000-2014, and by 2012 was about 14% higher than that in Australia and Canada. The poisoning mortality rate in the US increased dramatically from 2000 to 2014. Results show marked differences and striking similarities in injury mortality between the countries and within countries over time. The observed trends differed by injury cause category. The substantial differences in injury rates between similarly resourced populations raises important questions about the role of societal-level factors as underlying causes of the differential distribution of injury in our communities.

  4. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Butler Walker, Jody . E-mail: jody@butlerwalker.ca; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-03-15

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87{mu}g/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51{mu}g/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35{mu}g/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.0001). Of Inuit women participants, 3% (n=4) were within Health Canada's level of concern range (20-99{mu}g/L) for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Of Inuit and Dene/Metis cord samples, 56% (n=95) and 5% (n=4), respectively, exceeded 5.8{mu}g/L MeHg, the revised US Environmental Protection Agency lower benchmark dose. GM maternal Pb was significantly higher in Dene/Metis (30.9{mu}g/L or 3.1{mu}g/dL; SD=29.1{mu}g/L) and Inuit (31.6{mu}g/L, SD=38.3) participants compared with the Caucasian group (20.6{mu}g/L, SD=17.9) (P<0.0001). Half of all participants were smokers. GM blood Cd in moderate smokers (1-8 cigarettes/day) and in heavy smokers (>8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for

  5. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Butler Walker, Jody; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, André; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-03-01

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Métis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87 microg/L (SD = 1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n = 134) to 3.51 microg/L (SD = 8.30) in the Inuit group (n = 146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Métis group (1.35 microg/L, SD = 1.60, n = 92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.0001). Of Inuit women participants, 3% (n = 4) were within Health Canada's level of concern range (20-99 microg/L) for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Of Inuit and Dene/Métis cord samples, 56% (n = 95) and 5% (n = 4), respectively, exceeded 5.8 microg/L MeHg, the revised US Environmental Protection Agency lower benchmark dose. GM maternal Pb was significantly higher in Dene/Métis (30.9 microg/L or 3.1 microg/dL; SD = 29.1 microg/L) and Inuit (31.6 microg/L, SD = 38.3) participants compared with the Caucasian group (20.6 microg/L, SD = 17.9) (P < 0.0001). Half of all participants were smokers. GM blood Cd in moderate smokers (1-8 cigarettes/day) and in heavy smokers (> 8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and

  6. Chemical Control of Lead Sulfide Quantum Dot Shape, Self-Assembly, and Charge Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhail, Martin R.

    Lead(II) sulfide quantum dots (PbS QDs) are a promising excitonic material for numerous application that require that control of fluxes of charge and energy at nanoscale interfaces, such as solar energy conversion, photo- and electrocatalysis, light emitting diodes, chemical sensing, single-electron logic elements, field effect transistors, and photovoltaics. PbS QDs are particularly suitable for photonics applications because they exhibit size-tunable band-edge absorption and fluorescence across the entire near-infrared spectrum, undergo efficient multi-exciton generation, exhibit a long radiative lifetime, and possess an eight-fold degenerate ground-state. The effective integration of PbS QDs into these applications requires a thorough understanding of how to control their synthesis, self-assembly, and charge transport phenomena. In this document, I describe a series of experiments to elucidate three levels of chemical control on the emergent properties of PbS QDs: (1) the role of surface chemistry in controlling PbS QD shape during solvothermal synthesis, (2) the role of QD shape and ligand functionalization in self-assembly at a liquid-air interface, and (3) the role of QD packing structure on steady-state conductivity and transient current dynamics. At the synthetic level (1), I show that the final shape and surface chemistry of PbS QDs is highly sensitive to the formation of organosulfur byproducts by commonly used sulfur reagents. The insight into PbS QD growth gained from this work is then developed to controllably tune PbS QD shape from cubic to octahedral to hexapodal while maintaining QD size. At the following level of QD self-assembly (2), I show how QD size and shape dictate packing geometry in extended 2D arrays and how this packing can be controllably interrupted in mixed monolayers. I also study the role of ligand structure on the reorganization of QD arrays at a liquid-air interface and find that the specific packing defects in QD arrays vary

  7. Charge Carrier Processes in Photovoltaic Materials and Devices: Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots and Cadmium Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Paul

    Charge separation, transport, and recombination represent fundamental processes for electrons and holes in semiconductor photovoltaic devices. Here, two distinct materials systems, based on lead sulfide quantum dots and on polycrystalline cadmium telluride, are investigated to advance the understanding of their fundamental nature for insights into the material science necessary to improve the technologies. Lead sulfide quantum dots QDs have been of growing interest in photovoltaics, having recently produced devices exceeding 10% conversion efficiency. Carrier transport via hopping through the quantum dot thin films is not only a function of inter-QD distance, but of the QD size and dielectric media of the surrounding materials. By conducting temperature dependent transmission, photoluminescence, and time resolved photoluminescence measurements, we gain insight into photoluminescence quenching and size-dependent carrier transport through QD ensembles. Turning to commercially relevant cadmium telluride (CdTe), we explore the high concentrations of self-compensating defects (donors and acceptors) in polycrystalline thin films via photoluminescence from recombination at defect sites. Low temperature (25 K) photoluminescence measurements of CdTe reveal numerous radiative transitions due to exciton, trap assisted, and donor-acceptor pair recombination events linked with various defect states. Here we explore the difference between films deposited via close space sublimation (CSS) and radio frequency magnetron sputtering, both as-grown and following a cadmium chloride treatment. The as-grown CSS films exhibited a strong donor-acceptor pair transition associated with deep defect states. Constructing photoluminescence spectra as a function of time from time-resolved photoluminescence data, we report on the temporal evolution of this donor-acceptor transition. Having gained insight into the cadmium telluride film quality from low temperature photoluminescence measurements

  8. Exploring policy driven systemic inequities leading to differential access to care among Indigenous populations with obstructive sleep apnea in Canada.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P; Katapally, Tarun R; Beck, Caroline A; Abonyi, Sylvia; Episkenew, JoAnn; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A

    2015-12-18

    In settler societies such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States, health inequities drive lower health status and poorer health outcomes in Indigenous populations. This research unravels the dense complexity of how historical policy decisions in Canada can influence inequities in health care access in the 21(st) century through a case study on the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In Canada, historically rooted policy regimes determine current discrepancies in health care policy, and in turn, shape current health insurance coverage and physician decisions in terms of diagnosis and treatment of OSA, a clinical condition that is associated with considerable morbidity in Canada. This qualitative study was based in Saskatchewan, a Western Canadian province which has proportionately one of the largest provincial populations of an Indigenous subpopulation (status Indians) which is the focus of this study. The study began with determining approaches to OSA care provision based on Canadian Thoracic Society guidelines for referral, diagnosis and treatment of sleep disordered breathing. Thereafter, health policy determining health benefits coverage and program differences between status Indians and other Canadians were ascertained. Finally, respirologists who specialized in sleep medicine were interviewed. All interviews were audio-recorded and the transcripts were thematically analyzed using NVIVO. In terms of access and provision of OSA care, different patient pathways emerged for status Indians in comparison with other Canadians. Using Saskatchewan as a case study, the preliminary evidence suggests that status Indians face significant barriers in accessing diagnostic and treatment services for OSA in a timely manner. In order to confirm initial findings, further investigations are required in other Canadian jurisdictions. Moreover, as other clinical conditions could share similar features of health care access and provision of

  9. Lead methylammonium triiodide perovskite-based solar cells: an interfacial charge-transfer investigation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Hua; Cao, Kun; Cui, Jin; Lu, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xianwei; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2014-11-01

    This work reports on an investigation into interfacial charge transfer in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells by using anatase TiO2 nanocuboids enclosed by active {100} and {001} facets. The devices show 6.0 and 8.0% power conversion efficiency with and without hole-transport material. Transient photovoltage/photocurrent decay and charge extraction, as well as impedance spectroscopy measurements, reveal that carbon materials are effective counter electrodes in perovskite solar cells. The photogenerated charges are observed to be stored in mesoporous TiO2 film under illumination and in the CH3NH3PbI3 layer in the dark. The use of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as a hole-transport material accelerates interfacial charge recombination between the photogenerated electrons and holes.

  10. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  11. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead Contact Us Share Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built ... to protect people from harmful lead exposures. Less Lead in Drinking Water = Better Health Learn about the ...

  12. Excitons versus free charges in organo-lead tri-halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Innocenzo, Valerio; Grancini, Giulia; Alcocer, Marcelo J. P.; Kandada, Ajay Ram Srimath; Stranks, Samuel D.; Lee, Michael M.; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Snaith, Henry J.; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2014-04-01

    Excitonic solar cells, within which bound electron-hole pairs have a central role in energy harvesting, have represented a hot field of research over the last two decades due to the compelling prospect of low-cost solar energy. However, in such cells, exciton dissociation and charge collection occur with significant losses in energy, essentially due to poor charge screening. Organic-inorganic perovskites show promise for overcoming such limitations. Here, we use optical spectroscopy to estimate the exciton binding energy in the mixed-halide crystal to be in the range of 50 meV. We show that such a value is consistent with almost full ionization of the exciton population under photovoltaic cell operating conditions. However, increasing the total photoexcitation density, excitonic species become dominant, widening the perspective of this material for a host of optoelectronic applications.

  13. Excitons versus free charges in organo-lead tri-halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    D'Innocenzo, Valerio; Grancini, Giulia; Alcocer, Marcelo J P; Kandada, Ajay Ram Srimath; Stranks, Samuel D; Lee, Michael M; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2014-04-08

    Excitonic solar cells, within which bound electron-hole pairs have a central role in energy harvesting, have represented a hot field of research over the last two decades due to the compelling prospect of low-cost solar energy. However, in such cells, exciton dissociation and charge collection occur with significant losses in energy, essentially due to poor charge screening. Organic-inorganic perovskites show promise for overcoming such limitations. Here, we use optical spectroscopy to estimate the exciton binding energy in the mixed-halide crystal to be in the range of 50 meV. We show that such a value is consistent with almost full ionization of the exciton population under photovoltaic cell operating conditions. However, increasing the total photoexcitation density, excitonic species become dominant, widening the perspective of this material for a host of optoelectronic applications.

  14. Effect of Cation Rotation on Charge Dynamics in Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Gélvez-Rueda, María C.; Cao, Duyen H.; Patwardhan, Sameer; Renaud, Nicolas; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Schatz, George C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Savenije, Tom J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.

    2016-08-04

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are a promising class of materials for photovoltaic application with reported power efficiencies over similar to 22%. However, not much is known about the influence of the organic dipole rotation and phase transitions on charge carrier dynamics. Here, we report substantial changes in mobility and lifetime of charge carriers in CH3NH3PbI3 after the low-temperature tetragonal (beta) to orthorhombic (gamma) phase transition. By using microwave conductivity measurements, we observed that the mobility and lifetime of ionized charge carriers increase as the temperature decreases and a sudden increment is seen after the beta-gamma phase transition. For CH3NH3PbI3, the mobility and the half-lifetime increase by a factor of 36 compared with the values before the beta-gamma phase transition. We attribute the considerable change in the dynamics at low temperature to the decrease of the inherent dynamic disorder of the organic cation (CH3NH3+) inside the perovskite crystal structure.

  15. Ionic charging by local imbalance at interfaces in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almora, Osbel; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, GermÃ

    2016-01-01

    Identification of specific operating mechanisms becomes particularly challenging when mixed ionic-electronic conductors are used in optoelectronic devices. Ionic effects in perovskite solar cells are believed to distort operation curves and possess serious doubts about their long term stability. Current hysteresis and switchable photovoltaic characteristics have been connected to the kinetics of ion migration. However, the nature of the specific ionic mechanism (or mechanisms) able to explain the operation distortions is still poorly understood. It is observed here that the local rearrangement of ions at the electrode interfaces gives rise to commonly observed capacitive effects. Charging transients in response to step voltage stimuli using thick CH3NH3PbI3 samples show two main polarization processes and reveal the structure of the ionic double-layer at the interface with the non-reacting contacts. It is observed that ionic charging, with a typical response time of 10 s, is a local effect confined in the vicinity of the electrode, which entails absence of net mobile ionic concentration (space-charge) in the material bulk.

  16. Ionic charging by local imbalance at interfaces in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Almora, Osbel; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2016-01-25

    Identification of specific operating mechanisms becomes particularly challenging when mixed ionic-electronic conductors are used in optoelectronic devices. Ionic effects in perovskite solar cells are believed to distort operation curves and possess serious doubts about their long term stability. Current hysteresis and switchable photovoltaic characteristics have been connected to the kinetics of ion migration. However, the nature of the specific ionic mechanism (or mechanisms) able to explain the operation distortions is still poorly understood. It is observed here that the local rearrangement of ions at the electrode interfaces gives rise to commonly observed capacitive effects. Charging transients in response to step voltage stimuli using thick CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} samples show two main polarization processes and reveal the structure of the ionic double-layer at the interface with the non-reacting contacts. It is observed that ionic charging, with a typical response time of 10 s, is a local effect confined in the vicinity of the electrode, which entails absence of net mobile ionic concentration (space-charge) in the material bulk.

  17. Charging of a quantum dot coupled to Luttinger-liquid leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, P.; Meden, V.; Schönhammer, K.

    2007-09-01

    Luttinger-liquid behavior of one-dimensional correlated electron systems is characterized by power-law scaling of a variety of physical observables with exponents determined by a single interaction dependent parameter K . We suggest a setup to study Luttinger-liquid behavior in quantum wires which allows us to determine K from two independent measurements: transport through a quantum dot embedded in the wire and the charge on the dot. Consistency of the two K ’s for a single probe would provide strong experimental evidence for the Luttinger-liquid paradigm.

  18. Single Charge Current in a Normal Mesoscopic Region Attached to Superconductor Leads via a Coupled Poisson Nonequilibrium Green Function Formalism

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F. P.

    2014-01-01

    We study the I-V characteristic of mesoscopic systems or quantum dot (QD) attached to a pair of superconducting leads. Interaction effects in the QD are considered through the charging energy of the QD; that is, the treatment of current transport under a voltage bias is performed within a coupled Poisson nonequilibrium Green function (PNEGF) formalism. We derive the expression for the current in full generality but consider only the regime where transport occurs only via a single particle current. We show for this case and for various charging energies values U 0 and associated capacitances of the QD the effect on the I-V characteristic. Also the influence of the coupling constants on the I-V characteristic is investigated. Our approach puts forward a novel interpretation of experiments in the strong Coulomb regime. PMID:24977220

  19. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  20. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips and eggs are leading risk factors for Salmonella Heidelberg infections in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Currie, A.; MacDougall, L.; Aramini, J.; Gaulin, C.; Ahmed, R.; Isaacs, S.

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted from 1 January to 31 May 2003 to identify risk factors for S . Heidelberg infection in Canada. Controls were pair-matched by age group and telephone exchange to 95 cases. Exposures in the 7 days before illness/interview were assessed using multivariate conditional logistic regression. Consumption of home-prepared chicken nuggets and/or strips [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-13.8], and undercooked eggs (mOR 7.5, 95% CI 1.5-75.5) increased the risk of illness. Exposure to a farm setting lowered the risk (mOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03-1.00). The population-attributable fraction associated with chicken nuggets/strips was 34% and with undercooked eggs was 16%. One-third of study participants did not perceive, handle or prepare chicken nuggets and strips as high-risk products, although the majority of the products on the Canadian market are raw. These findings have prompted changes in product-labelling policy and consumer education. PMID:16181499

  1. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips and eggs are leading risk factors for Salmonella Heidelberg infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, A; MacDougall, L; Aramini, J; Gaulin, C; Ahmed, R; Isaacs, S

    2005-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted from 1 January to 31 May 2003 to identify risk factors for S . Heidelberg infection in Canada. Controls were pair-matched by age group and telephone exchange to 95 cases. Exposures in the 7 days before illness/interview were assessed using multivariate conditional logistic regression. Consumption of home-prepared chicken nuggets and/or strips [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-13.8], and undercooked eggs (mOR 7.5, 95% CI 1.5-75.5) increased the risk of illness. Exposure to a farm setting lowered the risk (mOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03-1.00). The population-attributable fraction associated with chicken nuggets/strips was 34% and with undercooked eggs was 16%. One-third of study participants did not perceive, handle or prepare chicken nuggets and strips as high-risk products, although the majority of the products on the Canadian market are raw. These findings have prompted changes in product-labelling policy and consumer education.

  2. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... are approximately half a million U.S. children ages 1-5 with blood lead levels above 5 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL), the reference level at which CDC recommends public health actions be initiated. No safe blood lead level in children has been ...

  3. Article processing charges for open access publication—the situation for research intensive universities in the USA and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Bo-Christer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question. Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge. Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences. Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid articles average about 3,000 USD

  4. The dynamics of energy and charge transfer in lead sulfide quantum dot solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lingley, Zachary; Lu, Siyuan; Madhukar, Anupam

    2014-02-28

    We report on a systematic time-resolved photoluminescence study of the competing energy and charge transfer rates in PbS QDs of differing sizes in the same QD solid as a function of both temperature and ligand-controlled different inter-QD average separations. This complements previous studies that typically varied only one parameter and reveals new aspects while also confirming some known features. For the smallest PbS QDs, the dominant decay process is nonradiative resonant energy transfer (NRET) to adjacent larger dots for all separations but at a rate that increases with decreasing temperature. For the largest QDs, NRET being forbidden, the decay is found to be exponential in the inter-QD separation consistent with carrier tunneling but, for each fixed tunneling distance, exhibiting a thermally activated tunneling carrier population with the activation energy dependent upon the ligand length controlling the inter-QD separation. A consistent understanding of this expanded and rich decay rate behavior of both large and small QDs, we show, can be obtained by accounting for the ligand length dependent (a) dielectric environment of the QD solid modeled using an effective medium description, (b) the energy cost of dissociating the exciton into electron and hole in neighboring QDs, and (c) the potential participation of midgap states. Implications of the findings for NRET based photovoltaics are discussed.

  5. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada123

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  6. Studies on electrolyte formulations to improve life of lead acid batteries working under partial state of charge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, J. C.; Soria, M. L.; González, M.; García-Quismondo, E.; Muñoz, A.; Trinidad, F.

    For decades, valve regulated lead acid batteries with gel electrolyte have proved their excellent performance in deep cycling applications. However, their higher cost, when compared with flooded batteries, has limited their use in cost sensitive applications, such as automotive or PV installations. The use of flooded batteries in deep or partial state of charge working conditions leads to limited life due to premature capacity loss provoked by electrolyte stratification. Different electrolyte formulations have been tested, in order to achieve the best compromise between cost and life performance. Work carried out included electrochemical studies in order to determine the electrolyte stability and diffusional properties, and kinetic studies to check the processability of the electrolyte formulation. Finally, several 12 V batteries have been assembled and tested according to different ageing profiles.

  7. Role of electrical resistance of electrodes in modeling of discharging and charging of flooded lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical resistance of both the electrodes of a lead-acid battery increases during discharge due to formation of lead sulfate, an insulator. Work of Metzendorf [1] shows that resistance increases sharply at about 65% conversion of active materials, and battery stops discharging once this critical conversion is reached. However, these aspects are not incorporated into existing mathematical models. Present work uses the results of Metzendorf [1], and develops a model that includes the effect of variable resistance. Further, it uses a reasonable expression to account for the decrease in active area during discharge instead of the empirical equations of previous work. The model's predictions are compared with observations of Cugnet et al. [2]. The model is as successful as the non-mechanistic models existing in literature. Inclusion of variation in resistance of electrodes in the model is important if one of the electrodes is a limiting reactant. If active materials are stoichiometrically balanced, resistance of electrodes can be very large at the end of discharge but has only a minor effect on charging of batteries. The model points to the significance of electrical conductivity of electrodes in the charging of deep discharged batteries.

  8. Modeling of the cranking and charging processes of conventional valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries in micro-hybrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Jun; Lee, Anson; Pyko, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The cranking and charging processes of a VRLA battery during stop-start cycling in micro-hybrid applications were simulated by one dimensional mathematical modeling, to study the formation and distribution of lead sulfate across the cell and analyze the resulting effect on battery aging. The battery focused on in this study represents a conventional VRLA battery without any carbon additives in the electrodes or carbon-based electrodes. The modeling results were validated against experimental data and used to analyze the "sulfation" of negative electrodes - the common failure mode of lead acid batteries under high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling. The analyses were based on two aging mechanisms proposed in previous studies and the predictions showed consistency with the previous teardown observations that the sulfate formed at the negative interface is more difficult to be converted back than anywhere else in the electrodes. The impact of cranking pulses during stop-start cycling on current density and the corresponding sulfate layer production was estimated. The effects of some critical design parameters on sulfate formation, distribution and aging over cycling were investigated, which provided guidelines for developing models and designing of VRLA batteries in micro-hybrid applications.

  9. How photon pump fluence changes the charge carrier relaxation mechanism in an organic-inorganic hybrid lead triiodide perovskite.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Piotr; Cohen, Boiko; Kazim, Samrana; Ahmad, Shahzada; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2016-10-21

    This study explores the excitation wavelength and fluence dependence of processes occurring in formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) film using time-resolved transient absorption and terahertz spectroscopies. The results indicate that second-order processes are responsible for charge carrier recombination at low fluences of the absorbed photons (below 8.4 × 10(12) ph per cm(2)). An increase in fluence leads to the appearance and successive reduction of the time component assigned to the Auger recombination of free charge carriers (240-120 ps). Simultaneously, the bimolecular recombination time decreases from ∼1400 to ∼700 ps. Further increasing the pump fluence produces an exciton population that recombines in 6 ps. The comparison of two characteristic bleaching bands located at 480 and 775 nm provides evidence for the validity of the two valence bands model. Excitation with higher fluences results in a marked difference in the probed dynamics at these bands, reflecting the action of two excited states at the conduction band. Our results demonstrate that a single model cannot be applied in characterizing the perovskite absorber transitions at all pump fluences. These findings are relevant in understanding their operating mechanism under specific experimental conditions, which should differ for perovskite based solar cells, lasing media or photon detectors.

  10. Tracing cadmium, zinc and lead sources in bivalves from the coasts of western Canada and the USA using isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, Alyssa E.; Weis, Dominique; Orians, Kristin J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental monitoring and remediation require techniques to identify the source and fate of metals emissions. The measurement of heavy metal isotopic signatures, made possible by the advent of the MC-ICP-MS, is a powerful new geochemical tool, which may be used to trace the source of these metals in the environment. In a multi-tracer study, Cd, Zn and Pb isotopic compositions (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations (HR-ICP-MS) are used to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in bivalves collected from western Canada (British Columbia), Hawaii, and the USA East Coast. Variability in the δ 114/110Cd values of bivalves (-1.20‰ to -0.09‰) is attributed to differences in the relative contributions of Cd from natural and anthropogenic sources between sites. Cadmium isotopic compositions (δ 114/110Cd = -0.69‰ to -0.09‰) identify high Cd levels in B.C. oysters as primarily natural (i.e., upwelling of Cd rich intermediate waters in the North Pacific), with some variability attributed to anthropogenic sources (e.g., mining and smelting). Variability in the δ 66/64Zn values exhibited by the B.C. bivalves is relatively small (0.28-0.36‰). Despite the low Pb levels found in B.C. oysters, Pb isotopes are used to identify emissions from industrial processes and the consumption of unleaded gasoline and diesel fuel as significant metal sources. Although the Cd concentrations of the USA East Coast bivalves are primarily lower than those of B.C. oysters, their relatively light Cd isotopic compositions (δ 114/110Cd = -1.20‰ to -0.54‰) indicate the significance of anthropogenic Cd sources and are attributed to the high prevalence of industry on this coast. The δ 114/110Cd values of USA East Coast bivalves include the lightest ever reported, with the exception of values reported for extraterrestrial materials. In addition, the Pb isotopic compositions of bivalves from the USA East Coast indicate Pb emissions from the combustion of

  11. Isotopic composition of epiphytic lichens as a tracer of the sources of atmospheric lead emissions in southern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Carignan, J.; Gariepy, C.

    1995-11-01

    Lead isotopic data are reported for epiphytic lichens, vegetation samples, and lacustrine sediments collected in the boreal forest of Quebec between 47{degrees} and 55{degrees}N, and along the St. Lawrence Valley between 45{degrees} to 48{degrees}N. Lichens located up to 500 km north of Noranda (48{degrees}N) record a significant input is not apparent beyond 53{degrees}N where only the isotopic signal typical of Canadian aerosols is recorded. Lichens along the St. Lawrence Valley show evidences for a dominant input from U.S. sources. The lead isotopic composition of lichens allow quantitative monitoring of the sources of atmospheric Pb. However, their slow metabolism and their unknown age detract from recording the Pb signal on short and precise timescales. Spruce needles have isotopic compositions undistinguishable from that of lichens; this reflects integration of the atmospheric Pb signal over a comparable time span, a result confirmed by the lead isotopic record in lacustrine sediments. Vegetation samples such as spruce bark, spruce wood, and decidous tree leaves are more radiogenic than lichens from the same site. This may reflect mixing of radiogenic Pb metabolized from soil solutions through the root system with atmospheric Pb. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Ultrafast charge generation and relaxation dynamics in methylammonium lead bromide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaofan; Wen, Xiaoming; Sheng, Rui; Huang, Shujuan; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W.; Green, Martin A.; Ho-Baillie, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Methylammonium Lead Bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) is a promising material for tandem solar cell due to its high band gap. Ultrafast optical techniques on a time scale of femto- and picosecond are used to investigate the carrier dynamics in CH3NH3PbBr3. An ultrafast cooling of hot carriers occurs in sub-picoseconds in CH3NH3PbBr3 by phonon scattering. Two ultrafast relaxation processes are attributed to optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering. The relaxation processes are evidently slower when CH3NH3PbBr3 is in contact with compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) layer, suggesting better quality CH3NH3PbBr3. when deposited on c-TiO2. The nanosecond decay in CH3NH3PbBr3 film is ascribed to electron-hole recombination. With the presence of c-TiO2 layer, this process is accelerated due to electron transport across the CH3NH3PbBr3/ c-TiO2 interface.

  13. Strontium insertion in methlyammonium lead iodide: long charge carrier lifetime and high fill factor solar cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momblona, Cristina; Gil-Escrig, Lidón; Ávila, Jorge; Pérez-Del-Rey, Daniel; Forgács, David; Sessolo, Michele; Bolink, Hendrik J.

    2016-09-01

    Organic-inorganic (hybrid) lead halide perovskites are taking the lead among the emerging photovoltaics technologies, thanks to the demonstration of power conversion efficiencies exceeding 20 %. Hybrid perovskites have a wide spectrum of desirable properties; they are direct bandgap semiconductors with very high absorption coefficients, high and balanced hole and electron mobility, and large diffusion length. A unique feature of these materials is their versatility in terms of bandgap energy, which can be tuned by simple exchange of their components. In this paper we present vacuum and hybrid deposition routes for the preparation of different organic-inorganic lead perovskite thin films, and their incorporation into efficient solar cells. The influence of the type of organic semiconductors used as hole/electron transport layer in p-i-n solar cells will be presented. We also discuss their electroluminescence properties, either for applications in light-emitting diodes or as a diagnostic tool of the optical and electronic quality of perovskite thin films. Finally, the effect of additives and dopants in the perovskite absorber as well as in the charge selective layers will be described.

  14. Analysis of unresolved transition arrays in XUV spectral region from highly charged lead ions produced by subnanosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Takanori; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2017-02-01

    Soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectra from lead (Pb, Z=82) laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) were measured in the 1.0-7.0 nm wavelength region employing a 150-ps, 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser with focused power densities in the range from 3.1×1013 W/cm2 to 1.4×1014 W/cm2. The flexible atomic code (FAC) and the Cowan's suite of atomic structure codes were applied to compute and explain the radiation properties of the lead spectra observed. The most prominent structure in the spectra is a broad double peak, which is produced by Δn=0, n=4-4 and Δn=1, n=4-5 transition arrays emitted from highly charged lead ions. The emission characteristics of Δn=1, n=4-5 transitions were investigated by the use of the unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) model. Numerous new spectral features generated by Δn=1, n=4-5 transitions in ions from Pb21+ to Pb45+ are discerned with the aid of the results from present computations as well as consideration of previous theoretical predictions and experimental data.

  15. A simple and robust fiber optics system for measuring the lead-acid battery state-of-charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortázar, O. D.; Feliu, V.

    A simple, robust and low-cost fiber optics system for monitoring the state-of-charge (SOC) in a lead-acid battery is presented. The device is based on measuring light ray trajectory variations produced by the electrolyte media when its density changes. The changes in the electrolyte refraction index are produced due to changes in density, and the system measures such changes by means of an optical sensor coupled with a fiber optics bundle. SOC is indirectly measured on the base of such optical specific gravity measuring. A set of equations based on a paraxial ray model perform the optical sensor design, describing its behavior for different design parameters thereby allowing for the optimization of signal response. The system is applied to an SLI battery discharge-charge cycle obtaining excellent agreement with direct measuring of electrolyte density and estimation of SOC by integration of current. Simplicity, low cost, robustness and the unnecessary use of any signal processing are the main improvements with respect to previous works.

  16. Neutral and Charged Exciton Fine Structure in Single Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Revealed by Magneto-optical Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ming; Tamarat, Philippe; Huang, He; Even, Jacky; Rogach, Andrey L; Lounis, Brahim

    2017-05-10

    Revealing the crystal structure of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals is essential for the optimization of stability of these emerging materials in applications such as solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting devices. We use magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy of individual perovskite CsPbBr3 nanocrystals as a unique tool to determine their crystal structure, which imprints distinct signatures in the excitonic sublevels of charge complexes at low temperatures. At zero magnetic field, the identification of two classes of photoluminescence spectra, displaying either two or three sublevels in their exciton fine structure, shows evidence for the existence of two crystalline structures, namely tetragonal D4h and orthorhombic D2h phases. Magnetic field shifts, splitting, and coupling of the sublevels provide a determination of the diamagnetic coefficient and valuable information on the exciton g-factor and its anisotropic character. Moreover, this spectroscopic study reveals the optical properties of charged excitons and allows the extraction of the electron and hole g-factors for perovskite systems.

  17. Nuclear Charge Radii of Neutron-Deficient Lead Isotopes Beyond N=104 Midshell Investigated by In-Source Laser Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H. de; Cocolios, T. E.; Dean, S.; Huyse, M.; Lesher, S. R.; Mukha, I.; Stefanescu, I.; Vel, K. van de; Walle, J. van de; Duppen, P. van; Andreyev, A. N.; Barre, N.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J.; Bender, M.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Jeppessen, H.

    2007-03-16

    The shape of exotic even-mass {sup 182-190}Pb isotopes was probed by measurement of optical isotope shifts providing mean square charge radii ({delta}). The experiment was carried out at the isolde (cern) on-line mass separator, using in-source laser spectroscopy. Small deviations from the spherical droplet model are observed, but when compared to model calculations, those are explained by high sensitivity of {delta} to beyond mean-field correlations and small admixtures of intruder configurations in the ground state. The data support the predominantly spherical shape of the ground state of the proton-magic Z=82 lead isotopes near neutron midshell (N=104)

  18. Origin of long lifetime of band-edge charge carriers in organic–inorganic lead iodide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianran; Chen, Wei-Liang; Foley, Benjamin J.; Lee, Jooseop; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Ko, J. Y. Peter; Brown, Craig M.; Harriger, Leland W.; Zhang, Depei; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Chang, Yu-Ming; Choi, Joshua J.; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Long carrier lifetime is what makes hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites high-performance photovoltaic materials. Several microscopic mechanisms behind the unusually long carrier lifetime have been proposed, such as formation of large polarons, Rashba effect, ferroelectric domains, and photon recycling. Here, we show that the screening of band-edge charge carriers by rotation of organic cation molecules can be a major contribution to the prolonged carrier lifetime. Our results reveal that the band-edge carrier lifetime increases when the system enters from a phase with lower rotational entropy to another phase with higher entropy. These results imply that the recombination of the photoexcited electrons and holes is suppressed by the screening, leading to the formation of polarons and thereby extending the lifetime. Thus, searching for organic–inorganic perovskites with high rotational entropy over a wide range of temperature may be a key to achieve superior solar cell performance. PMID:28673975

  19. Coiled coil miniprotein randomization on phage leads to charge pattern mimicry of the receptor recognition determinant of interleukin 5.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanzhao; Plugariu, Carmela G; Bajgier, Joanna; White, John R; Liefer, Kristin M; Wu, Sheng-Jiun; Chaiken, Irwin

    2002-01-01

    Phage display was used to identify sequences that mimic structural determinants in interleukin5 (IL5) for IL5 receptor recognition. A coiled coil stem loop (CCSL) miniprotein scaffold library was constructed with its turn region randomized and panned for binding variants against human IL5 receptor alpha chain (IL5Ralpha). Competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays identified CCSL-phage selectants for which binding to IL5Ralpha was competed by IL5. The most frequently selected and IL5-competed CCSL-phage contain charged residues Arg and Glu in their turn sequences, in this regard resembling a beta strand sequence in the 'CD turn' region, of IL5, that has been proposed to present a key determinant for IL5 receptor alpha chain recognition. The most dominant CCSL-phage selectant sequence, PVEGRV, contains a negative/positive charge pattern similar to that seen in the original CD turn. To test the relatedness of CCSL-phage selectant sequences to the IL5 receptor recognition epitope, PVEGRV was grafted into the sequence 87--92 of a monomeric IL5. The resulting IL5 variant, [(87)PVEGRV(92)]GM1, was able to bind to IL5Ralpha in biosensor assays, to elicit TF-1 cell proliferation and to induce STAT5 phosphorylation in TF-1 cells. The results help discern sequence patterns in the IL5 CD turn region which are key in driving receptor recognition and demonstrate the utility of CCSL miniprotein scaffold phage display to identify local IL5 mimetic sequence arrangements that may ultimately lead to IL5 antagonists.

  20. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children

  1. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. 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M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over | η | < 2 in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklets" and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2 < | η | < 4.9. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle pseudorapidity distribution, dNch / dη, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval | η | < 0.5 in several intervals of collision centrality. The results are compared to previous mid-rapidity measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle yield per colliding nucleon pair with the number of participants is consistent with lower √{sNN} results. The shape of the dNch / dη distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement.

  2. Ultrafast charge separation and recombination dynamics in lead sulfide quantum dot-methylene blue complexes probed by electron and hole intraband transitions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Rodríguez-Córdoba, William; Lian, Tianquan

    2011-06-22

    Lead salt quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as attractive materials for solar energy conversion because of their broad spectral response, long exciton lifetime, and efficient multiexciton generation. However, charge separation dynamics from these QDs remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate charge separation and recombination dynamics in PbS-methylene blue (MB(+)) complexes by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. We show that while the 1S electrons and holes in excited PbS QDs lead to overlapping transient absorption features in the visible and near-IR regions, their intraband absorptions in the mid-IR can be monitored independently to directly follow the charge separation and recombination processes. The charge separation and recombination rates in PbS-MB(+) complexes were found to be (2.7 ± 0.2) × 10(12) and (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(11) s(-1), respectively. The ultrafast charge separation rate suggests the possibility of hot electron injection and multiexciton dissociation from these strongly quantum confined QDs, consistent with recent reports of these phenomena at lead salt QD/TiO(2) interfaces.

  3. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from <5% (in winter) to about 20% (in summer) in children aged 0.5-2 years. The likelihood of having BLLs ≥5 μg/dL in young children during warm months was reduced by at least 40% by flushing tap-water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part II. Impedance of the positive plate revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    In the second part of this publication series, dedicated to the pulse charge of the lead-acid battery, a special attention is paid to the impedance spectrum of the positive plate as a source for estimation of the electrostatic capacitance of the double layer (C dl) on the surface of the positive active mass. The impedance spectra were measured at open circuit for different states of charge (SoC) in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.24 and 1.28 g ml -1. A substantial difference was observed in the impedance spectra of partially charged and partially discharged positive plates keeping the same value of the SOC. The impedance data were subjected to inductance error correction, followed by differential impedance analysis (DIA). Considering the results from DIA, the recently published equivalent circuits of the positive plate in charged and in discharged state and the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide, we proposed a model of the positive plate in partial state of charge (PSoC). The analysis of the obtained experimental results using this model and DIA show that the double layer capacitance is not frequency distributed. The influence of the state of charge and state of health on the model parameters is discussed. One of the most interesting results is the dependence of C dl on SOC-it features a hysteresis at which the values of C dl during the charge are 5-6 times higher than the corresponding ones during the discharge. This result was discussed in terms of changes in the double layer structure considering the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide. During the discharge in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.28 g ml -1 a passivation process was detected as a high frequency pseudo-inductive loop in the Nyquist plots in PSoC. The passivation time constant is higher at 50-60% SOC and decreases to zero in the end of the discharge. During the charge in both electrolytes, pseudo-inductive time constant was observed too. It was attributed to the phenomena of the dehydration of Pb

  5. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  6. Synergy of Membrane Curvature-Stabilization and Electrostatic Interaction leads to Formation of Block Liposomes by Colossal Charged Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidovska, Alexandra; Ewert, Kai K.; Safinya, Cyrus R.; Quispe, Joel; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.

    2008-03-01

    Recently, we have reported block liposomes (BLs), a new vesicle phase formed in mixtures of MVLBG2, DOPC and water (A. Zidovska et al., Submitted, 2007), where MVLBG2 is a newly synthesized highly charged (16+) lipid (K. Ewert et al., JACS, 2006) with giant dendrimer-like headgroup. BLs are liposomes consisting of distinctly shaped nanoscale spheres, pears, tubes, or rods connected into blocks. In this work we investigate the contribution of spontaneous curvature and membrane charge density to the formation of BLs. By comparing with a system of matching membrane charge density but zero spontaneous curvature and by screening the charge of MVLBG2 but keeping the curvature constant, we were able to identify both, spontaneous curvature and membrane charge, as critical parameters for BLs-formation. The effect of salt and pH on the shape evolution of the BLs was also carefully studied. Funding provided by DOE DE-FG-02-06ER46314, NIH GM-59288, NSF DMR-0503347.

  7. Characterization of lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon and its excellent performance of extending lead-acid battery cycle life for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Pengyang; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Rongbo; Yi, Fenyun; Shi, Guang; Li, Aiju; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-07-01

    In this work, lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon (Pb@C) is prepared as the additive of negative active mass (NAM), aiming to enhance the electrochemical characteristics of the lead-acid battery. The characters of the Pb@C materials and their electrochemical properties are characterized by XRD, SEM, back-scattering electron image (BESI) and electrochemical methods. The lead (Ⅱ) ions disperse well in the carbon bulk of the obtained Pb@C materials as observed, and these materials exhibit remarkable higher specific capacitance and higher hydrogen evolution over-potential compared with original carbons. Many 2 V lead-acid batteries are assembled manually in our lab, and then the batteries are disassembled after formation and high-rate-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Results manifest that the Pb@C additives exhibit high affinity to lead and act as a porous-skeleton in the formation process as well as under HRPSoC cycling conditions, leading to the small and fine formation of PbSO4 particles and accordingly higher active material utilization rate more than 50%, better cycling performance and charging acceptance. Besides, excellent cycle performances of these batteries have great relationship with the dazzling hydrogen evolution performance of Pb@C materials. A possible working mechanism is also proposed based on the testing data in this paper.

  8. Charged hadron azimuthal anisotropy (v2) in center of mass energy = 2.76 TeV lead-lead collisions from CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, Victoria

    The azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles is an important feature of the hot and dense medium produced in heavy ion collisions. In non-central nucleus-nucleus collisions, the maximum particle density defines an event plane which is an approximation to the participant plane. The participant plane reflects the direction of the maximum of the pressure gradient set up by the participating nucleons. The initial nuclear overlap region is spatially asymmetric with an “almond-like” shape. This spatial asymmetry is reflected in the momentum distribution of the particles with respect to the event plane. The anisotropy is quantified in terms of a Fourier expansion of the observed particle yields relative to the event-by-event orientation of the participant plane. The second coefficient of the expansion, υ 2, often referred to as “elliptic flow”, carries information on the early collision dynamics when measured in the low-pT domain. A similar signal of a different origin is observed in the high- pT regime and is associated with parton energy loss in the presence of the medium. In this work the azimuthal anisotropy of charged hadrons is determined over an extended transverse momentum (p t) range up to approximately 60 GeV/c in PbPb collisions at sNN = 2.76 TeV, covering both the low-pt region associated with hydrodynamic flow phenomena and the high-pt region, pt > 12 GeV/c, where the anisotropies reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium.

  9. Charge and matter form factors of two-neutron halo nuclei in halo effective field theory at next-to-leading order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanasse, Jared

    2017-02-01

    By using halo effective field theory (EFT), an expansion in Rcore/Rhalo , where Rcore is the radius of the core and Rhalo the radius of the halo nucleus, the charge and neutron form factors of the two-neutron halo nuclei 11Li, 14Be, and 22C are calculated to next-to-leading order (NLO) by treating them as an effective three-body system. From the form factors, the point-charge and point-matter radii, inter-neutron distances, and neutron opening angles are extracted. Agreement is found with existing experimental extractions. Results are given for the point-charge and point-matter radii for arbitrary neutron core scattering effective range ρc n, which can be used for predictions once ρc n is measured. Estimates for ρc n are also used to make NLO predictions. Finally, the point-charge radii of this work are compared with other halo-EFT predictions, and setting the core mass equal to the neutron mass the point-charge radius is found to agree with an analytical prediction in the unitary limit.

  10. Spectroscopic Studies of Doping and Charge Transfer in Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Neale O.

    The use of single wall carbon nanotubes (SW-CNTs) in solar photovoltaic (PV) devices is a relatively new, but quickly growing field. SW-CNTs have found application as transparent front contacts, and high work function back contacts in thin film solar PV. For the utility of SW-CNTs to be fully realized, however, controllable and stable doping as well as long term protection from doping must be achieved. Spectroscopic techniques facilitate detailed investigations of the intrinsic and variable properties of semiconductor materials without the issues of contact deposition and the possibility of sample contamination. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of the doping induced changes in the optical properties of SW-CNTs has revealed normally hidden excited state transitions in large diameter single walled carbon nanotubes for the first time. Spectroscopic monitoring of the degree of doping in SW-CNTs made possible studies of the dopant complex desorption and readsorption energies and kinetics. The long term protection from doping of SW-CNTs exposed to ambient laboratory conditions was achieved as a result of the more detailed understanding of the doping processes and mechanisms yielded by these spectroscopic studies. The application of SW-CNTs to other roles in solar PV devices was another goal of this research. Efficient collection of photogenerated charge carriers in semiconductor quantum dot (QD) based solar photovoltaic devices has been limited primarily by the poor transport properties and high density of recombination sites in the QD films. Coupling semiconductor QDs to nanomaterials with better transport properties is one potential solution to the poor transport within the QD films. This portion of the work investigated the possibility of charge transfer occurring in nano-heterostructures (NHSs) of PbS QDs and SW-CNTs produced through spontaneous self-assembly in solution. Electronic coupling in the form of charge transfer from the QDs to the SW-CNTs is unambiguously

  11. Sorption enhancement of lead ions from water by surface charged polystyrene-supported nano-zirconium oxide composites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingrui; Du, Qing; Hua, Ming; Jiao, Tifeng; Gao, Faming; Pan, Bingcai

    2013-06-18

    A novel hybrid nanomaterial was fabricated by encapsulating ZrO2 nanoparticles into spherical polystyrene beads (MPS) covalently bound with charged sulfonate groups (-SO3(-)). The resultant adsorbent, Zr-MPS, exhibited more preferential sorption toward Pb(II) than the simple equivalent mixture of MPS and ZrO2. Such observation might be ascribed to the presence of sulfonate groups of the polymeric host, which could enhance nano-ZrO2 dispersion and Pb(II) diffusion kinetics. To further elucidate the role of surface functional groups, we encapsulated nano-ZrO2 onto another two macroporous polystyrene with different surface groups (i.e., -N(CH3)3(+)/-CH2Cl, respectively) and a conventional activated carbon. The three obtained nanocomposites were denoted as Zr-MPN, Zr-MPC, and Zr-GAC. The presence of -SO3(-) and -N(CH3)3(+) was more favorable for nano-ZrO2 dispersion than the neutral -CH2Cl, resulting in the sequence of sorption capacities as Zr-MPS > Zr-MPN > Zr-GAC > Zr-MPC. Column Pb(II) sorption by the four nanocomposites further demonstrated the excellent Pb(II) retention by Zr-MPS. Comparatively, Zr-MPN of well-dispersed nano-ZrO2 and high sorption capacities showed much faster breakthrough for Pb(II) sequestration than Zr-MPS, because the electrostatic repulsion of surface quaternary ammonium group of MPN and Pb(II) ion would result in a poor sorption kinetics. This study suggests that charged groups in the host resins improve the dispersion of embedded nanoparticles and enhance the reactivity and capacity for sorption of metal ions. Suitably charged functional groups in the hosts are crucial in the fabrication of efficient nanocomposites for the decontamination of water from toxic metals and other charged pollutants.

  12. Dawson, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-09

    NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of Dawson, Canada. A boom town in 1898, discovery of gold in the Klondike fueled the massive influx of miners, merchants, and other support professions to this town on the Yukon River.

  13. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  14. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children.

  15. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1–5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1–10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft2 was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3–7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children. PMID:23361441

  16. Impedance measurements on lead-acid batteries for state-of-charge, state-of-health and cranking capability prognosis in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Holger; Bohlen, Oliver; Buller, Stephan; De Doncker, Rik W.; Fricke, Birger; Hammouche, Abderrezak; Linzen, Dirk; Thele, Marc; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Various attempts have been made to use impedance measurements for online analysis and offline modelling of lead-acid batteries. This presentation gives an overview on the latest and successful approaches based on impedance measurements to assess state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH) and cranking capability of lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, it is shown that impedance data can serve as a basis for dynamic battery models for the simulation of vehicle power-supply systems. The methods and procedures aim for a reliable prediction of battery performance in electric vehicles, hybrid cars and classical automotive applications. Although, it will become obvious that impedance measurements give valuable information on the battery state, typically the information needs to be combined with other conventional algorithms or self-learning tools to achieve reliable and stable results for real-world applications.

  17. Next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to the production of four charged leptons at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Benedikt; Denner, Ansgar; Dittmaier, Stefan; Hofer, Lars; Jäger, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    We present a state-of-the-art calculation of the next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to ZZ production, including the leptonic decays of the Z bosons into μ + μ -e+e- or μ + μ - μ + μ - final states. We use complete leading-order and next-to-leading-order matrix elements for four-lepton production, including contributions of virtual photons and all off-shell effects of Z bosons, where the finite Z-boson width is taken into account using the complex-mass scheme. The matrix elements are implemented into Monte Carlo programs allowing for the evaluation of arbitrary differential distributions. We present integrated and differential cross sections for the LHC at 13 TeV both for an inclusive setup where only lepton identification cuts are applied, and for a setup motivated by Higgs-boson analyses in the four-lepton decay channel. The electroweak corrections are divided into photonic and purely weak contributions. The former show the well-known pronounced tails near kinematical thresholds and resonances; the latter are generically at the level of ˜ -5% and reach several -10% in the high-energy tails of distributions. Comparing the results for μ + μ -e+e- and μ + μ - μ + μ - final states, we find significant differences mainly in distributions that are sensitive to the μ + μ - pairing in the μ + μ - μ + μ - final state. Differences between μ + μ -e+e- and μ + μ - μ + μ - channels due to interferences of equal-flavour leptons in the final state can reach up to 10% in off-shell-sensitive regions. Contributions induced by incoming photons, i.e. photon-photon and quark-photon channels, are included, but turn out to be phenomenologically unimportant.

  18. Improving the cycle life of lead-acid batteries using three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide under the high-rate partial-state-of-charge condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Qunying; Ma, Guozheng; Xu, Qiqin; Ma, Cheng; Nan, Junmin; Li, Aiju; Chen, Hongyu

    2017-03-01

    A three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3D-RGO) material has been successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method and is employed as the negative additive to curb the sulfation of lead-acid battery. When added with 1.0 wt% 3D-RGO, the initial discharge capacity (0.05 C, 185.36 mAh g-1) delivered by the battery is 14.46% higher than that of the control cell (161.94 mAh g-1); and the cycle life under the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) condition is significantly improved by more than 224% from 8142 to 26,425 cycles. In comparison to the conventional carbon additions like the activated carbon and acetylene black, the 3D-RGO also exhibits the highest initial discharge capacity, the best rate capabilities and the longest HRPSoC cycling life. Finally, we propose a possible mechanism for 3D-RGO to suppress lead-acid battery sulfation, where the abundant pore structure and excellent conductivity of 3D-RGO may have a synergistic effect on facilitating the charge and discharge process of negative plate.

  19. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part III. Electrolyte concentration effects on the electrochemical performance of the positive plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Karoui, F.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the third part of this work the effects of the sulphuric acid concentration on the positive plate discharge capacity, impedance and oxygen overvoltage are discussed. It has been found that the full discharge capacity of the positive plate is available down to electrolyte concentrations of 3 mol l-1 (s.g. 1.18 g ml-1). At further acid dilution, capacity of the positive plate declines, keeping the utilization of the sulphuric acid about 50%. Decreasing the acid concentration, the oxygen overvoltage decreases with a factor of 12-18 mV M-1, excluding the effect of the equilibrium potential of the oxygen electrode as a function of pH. The capacitance of the electrical double layer decrease linearly with the dilution of the sulphuric acid suggesting strong adsorption effects. This suggestion has been confirmed from the measurements of potential of the zero charge of the positive plate, which increases from 1.11 to 1.34 V vs. Ag/Ag2SO4 in the region 1.11-4.60 M H2SO4. From the measurement of the time constant of the electronic transfer through the gel part of the lead dioxide (Tgel) as a function of the acid concentration and the applied potential, a change in the mechanism of the lead dioxide hydration has been estimated-below 1 M H2SO4Tgel increases sharply, showing sharp increases of the extent of the hydration. The dilution of the electrolyte increases substantially the value of average double layer current in the beginning of the charge. During the pulse overcharge at the employed frequency of 1 Hz, the average double layer current is equal to the pulse amplitude, suggesting that the maximal efficiency of the pulse charge is reached.

  20. Charge carrier dynamics of methylammonium lead iodide: from PbI₂-rich to low-dimensional broadly emitting perovskites.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johannes R; Flender, Oliver; Scholz, Mirko; Oum, Kawon; Lenzer, Thomas

    2016-04-28

    We provide an investigation of the charge carrier dynamics of the (MAI)(x)(PbI2)(1-x) system in the range x = 0.32-0.90 following the recently published "pseudobinary phase-composition processing diagram" of Song et al. (Chem. Mater., 2015, 27, 4612). The dynamics were studied using ultrafast pump-supercontinuum probe spectroscopy over the pump fluence range 2-50 μJ cm(-2), allowing for a wide variation of the initial carrier density. At high MAI excess (x = 0.90), low-dimensional perovskites (LDPs) are formed, and their luminescence spectra are significantly blue-shifted by ca. 50 nm and broadened compared to the 3D perovskite. The shift is due to quantum confinement effects, and the inhomogeneous broadening arises from different low-dimensional structures (predominantly 2D, but presumably also 1D and 0D). Accurate transient carrier temperatures are extracted from the transient absorption spectra. The regimes of carrier-carrier, carrier-optical phonon and acoustic phonon scattering are clearly distinguished. Perovskites with mole fractions x ≤ 0.71 exhibit extremely fast carrier cooling (ca. 300 fs) at low fluence of 2 μJ cm(-2), however cooling slows down significantly at high fluence of 50 μJ cm(-2) due to the "hot phonon effect" (ca. 2.8 ps). A kinetic analysis of the electron-hole recombination dynamics provides second-order recombination rate constants k2 which decrease from 5.3 to 1.5 × 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1) in the range x = 0.32-0.71. In contrast, recombination in the LDPs (x = 0.90) is more than one order of magnitude faster, 6.4 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1), which is related to the confined perovskite structure. Recombination in these LDPs should be however still slow enough for their potential application as efficient broadband emitters or solar light-harvesting materials.

  1. Design of acid-lead battery stage-of-charge detection system based on refractive index detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junyao; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Lei; Zeng, Xianjiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on optical total reflection critical Angle method, we have designed a refractive index measurement system. It adopted a divergent light source and a CCD camera as the occurrence and receiver of the signal. The divergent light source sent out a bunch of tapered beam, exposure to the interface of optical medium and sulfuric acid solution. Light intensity reflected from the interface could be detected by the CCD camera and then sent to the embedded system. In the DSP embedded system, we could obtain the critical edge position through the light intensity distribution curve and converted it to critical angle. Through experiment, we concluded the relation between liquid refractive index and the critical angle edge position. In this system, the detecting precision of the refractive index of sulfuric acid solution reached 10-4. Finally, through the conversion of the refractive index and density, we achieved high accuracy online measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid battery.

  2. Geochemical constraints on the origin of the Kicking Horse and Monarch Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits, southeast British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandeginste, Veerle; Swennen, Rudy; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Ellam, Rob M.; Osadetz, Kirk; Roure, François

    2007-11-01

    Two Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore deposits, Kicking Horse and Monarch, have been studied with the aim of comparing the ores at the two localities and to characterize the origin of the mineralizing fluids and the ore formation process(es). Both deposits are hosted by the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation carbonate host rocks, Kicking Horse on the north and Monarch on the south flank of the Kicking Horse valley near Field (SE British Columbia). The ore bodies are situated at the transition of (western) basinal to (eastern) shallow-water strata of the paleo-Pacific passive margin succession in the Cordilleran Foreland Province of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Both deposits are related spatially to normal faults. In both localities, the ore minerals are dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Dolomite, minor quartz, and calcite are also present in close association with the ores. The salinity (21-30 wt% NaCl eq.) and homogenization temperatures (63-182°C) measured in fluid inclusions in carbonate, quartz, and sphalerite lie within the typical range of MVT fluid conditions. The good stoichiometry (50-53 mol% CaCO3), low δ18O values (-21 to -14‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite) and relatively high homogenization temperatures (>95°C) of the dolomite suggest the dolomites were formed under burial diagenesis. The ore-forming fluids probably interacted with siliciclastic units, based on elevated Li contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios, which are highest in the dolomite type after the main ore stage. We propose that the ores formed from the mixing of a downward-infiltrating, sulfur-bearing halite-dissolution fluid with an upward-migrating, metal-rich evaporated seawater fluid, which had already undergone minor mixing with a dilute fluid.

  3. Beneficial effects of activated carbon additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrode for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xianzhang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are made with negative electrode of 2 V cell and 12 V lead-acid battery doped with typical activated carbon additives. It turns out that the negative electrode containing tens-of-micron-sized carbon particles in NAM exhibits markedly increased HRPSoC cycle life than the one containing carbon particles with much smaller size of several microns or the one containing no activated carbon. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the optimized NAM microstructure and the enhanced electrode reaction kinetics by introducing appropriate activated carbon. The beneficial effects can be briefly summarized from three aspects. First, activated carbon acts as new porous-skeleton builder to increase the porosity and active surface of NAM, and thus facilitates the electrolyte diffusion from surface to inner and provides more sites for crystallization/dissolution of lead sulfate; second, activated carbon plays the role of electrolyte supplier to provide sufficient H2SO4 in the inner of plate when the diffusion of H2SO4 from plate surface cannot keep pace of the electrode reaction; Third, activated carbon acts as capacitive buffer to absorb excess charge current which would otherwise lead to insufficient NAM conversion and hydrogen evolution.

  4. Electronic coupling in iron oxide-modified TiO2 leads to a reduced band gap and charge separation for visible light active photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Michael

    2011-10-28

    In recent experiments Tada et al. have shown that TiO(2) surfaces modified with iron oxide display visible light photocatalytic activity. This paper presents first principles simulations of iron oxide clusters adsorbed at the rutile TiO(2) (110) surface to elucidate the origin of the visible light photocatalytic activity of iron oxide modified TiO(2). Small iron oxide clusters adsorb at rutile (110) surface and their presence shifts the valence band so that the band gap of the composite is narrowed towards the visible, thus confirming the origin of the visible light activity of this composite material. The presence of iron oxide at the TiO(2) surface leads to charge separation, which is the origin of enhanced photocatalytic efficiency, consistent with experimental photoluminesence and photocurrent data. Surface modification of a metal oxide is thus an interesting route in the development of visible light photocatalytic materials.

  5. Measurement of the pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow of charged particles in lead-lead collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; da Silva, P. V. M.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; de Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de La Taille, C.; de la Torre, H.; de Lotto, B.; de Mora, L.; de Nooij, L.; de Oliveira Branco, M.; de Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dewilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Luise, S.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A. C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C. U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. 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F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. 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M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    This Letter describes the measurement of elliptic flow of charged particles in lead-lead collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results are based on an integrated luminosity of approximately 7 μb-1. Elliptic flow is measured over a wide region in pseudorapidity, | η | < 2.5, and over a broad range in transverse momentum, 0.5

  6. Comparative Assessment of Soil Contamination by Lead and Heavy Metals in Riparian and Agricultural Areas (Southern Québec, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Laurent, Diane; Hähni, Marlies; St-Laurent, Julien; Baril, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg−1 (As), 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg−1 (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg−1 (Pb). These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg−1) in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg−1 (SD 17.5). Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites) range between 12 and 22 mg kg−1, and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage) to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail. PMID:20948950

  7. Comparative assessment of soil contamination by lead and heavy metals in riparian and agricultural areas (southern Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Saint-Laurent, Diane; Hähni, Marlies; St-Laurent, Julien; Baril, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C(10)-C(50)), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg(-1) (As), 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg(-1) (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg(-1) (Pb). These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg(-1)) in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg(-1) (SD 17.5). Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites) range between 12 and 22 mg kg(-1), and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage) to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail.

  8. Measurements of cross-section of charge current inclusive of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using carbon, iron, lead and scintillator at MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza

    2015-08-18

    Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X1020 protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θmu < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dxbj measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.

  9. ASA24-Canada

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  10. Optoelectronic Studies of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells with Mesoporous TiO₂: Separation of Electronic and Chemical Charge Storage, Understanding Two Recombination Lifetimes, and the Evolution of Band Offsets during J-V Hysteresis.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Brian C; Barnes, Piers R F; Li, Xiaoe; Law, Chunhung; Palomares, Emilio; Marin-Beloqui, Jose M

    2015-04-22

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) cells of the design FTO/sTiO2/mpTiO2/MAPI/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au, where FTO is fluorine-doped tin oxide, sTiO2 indicates solid-TiO2, and mpTiO2 is mesoporous TiO2, are studied using transient photovoltage (TPV), differential capacitance, charge extraction, current interrupt, and chronophotoamperometry. We show that in mpTiO2/MAPI cells there are two kinds of extractable charge stored under operation: a capacitive electronic charge (∼0.2 μC/cm(2)) and another, larger charge (40 μC/cm(2)), possibly related to mobile ions. Transient photovoltage decays are strongly double exponential with two time constants that differ by a factor of ∼5, independent of bias light intensity. The fast decay (∼1 μs at 1 sun) is assigned to the predominant charge recombination pathway in the cell. We examine and reject the possibility that the fast decay is due to ferroelectric relaxation or to the bulk photovoltaic effect. Like many MAPI solar cells, the studied cells show significant J-V hysteresis. Capacitance vs open circuit voltage (V(oc)) data indicate that the hysteresis involves a change in internal potential gradients, likely a shift in band offset at the TiO2/MAPI interface. The TPV results show that the V(oc) hysteresis is not due to a change in recombination rate constant. Calculation of recombination flux at V(oc) suggests that the hysteresis is also not due to an increase in charge separation efficiency and that charge generation is not a function of applied bias. We also show that the J-V hysteresis is not a light driven effect but is caused by exposure to electrical bias, light or dark.

  11. Low Exciton-Phonon Coupling, High Charge Carrier Mobilities, and Multiexciton Properties in Two-Dimensional Lead, Silver, Cadmium, and Copper Chalcogenide Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek; Goodman, Samuel M; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-12-18

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has revealed novel physical properties, like high carrier mobilities and the tunable coupling of charge carriers with phonons, which can enable wide-ranging applications in optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices. While mechanical exfoliation of graphene and some transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WSe2) has enabled their fabrication as 2D semiconductors and integration into devices, lack of similar syntheses for other 2D semiconductor materials has hindered further progress. Here, we report measurements of fundamental charge carrier interactions and optoelectronic properties of 2D nanomaterials made from two-monolayers-thick PbX, CdX, Cu2X, and Ag2X (X = S, Se) using colloidal syntheses. Extremely low coupling of charge carriers with phonons (2-6-fold lower than bulk and other low-dimensional semiconductors), high carrier mobilities (0.2-1.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), without dielectric screening), observation of infrared surface plasmons in ultrathin 2D semiconductor nanostructures, strong quantum-confinement, and other multiexcitonic properties (different phonon coupling and photon-to-charge collection efficiencies for band-edge and higher-energy excitons) can pave the way for efficient solution-processed devices made from these 2D nanostructured semiconductors.

  12. Controlled battery charging system

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, D.B.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes a controlled battery charging system for charging a battery having terminals. It comprises: a transformer having a primary coil connected to a source of alternating current, and a secondary coil having output leads and a center tap, full wave rectifier means connected to the output leads to the secondary coil, the rectifier means including a pair of gate controlled rectifiers having direct current output leads, a battery charging circuit connected to the output leads to the rectifiers and having output means electrically contacting the terminals of a battery to be charged, a unijunction relaxation oscillator circuit connected to the rectifiers to trigger the gate controlled rectifiers into conduction to produce a DC charging current in the charging circuit, an electronic current limiting control circuit comprising a current limiting amplifier having a positive input, a negative input, and an output, a resistive line connected to center tap, a negative input lead connecting the center tap to the negative input of the current limiting amplifier, voltage input means connected to the positive input for supplying a voltage to the current limiting amplifier more positive than a voltage supplied to the negative input, voltage supply means connecting the current limiting amplifier to the battery charging circuit, and control means connecting the output of the current limiting amplifier to the unijunction relaxation oscillator circuit operative to turn off the DC charging circuit when the charging current exceeds a predetermined current value.

  13. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton-lead collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2016-01-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 [Formula: see text]b[Formula: see text] of proton-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The [Formula: see text] collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the [Formula: see text] collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber-Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. Charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon-nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of [Formula: see text] collisions.

  14. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton-lead collisions at √{s_{_ {NN}}} = 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. 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A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. 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H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μ b^{-1} of proton-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of √{s_{_ {NN}}} = 5.02 {TeV} using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber-Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. Charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon-nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] collisions.

  15. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton–lead collisions at $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; ...

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μb-1 of proton–lead collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy ofmore » $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The ρ + Ρb collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the ρ + Ρb collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber–Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. In conclusion, charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon–nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of ρ + Ρb collisions.« less

  16. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton–lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. 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A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Dwuznik, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. 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L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodrigues, L.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, A.; Rose, M.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaelicke, A.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherwood, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramania, HS.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μb-1 of proton–lead collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The ρ + Ρb collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the ρ + Ρb collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber–Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. In conclusion, charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon–nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of ρ + Ρb collisions.

  17. Canada Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a net exporter of most energy commodities and a significant producer of crude oil and other liquids from oil sands, natural gas, and hydroelectricity. Energy exports to the United States account for the vast majority of Canada's total energy exports. However, because of economic and other considerations, Canada is developing ways to diversify its trading partners, especially by expanding ties with emerging markets in Asia.

  18. Photoconductivity of CdTe Nanocrystal-Based Thin Films. Te2- Ligands Lead To Charge Carrier Diffusion Lengths Over 2 Micrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Ryan W.; Callahan, Rebecca; Reid, Obadiah G.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Rumbles, Garry; Luther, Joseph M.; Kopidakis, Nikos

    2015-11-16

    We report on photoconductivity of films of CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) using time-resolved microwave photoconductivity (TRMC). Spherical and tetrapodal CdTe NCs with tunable size-dependent properties are studied as a function of surface ligand (including inorganic molecular chalcogenide species) and annealing temperature. Relatively high carrier mobility is measured for films of sintered tetrapod NCs (4 cm2/(V s)). Our TRMC findings show that Te2- capped CdTe NCs show a marked improvement in carrier mobility (11 cm2/(V s)), indicating that NC surface termination can be altered to play a crucial role in charge-carrier mobility even after the NC solids are sintered into bulk films.

  19. Bias tuning charge-releasing leading to negative differential resistance in amorphous gallium oxide/Nb:SrTiO3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. C.; Li, P. G.; Zhi, Y. S.; Guo, D. Y.; Pan, A. Q.; Zhan, J. M.; Liu, H.; Shen, J. Q.; Tang, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Negative differential resistance (NDR) and bipolar resistive switching (RS) phenomena were observed in Au/Ga2O3-x/Nb:SrTiO3/Au heterostructures fabricated by growing amorphous gallium oxide thin films on 0.7%Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. The RS behavior is reproducible and stable without the forming process. The NDR phenomenon happened during the course of RS from low resistance state to high resistance state and was dependent much on the applied forward bias. The bias dependent charge releasing from oxygen vacancies was considered to contribute to the NDR behavior. The results show that there is a very close relationship between NDR and RS.

  20. Oligothiophene/graphene supramolecular ensembles managing light induced processes: preparation, characterization, and femtosecond transient absorption studies leading to charge-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, A.; Gobeze, H. B.; Petsalakis, I. D.; Zhao, S.; Shinohara, H.; D'Souza, F.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-09-01

    Advances in organic synthetic chemistry combined with the exceptional electronic properties of carbon allotropes, particularly graphene, is the basis used to design and fabricate novel electron donor-acceptor ensembles with desired properties for technological applications. Thiophene-based materials, which are mainly thiophene-containing polymers, are known for their notable electronic properties. In this frame moving from polymer to oligomer forms, new fundamental information would help for a better understanding of their electrochemical and photophysical properties. Furthermore, a successful combination of their electronic properties with those of graphene is a challenging goal. In this study, two oligothiophene compounds, which consist of three and nine thiophene-rings and are abbreviated 3T and 9T, respectively, were synthesized and noncovalently associated with liquid phase exfoliated few-layered graphene sheets (abbreviated eG), thus forming donor-acceptor 3T/eG and 9T/eG nanoensembes. Markedly, intra-ensemble electronic interactions between the two components in the ground and excited states were evaluated with the aid of UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, redox assays revealed the one-electron oxidation of 3T accompanied by one-electron reduction due to eG in 3T/eG, whereas there were two reversible one-electron oxidations of 9T accompanied by one-electron reduction of eG9T/eG. The electrochemical band gap for the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles were calculated and verified, in which the negative free-energy change for the charge-separated state of 3T/eG and 9T/eGvia the singlet excited state of 3T and 9T, respectively, were thermodynamically favorable. Finally, the results of transient pump-probe spectroscopy studies at the femtosecond time scale were supportive of charge transfer type interactions in the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles. The estimated rates for intra-ensemble charge separation were found to be 9.52 × 109 s-1 and 2.2 × 1011 s-1

  1. The lateral distributions of charged particles of energy greater than 0.3 E sub crit in electron-photon cascades in lead and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, A.; Krys, E.

    1985-01-01

    In recent investigations, both theoretical and experimental, the agreement between cascade theory and experimental data is pointed out. The radial distributions obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation are compared ith the results of the analytical theory for all particles in cascades. The data on the mean radius of electron lateral distribution in air are compared with those in lead.

  2. Canada: The Neglected Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutan, Gerard F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Canada as a neglected area of political study. Suggests the inclusion of Canada in the comparative politics curriculum because it offers rich comparative opportunities with its cultural pluralism, parliamentary system, and authentic federalism. Lists associations and funding sources for Canadian studies and recommends several textbooks.…

  3. Canada: The Neglected Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutan, Gerard F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Canada as a neglected area of political study. Suggests the inclusion of Canada in the comparative politics curriculum because it offers rich comparative opportunities with its cultural pluralism, parliamentary system, and authentic federalism. Lists associations and funding sources for Canadian studies and recommends several textbooks.…

  4. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of hydroxyquinolines: hydroxyl group position dependent dipole moment and charge-separation in the photoexcited state leading to fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Mehata, Mohan Singh; Singh, Ajay K; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-11-17

    Optical absorption and fluorescence (FL) spectra of 2-, 6-, 7-, 8-hydroxyquinolines (2-,6-,7- and 8-HQs) have been measured at room temperature in the wide range of solvents of different polarities, dielectric constant and refractive index. The ground state dipole moment (µ g) and excited state dipole moment (µ e) of 2-, 6-, 7- and 8-HQs were obtained using solvatochromic shift (SS) methods and microscopic solvent polarity parameters (MSPP). Change in the dipole moment (Δµ) between the ground and photo-excited states was estimated from SS and MSPP methods. DFT and TDDFT based theoretical calculations were performed for the ground and excited states dipole moments, and for vertical transitions. A significant enhancement in the excited state dipole moment was observed following photo-excitation. The large value of Δµ clearly indicates to the charge-separation in the photo-excited states, which in turn depends on the position of the hydroxyl group in the ring.

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of hydroxyquinolines: hydroxyl group position dependent dipole moment and charge-separation in the photoexcited state leading to fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Mehata, Mohan; Singh, Ajay K.; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Optical absorption and fluorescence (FL) spectra of 2-, 6-, 7-, 8-hydroxyquinolines (2-,6-,7- and 8-HQs) have been measured at room temperature in the wide range of solvents of different polarities, dielectric constant and refractive index. The ground state dipole moment (µ g) and excited state dipole moment (µ e) of 2-, 6-, 7- and 8-HQs were obtained using solvatochromic shift (SS) methods and microscopic solvent polarity parameters (MSPP). Change in the dipole moment (Δµ) between the ground and photo-excited states was estimated from SS and MSPP methods. DFT and TDDFT based theoretical calculations were performed for the ground and excited states dipole moments, and for vertical transitions. A significant enhancement in the excited state dipole moment was observed following photo-excitation. The large value of Δµ clearly indicates to the charge-separation in the photo-excited states, which in turn depends on the position of the hydroxyl group in the ring.

  7. Study of electrochemically active carbon, Ga2O3 and Bi2O3 as negative additives for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries working under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Baishuang; Wu, Jinzhu; Wang, Dianlong

    2014-02-01

    Electrochemically active carbon (EAC), Gallium (III) oxide (Ga2O3) and Bismuth (III) oxide (Bi2O3) are used as the negative additives of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries to prolong the cycle life of VRLA batteries under high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) conditions, and their effects on the cycle life of VRLA batteries are investigated. It is found that the addition of EAC in negative active material can restrain the sulfation of the negative plates and prolong the cycle performance of VRLA batteries under HRPSoC conditions. It is also observed that the addition of Ga2O3 or Bi2O3 in EAC can effectively increase the overpotential of hydrogen evolution on EAC electrodes, and decrease the evolution rate of hydrogen. An appropriate addition amount of Ga2O3 or Bi2O3 in the negative plates of VRLA batteries can decrease the cut-off charging voltage, increase the cut-off discharging voltage, and prolong the cycle life of VRLA batteries under HRPSoC conditions. The battery added with 0.5% EAC and 0.01% Ga2O3 in negative active material shows a lowest cut-off charging voltage and a highest cut-off discharging voltage under HRPSoC conditions, and its' cycle life reaches about 8100 cycles which is at least three times longer than that without Ga2O3.

  8. Post-Secondary Education in Canada: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappon, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Canada has one of the most highly educated populations in the world, but its position is increasingly vulnerable, particularly when considered against the deliberate measures that other leading nations are taking to enhance their postsecondary education (PSE) systems. The absence of national data makes it difficult for Canada to measure its PSE…

  9. Je voyage au Canada (Travelling to Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Normand

    Designed for use in a bilingual program, this basic French reader centers around a trip to Canada. It contains reading selections, two short poems, the words and music of a song entitled "La cigale et la fourmi," and several oral and written exercises. (PMP)

  10. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  11. [Fellowship in Canada: instructions].

    PubMed

    Le Ray, C; Wavrant, S; Hudon, L; Audibert, F

    2009-04-01

    In North America, postdoctoral fellowships are proposed to physicians and surgeons after their residency to obtain an expertise in a specific domain of their speciality. In obstetrics and gynecology, three fellowship programs are accredited by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada: maternal fetal medicine, gynaecological oncology and reproductive endocrinology and infertility. A two-year fellowship in Canada provides a great professional and personal experience. We present here the organization of these programs and the conditions to be admitted in a fellowship program in Canada.

  12. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-11

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on August 4, 2005.

  13. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  14. Canada: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Little, J; Potter, B; Allanson, J; Caulfield, T; Carroll, J C; Wilson, B

    2009-01-01

    Canada has a diverse population of 32 million people and a universal, publicly funded health care system provided through provincial and territorial health insurance plans. Public health activities are resourced at provincial/territorial level with strategic coordination from national bodies. Canada has one of the longest-standing genetics professional specialty organizations and is one of the few countries offering master's level training designed specifically for genetic counselors. Prenatal screening is offered as part of routine clinical prenatal services with variable uptake. Surveillance of the effect of prenatal screening and diagnosis on the birth prevalence of congenital anomalies is limited by gaps and variations in surveillance systems. Newborn screening programs vary between provinces and territories in terms of organization and conditions screened for. The last decade has witnessed a four-fold increase in requests for genetic testing, especially for late onset diseases. Tests are performed in provincial laboratories or outside Canada. There is wide variation in participation in laboratory quality assurance schemes, and there are few regulatory frameworks in Canada that are directly relevant to genetics testing services or population genetics. Health technology assessment in Canada is conducted by a diverse range of organizations, several of which have produced reports related to genetics. Several large-scale population cohort studies are underway or planned, with initiatives to harmonize their conduct and the management of ethical issues, both within Canada and with similar projects in other countries.

  15. Philosophical Differences. The Open-mindedness of Publicly Funded Catholic Schools in Canada Challenges American Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how the open-mindedness of publicly-funded Catholic schools in Canada has challenged American preconceptions on funding of parochial schools. In Canada, parochial education has been publicly funded since 1867. On the other hand, parochial schools in America must charge tuition fees and engage in extensive fund…

  16. Philosophical Differences. The Open-mindedness of Publicly Funded Catholic Schools in Canada Challenges American Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how the open-mindedness of publicly-funded Catholic schools in Canada has challenged American preconceptions on funding of parochial schools. In Canada, parochial education has been publicly funded since 1867. On the other hand, parochial schools in America must charge tuition fees and engage in extensive fund…

  17. Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, V. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

  18. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... State Canada, Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc... Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker State Canada, Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co....

  19. Millennials: Leading the Charge for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2011-01-01

    No conversation about student leadership would be complete without a closer look at the population of students who sit in classrooms today, their traits and hopes for the future, to determine what kind of leaders they are likely to make. They are in fact the Millennials--born between 1982 and perhaps 2004. And the Millennials, also known as the…

  20. Onchocerciasis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Seah, S K

    1974-03-16

    The first two cases of onchocerciasis seen in Canada are reported. The patients had come from West Africa to study in Canada several months prior to admission to hospital. The presenting symptom in each case was intense pruritus. One of the patients had early ocular involvement. The diagnosis was made by means of microscopic examination of a skin snip. The subcutaneous nodule excised from one of the patients showed the adult Onchocerca volvulus. Both patients also had urinary schistosomiasis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment and public health aspects of onchocerciasis are discussed.

  1. Onchocerciasis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Seah, S. K. K.

    1974-01-01

    The first two cases of onchocerciasis seen in Canada are reported. The patients had come from West Africa to study in Canada several months prior to admission to hospital. The presenting symptom in each case was intense pruritus. One of the patients had early ocular involvement. The diagnosis was made by means of microscopic examination of a skin snip. The subcutaneous nodule excised from one of the patients showed the adult Onchocerca volvulus. Both patients also had urinary schistosomiasis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment and public health aspects of onchocerciasis are discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4817212

  2. Revisiting Health Regionalization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Barker, Paul; Church, John

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, many of Canada's provinces began to introduce regional health authorities to address problems with their health care systems. With this action, the provinces sought to achieve advances in community decision-making, the integration of health services, and the provision of care in the home and community. The authorities were also to help restrict health care costs. An assessment of the authorities indicates, however, that over the past two decades they have been unable to meet their objectives. Community representatives continue to play little role in determining the appropriate health services for their regions. Gains have been made towards integrating health services, but the plan for a near seamless set of health services has not been realized. Funding for health services remains focused on hospital and physician care, and health care expenditures have until very recently been little affected by regional authorities. This disappointing performance has caused some provinces to abandon their regional authorities, but this article argues that the provision of greater autonomy and a better public appreciation of their role and potential may lead to more successful regional authorities. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to reveal the shortcomings of regional health authorities in Canada while at the same time arguing that changes can be made to increase the chances of more workable authorities.

  3. Acid precipitation in Canada

    Treesearch

    P. W. Summers; D. M. Whelpdale

    1976-01-01

    The total annual emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in Canada are estimated to be 7.2 x 106 tons and 1.4 x 106 tons, respectively. These figures represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the estimated worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the Canadian SO2 emissions come from...

  4. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  5. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-30

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on 18 September 2006.

  6. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-10-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  7. Teaching Canada: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    This resource bibliography with over 500 descriptive annotations on Canada, a product of a conference on Canadian Studies held at the University of Maine, Orono, in September, 1969, is designed to make teachers of social studies and other fields at both the elementary and secondary levels more aware of the variety of available teaching materials…

  8. Press Councils in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddick, David B.

    Established in the early 1970s to respond to complaints about and from the media, the four press councils in Canada (the Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Windsor Press Councils) have been accepted, but not overwhelmingly so by either newspapers or the public. The success and acceptability of the councils seems to be related to the kinds of complaints…

  9. Teacher Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuland, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Teacher education programmes within Canada are markedly different in structure and duration across the provinces, which affects programme delivery for teacher candidates and their opportunities for clinical practice. This paper provides a brief overview of Canadian pre-service teacher education, a summary of new teacher induction and mentoring…

  10. Child Welfare in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

  11. Update on Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  12. Canada in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paz, Shoshana

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Canadian Space Agency. Explains that Canada's space program grew out of the need to manage resources and communicate over large distances. Reports that the small Canadian space industry is growing rapidly. Describes Canadian cooperation in international space programs. Identifies space careers and examines the future…

  13. Community Radio in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Results are presented of a survey of 20 community radio organizations operating in Canada. For each of the 20 agencies, information is provided relating to: (1) the name and address of the organization; (2) the name and population of the community served; (3) the station's call letters, frequency, and power; (4) the date of the station's license;…

  14. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  15. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost…

  16. Up From Suffrage: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulaninec, John S.

    Influences on the political and economic status of women in Canada between World Wars I and II are discussed, with emphasis on the struggle to enfranchise women on the provincial level, legislative precedents, and the relationship between educational achievement and economic opportunity. Data are derived from historical accounts; trade union…

  17. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

  18. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  19. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  20. IYPE in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, www.EarthsciencesCanada.com. The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  1. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease.

  2. Gasoline sniffing and lead encephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gasoline sniffing is endemic in northern Manitoba and perhaps throughout much of northern Canada. Its most serious complication is lead encephalopathy, which can be fatal. Most of the toxic effects are thought to be due to tetraethyl lead and its metabolites. The specific treatment is chelation therapy, for which a protocol has been developed at the Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg. Lead encephalopathy, however, is a manifestation of social, cultural and psychologic malaise. PMID:7139470

  3. Canada's physical activity guides: background, process, and development.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources).

  4. Acid rain: the Canada connection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    A review of a controversial new book called The Silent Alliance is presented. The book deals with very sensitive issues: acid rain, electricity imports from Canada, and Canada's alleged role in US acid rain legislation. Canadian officials are accused of lobbying strenuously for acid rain legislation in the US so Canada can increase its already large electricity exports to the US. It is concluded that the wide divergence between Canada's statements and practice on acid rain, and the numerous incentives to export additional electricity, should cause the US to examine Canada's lobbying efforts critically.

  5. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  6. Charge-ordering transitions without charge differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yundi; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren

    2013-03-01

    The distorted perovskite nickelate system RNiO3 (R=rare earth except La) undergoes a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a temperature that varies smoothly with the R ionic radius. This MIT is accompanied by structural transition which leads to two inequivalent Ni sites in the cell, and has been explained by charge ordering (CO): charge is transferred between the Ni1 and Ni2 sites in a long-range ordered fashion. Experimental data on core binding energies, ionic radii, and Mossbauer shifts are interpreted in terms of Ni cation charges of 3 +/- δ with, for example, δ ~ 0.3 for YNiO3. Making use of first principles DFT results and a new approach not invoking integration of the charge density, we find[2] that the Ni 3 d occupation is identical (to high accuracy) for the two Ni sites. We also present results for other compounds (La2VCuO6, YNiO3, CaFeO3, AgNiO2, V4O7), all of which have distinct ``charge states'' that have identical 3 d occupation. This quantitative procedure will be discussed and some implications will be outlined. DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER46111 and Ramon y Cajal Program

  7. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  8. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Conly, John

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in β-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance. PMID:12406948

  10. Midwifery education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michelle M; Hutton, Eileen K; McNiven, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a special series on midwifery education and describes the approach to midwifery education in Canada We begin with an overview of the model of midwifery practice introduced in Canada in the 1990s. We describe the model of midwifery education developed and report how it is implemented, with particular attention to the two longest established programs. Midwifery education programs in Ontario and British Columbia. Midwifery education programs in Canada are offered at the undergraduate baccalaureate level at universities and are typically four years in length. Programs are competence-based and follow a spiral curriculum. The first semesters focus on on core sciences, social sciences and introduction to midwifery concepts. Students spend fifty percent of the program in clinical practices with community-based midwives. Innovative education models enable students to be placed in distant placements and help to align theoretical and practice components. Clinically active faculty adds to the credibility of teaching but bring its own challenges for midwifery educators. The Canadian model of midwifery education has been very effective with low attrition rates and high demand for the number of places available. Further program expansion is warranted but is contingent on the growth of clinical placements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction between heterogeneously charged surfaces: Surface patches and charge modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2013-02-01

    When solid surfaces are immersed in aqueous solutions, some of their charges can dissociate and leave behind charged patches on the surface. Although the charges are distributed heterogeneously on the surface, most of the theoretical models treat them as homogeneous. For overall non-neutral surfaces, the assumption of surface charge homogeneity is rather reasonable since the leading terms of two such interacting surfaces depend on the nonzero average charge. However, for overall neutral surfaces the nature of the surface charge distribution is crucial in determining the intersurface interaction. In the present work we study the interaction between two charged surfaces across an aqueous solution for several charge distributions. The analysis is preformed within the framework of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For periodic charge distributions the interaction is found to be repulsive at small separations, unless the two surface distributions are completely out-of-phase with respect to each other. For quenched random charge distributions we find that due to the presence of the ionic solution in between the surfaces, the intersurface repulsion dominates over the attraction in the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The effect of quenched charge heterogeneity is found to be particularly substantial in the case of large charged domains.

  12. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  13. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    PubMed

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Canada Chair in hypertension prevention and control: A pilot project

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Norm RC

    2007-01-01

    A five-year pilot project was initiated in Canada to fund an individual to lead the effort in improving hypertension prevention and control. As the initial recipient of the funding, the author’s objectives were to provide leadership to improve the management of hypertension through enhancements to the Canadian Hypertension Education Program, to increase public knowledge of hypertension, to reduce the prevalence of hypertension by reducing dietary sodium additives and to develop a comprehensive hypertension surveillance program. The initiative has received strong support from the hypertension community, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, and many Canadian health care professional and scientific organizations. Progress has been made on all objectives. The pilot project was funded by The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and sanofi-aventis, in partnership with Blood Pressure Canada, and will finish in July 2011. PMID:17534462

  15. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  16. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  17. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  18. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) Patient Information Sheet Lead Toxicity What is lead? How are people exposed to lead? • Lead is a soft, blue- ...

  19. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of lead in household dust. DRINKING WATER: Lead may get into drinking water when materials used in plumbing materials, such as ... and dishware. Lead may also be in contaminated water. Lead poisoning is harmful to human health and ...

  20. Lead toxicity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates. PMID:27486361

  1. Lead toxicity: a review.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ab Latif; Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates.

  2. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout. PMID:14143681

  3. Suicide in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McFaull, Steven; Rhodes, Anne E.; Bowes, Matthew; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare Canadian suicide rates with other external causes of death to examine potential poisoning misclassifications as a contributor to suicide underreporting. Method: The study used Statistics Canada mortality data from 2000 to 2011 to calculate sex-and age-specific ratios by external cause of injury codes. Results: The overall Canadian suicide rate, as well as the poisoning suicide rate, declined over the study timeframe by an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 1.0% each year. However, unintentional and undetermined poisonings increased significantly during the timeframe. Unintentional poisoning mortality (primarily narcotics and hallucinogens, including opioids) increased in proportion to suicides for both sexes, although females were consistently higher. The undetermined death to suicide ratio was higher and increasing for females. Poisonings of undetermined intent increased over time to comprise 47% to 80% of the undetermined death category for males and females combined. Conclusions: Canadian poisoning suicide rates declined, in contrast to rising unintentional and undetermined poisoning mortality rates. This trend is similar to that of the United States, supporting the hypothesis that misclassification of poisoning deaths may also be an issue in Canada.

  4. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  5. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  6. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  7. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  8. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  9. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  10. E-Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry

    2007-01-01

    A principal characteristic of the Canadian experience with e-learning is the uniquely Canadian feature of provincial jurisdiction over education. Canada is the only country that does not have a national department or ministry of education. Therefore, any investigation of e-learning in Canada must focus more on specific provincial initiatives in…

  11. Education in Canada: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Paula

    This reference book provides a basic understanding of how education works in Canada, from preschool to adult education. Chapter 1 examines Canada's elementary and secondary schools and covers: (1) decision making for public schools (roles and responsibilities of provincial, local, and federal governments); (2) paying for public education (revenue…

  12. In Canada, Business Schools Lead Push for Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewington, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    At Canadian universities, business schools are light-years ahead of the rest of the campus in raising their global profile. Intensive foreign-student-recruitment efforts, friendly Canadian immigration rules, mandatory study-abroad requirements, and, in some cases, the option to pursue programs in multiple languages have combined to pack a punch in…

  13. In Canada, Business Schools Lead Push for Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewington, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    At Canadian universities, business schools are light-years ahead of the rest of the campus in raising their global profile. Intensive foreign-student-recruitment efforts, friendly Canadian immigration rules, mandatory study-abroad requirements, and, in some cases, the option to pursue programs in multiple languages have combined to pack a punch in…

  14. Evaluation of permanently charged electrofibrous filters

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.; Bergman, W.

    1982-10-18

    These studies showed that loading the permanently charged filters with captured aerosols will lead to a neutralization of the filter charge. The transfer from the captured aerosol to the fiber surface and the subsequent neutralization of fiber charge. The increased efficiency is due to the additional mechanical capture by the particle deposits. The minimum efficiency obtained during the loading of solid aerosols is determined by the aerosol charge, with highly charged aerosols producing a lower minimum. Permanently charged filters lose their fiber charge when exposed to organic solvents or ionic water solutions. The fiber charge neutralization was minimized by coating the charged fibers with a polymer. Several different coating techniques were examined. Unfortunately, preventing the neutralization of fiber charge is not sufficient to prevent a deterioration of filter efficiency.

  15. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John R.; Jarvis, Anita A.

    1964-01-01

    A recent survey was carried out with respect to radiobiological and radiological health projects in Canada. Letters of inquiry, followed by two questionnaires, were sent out to every institution where radiation research was likely to have been undertaken. Approximately 75% of those contacted replied. Of the total of 200 studies, 84% were classified as biological and medical studies, the remaining 16% as environmental radiation studies. Responses to the inquiry stressed the inadequacy of the present governmental budget for radiation research, the need for higher salaries for research workers, and the necessity of a more intensive teaching program for technicians and professional personnel. The granting of longer-term grants, rather than annually renewable grants, is urged. PMID:14226104

  16. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Tectonics of Atlantic Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, H.; Dehler, S.A.; Grant, A.C.; Oakey, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    The tectonic history of Atlantic Canada is summarized according to a model of multiple ocean opening-closing cycles. The modern North Atlantic Ocean is in the opening phase of its cycle. It was preceded by an early Paleozoic lapetus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Appalachian Orogen. lapetus was preceded by the Neoproterozoic Uranus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Grenville Orogen. The phenomenon of coincident, or almost coincident orogens and modern continental margins that relate to repeated ocean opening-closing cycles is called the Accordion Effect. An understanding of the North Atlantic Ocean and its continental margins provides insights into the nature of lapetus and the evolution of the Appalachian Orogen. Likewise, an understanding of lapetus and the Appalachian Orogen raises questions about Uranus and the development of the Grenville Orogen. Modern tectonic patterns in the North Atlantic may have been determined by events that began before 1000 m.y.

  18. Diavik Mine, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-13

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Diavik Mine in northern Canada.The largest diamond found in North America came from the Diavik Mine. The Foxfire diamond weighs an impressive 187 carats, and was discovered in August 2015; it has been displayed in several museums throughout North America. The Diavik mine is located on an island in Lac de Gras, within the Lac de Gras kimberlite field, among other diamond mines. The image was acquired September 23, 2016, covers an area of 13.8 by 19.4 km, and is located at 64.5 degrees north, 110.2 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21536

  19. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Compromised wounds in Canada.

    PubMed

    Denny, Keith; Lawand, Christina; Perry, Sheril D

    2014-01-01

    Wounds are a serious healthcare issue with profound personal, clinical and economic implications. Using a working definition of compromised wounds, this study examines the prevalence of wounds by type and by healthcare setting using data from hospitals, home care, hospital-based continuing care and long-term care facilities within fiscal year 2011-2012 in Canada. It also evaluates several risk factors associated with wounds, such as diabetes, circulatory disease and age. Compromised wounds were reported in almost 4% of in-patient acute hospitalizations and in more than 7% of home care clients, almost 10% of long-term care clients and almost 30% of hospital-based continuing care clients. Patients with diabetes were much more likely to have a compromised wound than were patients without the disease. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  2. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Prince Patrick Island, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-26

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Prince Patrick Island, which is located in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and is the westernmost Elizabeth Island in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The island is underlain by sedimentary rocks, cut by still-active faults. The streams follow a dendritic drainage system: there are many contributing streams (analogous to the twigs of a tree), which are then joined together into the tributaries of the main river (the branches and the trunk of the tree, respectively). They develop where the river channel follows the slope of the terrain. The image covers an area of 22 by 27 km, was acquired July 2, 2011, and is located at 76.9 degrees north, 118.9 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19222

  4. 75 FR 49945 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-249 and 731-TA-262, 263, and 265 (Third Review)] Iron Construction... iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... antidumping duty orders on iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and China would likely lead to...

  5. THE CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE ON CORROSION CONTROL: HEALTH CANADA'S CORROSION CONTROL GUIDELINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Canada has proposed a Corrosion Control Guideline, based on lead, which is undergoing public consultation and expected to be finalized in 2007. In Canada, there are no regulations and little guidance to address corrosion problems and existing sampling methods are inappropr...

  6. Immigration and Language Policy and Planning in Quebec and Canada: Language Learning and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrick, Maeve; Donovan, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The connections between immigration and language policy and planning in Quebec and Canada are long established. With the continuing upward trajectory in levels of immigration to Canada and Quebec the linguistic integration of these new arrivals remains an important topic. In recent years, Asia has overtaken Europe as the leading source of…

  7. Immigration and Language Policy and Planning in Quebec and Canada: Language Learning and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrick, Maeve; Donovan, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The connections between immigration and language policy and planning in Quebec and Canada are long established. With the continuing upward trajectory in levels of immigration to Canada and Quebec the linguistic integration of these new arrivals remains an important topic. In recent years, Asia has overtaken Europe as the leading source of…

  8. The Portrayal of Canada in American Textbooks. Occasional Paper Number Twenty-two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinger, Marion C.; Wilson, Donald C.

    A new awareness of the importance of understanding Canada has made its way to U.S. public school classrooms. Canada and the Canadian-U.S. relationship have joined the spectrum of countries featured in the U.S. curriculum. As a response to this development, an investigation of leading textbooks used in U.S. classrooms was undertaken to examine the…

  9. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  10. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada.... Even though Canada in theory opened a window for family reunification in the postwar era by removing long-standing discriminatory clauses blocking Chinese immigration, in practice cold war geopolitics led the Chinese to shut that window, blocking nearly all emigration. Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIs [mainland Chinese immigrants] the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT)

  11. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 Mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada, which existing structural models of migration, emphasizing factors in the destination country, do not fully capture. Conditions in the country of origin, and geopolitical relationships between China and Canada, played a decisive role in this migration.... Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIS the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT)

  12. Personal finances of urology residents in Canada.

    PubMed

    Teichman, J M; Tongco, W; MacNeily, A E; Smart, M

    2000-12-01

    We examined how Urology residents in Canada manage their personal finances. A survey instrument was designed to elicit information on demographics, expenses, savings and incomes. The questionnaire was completed by 40 Urology residents attending the 2000 Queen's Urology Exam Skills Training (QUEST) program. Twenty-eight residents (70%) had educational debt (median debt $50 000). Seventeen residents (45%) paid credit card interest charges within the last year. Four residents (10%) maintained an unpaid credit card balance > $7500 at 17% annual interest rate. Twenty-six residents (67%) contributed to Registered Retirement Savings Program (RRSP) accounts. Seventeen residents (44%) contributed to non-RRSP retirement accounts. Nineteen residents (50%) budgeted expenses. Median resident income was $45 000. Thirteen residents (34%) had cash reserves < $250. Many residents save little, and incur substantial debt over and above educational loans. Many residents would benefit from instruction concerning prudent financial management. Residents should be informed of the consequences of low saving and high debt.

  13. Food control systems in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, T M; Jukes, D J

    1997-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the responsibilities and jurisdictional boundaries of Health Canada (HC) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) with regard to food regulation in Canada. It examines their interagency coordination within the federal structure and with other levels of government, industry, and the consumer. The international developments are considered with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Canada, United States Trade Agreement (CUSTA) being regarded as likely to have a significant future impact. The federal food safety and quality system is complex and fragmented. Federal food regulation comes under the jurisdiction of four federal departments: HC, AAFC, Industry Canada (IC), and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC). All four departments are involved with inspection, surveillance, and the analysis of food sold in Canada. In addition, Canada's ten provincial and two territorial governments have provincial-, regional-, municipal-, and local-level governments that also have jurisdiction over food safety and quality. Consideration is first given to the main legislative provision covering food--the Federal Food and Drugs Act. This Act is administered by several of the Federal Government departments. The role of these departments is examined individually along with additional, more specific legal provisions for which responsibility is not divided (in particular, the Canada Agricultural Products [CAP] Act administered by AAFC, and the Consumer Packaging and Labeling Act [CPLA] administered by IC). The various reviews that have taken place in the recent past and those still in progress are considered, and the final part of this paper looks at the international developments that are likely to have a major impact on the future development of the Canadian food control system.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gerald R.

    2004-01-01

    The United States is a major producer and consumer of refined lead, representing almost one quarter of total world production and consumption. Two mines in Alaska and six in Missouri accounted for 97 percent of domestic lead production in 2002. The United States also imports enough refined lead to satisfy almost 20 percent of domestic consumption. Other major producers or consumers of refined lead in the world are Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom.

  15. Canada and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Washington Post 107:Cl, 18 February 1984. Bayless, Alan . Canada, anxious over drop in gas sales to U.S., prods exporters to fulfill pacts. Wall Street...advancing legal challenge to Canada’s investment policies. Wall Street Journal 106:4, 30 March 1982. Rugman , A. M. Canadian rc ,urces and American...States and Canada in the Gulf of Maine. American Journal of International Law 75:590- 628, July 1981. Riding, Alan . Good neighbor policy isn’t good enough

  16. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  17. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-03

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  18. Triboelectric and plasma charging of microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijmans, L. C. J.; Nijdam, S.

    2016-06-01

    The charge on two sets of 100 μm polystyrene particles has been measured using their acceleration in an externally applied electric field. This allows for the measurement of the individual charge on multiple particles at the same time. It is found that particles will charge each other both positively and negatively due to the triboelectric effect. This leads to a broad particle-charge distribution with positive, negative and neutral particles. The particle charge can be largely removed by applying a plasma over the particle containing surface. After plasma charge removal, the particles are triboelectrically recharged when they come into contact with other materials.

  19. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  20. The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deusen, Roswell D.

    1973-01-01

    Study of Canada Goose in schools can provide opportunities for many activities such as poetry writing, art, ecosystems, and outdoor education. Provides some background information about these birds. (PS)

  1. Can Education Reform Canada's Criminals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the development of the existing correctional programs in Canada's prisons, some theories of criminality, and two competing views on the best way to reform criminals today. Also gives a short review of penitentiary education programs. (RK)

  2. Francophone Canada: The Other Solitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlan, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the influence of New France on Canadian history, focusing on the survival of a strong francophone culture in North America. Presents the politics, culture, and geography of Quebec, the center of French Canada. (DB)

  3. A Plan to Appreciate Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Yorke

    1971-01-01

    A plan is suggested for establishing a chain of ecology-wildlife interpretation centers throughout Canada emphasizing regional interpretation of the landscape. Wye Marsh Wildlife Center, Midland, Ontario, is described in detail. (BL)

  4. The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deusen, Roswell D.

    1973-01-01

    Study of Canada Goose in schools can provide opportunities for many activities such as poetry writing, art, ecosystems, and outdoor education. Provides some background information about these birds. (PS)

  5. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the second of a three-part series and particular emphasis is placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. Administrative and operational control procedures have been developed, involving prior approval of health safeguards in the radioisotope user's facilities and techniques, and systematic monitoring and inspection. Where necessary, a medical follow-up of accidents and excessive radiation exposures is carried out. In 1963 more than 1600 radioisotope licences were issued. Filmmonitoring service was provided to about 15,500 isotope and x-ray workers. Semiautomatic handling procedures have been developed to meet the increasing demand for film-monitoring services. Monitoring and inspection services have been provided for x-ray workers, and a committee has been formed to develop administrative procedures for health and safety control in x-ray work. Committees have also been set up to review the health and safety aspects of the operation of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. PMID:14146856

  6. Brain Canada: One Brain One Community.

    PubMed

    Jabalpurwala, Inez

    2016-11-02

    Building on the long history of neuroscience in Canada, Brain Canada is accelerating the funding of transformative brain research across Canada, primarily through an innovative $240-million CAN public-private partnership with the Government of Canada and numerous partners. This article describes Brain Canada's "One Brain One Community" approach and its views on international collaboration and the future of brain research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the condition. Children should also be assessed for iron deficiency and general nutrition consistent with AAP guidelines. BLLs ... raised blood lead concentrations should be tested for iron deficiency . Each person eliminates lead differently. Thus, laboratory tests ...

  8. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... through deteriorating paint, household dust, bare soil, air, drinking water, food, ceramics, home remedies, hair dyes and other ... an elevated blood lead level can easily result. Drinking water can also sometimes contribute to elevated blood lead ...

  9. Canadian Seismicity Catalogue - Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T.

    2003-04-01

    The first seismograph station in western Canada was installed in Victoria, BC, in 1898, under the Meteorological Service of Canada. By 1940, seismograph installations in Canada were amalgamated under the Dominion Observatory. The first short-period instruments were installed in western Canada in the early 1950's. The first digital instruments were installed in the mid-1970's. To date there are now 54 digital stations in western Canada that are routinely used in analysis as well as 2 paper-record stations. Detection ability has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Magnitude thresholds for locations vary over space and time reflecting seismicity levels, station distribution, and staffing levels. Currently the magnitude thresholds are (these do not necessarily equate to completeness levels): M=2.5-3.0 for western Canada; M=2.0 in the St Elias Mountains, YT, the northern Coast Mountains, BC, most of southern BC, and southwestern Alberta; M=1.0-1.5 in the Queen Charlotte Islands, southern Coast Mountains, and northern Vancouver Island; M=0.7-0.8 in southern Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. Events have been located with a variety of location programs over the years. A number of velocity models have been in use over time, currently resulting in a generic model for all of western Canada, and a model each for offshore, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and Vancouver Island. Recently purchased Antelope software will allow improved ability to maintain and possibly extend current magnitude thresholds as much of the daily analyst housekeeping tasks are decreased. Recent additions to the catalogue are regular computation of P-nodal and moment tensor solutions.

  10. How Canada can help global adolescent health mature.

    PubMed

    Vandermorris, Ashley; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-10

    There is an emerging focus on adolescent health within the global health community as we come to recognize that the adolescent years are formative in determining health and health-related behaviours across the life-course. Such attention is not only relevant on the global scale but is imperative in Canada as well. This commentary provides a brief review of recent investments targeting global adolescent health and presents five potential avenues for action which emerged out of the recent Canadian Partnership for Women and Children's Health (CanWaCH) Global Adolescent Health conference. These avenues are: (1) Demand data; (2) Embrace complexity; (3) Be holistic; (4) Engage adolescents; and (5) Commit to Canada. As international agencies signal their commitment to global adolescent health, Canada is well-positioned to lead this call to action by espousing the fundamental adolescent health tenets of advocacy, equity, justice, and collaboration in order to move this critical agenda forward.

  11. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, M.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and grain growth, which are coupled in a two-way process. Aims: We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension Df = 2. Methods: Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. Results: The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the charging state of grains. The greater the difference between the thermal velocities of the metal and the dominant molecular ion, the greater the change in the mean grain charge. Agglomerates have more negative excess charge on average than compact spherical particles of the same mass. The rise in the mean grain charge is proportional to N1/6 in the ion-dust limit. We find that grain charging in a non-stationary disc environment is expected to lead to similar results. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dust growth and settling in regions where the dust growth is limited by the so-called "electro-static barrier" do not prevent the dust material from remaining the dominant charge carrier.

  12. Grains charges in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bel, N.; Lafon, J. P.; Viala, Y. P.

    1989-01-01

    The charge of cosmic grains could play an important role in many astrophysical phenomena. It probably has an influence on the coagulation of grains and more generally on grain-grain collisions, and on interaction between charged particles and grains which could lead to the formation of large grains or large molecules. The electrostatic charge of grains depends mainly on the nature of constitutive material of the grain and on the physical properties of its environment: it results from a delicate balance between the plasma particle collection and the photoelectron emission, both of them depending on each other. The charge of the grain is obtained in two steps: (1) using the numerical model the characteristics of the environment of the grain are computed; (2) the charge of a grain which is embedded in this environment is determined. The profile of the equilibrium charge of some typical grains through different types of interstellar clouds is obtained as a function of the depth of the cloud. It is shown that the grain charge can reach high values not only in hot diffuse clouds, but also in clouds with higher densities. The results are very sensitive to the mean UV interstellar radiation field. Three parameters appear to be essential but with different levels of sensitivity of the charge: the gas density, the temperature, and the total thickness of the cloud.

  13. CHARGE Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Semanti; Chakraborty, Jayanta

    2012-12-01

    We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy), gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age), GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 μIU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient's karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness.[1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have described a boy with CHARGE

  14. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, H. E.

    1964-01-01

    Factors that may reduce the dose of radiation, from diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray procedures, to the patient and to the occupational and non-occupational worker are outlined. Suitable basic radiation measuring apparatus is described. It is recommended that, in diagnostic radiography, relatively high kilovoltage, proper cones, collimation and adequate filtration be used. Some specific recommendations are made concerning fluoroscopic, photoroentgen and portable x-ray examinations. Film monitoring of personnel is advisable. Examples are given of protective devices to lessen the dosage to the occupational worker. It is the responsibility of the radiologist or physician in charge to ensure that the x-ray equipment is safe to operate and the radiation dose to the patient is kept to a minimum. The roentgen output for all radiographic examinations should be known by the responsible user. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:14199820

  15. Nanomechanical Charge Detectors and Charge Shuttles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbe, Artur

    2001-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical resonators open the possibillities to build very sensitive detectors on a small length scale. We show how to operate simple nanomechanical wires as charge detectors. Combining nanomechanical motion with current transport via tunneling barriers may lead to very sensitive displacement detection. Additionaly, this combination can be a good candidate for a current standard, if Coulomb-Blockade effects are included. We show measurements on such a nanomechanical resonator shuttling single electrons at radio frequencies. The resulting tunneling current shows distinct features corresponding to the discrete mechanical eigenfrequencies of the pendulum. We report on measurements covering the temperature range from 300 K down to 4.2 K. We explain the I-V curve, which unexpectedly differs from previous theoretical predictions, with model calculations based on a Master equation approach.

  16. Proton charge extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Jesse R.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine how corrections to S -state energy levels En S in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to En S are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order rp/aB times the size of the leading order term. Our analysis thus dispels any concern that the larger relative size of this term for muonic hydrogen versus electronic hydrogen might account for the current discrepancy of proton radius measurements extracted from the two systems. Furthermore, the next-to-leading order term in powers of rp/aB that we derive from a dipole proton form factor is proportional to , rather than , as would be expected from the scalar nature of the form factor. The dependence of the finite-size correction on and higher odd-power moments is shown to be a general result for any spherically symmetric proton charge distribution. A method for computing the moment expansion of the finite-size correction to arbitrary order is introduced and the results are tabulated for principal quantum numbers up to n =7 .

  17. CHARGE BOTTLE FOR A MASS SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, P.H.

    1959-07-01

    Improved mass separator charge bottles are described for containing a dense charge of a chemical compound of copper, nickel, lead or other useful substance which is to be vaporized, and to the method of utilizing such improvcd charge bottles so that the chemical compound is vaporized from the under surface of the charge and thus permits the non-volatile portion thereof to fall to the bottom of the charge bottle where it does not form an obstacle to further evaporation. The charge bottle comprises a vertically disposed cylindrical portion, an inner re-entrant cylindrical portion extending axially and downwardly into the same from the upper end thereof, and evaporative source material in the form of a chemical compound compacted within the upper annular pontion of the charge bottle formed by the re-entrant cylindrical portion, whereby vapor from the chemical compound will pass outwardly from the charge bottle through an apertured closure.

  18. Lead Pencils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A study, undertaken to determine the lead content of paint on various pencils in the Goddard supply system, is reported. The survey found that lead content varied from .04 mg per pencil for carmine colored pencils to approximately 43 mg per pencil for yellow colored pencils. Results also show that yellow pencils had higher lead content than other colors analyzed. More detailed results are given in tabular form.

  19. Canada deserves a national health system.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, T W

    1997-01-01

    A defining--some would say peculiar--feature about Canada and Canadians is the strong position that we give social programs within our national identity. FORUM presents an essay by Dr. Thomas Noseworthy based on an address to the annual meeting of the Association of Canadian Medical Colleges in April 1996. In it, Dr. Noseworthy calls for a national health system. He sees the federal government retaining an important role in preserving medicare and, in fact, strengthening its powers in maintaining national consistency and standards. Dr. Noseworthy's views are contrary to the governmental decentralization and devolution of powers occurring across the country. In a "point/counterpoint" exchange on this issue, we have invited commentaries from three experts. Raisa Deber leads off by noting that while a national health system may be desirable, constitutional provisions would be an obstacle. Governments, says Deber, have an inherent conflict of interest between their responsibility for maintaining the health care system and their desire to shift costs. Michael Rachlis reminds us that medicare fulfills important economic as well as social objectives. It helps to support Canada's business competitiveness among other nations. The problem, say Rachlis, is that public financing of health care does not ensure an efficient delivery system. Michael Walker offers some reality orientation. He observes that Canada's health care system is based upon ten public insurance schemes with widely different attributes. While he supports a minimum standard of health care across the country, citizens should be able to purchase private medical insurance and have access to a parallel private health care delivery system. Ultimately, this debate is about who should control social programs: the provinces or the federal government? We'll let you, the readers, decide.

  20. Epidemiology of Hypertension in Canada: An Update.

    PubMed

    Padwal, Raj S; Bienek, Asako; McAlister, Finlay A; Campbell, Norm R C

    2016-05-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. The objective of this analysis was to perform a detailed update of the epidemiology of hypertension in Canada. Five population-based data sources were analyzed. We used the Canadian Health Measures Survey to determine the latest directly measured prevalence, awareness, and control estimates (2012-2013); the National Population Health Survey, and Canadian Community Health Survey to assess crude and age-standardized self-reported prevalence (1994-2013); the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System to assess administrative data-ascertained prevalence and mortality trends (1998-2010); and Intercontinental Medical Statistics Health data to examine antihypertensive drug-prescribing trends and costs (2007-2014). In 2012-2013, the prevalence of hypertension (defined as drug treatment for high BP or BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) in Canadian adults was 22.6%, and the proportion of disease controlled was 68.1%. In Canadians with diabetes, the prevalence (defined as drug treatment or BP ≥ 130/80 mm Hg) was 67.1%, and 60.1% of cases were controlled. Self-reported hypertension prevalence has increased by approximately 2-fold over nearly 2 decades. Age-standardized mortality rates are falling in hypertensive Canadians (from 9.4 to 7.9 deaths per 1000 individuals), but to a lesser extent than in nonhypertensive individuals. Total antihypertensive drug prescription volume has increased steadily since 2007 amid falling drug costs. Hypertension prevalence in Canada continues to rise. Increased use of antihypertensive drugs and improvements in control are apparent. Coordinated efforts to further improve the treatment and control of hypertension in Canada are needed. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan-bin

    2015-03-01

    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  2. Decadal variability of Arctic sea ice in the Canada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    A series of spring Arctic flight campaigns surveying a region over the Canada Basin, from 2006 to 2015, has resulted in unique observations that reveal new details of sea ice leads and freeboard evolution, during a decade of significant interannual variability in the Arctic ice cover. The series began in 2006 with a joint NASA/NOAA airborne altimetry campaign over a 1300 km survey line northwest of the Canadian Archipelago extending into the northern Beaufort Sea. Operation IceBridge (OIB) took up this flight line again in 2009 and repeated it annually through 2012. Additional observations have been collected along a 1000+ km flight line, in the southern Canada Basin and eastern Beaufort Sea, between 2009 and 2015. Here we examine laser altimetry, snow radar data, and high-resolution visible imagery to better understand the frequency and distribution of leads and ice floes, the characteristics of first- and multi-year ice types in the survey region, and their impact on the derivation and accuracy of sea ice freeboard. We demonstrate a novel lead detection methodology that depends only upon laser altimeter measurements, and we quantify the impact of low lead frequencies on estimates of instantaneous sea surface height. The analysis reveals a variable springtime freeboard north of 78° N, significantly reduced after 2006, and a notable lead outbreak over the Canada Basin during 2010.

  3. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  4. Modes of continental decretion in western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    Between the Archean Slave Province and the Pacific Ocean, the North American continent in Canada appears to have ‘grown’ westward during Paleoproterozoic (Wopmay) and Paleozoic-Mesozoic (Cordilleran) orogenesis. However, results from geological observations combined with regional geophysical surveys lead to interpretations in which pre-orogenic basement in both the Wopmay and the Cordillera projects far beneath proposed ‘accreted’ terranes. In the Wopmay orogen (1.89-1.84 Ga), deep geophysical images indicate that Archean Slave basement projects in the subsurface up to 50 km west of the Medial zone (formerly Wopmay fault), a boundary that was previously interpreted as the transition from Slave basement to accreted terrane basement. The Slave basement appears as a west-tapering tectonic wedge into accreted(?) rocks, consistent with an interpretation by Hildebrand and Bowring (Geology, 1999) that the Archean lithosphere that was formerly west of the wedge broke off and was recycled. In the Cordillera, cross sections of the lithosphere illustrate that lower crustal and upper mantle rocks as much as 2/3 of the distance across the orogen can be stratigraphically, geologically and seismically correlated to the ancient cratonic margin. Retrodeformation of rocks that were deposited on or adjacent to the craton leads to the conclusion that, prior to the onset of terrane accretion, the North American margin and associated rocks projected even farther west (today’s coordinates) - at least as far as the modern margin. Apparently, as flakes of terranes were added to the surface in the western regions of the Cordillera, the North American lithosphere, which may have been foreshortened during contraction, was tectonically and/or thermally eroded from below. As a result, terrane accretion in the Cordillera apparently resulted in a net decretion of continental lithosphere. Together, these observations lead to the interpretation that the processes responsible for

  5. TESL Canada: National Contributions to ESL Professionalism in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Catherine; May, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Professionalism is a goal for all English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers, and yet it is a concept whose precise definition remains elusive. Since its inception, "TESL Canada" has been engaged in activities promotion professionalism, most notably in the areas of advocacy, professional development, and national standards. This article…

  6. Multicultural Canada: A Graphic Overview = Un Canada Multicuturel: Representation Graphique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledoux, Michel; Pendakur, Ravi

    This graphic overview uses 28 bar and pie graphs to illustrate Canada's ethnic and linguistic diversity. Information was drawn primarily from 1986 census figures. The following categories are examined: (1) ethnic origin; (2) language; (3) visible minorities (nonwhites); (4) aboriginal peoples; and (5) immigration. Information is reported for the…

  7. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  8. Old age income security in Canada.

    PubMed

    Willard, J W

    1965-10-09

    The position of older people in modern industrial society is markedly removed from the early industrial norm of continued participation in gainful employment until the end of life. Acceptance of a retirement age some 13 years before the end of average male life expectancy has brought with it serious social problems. At the same time, however, an increasingly productive economy has provided both the willingness and ability to complement the retirement provisions of individual initiative with public programs of old age income maintenance. This public support began in Canada with the voluntary approach embodied in the government annuities plan. A program of "public assistance" followed. These were succeeded, first, by the "universal payment" under the Old Age Security Act and, more recently, by the social insurance approach of the Canada Pension Plan. Along with improved public support, the role of occupational pension plans and of individually initiated retirement provisions continues to be substantial. Current interest in, and in some cases legislation on, such problems as vesting and solvency are leading to improvements in private pension programs.

  9. Charge Compensation in RE3+ (RE = Eu, Gd) and M+ (M = Li, Na, K) Co-Doped Alkaline Earth Nanofluorides Obtained by Microwave Reaction with Reactive Ionic Liquids Leading to Improved Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lorbeer, C; Behrends, F; Cybinska, J; Eckert, H; Mudring, Anja -V

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline earth fluorides are extraordinarily promising host matrices for phosphor materials with regard to rare earth doping. In particular, quantum cutting materials, which might considerably enhance the efficiency of mercury-free fluorescent lamps or SC solar cells, are often based on rare earth containing crystalline fluorides such as NaGdF4, GdF3 or LaF3. Substituting most of the precious rare earth ions and simultaneously retaining the efficiency of the phosphor is a major goal. Alkaline earth fluoride nanoparticles doped with trivalent lanthanide ions (which are required for the quantum cutting phenomenon) were prepared via a microwave assisted method in ionic liquids. As doping trivalent ions into a host with divalent cations requires charge compensation, this effect was thoroughly studied by powder X-ray and electron diffraction, luminescence spectroscopy and 23Na, 139La and 19F solid state NMR spectroscopy. Monovalent alkali ions were codoped with the trivalent lanthanide ions to relieve stress and achieve a better crystallinity and higher quantum cutting abilities of the prepared material. 19F-magic angle spinning (MAS)-NMR-spectra, assisted by 19F{23Na} rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) studies, reveal distinct local fluoride environments, the populations of which are discussed in relation to spatial distribution and clustering models. In the co-doped samples, fluoride species having both Na+ and La3+ ions within their coordination sphere can be identified and quantified. This interplay of mono- and trivalent ions in the CaF2 lattice appears to be an efficient charge compensation mechanism that allows for improved performance characteristics of such co-doped phosphor materials.

  10. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  11. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Holzbauer, J. L.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  12. Whose North is It? Canada's Northern Sovereignty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the validity of Canada's claim to her Arctic regions. Discusses the idea of sovereignty and the bases upon which Canada and other nations have asserted ownership of the Arctic archipelago. (GEA)

  13. Numero Special: La Communication Technique au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Randy; Russell, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Introduces (in the French language) a special issue on technical communication in Canada. Describes aspects of employment, academia, organizations, conferences, and journals in the field of technical communication in Canada. (SR)

  14. Canada's Immigration Policy, 1962-74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parai, Louis

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in Canada's immigration policy are examined, and it is stressed that economic considerations play an increasingly important role in determining the composition of immigration into Canada. (Author)

  15. Lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-01

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly <001> textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300picocoulombs per newton (pCN-1), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416pCN-1. The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  16. Lead-free piezoceramics.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-04

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly <001> textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  17. Extreme DMSP Auroral Charging: Implications for Auroral Charging Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L. N.; Minow, J. I.

    2016-12-01

    One of the more important impacts of severe space weather events on spacecraft systems is surface charging that can result in operational impacts to space missions or even lead to catastrophic failure of critical spacecraft systems. Defining the extreme charging environments within the Earth's magnetosphere is therefore an important task because it not only identifies potential threats to currently operational spacecraft, but it also informs engineering design work on future space systems to assure they will be better able to withstand the most challenging charging environments encountered during extreme space weather events. This presentation will focus on the surface charging measurements available from low Earth orbit, high inclination satellites that can be used to provide insight into auroral charging conditions during extreme space weather events. We will first provide examples of extreme surface charging events identified in records from the SSJ/4 and SSJ/5 precipitating ion and electron sensors on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft. These instruments have been used for many years to characterize the auroral charging threat to spacecraft low Earth orbit at high latitudes. Next, we will discuss which specific space plasma environment parameters are of importance to specifying surface charging and how well these parameters can be characterized using the SSJ records. Finally, we will show examples of extreme charging and the corresponding environments and discuss the implications of the DMSP records for our ability to fully define the "worst case" extreme space weather events required to meet the National Space Weather Action Plan goals of characterizing extreme space weather event benchmarks.

  18. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  19. The effect of reagent charge state on the charge inversion efficiency of singly charged polyatomic ions in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Hassell, Kerry M; Hilger, Ryan T; McLuckey, Scott A

    2011-11-07

    A variety of combinations of oppositely charged ions have been reacted to examine the role of the charge state from a multiply protonated or multiply deprotonated reagent ion on the efficiency of conversion of a singly charged ion of opposite polarity to a singly charged ion of the same polarity as the reagent. Maximum efficiencies on the order of tens of percent were observed. A threshold for charge inversion was noted in all cases and, with one exception, a clear decrease in efficiency was also noted at high charge states. A model was developed to predict charge inversion efficiency based on charge states, cross-sections of the reactants, and relevant thermodynamic ion affinity values for the reactants and products. The model predicts a threshold for charge inversion, although the prediction does not match the observed threshold quantitatively. This discrepancy is likely due to a simplifying assumption that is not justified on a quantitative basis but which does reproduce the qualitative trend. The model does not predict the major decrease in efficiency at high charge states. However, calculations show that the kinetic energies of the charge inversion products can lead to significant scattering losses at high charge states of the ion-ion collision complex.

  20. Leaders Leading and Learning (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Lynne M.; Manning, Michael; Earl, Sandra; Blair, Don

    2006-01-01

    Internationally, large scale reform is big business and yet relatively little is known about the senior administrators who manage and lead local educational reform implementation. In this first of a two-part article, the authors focus on the role of senior administrators in facilitating large-scale reform in one Ontario, Canada school district…

  1. Home Economics in Canada, 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feniak, Elizabeth Hepworth

    1976-01-01

    Sections of the report on home economics in Canada discuss: historical development, programs in universities, names of home economic units and degree designations, graduate study and research, home economists at work, secondary school programs, and the Canadian Home Economics Association. (MS)

  2. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  3. Teaching Composition Theory in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience of teaching composition theory on the graduate level at a Canadian university. Explains that there are only two rhetoric and composition programs in Canada and that, generally, Canadian universities have been slow to make the transition from neocolonialism to postcolonialism. (TB)

  4. Project Canada West. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This first interim report of project Canada West, initiated in April, 1970, includes three papers. "Curriculum Development in Urbanization," by Dr. R. H. Sabey, Acting Executive Director, is an overview of the Project's history, purpose, and the 5 year plan for phases of research development. (See SO 000 283 for complete abstract.) Two…

  5. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  6. Canada's Highly Qualified Manpower Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, A. G.; And Others

    The purpose of this report is to assemble basic statistics on highly qualified manpower resources in Canada, especially focusing on scientists and engineers, for the development of policies and research in this field. The economic background contributing to the growth of the white-collar and professional labor force is discussed, and the roles of…

  7. Let's Celebrate! Canada's Special Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Caroline

    Designed for children ages 8 to 13, this teaching resource presents an explanation of seasons, calendars, and why people celebrate particular days. The four seasons are discussed. Canada's national holidays, and the seasonal, social and religious holidays celebrated by diverse Canadian culture groups are described. A separate section presents…

  8. Creative Literature in Canada Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Grace, Ed.; McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The contents of this booklet were presented at a symposium on Canadian creative literature at the University of Toronto in March 1974. Included are five papers, summaries of two talks (one by Bill Sault on the oral tradition of Canada's native peoples and one by Robert Weaver on discovering and encouraging Canadian writers) and of a panel…

  9. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  10. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  11. Educating Canada's Urban Poor Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, Bill; Foster, Rosemary

    2000-01-01

    Presents six critical thoughts and questions about educating poor urban children in Canada. These thoughts were derived from the development of a directory of Canadian educational poverty programs. Findings from that study emphasize the increasing diversity of the student population, the importance of temporary and large-scale funding, and the…

  12. Registration of 'Homestead' Canada Wildrye

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Homestead’ ( PI 655522) Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis L.) was developed cooperatively by USDA-ARS and the University of Nebraska and was released in 2008 for use in the Great Plains and the Midwest USA. It was developed using the Ecotype Selection Breeding System from a collection made in a r...

  13. Large Smoke Plumes, Alberta Canada

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    ...     View Larger Image Devastating wildfires in Alberta Province, Canada, near the city of Fort McMurray began on ... a result of intense thermal heating emanating from surface wildfires. The intense heating drives convection within the smoke plume. At the ...

  14. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  15. Canada, Its Land and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Donald; Connors, Bryan

    Eight units which depict the people and geography of Canada are featured in this document. Learning is facilitated through the use of maps, case studies, charts, graphs, sketches, photographs, and drawings which appear throughout the units. To help organize the information four symbols are used to indicate the concepts being explained. The symbol…

  16. Creative Literature in Canada Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Grace, Ed.; McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The contents of this booklet were presented at a symposium on Canadian creative literature at the University of Toronto in March 1974. Included are five papers, summaries of two talks (one by Bill Sault on the oral tradition of Canada's native peoples and one by Robert Weaver on discovering and encouraging Canadian writers) and of a panel…

  17. History of Adult Vocational Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Harvey

    This review of adult vocational education in Canada includes an introduction, highlights in the history of adult vocational education in Canada, and a summary. The introduction considers what adult vocational education is and explains the relationship between Canada's constitution and education. The highlights section covers these periods: before…

  18. Canadian Post-Secondary Education: A Positive Record--An Uncertain Future. Report on Learning in Canada 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report aims to inform Canadians on the extent to which Canada's post-secondary education sector is contributing to Canadians' social and economic objectives, its ability to respond to a fast-changing global environment, and how Canada's approach to higher education compares with other leading developed countries. Analysis of currently…

  19. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, Carrie; Ryder, Carrie; Lommele, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  20. Improved Analytical Shaped Charge Code: BASC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Comparison between BASC Code and Experimental Results for Scaled , Heavily-Confined, Shaped-Charge (Reference 10). Jet and Collapse Velocities vs % of...hydrodynamic, computer codes that have been applied to shaped-charge problems. 1 , 2 Althou2h these codes are adaptable to vari- ous geometrical...calculation of jet tip or lead pellet behavior and confined charges. Extensive semi-empirical functions, regaring liner acceleration and confinement

  1. The ecotoxicology of lead shot and lead fishing weights.

    PubMed

    Scheuhammer, A M; Norris, S L

    1996-10-01

    : Lead shot ingestion is the primary source of elevated lead exposure and poisoning in waterfowl and most other bird species. For some species (e.g. Common Loons, Gavia immer), lead sinker ingestion is a more frequent cause of lead poisoning. In freshwater environments where recreational angling activity and loon populations co-occur, lead poisoning from ingestion of small (<50 gram) lead sinkers or jigs accounts for 10-50% of recorded adult loon mortality, depending on the locations studied. Lead shot ingestion occurs in waterfowl, and in a wide variety of non-waterfowl species, including upland game birds, shorebirds, raptors, and scavengers. Where it has been explicitly studied in Canada and the US, lead poisoning mortality of bald (Haliacetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysactos) from eating prey animals with lead shot embedded in their tissues accounts for an estimated 10-15% of the recorded post-fledging mortality in these raptorial species. In addition to environments that experience hunting with lead shot, clay target shooting ranges, especially those in which the shotfall zones include ponds, marshes, lakes, rivers, beaches, or other aquatic-type environments, create a significant risk of shot ingestion and poisoning for waterbirds. Metallic lead pellets deposited onto soils and aquatic sediments are not chemically or environmentally inert, although tens or hundreds of years may be required for total breakdown and dissolution of pellets. Functional, affordable non-toxic alternatives to lead shot and sinkers are being currently produced, and additional such products are being developed. Several countries have successfully banned the use of small lead sinkers, and of lead shot for waterfowl and other hunting, also for clay target shooting, using a phasing-out process that gives manufactures, sellers, and users adequate time to adjust to the regulations.

  2. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  3. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  4. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e=n, with n = 1–4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD∼2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ∼0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071

  5. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-02-16

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure.

  6. Leading Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; Heynderickx, James

    Chapter 13 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers suggestions to help educators improve their performance in meetings, both as group leaders and as participants. Well-run meetings can rejuvenate an organization, leading to improved teamwork, communication, and morale. A poor meeting, on the other hand, can have a…

  7. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. The charge state of electrostatically transported dust on regolith surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, J.; Wang, X.; Hsu, H.-W.; Grün, E.; Horányi, M.

    2017-04-01

    The charge state of dust particles on regolith surfaces exposed to ultraviolet radiation or plasma is investigated for understanding the role of electrostatic dust transport in the surface evolution of airless planetary bodies. Our charge measurement shows that the regolith dust that can be electrostatically transported or lofted carries large negative charges. This result is consistent with our "patched charge model," which predicts that dust particles forming microcavities in the regolith surfaces can attain large negative charges by collecting photoelectrons and/or secondary electrons emitted from neighboring particles and the resulting repulsive forces between these negatively charged particles lead to their mobilization. The observed negative charge polarity is contrary to the generally expected positive charges on the regolith dust emitting photoelectrons. The measured negative charges are orders of magnitude larger than the prediction by classical charging models. Our laboratory measurements provide critical initial charging conditions for regolith dust dynamics studies.

  9. Oh Canada! Too many children in poverty for too long.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Laurel

    2007-10-01

    Despite continued economic growth, Canada's record on child poverty is worse than it was in 1989, when the House of Commons unanimously resolved to end child poverty by the year 2000. Most recent data indicate that nearly 1.2 million children - almost one of every six children - live in low-income households. Campaign 2000 contends that poverty and income inequality are major barriers to the healthy development of children, the cohesion of our communities and, ultimately, to the social and economic well-being of Canada. Canada needs to adopt a poverty-reduction strategy that responds to the UNICEF challenge to establish credible targets and timetables to bring the child poverty rate well below 10%, as other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations have done. Campaign 2000 calls on the federal government to develop a cross-Canada poverty-reduction strategy in conjunction with the provinces, territories and First Nations, and in consultation with low-income people. This strategy needs to include good jobs at living wages that ensure that full-time work is a pathway out of poverty; an effective child benefit of $5,100 that is indexed; a system of affordable, universally accessible early learning and child care services available to all families irrespective of employment status; an affordable housing program that creates more affordable housing and helps to sustain existing stock; and affordable and accessible postsecondary education and training programs that prepare youth and adults for employment leading to economic independence.

  10. Civil Emergency Planning in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, J. F.

    1967-01-01

    The national objectives of civilian emergency planning are: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments. Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and “shadow agencies” for control of housing, food and manpower. Present undertakings include: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior. PMID:6015737

  11. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  12. Toxic shock syndrome in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, A. J.; Peacocke, J. E.; Ewan, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1976, 53 confirmed or suspected cases of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) have been reported in Canada. Twenty-two cases occurred in 1980, and by October 1981 another 21 had been reported. In Canada, like the United States, where nearly 1200 cases have been recorded, TSS appears to be associated with tampon use, although a few cases have occurred in males and in nonmenstruating women. Of the 53 patients 3 died. The enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus is probably responsible for TSS. Manufacturers of tampons have now placed warning labels on tampon boxes and information on TSS in the instruction inserts. Women should select tampons of appropriate absorbency for the various stages of menstruation. PMID:7042059

  13. Women in physics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  14. Civil emergency planning in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J F

    1967-01-28

    THE NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF CIVILIAN EMERGENCY PLANNING ARE: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments.Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and "shadow agencies" for control of housing, food and manpower.PRESENT UNDERTAKINGS INCLUDE: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior.

  15. Occupant restraint use in Canada.

    PubMed

    Boase, Paul; Jonah, Brian A; Dawson, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Legislation regarding seat belt use in Canada is a provincial/territorial responsibility. Each of the 13 jurisdictions has enacted legislation and set the penalties regarding non-use of seat belts and appropriate child restraint systems. The federal government regulates occupant restraint systems and child restraints. In addition, Transport Canada (TC) gathers annual survey data on the use of seat belts and child restraints on Canadian roads and provides research support. National coordination toward the Canadian Road Safety Vision 2010 goal of a 40% reduction in fatalities and serious injuries related to non-belt/child restraint use and a 95% restraint usage rate is provided by the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators' (CCMTA) National Occupant Restraint Program (NORP). The paper examines the history of legislation, provincial/territorial penalties, NORP, and TC involvement in promoting the use of occupant restraints.

  16. The Geological Survey of Canada: Energy needs of tomorrow through collaboration today

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, D.B.; Mossop, G.D.

    1995-08-01

    Canada`s national centre for geoscience research and information is the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). Two of its divisions, the Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology and the Atlantic Geoscience Centre work closely with the energy exploration and production industry and universities. One successful GSC innovation is the Industrial Farmers Program that promotes cost-shared projects on geoscience problems of mutual interest. An example is the Hydrocarbon Charge Modelling Project which has struck a series of mutually beneficial alliances among the GSC, oil and gas companies and universities. The GSC`s high quality skills in basin analysis, including sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, structure and tectonics, petroleum geology, geophysics, geochemistry and environmental work are underpinned by vast data holdings on Canada`s mature Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and onshore/offshore frontier basins. Laboratory facilities include laser ablation ICP-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Rock-Eval/TOC, pyrolysis and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, organic and inorganic petrology and paleontology processing. Sophisticated computing facilities provide capabilities in basin and crustal modelling, 2- and 3-D seismic interpretation and seismic processing and computerised cartography. Solutions to the exploration, production and environmental problems faced by a cyclical business sector are mom efficiently sought through cooperative research by bringing together the diverse capabilities of industry, government and universities. Through such broad, collaborative partnerships society will ensure the economic and environmentally sustainable development of its future energy needs.

  17. Canada-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-03

    not long avoid the effects of the collapse of the U.S. housing market , the woes of the U.S. automotive sector, and the seizing up of credit markets ...imports of Canadian timber when market prices remain above a specified level; when prices fall below that level, Canada will impose export taxes and...softwood lumber agreement has not been without controversy. As the depressed housing market has reduced demand for softwood lumber, the market price has

  18. Canada-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-12

    standards for low-carbon emission fuel and oppose the permitting of these refinery projects on the basis that processing heavy crude from Canadian oil...accordance with the Anti-Terrorism Act passed late in 2001. The group reportedly had discussed attacking several possible targets, including power plants ...Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In 2002, Canada ratified the Kyoto Agreement; in 2006, however, the government announced that emission targets

  19. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-20

    02-28/ pdf /Northern_Exposure.pdf (accessed March 19, 2014). Rice , Gary. “Four Selected Intrusion Scenarios.” In Defence Requirements for Canada’s...National, January-February 2011, 24, http://cbanational.rogers.dgtlpub.com/2011/2011-02-28/ pdf /Northern_Exposure.pdf (accessed March 19, 2014). 27...Foreign Relations, February 2009, 4, www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Eurasia_CSR43. pdf (accessed March 20, 2014). 74Michael Byers

  20. Ottawa, Canada and Glaciated Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Ottawa, in the province of Ontario, (46.5N, 75.5W) is the capital of Canada and can be seen near the bottom of this scene on the Ottawa River. The region shown lies within the Canadian Shield. The glaciated surface of the land is underlain by lower Precambrian granite and sedimentary rock. Long fractures within these crystalline rocks have, in places, been carved out by glacial action. The resultant depressions are often water filled bogs and lakes.

  1. Landfill gas management in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    David, A.

    1997-12-31

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada`s commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10{sup 15} Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring.

  2. Serious fungal infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, S F; Cole, D C; Denning, D W; Sheppard, D C

    2017-02-04

    There are currently no nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections in Canada. We estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases using literature review and modeling, as per a methodology previously described by the LIFE program ( http://www.LIFE-worldwide.org ). Among the population of Canada (35.5 million in 2014), it was estimated that approximately 1.8% are affected by a serious fungal infection. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, severe asthma with fungal sensitization, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are the most frequent infections, with population prevalences of 498,688 (1403/100,000), 73,344 (206/100,000), and 61,854 (174/100,000) cases, respectively. Over 3000 invasive fungal infections are estimated to occur annually, with incidences of 2068 cases (5.8/100,000) of invasive candidiasis, 566 cases (1.6/100,000) of invasive aspergillosis, 252 cases (0.71/100,000) of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 99 cases (0.28/100,000) of endemic mycoses, and 63 cases (0.18/100,000) of cryptococcosis. These estimates warrant validation through more formal epidemiological studies in Canada.

  3. Education of Pharmacists in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ensom, Mary H.H.

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the education of pharmacists is built upon a foundation of strong, research-intensive publicly funded universities and a universal health-care system that balances government and private financing for prescription medications. The evolution of pharmacy education and practice in Canada has laid the foundation for a variety of emerging trends related to expanded roles for pharmacists, increasing interprofessional collaboration for patient-centered care, and emergence of pharmacy technicians as a soon-to-be regulated professional group in parts of the country. Current challenges include the need to better integrate internationally educated pharmacists within the domestic workforce and tools to ensure continuous professional development and maintenance of competency of practitioners. Academic pharmacy is currently debating how best to manage the need to enhance the pharmacy curriculum to meet current and future skills needs, and whether a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree ought to become the standard entry-to-practice qualification for pharmacists in Canada. PMID:19325948

  4. Women in Physics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  5. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers.

  6. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  7. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  8. Determination of the proton charge radius from elastic electron-proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbatsch, Marko; Hessels, Eric A.

    2016-05-01

    Precisely measured electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections are reanalyzed to evaluate their strength for determining the rms charge radius (RE) of the proton. More than half of the cross sections at lowest Q2 are fit using two single-parameter form-factor models, with the first based on a dipole parametrization, and the second on a linear fit to a conformal-mapping variable. These low-Q2 fits extrapolate the slope of the form factor to Q2 = 0 and determine RE values of approximately 0.84 and 0.89 fm, respectively. Fits spanning all Q2, in which the single constants are replaced with cubic splines at larger Q2, lead to similar results for RE. We conclude that the scattering data are consistent with RE ranging from at least 0.84 to 0.89 fm, and therefore is consistent with both of the discrepant determinations of RE made using muonic and electronic hydrogen-atom spectroscopy. NSERC Canada, Canada Research Chair Program.

  9. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  10. Survey of bottled drinking water available in Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Pip, E

    2000-01-01

    Forty domestic and imported brands of bottled water were purchased in Manitoba, Canada and examined for total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, sulfate, nitrate-nitrogen, cadmium, lead, copper, and radioactivity. The samples showed great variation in quality, and some exceeded the Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for drinking water for TDS, chloride, and lead. Carbonation, ozonation, and type of packaging were not associated with differences in metal levels, although carbonated samples tended to show higher TDS values. A number of deficiencies were found with respect to product labeling. PMID:11017891

  11. Lessons for a national pharmaceuticals strategy in Canada from Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    LeLorier, Jacques; Rawson, Nugek S B

    2007-07-01

    The provincial formulary review processes in Canada lead to the slow and inequitable availability of new products. In 2004, the exploration of a national pharmaceuticals strategy (NPS) was announced. The pricing policies of New Zealand and Australia have been suggested as possible models for the NPS. To compare health care indexes and health care use information from Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The 2006 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health data were used to compare health and health care indexes from Canada, Australia and New Zealand between 1994 and 2002 to 2004. The principal focus of the evaluation was cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Although the mortality rate from acute myocardial infarction decreased in each country from 1994, it levelled off in New Zealand in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Between 1994 and 2003, the average length of hospital stay for any cause and for cardiovascular disorders was stable in Australia and Canada, but increased in New Zealand, while the rate of hospital discharges for cardiovascular diseases decreased in Canada and Australia, but strongly increased in New Zealand. Over the same period, sales of cardiovascular drugs decreased in New Zealand, while sharply increasing in Canada and Australia. Although only circumstantial, our results suggest an association between decreasing cardiovascular drug sales and markers of declining cardiovascular health in New Zealand. Careful consideration must be given to the potential consequences of any model for an NPS in Canada, as well as to opportunities provided for discussion and input from health care professionals and patients.

  12. Industrial wind turbine post-construction bird and bat monitoring: A policy framework for Canada.

    PubMed

    Parisé, Jason; Walker, Tony R

    2017-10-01

    Electricity generation from wind energy has proliferated throughout North America and will continue to grow. Given Canada's expected increase in wind energy capacity, consideration of the potential adverse impacts to bird and bat populations is prudent given their sensitivity to these projects. The province of Ontario, Canada is currently the leading jurisdiction for wind energy development, and for provincial guidance on pre- and post-construction monitoring. With uniform monitoring guidance in Ontario, wind energy proponents, and third-party consultants, have developed post-construction monitoring protocols that meet provincial guidance, while also providing standardized reporting. In Atlantic Canada, post-construction guidelines vary between provinces, depending mostly on guidance from the Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service and relevant provincial agencies. To ensure quality post-construction monitoring results in Atlantic Canada and other provinces, it is imperative that all Canadian provinces adopt similar approaches to those employed in Ontario. This paper reviews major causes of bird and bat mortalities; reviews Canadian federal and Ontario provincial bird and bat monitoring guidelines to elucidate gaps between environmental assessment (EA) theory and application; summarizes post-construction monitoring protocols from eight bird and bat post-construction monitoring programs used in Ontario; and, proposes recommendations to support future wind development opportunities across Canada and specifically in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantum charge pumping through fractional fermions in charge density modulated quantum wires and Rashba nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Arijit; Rainis, Diego; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Loss, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    We study the phenomenon of adiabatic quantum charge pumping in systems supporting fractionally charged fermionic bound states in two different setups. The first quantum pump setup consists of a charge density modulated quantum wire, and the second one is based on a semiconducting nanowire with Rashba spin-orbit interaction, in the presence of a spatially oscillating magnetic field. In both these quantum pumps transport is investigated in an N-X-N geometry, with the system of interest (X) connected to two normal-metal leads (N), and the two pumping parameters are the strengths of the effective wire-lead barriers. Pumped charge is calculated within the scattering matrix formalism. We show that quantum pumping in both setups provides a unique signature of the presence of the fractional-fermion bound states, in terms of the asymptotically quantized pumped charge. Furthermore, we investigate shot noise arising due to quantum pumping, verifying that the quantized pumped charge corresponds to minimal shot noise.

  14. 19 CFR 12.140 - Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Interior. “British Columbia Interior” means the Northern Interior Forest Region and the Southern Interior..., Canada; Northwest Territories, Canada; Nunavut Territory, Canada; Ontario, Canada; Saskatchewan,...

  15. Surfaces with quenched and annealed disordered charge distributions.

    PubMed

    Fleck, C C; Netz, R R

    2007-04-01

    We consider surfaces with disordered charge distribution. The disorder can be caused by mobile charges, as for example in mixed lipid bilayers, or by weakly charged surfaces where charge regulation takes place (e.g. carboxyl groups). Using Monte-Carlo simulation methods we find for quenched as well as annealed disordered charge distributions counterion densities close to the surface that are significantly larger than for ordered regularly spaced surface ions. Our field-theoretic results agree well with results obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations of the system. Furthermore, we obtain expressions for the effective interaction between charged colloids and charged rods close to a charged surface and discuss the effect of the surface-ion mobility and polarization charges on the interaction. In general, polarization effects as well as surface-ion mobility lead to a weakening of the effective interaction between charged objects.

  16. Cosmology of a charged universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Proca generalization of electrodynamics admits the possibility that the universe could possess a net electric charge uniformly distributed throughout space, while possessing no electric field. A general-relativistic model of cosmological expansion dominated by such a charged background has been calculated, and is consistent with present observational limits on the Hubble constant, the deceleration parameter, and the age of the universe. However, if this cosmology applied at the present epoch, the very early expansion of the universe would have been too rapid for cosmological nucleosynthesis or thermalization of the background radiation to have occurred. Hence, domination of the present expansion by background charge appears to be incompatible with the 3-K background and big-bang production of light elements. If the present background charge density were sufficiently small (but not strictly zero), expansion from the epoch of nucleosynthesis would proceed according to the conventional scenario, but the energy due to the background charge would have dominated at some earlier epoch. This last possibility leads to equality of pressure and energy density in the primordial universe.

  17. Ion-Ion Reactions with Fixed-Charge Modified Proteins to Produce Ions in a Single, Very High Charge State

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Brian L.; Krusemark, Casey J.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Coon, Joshua J.; Belshaw, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) of denatured proteins produces a mass spectrum with a broad distribution of multiply charged ions. Attaching fixed positive charges, specifically quaternary ammonium groups, to proteins at their carboxylic acid groups generates substantially higher charge states compared to the corresponding unmodified proteins in positive-mode ESI. Ion-ion reactions of these modified proteins with reagent anions leads to charge reduction by proton transfer. These proton transfer reactions cannot remove charge from the quaternary ammonium groups, which do not have a proton to transfer to the anion. Thus, one might expect charge reduction to stop at a single charge state equal to the number of fixed charges on the modified protein. However, ion-ion reactions yield charge states lower than this number of fixed charges due to anion attachment (adduction) to the proteins. Charge reduction via ion-molecule reactions involving gas-phase bases also give adducts on the modified protein ions in low charge states. Such adducts are avoided by keeping the ions in charge states well above the number of fixed charges. In the present work protein ions were selectively “parked” within an ion trap mass spectrometer in a high charge state by mild radiofrequency excitation that dramatically slows their ion-ion reaction rate—a technique termed “ion parking”. The combination of ion parking with the fixed-charge modified proteins permits generation of a large population of ions in a single, very high charge state. PMID:19802328

  18. Ion-Ion Reactions with Fixed-Charge Modified Proteins to Produce Ions in a Single, Very High Charge State.

    PubMed

    Frey, Brian L; Krusemark, Casey J; Ledvina, Aaron R; Coon, Joshua J; Belshaw, Peter J; Smith, Lloyd M

    2008-10-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) of denatured proteins produces a mass spectrum with a broad distribution of multiply charged ions. Attaching fixed positive charges, specifically quaternary ammonium groups, to proteins at their carboxylic acid groups generates substantially higher charge states compared to the corresponding unmodified proteins in positive-mode ESI. Ion-ion reactions of these modified proteins with reagent anions leads to charge reduction by proton transfer. These proton transfer reactions cannot remove charge from the quaternary ammonium groups, which do not have a proton to transfer to the anion. Thus, one might expect charge reduction to stop at a single charge state equal to the number of fixed charges on the modified protein. However, ion-ion reactions yield charge states lower than this number of fixed charges due to anion attachment (adduction) to the proteins. Charge reduction via ion-molecule reactions involving gas-phase bases also give adducts on the modified protein ions in low charge states. Such adducts are avoided by keeping the ions in charge states well above the number of fixed charges. In the present work protein ions were selectively "parked" within an ion trap mass spectrometer in a high charge state by mild radiofrequency excitation that dramatically slows their ion-ion reaction rate-a technique termed "ion parking". The combination of ion parking with the fixed-charge modified proteins permits generation of a large population of ions in a single, very high charge state.

  19. The Adolescent Chinese Immigrant Student in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lilian Y. O.

    1977-01-01

    The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)

  20. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  1. Photoinduced ultrafast charge-order melting: Charge-order inversion and nonthermal effects

    DOE PAGES

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of photoexcitation is studied for a system with checkerboard charge order induced by displacements of ligands around a metal site. The motion of the ligands is treated classically and the electronic charges are simplified to two-level molecular bond charges. The calculations are done for a checkerboard charge-ordered system with about 100 000 ligand oscillators coupled to a fixed-temperature bath. The initial photoexcitation is followed by a rapid decrease in the charge-order parameter within 50–100 femtoseconds while leaving the correlation length almost unchanged. Depending on the fluence, a complete melting of the charge order occurs in less than amore » picosecond. While for low fluences, the system returns to its original state, for full melting, it recovers to its broken-symmetry state leading to an inversion of the charge order. Finally, for small long-range interactions, recovery can be slow due to domain formation.« less

  2. Photoinduced ultrafast charge-order melting: Charge-order inversion and nonthermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of photoexcitation is studied for a system with checkerboard charge order induced by displacements of ligands around a metal site. The motion of the ligands is treated classically and the electronic charges are simplified to two-level molecular bond charges. The calculations are done for a checkerboard charge-ordered system with about 100 000 ligand oscillators coupled to a fixed-temperature bath. The initial photoexcitation is followed by a rapid decrease in the charge-order parameter within 50–100 femtoseconds while leaving the correlation length almost unchanged. Depending on the fluence, a complete melting of the charge order occurs in less than a picosecond. While for low fluences, the system returns to its original state, for full melting, it recovers to its broken-symmetry state leading to an inversion of the charge order. Finally, for small long-range interactions, recovery can be slow due to domain formation.

  3. Photoinduced ultrafast charge-order melting: Charge-order inversion and nonthermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of photoexcitation is studied for a system with checkerboard charge order induced by displacements of ligands around a metal site. The motion of the ligands is treated classically and the electronic charges are simplified to two-level molecular bond charges. The calculations are done for a checkerboard charge-ordered system with about 100 000 ligand oscillators coupled to a fixed-temperature bath. The initial photoexcitation is followed by a rapid decrease in the charge-order parameter within 50–100 femtoseconds while leaving the correlation length almost unchanged. Depending on the fluence, a complete melting of the charge order occurs in less than a picosecond. While for low fluences, the system returns to its original state, for full melting, it recovers to its broken-symmetry state leading to an inversion of the charge order. Finally, for small long-range interactions, recovery can be slow due to domain formation.

  4. Photoinduced ultrafast charge-order melting: Charge-order inversion and nonthermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of photoexcitation is studied for a system with checkerboard charge order induced by displacements of ligands around a metal site. The motion of the ligands is treated classically and the electronic charges are simplified to two-level molecular bond charges. The calculations are done for a checkerboard charge-ordered system with about 100 000 ligand oscillators coupled to a fixed-temperature bath. The initial photoexcitation is followed by a rapid decrease in the charge-order parameter within 50–100 femtoseconds while leaving the correlation length almost unchanged. Depending on the fluence, a complete melting of the charge order occurs in less than a picosecond. While for low fluences, the system returns to its original state, for full melting, it recovers to its broken-symmetry state leading to an inversion of the charge order. For small long-range interactions, recovery can be slow due to domain formation.

  5. Charge depletion in organic heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, T. W.; Lo, M. F.; Lee, S. T.; Lee, C. S.

    2012-03-01

    Until now two types of organic-organic heterojunction (OHJ) have been observed in P-N junctions formed between undoped-organic semiconductors. Charge-transfers across OHJs are either negligible or showing electron transfer from P-type to N-type materials, leading to charges accumulation near the interface. Here, we observed that junction of 4,4',4''-tris(2-methylphenyl-phenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA)/bathocuproine (BCP) show the third-behavior. Electrons in BCP (N-type) transfer to m-MTDATA (P-type), leading to depletion of mobile majority carriers near the junction. While "depletion junctions" are typical in inorganic semiconductors, there are no reports in undoped-OHJ. Formation mechanism of depletion OHJs and fundamental differences between inorganic and organic HJs are discussed.

  6. Looking Back on the Future of Genetic Counselling in Canada.

    PubMed

    Leeming, William

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how occupational roles and working relationships have changed over time for individuals involved in genetic counselling in Canada. It begins with a review of the stages of consensus that were reached about a role for geneticists and genetic counselling in clinical settings and, second, the formation of medical genetics as a service specialism. Interviews conducted by the author and survey data collected by the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors/L'Association Canadienne des Conseillers en Génétique are then used to examine role divarication in genetic counselling and the boundary realignment in inter-professional relations among physician and non-physician genetic counsellors. This leads, in a final step, to a summary of what the research shows about the changing face of genetic counselling in Canada and directions for future investigation.

  7. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  8. Le Point sur L'immersion au Canada (The Argument for...Immersion in Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebuffot, Jacques

    A discussion of French immersion education in Canada begins with a general examination of language immersion, including the historical context and social climate from which the immersion approach has grown in Canada, its beginnings in Quebec and spread throughout Canada, and the status of the approach in the United States, a number of European…

  9. Le Point sur L'immersion au Canada (The Argument for...Immersion in Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebuffot, Jacques

    A discussion of French immersion education in Canada begins with a general examination of language immersion, including the historical context and social climate from which the immersion approach has grown in Canada, its beginnings in Quebec and spread throughout Canada, and the status of the approach in the United States, a number of European…

  10. Lead and the Environment: An Approach to Educating Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Leonard J. S.; Nieboer, Evert; Karagatzides, Jim D.

    1999-01-01

    A lead shot environmental education program using hands-on activities and public information displays was directed toward adult Cree of Mushkegowuk Territory, Ontario (Canada). Of 47 participants at the beginning of the study, 7 thought lead shot was detrimental to animals, the environment, and people. After program implementation, all…

  11. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  12. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  13. Multiply-charged ions and interstellar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Diethard Kurt

    2011-11-07

    Gaseous molecules and ions, and even dust grains, can accumulate charge in the interstellar medium (ISM) by harvesting the energy of UV photons, cosmic rays, helium ions and metastable atoms. This Perspective views the various modes of gas-phase formation of multiply-charged cations and the possible impact of their reactions on the chemical and ionization structure of the ISM, in the light of what is still very limited knowledge. Emphasis is given to gas-phase reactions of multiply-charged cations with atoms, molecules and electrons that lead to charge reduction, charge separation and chemical bond formation and these are examined for multiply-charged atoms, small molecules, hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fullerenes, primarily as dications but also as a function of charge state. The increased electrostatic interaction due to multiple charge is seen to promote bonding to individual charge sites on large molecules (e.g. fullerenes) and allow ensuing "surface" chemistry under the influence of Coulomb repulsion. The unique ability of multiply charged cations to undergo charge separation reactions, either unimolecular or bimolecular, can feature in the production in the ISM of internally cold, but translationally hot, cations of lower charge state or hot atoms that may provide the driving force for subsequent chemical reactions in what is otherwise an ultracold environment. Available chemical kinetic models that account for the role of multiply-charged ions in the ISM are few and of limited scope and the observation of these ions in the ISM has remained elusive. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  14. Causes of Blindness in Canada

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Alexander E.

    1965-01-01

    A survey of blind persons in Canada, based on registrations with The Canadian National Institute for the Blind (C.N.I.B.), is reported. This is the first study of its type having national scope and based on data registered in a central file. It covered 24,605 living registered blind persons ranging from premature infants to very elderly persons. Causes of blindness are broken down with respect to topography (site and type of lesion) and etiology. In terms of frequency, the principal causes were lesions affecting the globe (e.g. glaucoma, myopia), 36%; the retina, 23%; the lens, 16%; and the optic nerve, 11%. In this study, 32% of the blindness was due to prenatal causes. The prevalence of blindness per 100,000 persons in Canada, based on C.N.I.B. data, was 131, varying among the provinces from 108 to 376. Serious ocular disease was four times more prevalent than blindness; 101,436 such cases (the prevention group) were listed by the C.N.I.B. PMID:14270210

  15. Q fever in maritime Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, T. J.; Haldane, E. V.; Noble, M. A.; Faulkner, R. S.; Lee, S. H.; Gough, D.; Meyers, S.; Stewart, J.

    1982-01-01

    Only nine cases of Q fever were recorded in Canada in the 20 years prior to 1978. In the 18 months from August 1979 to January 1981 the disease was diagnosed serologically in six patients from the Maritime provinces. All were epidemiologically unrelated and none had been exposed to animals. Five had pneumonia and one had chronic Q fever with probable prosthetic valve endocarditis. Three of the five pneumonia patients presented with signs and symptoms of an acute lower respiratory tract infection and were indistinguishable clinically from other patients with atypical pneumonias. The other two with pneumonia presented with nonresolving pulmonary infiltrates and complained of decreased energy. Four of the five pneumonia patients responded well to treatment with erythromycin; the fifth required two courses of tetracycline. The patient with chronic Q fever had a large amount of cryoglobulins in his serum and evidence of immune complex disease. These cases indicate that Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of atypical pneumonia in Canada. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7074457

  16. Preface: Charge transport in nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  17. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p<0.05) positive correlations for (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb, and a significant negative correlation for (208)Pb/(206)Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  18. Linear shaped charge

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  19. Charge Exchange with Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Jeremy; Ferri, Kevin; Schmitt, Jaclyn; Hanson, Joshua; Marler, Joan

    2016-05-01

    A detailed study of the physics of highly charged ions (HCIs) is critical for a deep understanding of observed phenomena resulting from interactions of HCIs with neutral atoms in astrophysical and fusion environments. Specifically the charge transfer rates and spectroscopy of the subsequent decay fluorescence are of great interest to these communities. Results from a laboratory based investigation of these rates will be presented. The experiment takes advantage of an energy and charge state selected beam of HCIs from the recently on-line Clemson University EBIT (CUEBIT). Progress towards an experimental apparatus for retrapping HCIs towards precision spectroscopy of HCIs will also be presented.

  20. Deconfinement of electric charges in hydrogen-bonded ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo-Jie; Chern, Chyh-Hong

    2017-08-01

    In addition to the gauge charges, a new charge degree of freedom is identified in the deconfined phase in the lattice Ising gauge theory. While applying to the hydrogen-bonded ferroelectrics, the new charge is essentially the electric charge, leading to the divergent dielectric susceptibility. The new degree of freedom paves an experimentally accessible way to identify the deconfined phase in the lattice Ising gauge theory.

  1. The Development of Vocational Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The history of vocational education in Canada is traced, examining prejudices against it and constitutional issues that have inhibited its development. To solve its labor problems, Canada requires a national system of vocational education that ensures that young people see it as challenging and worthwhile. (SLD)

  2. Career and Employment Counselling in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, D. Stuart; And Others

    Concerned with the availability of vocational counseling services in Canada, this report offers definitive information on career and employment counseling offered by educational institutions, social agencies, and Canada Employment Centres. After extensive consultation and field testing, questionnaires were developed to cover the following areas:…

  3. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  4. Weight of evidence: regulatory toxicology in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, E.

    1986-12-01

    The legislative application of regulatory toxicology in Canada is reviewed, together with the sources of experimental evidence used for action. Examples are given of the critical toxicological information that led to a regulatory decision. Risk numbers have only been used to a limited extent in Canada. Some possibilities for future research are offered.

  5. Indians: An Introduction to Canada's Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Hope

    An introduction to Canada Natives briefly identifies the seven different culture areas which existed in Canada before the white man came, and the Indian tribes who lived in those areas. The booklet then gives more extensive description of the history and culture of the Huron (farmers of the Eastern Woodlands), the Blackfoot (Plains), the Ojibwa…

  6. The Educational Significance of Canada's Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Allen R.

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical relationship of Canada's educational system to its constitution. Concludes that the significance of the patriation of Canada's constitution for education includes strengthening a drive for bilingual education, promoting equality of opportunity, and continuing education as a provincial concern while unifying, nationally, the…

  7. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    The history of developmental psychology in Canada prior to 1960 is concisely recounted. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the paper focuses on the…

  8. An Update on School Choice in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article gives an update on school choice in Canada. Currently, school choice in Canada is stable. Provincialism, in both senses of the word, is a major factor in Canadian political life. There is no contradiction between Ontario's recent electoral rejection of the extension of funding to non-Catholic religious schools, and the strong support…

  9. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  10. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    The history of developmental psychology in Canada prior to 1960 is concisely recounted. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the paper focuses on the…

  11. Consider Canada: A Handbook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Stanley L., Jr.

    If awareness and understanding of Canada, its people, and its culture are to be achieved, the study of this country must be made an appropriate part of the social studies and humanities curricula. This document provides teachers with resource materials on 13 topics about Canada: (1) topics and themes for Canadian Studies; (2) reasons why U.S.…

  12. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  13. Particle charge spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An airflow through a tube is used to guide a charged particle through the tube. A detector may be used to detect charge passing through the tube on the particle. The movement of the particle through the tube may be used to both detect its charge and size.

  14. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  15. Moving SDM forward in Canada: milestones, public involvement, and barriers that remain.

    PubMed

    Légaré, France; Stacey, Dawn; Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Coutu, Marie-France

    2011-01-01

    Canada's approach to shared decision making (SDM) is as disparate as its healthcare system; a conglomerate of 14 public plans at various administrative levels. SDM initiatives are taking place in different pockets of the country and are in different stages of development. The most advanced provincial initiative is occurring in Saskatchewan, where in 2010 the provincial government prepare to introduce patient decision aids into certain surgical specialties. With regard to decision support tools for patients, perhaps the most active entity is the Patient Decision Aids Research Group in Ottawa, Ontario. This group maintains a public inventory of decision aids ranked according to International Patient Decision Aid Standards and has developed the generic Ottawa Personal Decision Guide, as well as a toolkit for integrating decision aids in clinical practice. All of these tools are publicly available free of charge. Professional interest in SDM in Canada is not yet widespread, but Canada's principal health research funding agency is sponsoring several important SDM projects. Researchers from institutions across the country are promoting SDM through continuing professional development programs and other interventions in fields as varied as primary care, dietary medicine and workplace rehabilitation. Still, the future of SDM in Canada remains uncertain. Canada's provincially based structure obliges promoters to work with each province separately, and the recent growth of private healthcare risks dissipating efforts to implement SDM.

  16. Leading the Charge for Real-Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Well before the idea of using data to manage schools gained prominence on the national stage, Oklahoma's Western Heights school district had made the ideal of real-time, data-driven decisionmaking a reality. Back in 2001, Superintendent Joe Kitchens was already being spotlighted for his focus on creating a longitudinal-data system that would give…

  17. Leading the Charge: Governors, Higher Education and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    With this new tool, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] is working to expand its outreach to governors nationwide on behalf of higher education reform, focusing on key issues of quality, cost, and accountability. ACTA has worked with governors and education leaders from across the country, and that experience has proven that innovative…

  18. Measurements of Charge Transport in Arrays of Lead Selenide Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Kenneth; Mentzel, Tamar; Geyer, Scott; Porter, Venda; Bawendi, Moungi; Kastner, Marc

    2008-03-01

    We report electrical transport measurements of self-assembled arrays of PbSe nanocrystals (NC). NCs ˜6.2 nm in diameter are colloidally synthesized and drop cast onto an inverted field effect structure. The NCs self assemble into hexagonal close-packed arrays with ˜2 nm inter-particle spacing. The current is immeasurable in as deposited arrays. After annealing at 400K for ˜30 minutes, the arrays become less ordered and the inter-particle spacing decreases to ˜1 nm as evinced from TEM images and glancing incidence small angle x-ray scattering experiments. As a result of these changes, the conductance increases by more than 6 orders of magnitude. We measure the current in these devices as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage and temperature. We find that the temperature dependence of the conduction is strong at zero-bias and grows weaker with application of a source-drain bias. This implies that the conductance is thermally activated and the field serves to reduce the activation energy. We also find that the gate modulates the activation energy to conduction.

  19. Leading the Charge: Exotic New Materials for Future Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yulin

    2010-09-28

    How will we improve computer technology to create chips that are smaller, faster, and more efficient? For leaps in performance, we need to create new types of semiconductors. In this lecture, the speaker will describe a new class of materials -- the 'topological insulators' -- that achieve robust performance by tying the paths of electrons in knots. These materials arose from a bold theoretical proposal that was recently verified by X-ray experiments at SLAC. THe speaker will describe the special properties of these materials and the promise for their applications.

  20. Chemical Information Instruction in Academe: Who Is Leading the Charge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garritano, Jeremy R.; Culp, F. Bartow; Twiss-Brooks, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Chemical information instruction (CII) has been recommended by the ACS Committee on Professional Training as a necessary component of the chemistry curriculum for both undergraduate and graduate students. Surveys conducted by the ACS Chemical Information Division (CINF) Education Committee in 1984 and 1993 showed the extent that CII had become…

  1. Understanding Human Glycosylation Disorders: Biochemistry Leads the Charge*

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Hudson H.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 70 inherited human glycosylation disorders span a breathtaking clinical spectrum, impacting nearly every organ system and launching a family-driven diagnostic odyssey. Advances in genetics, especially next generation sequencing, propelled discovery of many glycosylation disorders in single and multiple pathways. Interpretation of whole exome sequencing results, insights into pathological mechanisms, and possible therapies will hinge on biochemical analysis of patient-derived materials and animal models. Biochemical diagnostic markers and readouts offer a physiological context to confirm candidate genes. Recent discoveries suggest novel perspectives for textbook biochemistry and novel research opportunities. Basic science and patients are the immediate beneficiaries of this bidirectional collaboration. PMID:23329837

  2. Leading the Charge for Real-Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Well before the idea of using data to manage schools gained prominence on the national stage, Oklahoma's Western Heights school district had made the ideal of real-time, data-driven decisionmaking a reality. Back in 2001, Superintendent Joe Kitchens was already being spotlighted for his focus on creating a longitudinal-data system that would give…

  3. Leading the Charge for SoTL--Embracing Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassard, Anita; Sloboda, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) enables colleges and universities to assess student learning and measure the outcomes by engaging in meaningful research, and to disseminate this research. The objective of this paper is to give a snapshot of and assess the current thinking behind this scholarship by presenting examples of SoTL, and…

  4. Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Borchert, G.L.; Schult, O.W.B.; Speth, J.; Hansen, P.G.; Jonson, B.; Ravn, H.; McGrory, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Isotope shifts have been measured of the K/sub ..cap alpha..l/ x-ray lines emitted after photo ionization of /sup 204/Pb, /sup 206/Pb, /sup 207/Pb and /sup 208/Pb samples. The results are compared with theoretical values for delta < r/sup 2/> calculated with a microscopic model. The x-ray shift data are also compared with optical data and the nuclear parameters lambda derived from electron scattering results.

  5. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Parpia, Alyssa S; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2016-03-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002-December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20-44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August-September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions.

  6. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Parpia, Alyssa S.; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal

    2016-01-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002–December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20–44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August–September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions. PMID:26890626

  7. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  8. Burden of neurological conditions in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, J; Gomes, J; Darshan, S; Krewski, D

    2016-05-03

    Neurological conditions are among the leading causes of disability in the Canadian population and are associated with a large public health burden. An increase in life expectancy and a declining birth rate has resulted in an aging Canadian population, and the proportion of age-adjusted mortality due to non-communicable diseases has been steadily increasing. These conditions are frequently associated with chronic disability and an increasing burden of care for patients, their families and caregivers. The National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions (NPHSNC) aims to improve knowledge about neurological conditions and their impacts on individuals, their families, caregivers and health care system. The Systematic Review of Determinants of Neurological Conditions, a specific objective within the NPHSNC, is a compendium of systematic reviews on risk factors affecting onset and progression of the following 14 priority neurological conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brain tumours (BT), cerebral palsy (CP), dystonia, epilepsy, Huntington's disease (HD), hydrocephalus, multiple sclerosis (MS), muscular dystrophies (MD), neurotrauma, Parkinson's disease (PD), spina bifida (SB), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). The burden of neurological disease is expected to increase as the population ages, and this trend is presented in greater detail for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease because the incidence of these two common neurological diseases increases significantly with age over 65 years. This article provides an overview of burden of neurological diseases in Canada to set the stage for the in-depth systematic reviews of the 14 priority neurological conditions presented in subsequent articles in this issue.

  9. Lead intervention and pediatric blood lead levels at hazardous waste sites.

    PubMed

    Lorenzana, Roseanne M; Troast, Richard; Mastriano, Maria; Follansbee, Mark H; Diamond, Gary L

    2003-05-23

    Lead intervention at Superfund sites typically seeks to reduce pediatric blood lead levels by disrupting the surface-to-hand-to-mouth pathway. This article presents the results of a survey of the publicly available literature on the effectiveness of lead intervention on pediatric blood lead levels at hazardous waste sites. The survey includes six hazardous waste sites located in Canada, Australia, and the United States at which intervention activities were conducted and pediatric blood lead levels were sampled both pre- and postintervention. Evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention on pediatric blood lead levels is often complicated due to confounding variables and statistical limitations. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the intervention studies reviewed in this report suggest that various approaches to the intervention of the dust ingestion pathway, alone or in combination, contributed to declines in blood lead levels in children living in areas heavily contaminated with lead.

  10. Canada's role on space station.

    PubMed

    Doetsch, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the evolution of the Canadian Space Station Program between 1981 and 2003. Discussions with potential international partners, aimed at jointly developing the current International Space Station program, were initiated by NASA in 1982. Canada chose, through the further development of the technologies of Canadarm on the space shuttle, to provide and operate an advanced and comprehensive external robotics system for space station, and to use the space station for scientific and commercial purposes. The program was to become a corner-stone of the new Canadian Space Agency. The development phase of the Canadian Space Station Program has been completed and two of the three major elements are currently operational in space. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Canada's role on space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetsch, Karl

    2005-07-01

    The paper addresses the evolution of the Canadian Space Station Program between 1981 and 2003. Discussions with potential international partners, aimed at jointly developing the current International Space Station program, were initiated by NASA in 1982. Canada chose, through the further development of the technologies of Canadarm on the space shuttle, to provide and operate an advanced and comprehensive external robotics system for space station, and to use the space station for scientific and commercial purposes. The program was to become a corner-stone of the new Canadian Space Agency. The development phase of the Canadian Space Station Program has been completed and two of the three major elements are currently operational in space.

  12. Internal charge behaviour of nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. Keith; Fothergill, John C.

    2004-05-01

    The incorporation of 23 nm titanium dioxide nanoparticles into an epoxy matrix to form a nanocomposite structure is described. It is shown that the use of nanometric particles results in a substantial change in the behaviour of the composite, which can be traced to the mitigation of internal charge when a comparison is made with conventional TiO2 fillers. A variety of diagnostic techniques (including dielectric spectroscopy, electroluminescence, thermally stimulated current and photoluminescence) have been used to augment pulsed electro-acoustic space charge measurement to provide a basis for understanding the underlying physics of the phenomenon. It would appear that, when the size of the inclusions becomes small enough, they act cooperatively with the host structure and cease to exhibit interfacial properties, leading to Maxwell-Wagner polarization. It is postulated that the particles are surrounded by high charge concentrations in the Gouy-Chapman-Stern layer. Since nanoparticles have very high specific areas, these regions allow limited charge percolation through nano-filled dielectrics. The practical consequences of this have also been explored in terms of the electric strength exhibited. It would appear that there was a window in which real advantages accrue from the nano-formulated material. An optimum loading of about 10% (by weight) is indicated.

  13. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    PubMed

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  14. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-05-25

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens' tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada's black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  15. Trends in Extinction Risk for Imperiled Species in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Favaro, Brett; Claar, Danielle C.; Fox, Caroline H.; Freshwater, Cameron; Holden, Jessica J.; Roberts, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Protecting and promoting recovery of species at risk of extinction is a critical component of biodiversity conservation. In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) determines whether species are at risk of extinction or extirpation, and has conducted these assessments since 1977. We examined trends in COSEWIC assessments to identify whether at-risk species that have been assessed more than once tended to improve, remain constant, or deteriorate in status, as a way of assessing the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in Canada. Of 369 species that met our criteria for examination, 115 deteriorated, 202 remained unchanged, and 52 improved in status. Only 20 species (5.4%) improved to the point where they were ‘not at risk’, and five of those were due to increased sampling efforts rather than an increase in population size. Species outcomes were also dependent on the severity of their initial assessment; for example, 47% of species that were initially listed as special concern deteriorated between assessments. After receiving an at-risk assessment by COSEWIC, a species is considered for listing under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA), which is the primary national tool that mandates protection for at-risk species. We examined whether SARA-listing was associated with improved COSEWIC assessment outcomes relative to unlisted species. Of 305 species that had multiple assessments and were SARA-listed, 221 were listed at a level that required identification and protection of critical habitat; however, critical habitat was fully identified for only 56 of these species. We suggest that the Canadian government should formally identify and protect critical habitat, as is required by existing legislation. In addition, our finding that at-risk species in Canada rarely recover leads us to recommend that every effort be made to actively prevent species from becoming at-risk in the first place. PMID:25401772

  16. Theory of water and charged liquid bridges.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, K

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A solution of a charged catenary is presented, which allows one to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length, as well as the shape of the bridge are calculated showing an asymmetric profile, in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity, which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges.

  17. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  18. Rigid separator lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cannone, A.G.; Salkind, A.J.; Stempin, J.L.; Wexell, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acid cells assembled with extruded separators displayed relatively uniform capacity and voltage parameters through 100{sup +} cycles of charge/discharge. This contrasts to failure of control cells with glass mat separators after 60 cycles. The mullite/alumina separators with 50, 60, and 70% porosity separators appear suitable for both flooded and sealed lead acid cell applications. The advantages of the rigid ceramic separators over fiber mat materials are in the uniformity of capacity and voltage, the ease of cell assembly, and the probability that firm stacking pressure on the active material will yield greater cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures.

  19. Significant enhancement of the charging efficiency in the cavities of ferroelectrets through gas exchange during charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2016-11-01

    Ferroelectrets are non-polar polymer foams or polymer systems with internally charged cavities. They are charged through a series of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) that are caused by the electrical breakdown of the gas inside the cavities. Thus, the breakdown strength of the gas strongly influences the charging process of ferroelectrets. A gas with a lower breakdown strength has a lower threshold voltage, thus decreasing the onset voltage for DBD charging. However, a lower threshold voltage also leads to a lower value for the remanent polarization, as back discharges that are caused by the electric field of the internally deposited charges can take place already at lower charge levels. On this basis, a charging strategy is proposed where the DBDs start in a gas with a lower breakdown strength (in the present example, helium) and are completed at a higher breakdown strength (e.g., nitrogen or atmospheric air). Thus, the exchange of the gas in the cavities during charging can significantly enhance the charging efficiency, i.e., yield much higher piezoelectric coefficients in ferroelectrets at significantly lower charging voltages.

  20. Complexation of a polyelectrolyte with oppositely charged spherical macroions: Giant inversion of charge.[1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Toan T.; Shklovskii, Boris I.

    2001-03-01

    Complexation of a long flexible polyelectrolyte (PE) molecule with oppositely charged spherical particles such as colloids, micelles, or globular proteins in a salty water solution is studied. PE binds spheres winding around them, while spheres repel each other and form almost periodic necklace. If the total charge of PE is larger than total charge of spheres, repulsive correlations of PE turns on a sphere lead to inversion of the net charge of each sphere. In the opposite case, we predict another correlation effect: under-screened by PE spheres bind to PE in such a great number that they invert the charge of PE. The inverted charge by absolute value can be larger than the bare charge of PE even when screening by monovalent salt is weak. At larger concentrations of monovalent salt, the inverted charge can reach giant proportions. Our theory is in qualitative agreement with recent experiments on micelles-PE systems[2]. A stiff PE is also considered and compared to a flexible one of the same linear charge density. Charge inversion for a stiff PE is found to be stronger than for a flexible PE at large monovalent salt concentration and weaker at small salt concentration. [1]Toan The Nguyen and Boris I. Shklovskii, cond-mat/0011096 (2000), submitted to J. Chem. Phys. [2]Y. Wang, K. Kimura, Q. Huang, P. L. Dubin, W. Jaeger, Macromolecules, 32 (1999) 7128.

  1. Charge Generation and Separation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a short overview of our current understanding of the generation of charged particles in different environments and circumstances (e.g. thunderclouds, dust storms, volcanic plumes, rings, and planetary surfaces) and the subsequent spatial separation that leads to the formation of electrical fields. Different mechanisms are involved on various scales, starting from the molecular level, through the single particle (droplet, crystal, solid) and finally the entraining volume (cloud, plume etc.). Encapsulated within a dynamic and turbulent medium, particles need to come into contact and to immediately separate, to be later transported away from each other. In order to explain the observed electrical fields and ensuing lightning or other forms of discharge, these processes need to be extremely effective. The section will briefly review laboratory results and modeling efforts of charge separation and electric field build-up in various planetary settings, and cite the appropriate observations of electrical activity on different planets.

  2. The Plight of Immigrant Physicians in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Satkauskas, Remigijus; Pavilanis, Alain

    1990-01-01

    A large number of foreign medical graduates are striving to obtain their licence to practise in Canada. The obstacles created by the federal and provincial medical authorities are numerous and difficult to surmount. The authors define the foreign medical graduate, describe the options and strategies one faces, and present statistics about the Medical Council of Canada Evaluating Examination and postgraduate training positions. Their purpose is to present the plight of foreign medical graduates in Canada to Canadian physicians and to acquaint foreign medical graduates with restrictive licensing procedures. PMID:21249112

  3. Projected Geothermal Energy Development in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Souther, Jack G.

    1980-12-01

    A systematic evaluation of geothermal energy resources in Canada was begun in 1973 with the compilation of an inventory of thermal springs and young igneous centres (11) and a study of the thermal regime of the Central Canada Plains (15). The status of this work is still very preliminary. The nature, distribution and grade of the geothermal resource-base can be estimated within reasonable limits but the impact of future economic and political constraints, and the rate of development of new conversion technologies are more difficult to forecast. Thus, projections of geothermal energy development in Canada are necessarily less precise than estimate of the resource-base.

  4. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited).

    PubMed

    Meusel, O; Droba, M; Noll, D; Schulte, K; Schneider, P P; Wiesner, C

    2016-02-01

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed.

  5. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Meusel, O. Droba, M.; Noll, D.; Schulte, K.; Schneider, P. P.; Wiesner, C.

    2016-02-15

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed.

  6. How much are we spending? The estimation of research expenditures on cardiovascular disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in Canada and is a priority area for medical research. The research funding landscape in Canada has changed quite a bit over the last few decades, as have funding levels. Our objective was to estimate the magnitude of expenditures on CVD research for the public and charitable (not-for profit) sectors in Canada between 1975 and 2005. Methods To estimate research expenditures for the public and charitable sectors, we compiled a complete list of granting agencies in Canada, contacted each agency and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and extracted data from the organizations’ annual reports and the Reference Lists of health research in Canada. Two independent reviewers scanned all grant and fellowship/scholarship titles (and summary/key words, when available) of all research projects funded to determine their inclusion in our analysis; only grants and fellowships/scholarships that focused on heart and peripheral vascular diseases were selected. Results Public/charitable sector funding increased 7.5 times, from close to $13 million (in constant dollars) in 1975 to almost $96 million (in constant dollars) in 2005 (base year). The Medical Research Council of Canada (MRCC)/CIHR and the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada have been the main founders of this type of research during our analysis period; the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Quebec have played major roles at the provincial level. The Indirect Costs Research Program and Canada Foundation for Innovation have played major roles in terms of funding in the last years of our analysis. Conclusion Public/charitable-funded research expenditures devoted to CVD have increased substantially over the last three decades. By international standards, the evidence suggests Canada spends less on health-related research than the UK and the US, at least in absolute terms. However, this

  7. How much are we spending? The estimation of research expenditures on cardiovascular disease in Canada.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Claire; Nguyen, Van Hai; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Wong, William W L; Woo, Gloria; Liu, Peter P; Krahn, Murray D

    2012-08-28

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in Canada and is a priority area for medical research. The research funding landscape in Canada has changed quite a bit over the last few decades, as have funding levels. Our objective was to estimate the magnitude of expenditures on CVD research for the public and charitable (not-for profit) sectors in Canada between 1975 and 2005. To estimate research expenditures for the public and charitable sectors, we compiled a complete list of granting agencies in Canada, contacted each agency and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and extracted data from the organizations' annual reports and the Reference Lists of health research in Canada. Two independent reviewers scanned all grant and fellowship/scholarship titles (and summary/key words, when available) of all research projects funded to determine their inclusion in our analysis; only grants and fellowships/scholarships that focused on heart and peripheral vascular diseases were selected. Public/charitable sector funding increased 7.5 times, from close to $13 million (in constant dollars) in 1975 to almost $96 million (in constant dollars) in 2005 (base year). The Medical Research Council of Canada (MRCC)/CIHR and the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada have been the main founders of this type of research during our analysis period; the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Quebec have played major roles at the provincial level. The Indirect Costs Research Program and Canada Foundation for Innovation have played major roles in terms of funding in the last years of our analysis. Public/charitable-funded research expenditures devoted to CVD have increased substantially over the last three decades. By international standards, the evidence suggests Canada spends less on health-related research than the UK and the US, at least in absolute terms. However, this may not be too problematic as Canada is

  8. Charge transport in disordered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagorik, Adam Gerald

    This thesis is focused on on using Monte Carlo simulation to extract device relevant properties, such as the current voltage behavior of transistors and the efficiency of photovoltaics, from the hopping transport of molecules. Specifically, simulation is used to study organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photo-voltaics (OPVs). For OFETs, the current was found to decrease with increasing concentration of traps and barriers in the system. As the barrier/trap concentration approaches 100%, the current recovers as carrier begin to travel through the manifold of connected trap states. Coulomb interactions between like charges are found to play a role in removing carriers from trap states. The equilibrium current in OFETs was found to be independent of charge injection method, however, the finite size of devices leads to an oscillatory current. Fourier transforms of the electrical current show peaks that vary non-linearly with device length, while being independent of device width. This has implications for the mobility of carriers in finite sized devices. Lastly, the presence of defects and high barriers (> 0.4 eV) was found to produce negative differential resistance in the saturation region of OFET curves, unlike traps. While defects and barriers prohibit carriers from reaching the drain at high voltages, the repulsive interaction between like charged carriers pushes charges around the defects. For OPVs, the effects of device morphology and charge delocalization were studied. Fill factors increased with domain size in monolayer isotropic morphologies, but decreased for band morphologies. In single-phase systems without Coulomb interactions, astonishingly high fill factors (. 70%) were found. In multilayer OPVs,a complex interplay of domain size, connectivity, tortuosity, interface trapping, and delocalization determined efficiency.

  9. New statistical downscaling for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, T. Q.; Cannon, A. J.; Sobie, S.

    2013-12-01

    This poster will document the production of a set of statistically downscaled future climate projections for Canada based on the latest available RCM and GCM simulations - the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP; Mearns et al. 2007) and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The main stages of the project included (1) downscaling method evaluation, (2) scenarios selection, (3) production of statistically downscaled results, and (4) applications of results. We build upon a previous downscaling evaluation project (Bürger et al. 2012, Bürger et al. 2013) in which a quantile-based method (Bias Correction/Spatial Disaggregation - BCSD; Werner 2011) provided high skill compared with four other methods representing the majority of types of downscaling used in Canada. Additional quantile-based methods (Bias-Correction/Constructed Analogues; Maurer et al. 2010 and Bias-Correction/Climate Imprint ; Hunter and Meentemeyer 2005) were evaluated. A subset of 12 CMIP5 simulations was chosen based on an objective set of selection criteria. This included hemispheric skill assessment based on the CLIMDEX indices (Sillmann et al. 2013), historical criteria used previously at the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (Werner 2011), and refinement based on a modified clustering algorithm (Houle et al. 2012; Katsavounidis et al. 1994). Statistical downscaling was carried out on the NARCCAP ensemble and a subset of the CMIP5 ensemble. We produced downscaled scenarios over Canada at a daily time resolution and 300 arc second (~10 km) spatial resolution from historical runs for 1951-2005 and from RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 projections for 2006-2100. The ANUSPLIN gridded daily dataset (McKenney et al. 2011) was used as a target. It has national coverage, spans the historical period of interest 1951-2005, and has daily time resolution. It uses interpolation of station data based on thin-plate splines. This type of method has been shown to have

  10. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  11. Trapping a Charged Atom

    SciTech Connect

    Hla, Saw Wai

    2015-09-01

    Engineering of supramolecular assemblies on surfaces is an emerging field of research impacting chemistry, electronics, and biology. Among supramolecular assemblies, metal-containing structures provide rich properties and enable robust nanostructured designs. In this issue of ACS Nano, Feng eta!, report that supramolecular assemblies can trap gold adatoms that maintain a charged state on a Au(111) surface. Such charged adatoms may offer additional degrees of freedom in designing novel supramolecular architectures for efficient catalysts, memory, and charge storage for medical applications.

  12. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  13. Youth Apprenticeships in Canada: On Their Inferior Status Despite Skilled Labour Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Wolfgang; Taylor, Alison; Wright, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, youth apprenticeships have been promoted as an educational alternative that leads to the development of valuable skills, allows for the opportunity to earn an income while learning and helps youth to gain a head start into lucrative, creative and in-demand careers. Yet, these programmes have remained rather marginal and continue to be…

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates from Clinical Cases in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Petronella, Nicholas; Chew Leung, Courtney; Farber, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis following ingestion of contaminated seafood. This report presents the draft genome sequences of four clinical strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated in Canada. All four strains lack traditional pathogenic markers and possess uniquely individual characteristics identified using other typing criteria. PMID:25635013

  15. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  16. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  17. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  18. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  19. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  20. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  1. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  3. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  4. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  5. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  6. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  7. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  8. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  9. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  10. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  11. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Canada 6 § 93.216 Poultry from Canada. Poultry imported from Canada is not required to meet the requirements of § 93.209 but shall meet all other requirements of this...

  12. Instabilities of Charged Polyampholytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardar, Mehran

    1996-03-01

    We consider polymers formed from a (quenched) random sequence of charged monomers of opposite signs. Such polymers, known as polyampholytes (PAs), are compact when completely neutral and expanded when highly charged.footnote Y. Kantor and M. Kardar, Europhys. Lett. 27, 643 (1994). We examine the transition between the two regimes by Monte Carlo simulations, exact enumeration studies, and by analogies to charged drops. We find that the overall excess charge, Q, is the main determinant of the size of the PA. A polymer composed of N charges of ± q0 is compact for Qcharged drop. A uniform excess charge causes the breakup of a fluid drop. We speculate that a uniformly charged polymer stretches out to a necklace shape. The inhomogeneities in charge distort the shape away from an ordered necklace.footnote Y. Kantor and M. Kardar, Phys. Rev. E 51, 1299 (1995).

  13. Charging of interplanetary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Newcomb, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to quantify, by laboratory experiments, the charging of ices and other insulators subject to irradiation with electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons and to model special conditions based on the data. The system and conditions to be studied are those relevant for charging of dust in magnetospheric plasmas. The measurements are supplemented by computer simulations of charging or grains under a variety of conditions. Our work for this period involved experiments on water ice, improved models of charging of ice grains for Saturn's E-ring, and the construction of apparatus for electron impact studies and measurements of electron energy distributions.

  14. Understanding Canada's Aboriginal Peoples: A Regional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Terry

    1993-01-01

    Reviews materials from history, anthropology, art, and journalism related Canada's aboriginal peoples. Uses a regional geography approach to present information. Includes an extensive annotated bibliography of resources for classroom teachers. (CFR)

  15. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  16. Coaxial Connections: Art Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, James V.

    1984-01-01

    Several avenues of communication that bind art education in the United States and Canada are described. Developments of mutual understanding have tightened the art education relationship between the two countries. (RM)

  17. Language Policy and Planning in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of language policy formation and planning in Canada covers the following: bilingualism and multiculturalism; Quebec, French, and the constitution; and aboriginal language issues. Language legislation is emphasized. (Contains 52 references.) (LB)

  18. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-26

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium open pit mines. These images were acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007.

  19. Space Radar Image of Victoria, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency spaceborne radar image shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia.

  20. Teacher Exchange: From Kansas to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Charles

    1976-01-01

    An American community college instructor describes his experience teaching at Seneca College, a two-year institution in suburban Toronto, Canada. Administrative structures, teaching methods, and environments are described and compared. (NHM)

  1. Coaxial Connections: Art Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, James V.

    1984-01-01

    Several avenues of communication that bind art education in the United States and Canada are described. Developments of mutual understanding have tightened the art education relationship between the two countries. (RM)

  2. Canada issues booklet describing acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A booklet recently released by Environment Canada describes acid rain in terms easily understood by the general public. Although Acid Rain — The Facts tends somewhat to give the Canadian side of this intercountry controversial subject, it nevertheless presents some very interesting, simple statistics of interest to people in either the U.S. or Canada. Copies of the booklet can be obtained from Inquiry Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3, Canada, tel. 613-997-2800.The booklet points out that acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Once released into the atmosphere, these substances can be carried long distances by prevailing winds and return to Earth as acidic rain, snow, fog, or dust. The main sources of SO2 emissions in North America are coal-fired power generating stations and nonferrous ore smelters. The main sources of NOx emissions are vehicles and fuel combustion. From economical and environmental viewpoints, Canada believes acid rain is one of the most serious problems presently facing the country: increasing the acidity of more than 20% of Canada's 300,000 lakes to the point that aquatic life is depleted and acidity of soil water and shallow groundwater is increasing, causing decline in forest growth and water fowl populations, and eating away at buildings and monuments. Acid rain is endangering fisheries, tourism, agriculture, and forest resources in an area of 2.6 million km2 (one million square miles) of eastern Canada, about 8% of Canada's gross national product.

  3. Nesting by a yearling Canada goose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, L.C.; McGilvrey, F.B.

    1971-01-01

    A free-flying Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior), known to be just under a year old, laid a clutch of four eggs at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. At least half of the 2-year-old females nest at Patuxent, and almost all of the 3-year-olds nest. As far as we know, this is the first record of nesting by a yearling Canada goose.

  4. Situation awareness system for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  5. Modelling space-charge limited transport in discotic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lever, L.; Bushby, R. J.; Kelsall, R. W.

    2006-05-01

    Using a self-consistent Monte Carlo/Poisson algorithm, we investigate space-charge limited conduction in discotic liquid crystal time of flight (TOF) experiments. The charge transport mechanism is via a semi-delocalised banding process, and two mechanisms of photo-generation of charge carriers are considered: excitons generated by the laser pulse, which quench at the anode, and processes, such as the Onsager mechanism, that lead to direct generation of free electron/hole pairs within the bulk. The nature of the space-charge limited TOF transient is investigated as a function of quantum yield of charge carriers and as a function of applied potential.

  6. Search for Charged Higgs in CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    We present results of a search for charged Higgs production from pbarp collisions at √s=1.8 TeV at Fermilab's Tevatron collider using the CDF detector. An expanded Higgs sector containing charged Higgs bosons is a persistent feature of candidate theories to replace the Standard Model. The minimal supersymmetric extention of the Standard Model, for example, predicts that the dominant decay mode of the top quark is tarrow H+barrow τ+ν b for large values of tanβ. We use the hadronic decays of the tau lepton in this channel to set a new limit on charged Higgs production. *We thank the Fermilab staff and the technical staffs of the participating institutions for their vital contributions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation. Supported by U.S. NSF NSF-94-17820.

  7. Beware Capital Charge Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The capital charge rate has a material effect in cost comparisons. Care should be taken to calculate it correctly and use it properly. The most common mistake is to use a nominal, rather than real, capital charge rate. To make matters worse, the common short-cut formula does not work well. (author)

  8. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  9. Lab on a chip Canada--rapid diffusion over large length scales.

    PubMed

    Juncker, David; Wheeler, Aaron R; Sinton, David

    2013-07-07

    The roots of lab on a chip in Canada are deep, comprising of some of the earliest contributions and first demonstrations of the potential of microfluidic chips. In an editorial leading off this special issue, Jed Harrison of University of Alberta reflects on these early days and Canada's role in the field's development (DOI: 10.1039/c3lc50522g). Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip research efforts grew exponentially - rapidly diffusing across the vast Canadian length scales.

  10. Report summary. Seniors' Falls in Canada: Second Report: key highlights.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, A; Kuran, N; Powell, S

    2014-07-01

    Injury in Canada is a serious public health concern. Injuries are a leading cause of hospitalization for children, young adults and seniors and a major cause of disability and death. Falls remain the leading cause of injury-related hospitalizations among Canadian seniors, and data from the Canadian Community Health Survey - Healthy Aging indicate that 20% of seniors living in the community reported a fall in the previous year, with a higher prevalence among older seniors, i.e., those aged over 80 years. Falls and associated outcomes not only harm the injured individuals but also affect their families, friends and care providers; they also place considerable pressure on the health care system. However, we do know that these personal and economic costs can be avoided through injury prevention activities. The Seniors' Falls in Canada: Second Report provides policy makers, researchers, community programmers and practitioners with current data and trends on falls, injuries and hospitalizations among Canadian adults aged 65 years and over. This report is intended for use in public health research, policy development and practice.

  11. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  12. Make dark matter charged again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub

    2017-05-01

    We revisit constraints on dark matter that is charged under a U(1) gauge group in the dark sector, decoupled from Standard Model forces. We find that the strongest constraints in the literature are subject to a number of mitigating factors. For instance, the naive dark matter thermalization timescale in halos is corrected by saturation effects that slow down isotropization for modest ellipticities. The weakened bounds uncover interesting parameter space, making models with weak-scale charged dark matter viable, even with electromagnetic strength interaction. This also leads to the intriguing possibility that dark matter self-interactions within small dwarf galaxies are extremely large, a relatively unexplored regime in current simulations. Such strong interactions suppress heat transfer over scales larger than the dark matter mean free path, inducing a dynamical cutoff length scale above which the system appears to have only feeble interactions. These effects must be taken into account to assess the viability of darkly-charged dark matter. Future analyses and measurements should probe a promising region of parameter space for this model.

  13. Mean field theory of charged dendrimer molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Thomas; Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2011-11-01

    Using self-consistent field theory (SCFT), we study the conformational properties of polyelectrolyte dendrimers. We compare results for three different models of charge distributions on the polyelectrolytes: (1) a smeared, quenched charge distribution characteristic of strong polyelectrolytes; (2) a smeared, annealed charge distribution characteristic of weak polyelectrolytes; and (3) an implicit counterion model with Debye-Huckel interactions between the charged groups. Our results indicate that an explicit treatment of counterions is crucial for the accurate characterization of the conformations of polyelectrolyte dendrimers. In comparing the quenched and annealed models of charge distributions, annealed dendrimers were observed to modulate their charges in response to the density of polymer monomers, counterions, and salt ions. Such phenomena is not accommodated within the quenched model of dendrimers and is shown to lead to significant differences between the predictions of quenched and annealed model of dendrimers. In this regard, our results indicate that the average dissociated charge bar{α } inside the dendrimer serves as a useful parameter to map the effects of different parametric conditions and models onto each other. We also present comparisons to the scaling results proposed to explain the behavior of polyelectrolyte dendrimers. Inspired by the trends indicated by our results, we develop a strong segregation theory model whose predictions are shown to be in very good agreement with the numerical SCFT calculations.

  14. Mean field theory of charged dendrimer molecules.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Thomas; Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2011-11-28

    Using self-consistent field theory (SCFT), we study the conformational properties of polyelectrolyte dendrimers. We compare results for three different models of charge distributions on the polyelectrolytes: (1) a smeared, quenched charge distribution characteristic of strong polyelectrolytes; (2) a smeared, annealed charge distribution characteristic of weak polyelectrolytes; and (3) an implicit counterion model with Debye-Huckel interactions between the charged groups. Our results indicate that an explicit treatment of counterions is crucial for the accurate characterization of the conformations of polyelectrolyte dendrimers. In comparing the quenched and annealed models of charge distributions, annealed dendrimers were observed to modulate their charges in response to the density of polymer monomers, counterions, and salt ions. Such phenomena is not accommodated within the quenched model of dendrimers and is shown to lead to significant differences between the predictions of quenched and annealed model of dendrimers. In this regard, our results indicate that the average dissociated charge α inside the dendrimer serves as a useful parameter to map the effects of different parametric conditions and models onto each other. We also present comparisons to the scaling results proposed to explain the behavior of polyelectrolyte dendrimers. Inspired by the trends indicated by our results, we develop a strong segregation theory model whose predictions are shown to be in very good agreement with the numerical SCFT calculations.

  15. Enhancing the Charging Power of Quantum Batteries.

    PubMed

    Campaioli, Francesco; Pollock, Felix A; Binder, Felix C; Céleri, Lucas; Goold, John; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan

    2017-04-14

    Can collective quantum effects make a difference in a meaningful thermodynamic operation? Focusing on energy storage and batteries, we demonstrate that quantum mechanics can lead to an enhancement in the amount of work deposited per unit time, i.e., the charging power, when N batteries are charged collectively. We first derive analytic upper bounds for the collective quantum advantage in charging power for two choices of constraints on the charging Hamiltonian. We then demonstrate that even in the absence of quantum entanglement this advantage can be extensive. For our main result, we provide an upper bound to the achievable quantum advantage when the interaction order is restricted; i.e., at most k batteries are interacting. This constitutes a fundamental limit on the advantage offered by quantum technologies over their classical counterparts.

  16. Space charge effect in isochronous rings

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.

    2008-08-25

    Cyclotrons, rings for precise nuclear mass spectrometry, and some light sources with extremely short bunches are operated or planned to be operated in the isochronous or almost isochronous regime. Also, many hadron synchrotrons run in the isochronous regime for a short period of time during transition crossing. The longitudinal motion is frozen in the isochronous regime that leads to accumulation of the integral of the longitudinal space charge force. In low-gamma hadron machines, this can cause a fast growth of the beam energy spread even at modest beam intensities. Additionally, the transverse component of the space charge effectively modifies the dispersion function and the slip factor shifting the isochronous (transition) point. In this paper, we discuss space charge effects in the isochronous regime and present experimental results obtained in the Small Isochronous Ring, developed at Michigan State University specifically for studies of space charge in the isochronous regime.

  17. Enhancing the Charging Power of Quantum Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campaioli, Francesco; Pollock, Felix A.; Binder, Felix C.; Céleri, Lucas; Goold, John; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan

    2017-04-01

    Can collective quantum effects make a difference in a meaningful thermodynamic operation? Focusing on energy storage and batteries, we demonstrate that quantum mechanics can lead to an enhancement in the amount of work deposited per unit time, i.e., the charging power, when N batteries are charged collectively. We first derive analytic upper bounds for the collective quantum advantage in charging power for two choices of constraints on the charging Hamiltonian. We then demonstrate that even in the absence of quantum entanglement this advantage can be extensive. For our main result, we provide an upper bound to the achievable quantum advantage when the interaction order is restricted; i.e., at most k batteries are interacting. This constitutes a fundamental limit on the advantage offered by quantum technologies over their classical counterparts.

  18. Like-charge attraction and opposite-charge decomplexation between polymers and DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin

    2017-02-01

    We scrutinize the effect of polyvalent ions on polymer-DNA interactions. We extend a recently developed test-charge theory [S. Buyukdagli et al., Phys. Rev. E 94, 042502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.042502] to the case of a stiff polymer interacting with a DNA molecule in an electrolyte mixture. The theory accounts for one-loop level electrostatic correlation effects such as the ionic cloud deformation around the strongly charged DNA molecule as well as image-charge forces induced by the low DNA permittivity. Our model can reproduce and explain various characteristics of the experimental phase diagrams for polymer solutions. First, the addition of polyvalent cations to the electrolyte solution results in the attraction of the negatively charged polymer by the DNA molecule. The glue of the like-charge attraction is the enhanced shielding of the polymer charges by the dense counterion layer at the DNA surface. Second, through the shielding of the DNA-induced electrostatic potential, mono- and polyvalent cations of large concentration both suppress the like-charge attraction. Within the same formalism, we also predict a new opposite-charge repulsion effect between the DNA molecule and a positively charged polymer. In the presence of polyvalent anions such as sulfate or phosphate, their repulsion by the DNA charges leads to the charge screening deficiency of the region around the DNA molecule. This translates into a repulsive force that results in the decomplexation of the polymer from DNA. This opposite-charge repulsion phenomenon can be verified by current experiments and the underlying mechanism can be beneficial to gene therapeutic applications where the control over polymer-DNA interactions is the key factor.

  19. Like-charge attraction and opposite-charge decomplexation between polymers and DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Buyukdagli, Sahin

    2017-02-01

    We scrutinize the effect of polyvalent ions on polymer-DNA interactions. We extend a recently developed test-charge theory [S. Buyukdagli et al., Phys. Rev. E 94, 042502 (2016)1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.94.042502] to the case of a stiff polymer interacting with a DNA molecule in an electrolyte mixture. The theory accounts for one-loop level electrostatic correlation effects such as the ionic cloud deformation around the strongly charged DNA molecule as well as image-charge forces induced by the low DNA permittivity. Our model can reproduce and explain various characteristics of the experimental phase diagrams for polymer solutions. First, the addition of polyvalent cations to the electrolyte solution results in the attraction of the negatively charged polymer by the DNA molecule. The glue of the like-charge attraction is the enhanced shielding of the polymer charges by the dense counterion layer at the DNA surface. Second, through the shielding of the DNA-induced electrostatic potential, mono- and polyvalent cations of large concentration both suppress the like-charge attraction. Within the same formalism, we also predict a new opposite-charge repulsion effect between the DNA molecule and a positively charged polymer. In the presence of polyvalent anions such as sulfate or phosphate, their repulsion by the DNA charges leads to the charge screening deficiency of the region around the DNA molecule. This translates into a repulsive force that results in the decomplexation of the polymer from DNA. This opposite-charge repulsion phenomenon can be verified by current experiments and the underlying mechanism can be beneficial to gene therapeutic applications where the control over polymer-DNA interactions is the key factor.

  20. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and `CT-like' character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals is compared with with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set includes an organic CT complex, two `push-pull' donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT, which has led to the concept of `CT-like' excitations. However, `CT-like' excitations are not like charge transfer, and the improvements are not obtained for the right reasons. The triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the `CT-like' candidates, when going from a non-hybrid to an LC functional the error in the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative to positive, providing error compensation. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is too large with all functionals, leading to the best err