Science.gov

Sample records for canada leads charge

  1. Case report: Coccidiosis and lead poisoning in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    Four dead Canada geese (Branta canadensis L.) collected at the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware were found to have both marked duodenal lesions of coccidiosis and high levels of lead in the liver. Although only one goose had lead shot in the gizzard, all four had levels of lead in the liver suggestive of lead poisoning.

  2. Reformulating Lead-Based Paint as a Problem in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Amélie

    2011-01-01

    Leaded gasoline was officially removed from the Canadian market in December 1990. The removal of a major lead source and the subsequent decline in children's blood lead levels marked an important transition point and sparked the emergence of new discourse on lead in Canada. Today, childhood lead poisoning is viewed as a problem of the past or a problem of the United States. Sparse Canadian surveillance data supported this view. Moreover, tensions among federal agencies evolved into a power struggle, with Health Canada ultimately becoming the dominant authority, thereby relegating important research initiatives to obscurity and also shaping a vastly weaker regulatory response to lead than occurred in the United States. PMID:21836119

  3. Lead poisoning in Canada geese on Plum Island, Massachusetts (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hinds, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    During December 1983 and early January 1984, about 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died of lead poisoning at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge on Plum Island, Massachusetts. In an effort to determine the source of lead, 100 bottom samples were taken from a refuge impoundment where much of the mortality/morbidity occurred. An average of 157,150 pellets/ha was found with a range of 64,582 to 322,910 pellets/ha. Water levels in this impoundment were low when Canada geese arrived, making shot more readily available to the geese and contributing to the outbreak. To minimize the risk of Canada geese being exposed to lead shot poisoning at this location in the future, we recommend several corrective manipulations of habitat.

  4. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  5. Lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kreager, N; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; Tsuji, L J S

    2008-02-01

    One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). Further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo; Hungarian partridge, Perdix perdix; chukar; and common pheasant) livers analyzed had elevated lead concentrations (> or =6 microg/g wet weight [ww]). Liver-lead concentrations above Health Canada's guideline for human consumption of fish protein (<0.5 microg/g ww) were found in 40% (51/129) of livers analyzed. Data indicate that the ingestion of lead pellets in upland game birds and the potential consumption of lead-contaminated meat by humans are concerns related to the continued use of lead shotshell for hunting.

  6. Study on sources of charging lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the general characteristics of lead acid batteries and two charging methods of these batteries. For charging of lead batteries was used an intelligent power source K 8012 (from Velleman). The power source allows fixing the level of the battery voltage and battery capacity. The intelligent power source uses the joint method (at constant current and, then, at constant voltage) and warning that indicates different situations in the charging process. Other method of charging presented in the paper is at constant voltage using a stabilized power source. In the paper experimental measurements were carried out using data acquisition card SER 10 BIT (from Conrad) for charging/ discharging of a lead acid battery 12V/9Ah (using an intelligent power source) and charging of another high capacity lead acid battery 12V/47Ah/390 A (using a stabilized power source). At the discharging of the lead acid batteries it were used automotive lamps as electric loads.

  7. Pulse charging of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Pulse charging, as a method of rapidly and efficiently charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells for an electric vehicle application was investigated. A wide range of charge pulse current square waveforms were investigated and the results were compared to constant current charging at the time averaged pulse current values. Representative pulse current waveforms were: (1) positive waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amperes (amps), discharge pulse-current of zero amps, and a duty cycle of about 50%; (2) Romanov waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amps, peak discharge pulse current of 15 amps, and a duty of 50%; and (3) McCulloch waveform peak charge pulse current of 193 amps, peak discharge pulse current of about 575 amps, and a duty cycle of 94%. Experimental results indicate that on the basis of amp-hour efficiency, pulse charging offered no significant advantage as a method of rapidly charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value. There were, however, some disadvantages of pulse charging in particular a decrease in charge amp-hour and energy efficiencies and an increase in cell electrolyte temperature. The constant current charge method resulted in the best energy efficiency with no significant sacrifice of charge time or amp-hour output. Whether or not pulse charging offers an advantage over constant current charging with regard to the cell charge/discharge cycle life is unknown at this time.

  8. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  9. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from < 0.01 to 0.585 microgram ml-1, while those of nestling eagles from a reference site indicated normal or background exposure (< 0.01 microgram ml-1). No differences in the prevalence of elevated exposure were detected among genders or age classes (0.5- and > or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed.

  10. Lead in school drinking water: Canada can and should address this important ongoing exposure source.

    PubMed

    Barn, Prabjit; Kosatsky, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Reducing all preventable lead exposures in children should be a public health priority given that blood lead levels in children that were once considered "safe" have since been associated with important neuro-developmental deficits. Limited Canadian data indicate that school drinking water can be an important component of children's overall exposure to lead. Outside of Ontario, however, Canadian schools are not required to test for lead in water; in most of Canada, school testing is case by case, typically initiated by parental concerns. Provinces and territories are encouraged to follow Ontario's example by instituting a routine school water lead testing program in order to identify facilities where action can result in a decrease in students' exposure to lead. Testing and remediation frameworks developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and the province of Ontario provide direction to school boards and local and provincial/territorial health authorities.

  11. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  12. Charge transport mechanism in lead oxide revealed by CELIV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, O.; Juska, G.; Oelerich, J.-O.; Wiemer, M.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Reznik, A.

    2016-09-01

    Although polycrystalline lead oxide (PbO) belongs to the most promising photoconductors for optoelectronic and large area detectors applications, the charge transport mechanism in this material still remains unclear. Combining the conventional time-of-flight and the photo-generated charge extraction by linear increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) techniques, we investigate the transport of holes which are shown to be the faster carriers in poly-PbO. Experimentally measured temperature and electric field dependences of the hole mobility suggest a highly dispersive transport. In order to analyze the transport features quantitatively, the theory of the photo-CELIV is extended to account for the dispersive nature of charge transport. While in other materials with dispersive transport the amount of dispersion usually depends on temperature, this is not the case in poly-PbO, which evidences that dispersive transport is caused by the spatial inhomogeneity of the material and not by the energy disorder.

  13. Charge transport mechanism in lead oxide revealed by CELIV technique

    PubMed Central

    Semeniuk, O.; Juska, G.; Oelerich, J.-O.; Wiemer, M.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Reznik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although polycrystalline lead oxide (PbO) belongs to the most promising photoconductors for optoelectronic and large area detectors applications, the charge transport mechanism in this material still remains unclear. Combining the conventional time-of-flight and the photo-generated charge extraction by linear increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) techniques, we investigate the transport of holes which are shown to be the faster carriers in poly-PbO. Experimentally measured temperature and electric field dependences of the hole mobility suggest a highly dispersive transport. In order to analyze the transport features quantitatively, the theory of the photo-CELIV is extended to account for the dispersive nature of charge transport. While in other materials with dispersive transport the amount of dispersion usually depends on temperature, this is not the case in poly-PbO, which evidences that dispersive transport is caused by the spatial inhomogeneity of the material and not by the energy disorder. PMID:27628537

  14. Charge transport mechanism in lead oxide revealed by CELIV technique.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, O; Juska, G; Oelerich, J-O; Wiemer, M; Baranovskii, S D; Reznik, A

    2016-01-01

    Although polycrystalline lead oxide (PbO) belongs to the most promising photoconductors for optoelectronic and large area detectors applications, the charge transport mechanism in this material still remains unclear. Combining the conventional time-of-flight and the photo-generated charge extraction by linear increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) techniques, we investigate the transport of holes which are shown to be the faster carriers in poly-PbO. Experimentally measured temperature and electric field dependences of the hole mobility suggest a highly dispersive transport. In order to analyze the transport features quantitatively, the theory of the photo-CELIV is extended to account for the dispersive nature of charge transport. While in other materials with dispersive transport the amount of dispersion usually depends on temperature, this is not the case in poly-PbO, which evidences that dispersive transport is caused by the spatial inhomogeneity of the material and not by the energy disorder. PMID:27628537

  15. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  16. Interfacial Charge Transfer Anisotropy in Polycrystalline Lead Iodide Perovskite Films.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Cortecchia, Daniele; Krishna, Anurag; Chen, Shi; Mathews, Nripan; Grimsdale, Andrew C; Soci, Cesare

    2015-04-16

    Solar cells based on organic-inorganic lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) exhibit remarkably high power conversion efficiency (PCE). One of the key issues in solution-processed films is that often the polycrystalline domain orientation is not well-defined, which makes it difficult to predict energy alignment and charge transfer efficiency. Here we combine ab initio calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy to unravel the electronic structure and charge redistribution at the interface between different surfaces of CH3NH3PbI3 and typical organic hole acceptor Spiro-OMeTAD and electron acceptor PCBM. We find that both hole and electron interfacial transfer depend strongly on the CH3NH3PbI3 surface orientation: while the (001) and (110) surfaces tend to favor hole injection to Spiro-OMeTAD, the (100) surface facilitates electron transfer to PCBM due to surface delocalized charges and hole/electron accumulation at the CH3NH3PbI3/organic interfaces. Molecular dynamic simulations indicate that this is due to strong orbital interactions under thermal fluctuations at room temperature, suggesting the possibility to further improve charge separation and extraction in perovskite-based solar cells by controlling perovskite film crystallization and surface orientation.

  17. Mapping molecular motions leading to charge delocalization with ultrabright electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciaini, German

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafast diffraction has broken the barrier to atomic exploration by combining the atomic spatial resolution of diffraction techniques with the temporal resolution of ultrafast spectroscopy. X-ray free electron lasers, slicing techniques and femtosecond laser-driven X-ray and electron sources have been successfully applied for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics in a variety of samples. Yet, the application of fs-diffraction to the study of rather sensitive organic molecular crystals remains unexplored. Organic crystals are composed by weak scattering centres, often present low melting points, poor heat conductivity and are, typically, radiation sensitive. Low repetition rates (about tens of Hertz) are therefore required to overcome accumulative heating effects from the laser excitation that can degrade the sample and mask the structural dynamics. This imparts tremendous constraints on source brightness to acquire enough diffraction data before adverse photo-degradation effects have played a non-negligible role in the crystalline structure. We implemented ultra-bright femtosecond electron diffraction to obtain a movie of the relevant molecular motions driving the photo-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in the organic charge-transfer salt (EDO-TTF)2PF6. On the first few picoseconds (0 - 10 ps) the structural evolution, well-described by three main reaction coordinates, reaches a transient intermediate state (TIS). Model structural refinement calculations indicate that fast sliding of flat EDO-TTF molecules with consecutive motion of PF6 counter-ions drive the formation of TS instead of the expected flattening of initially bent EDO-TTF moieties which seems to evolve through a slower thermal pathway that brings the system into a final high temperature-type state. These findings establish the potential of ultrabright femtosecond electron sources for probing the primary processes governing structural dynamics with atomic resolution in labile systems

  18. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  19. Lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in Canada.

    PubMed

    Clark, A J; Scheuhammer, A M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the degree of lead exposure, based on tissue-lead concentrations, in 184 raptors of 16 species found dead across Canada. The most prevalent species available for examination were Red-tailed hawks, Great horned owls, and Golden eagles (n = 131). The majority of individuals examined had very low lead accumulation, however 3-4% of total mortality in these 3 most commonly encountered species was attributed to lead poisoning. In addition, 1 of 9 Bald Eagles found dead far from aquatic environments was lead poisoned; and a single Turkey Vulture had a highly elevated bone-lead concentration (58 microg/g dry weight). Evidence from our study, along with other published research, indicates that upland-foraging birds of prey and scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets, are at risk for lead poisoning from the ingestion of lead projectiles from ammunition used in upland hunting. The use of non-lead ammunition for hunting upland game would effectively remove the only serious source of high lead exposure and lead poisoning for upland-foraging raptors. PMID:12739854

  20. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent exposure to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that exposure of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez

  1. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, Daniel J.; Snyder, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Hatch year (HY) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Basin had higher concentrations of lead in their blood than HY Western Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) (geometric means 0.98 versus 0.28 I?g/g, wet weight). The pattern for adults of both species was similar, although geometric means (1.77 versus 0.41 I?g/g) were higher than in HY birds. HY mallards captured in the CDA River Basin in 1987 contained significantly lower lead concentrations in their blood than in 1994a??95 (0.36 versus 0.98 I?g/g); however, some very young mallards were sampled in 1987, and concentrations in adults were not significantly different in 1987, 1994, or 1995 (1.52, 2.07, 1.55 I?g/g, respectively). Both species in the CDA River Basin in 1994a??95 showed significantly reduced red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to the reference areas: Canada geese (HY a??65.4 to a??86.0%, adults a??82.3%), and mallards (HY a??90.7 to a??95.5%, adults a??94.1%). Canada goose goslings were divided into size classes, and the two smaller classes from the CDA River Basin had significantly elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (protoporphyrin) levels compared to the reference area (15.2?? and 6.9??). HY and adult mallards both had significantly elevated protoporphyrin (5.9?? and 7.5??). Recognizing that interspecific differences exist in response and sensitivity to lead, it appears (at least for hemoglobin and hematocrit) that Canada geese were more sensitive to lead than mallards, i.e., adverse hematologic effects occur at lower blood lead concentrations. Only Canada geese from the CDA River Basin, in spite of lower blood lead concentrations, had significantly reduced mean hemoglobin and hematocrit values. No euthanized Canada geese (all HYs) from CDA River Basin were classified as clinically lead poisoned, but 38 Canada geese found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study succumbed to lead poisoning between 1992 and

  2. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  3. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1981-01-15

    Charge efficiencies were determined for ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state-of-charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  4. Differences in oxidative stress between young Canada geese and mallards exposed to lead-contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure causes an increase in tissue lipid peroxides and variation in glutathione (GSH) concentration, which can be related to peroxidative damage of cell membranes in Pb poisoned animals. Species and individual variation in sensitivity to Pb poisoning among animals may be due to differential resistance to oxidative stress. We compared the effects of oxidative stress caused by Pb exposure (1.7, 414 and 828 ig/g of diet) for the first six weeks in growing young of two species of waterfowl, Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), with the first species being possibly more sensitive to Pb poisoning based on previous field and laboratory observations. Blood and liver Pb concentrations increased more in mallards than in geese; this may be explained on the basis of body weight, being 3.2 times higher in geese, and hepatic metabolism where GSH-S-transferase activity is 2.9 fold higher in geese and presumably has a role in the binding of Pb to GSH and subsequent biliary excretion. In contrast, mallards showed higher hepatic levels of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX) and GSH reductase (GR). Although both species showed an increase in hepatic GSH concentration with Pb exposure, the increase of lipid peroxidation with Pb exposure was more significant in geese. Within treatment groups, hepatic GSH concentrations were inversely related to liver Pb concentration in both species, which may correspond to the role of GSH in Pb excretion. Hepatic GSH was also inversely related to hepatic lipid peroxidation, but only in mallards and in agreement with the differences observed in GPX and GR activities. The lower resistance to lipid peroxidation of Canada geese may explain why birds of this species found dead in the field by Pb shot ingestion often have a lower number of shot in the gizzard and lower liver Pb concentrations than mallards.

  5. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  6. Neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A

    2016-03-15

    The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007 to July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013 to May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (p<0.001). Breed of dam was significantly associated with N. caninum diagnosis, with a higher prevalence in dairy versus beef breeds, and fetuses of 3-6 months gestational age had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. N. caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region.

  7. Effect of positive pulse charge waveforms on the energy efficiency of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of four different charge methods on the energy conversion efficiency of 300 ampere hour lead acid traction cells were investigated. Three of the methods were positive pulse charge waveforms; the fourth, a constant current method, was used as a baseline of comparison. The positive pulse charge waveforms were: 120 Hz full wave rectified sinusoidal; 120 Hz silicon controlled rectified; and 1 kHz square wave. The constant current charger was set at the time average pulse current of each pulse waveform, which was 150 amps. The energy efficiency does not include charger losses. The lead acid traction cells were charged to 70 percent of rated ampere hour capacity in each case. The results of charging the cells using the three different pulse charge waveforms indicate there was no significant difference in energy conversion efficiency when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value.

  8. Effects of nontoxic shot regulations on lead accumulation in ducks and American woodcock in Canada.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A L; Scheuhammer, A M; Chan, H M

    2005-04-01

    Prior to the first nontoxic shot zones being established in Canada, a nationwide survey of lead (Pb) concentrations in wing bones of hatch year (HY) dabbling and diving ducks determined the incidence of elevated Pb exposure in waterfowl in different parts of the country (Scheuhammer and Dickson 1996). The main objectives of the present study were (1) to compare these previously collected data with the incidence of elevated Pb accumulation in the same species several years after the establishment of a national regulation in 1997 prohibiting the use of Pb shot for waterfowl hunting; and (2) to survey waterfowl hunters to determine reported levels of compliance with the nontoxic shot regulation. Average bone-Pb concentrations in dabbling ducks (mallards [Anas platyrhyncos] and American black ducks [Anas rubripes] combined) decreased significantly between 1989+1990 and 2000 (11 microg/g vs. 4.8 microg/g, respectively [p < 0.01]). Ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) showed a similar decrease in mean bone-Pb concentrations, from 28 microg/g to 10 microg/g (p < 0.01). These declines in bone-Pb concentration were consistent with the results of a large anonymous hunter survey, which indicated a high level of reported compliance (>80%) with the nontoxic shot regulation among waterfowl hunters residing in Ontario and British Columbia. Conversely, American woodcock (Scolopax minor), an important upland game species not affected by the nontoxic shot regulation, showed no decrease in mean bone-Pb concentration since the national regulation came into effect (19 microg/g in 1995 vs. 21 microg/g in 2000). A majority (70%) of waterfowl hunters in British Columbia and Ontario who also hunt upland game birds report continued (legal) use of Pb shot for upland game bird hunting. PMID:15719196

  9. Underestimating a serving size may lead to increased food consumption when using Canada's Food Guide.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Sharona L; Reddigan, Jacinta I; Hamadeh, Mazen J; Jamnik, Veronica K; Rowan, Chip P; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2012-10-01

    It is unclear whether Canadians accurately estimate serving sizes and the number of servings in their diet as intended by Canada's Food Guide (CFG). The objective of this study was to determine if participants can accurately quantify the size of 1 serving and the number of servings consumed per day. White, Black, South Asian, and East Asian adults (n = 145) estimated the quantity of food that constituted 1 CFG serving, and used CFG to estimate the number of servings that they consumed from their 24-h dietary recall. Participants estimated 1 serving size of vegetables and fruit (+43%) and grains (+55%) to be larger than CFG serving sizes (p ≤ 0.05); meat alternatives (-33%) and cheese (-31%) to be smaller than a CFG serving size (p ≤ 0.05); and chicken, carrots, and milk servings accurately (p > 0.05). Serving size estimates were positively correlated with the amount of food participants regularly consumed at 1 meal (p < 0.001). From their food records, all ethnicities estimated that they consumed fewer servings of vegetables and fruit (-15%), grains (-28%), and meat and alternatives (-14%) than they actually consumed, and more servings of milk and alternatives (+26%, p ≤ 0.05) than they actually consumed. Consequently, 68% of participants believed they needed to increase consumption by greater than 200 kcal to meet CFG recommendations. In conclusion, estimating serving sizes to be larger than what is defined by CFG may inadvertently lead to estimating that fewer servings were consumed and overeating if Canadians follow CFG recommendations without guidance. Thus, revision to CFG or greater public education regarding the dietary guidelines is warranted.

  10. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of lead in variable charge soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Yang, X E; He, Z L; Chen, G C; Shentu, J L; Li, T Q

    2004-01-01

    Adsorption desorption processes of Pb at contaminated levels in two variable charge soils were investigated. The red soil (RAR) developed on the Arenaceous rock (clayey, mixed siliceous thermic typic Dystrochrept) adsorbed more Pb2+ than the red soil (REQ) derived from the Quaternary red earths (clayey, kaolinitic thermic plinthite Aquult). The maximum adsorption values (Xm) that were obtained from the simple Langmuir model were 52.6 mmol Pb2+ kg(-1) soil and 29.9 mmol Pb2+ kg(-1) soil, respectively, for the RAR and REQ. Adsorption of Pb2+ decreased soil pH by 1.10 unit for the RAR soil and 1.21 unit for the REQ soil at the highest loading. The adsorption equilibrium pH of RAR was higher than that of REQ at the same Pb2+ concentration. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Pb in the soils decreased exponentially with increasing Pb2+ loading. Most of the adsorbed Pb2+ in the soils was not desorbed in the 0.01 mol L(-1) NaNO3 solution. After five successive extractions with NaNO3, only 0-11% of the total adsorbed Pb2+ in the RAR soil was desorbed and the corresponding value of the REQ soil was 0-19%, indicating that the RAR soil had a greater affinity for Pb2+ than the REQ soil at the same Pb2+ loading. Different mechanisms might be involved in Pb2+ adsorption/desorption at different levels of Pb2+ loading and between the two soils.

  11. Taking Charge--Leading with Passion and Purpose in the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    "Taking Charge" is a practical guide to the "craft knowledge" of leading schools from an experienced principal, school reformer, and educational consultant. Drawing on his own experiences as well as the experiences of other school leaders, Shaw captures the essence of what principals do and the leadership traits they need to take charge for school…

  12. Lead and stable lead isotope ratios in soil, earthworms, and bones of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) from eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Scheuhammer, Anton M; Bond, Della E; Burgess, Neil M; Rodrigue, Jean

    2003-11-01

    A study to discriminate among different possible sources of elevated Pb exposure for American woodcock (Scolopax minor) in eastern Canada is described. Undamaged wing bones excised from young-of-the-year woodcock collected from several locations in southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, Canada, along with soil and earthworm (Aporrectodea tuberculata and Lumbricus rubellus) samples from the same sites, were analyzed for total Pb, and stable Pb isotopes. Ignoring six soil samples with high (> 60 microg/g) Pb concentration from the vicinity of Montreal (QC, Canada), the mean soil-Pb concentration for all sites combined was 19 microg/g (dry wt; n = 64), with a mean 206Pb:207Pb ratio of 1.19, values typical for uncontaminated rural soils in eastern North America. In earthworms, Pb concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 865 (microg/g [dry wt], mean = 24 microg/g). Concentrations of Pb in worms and soils were positively correlated (r = 0.71; p < 0.01), and 206Pb:207Pb ratios for worms and soils were also positively correlated (r = 0.54; p < 0.05). However, most young-of-the-year woodcock with high bone-Pb accumulation (> 20 microg/g) had 206Pb:207Pb ratios substantially different from worms and soils sampled from the same areas, even though woodcock feed extensively on soil invertebrates, especially earthworms. The range of 206Pb:207Pb ratios in wing bones of woodcock with elevated Pb exposure was not consistent with exposure to environmental Pb from past gasoline combustion nor Precambrian mining wastes but was consistent with ingestion of spent Pb shotgun pellets. PMID:14587896

  13. Lead and stable lead isotope ratios in soil, earthworms, and bones of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) from eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Scheuhammer, Anton M; Bond, Della E; Burgess, Neil M; Rodrigue, Jean

    2003-11-01

    A study to discriminate among different possible sources of elevated Pb exposure for American woodcock (Scolopax minor) in eastern Canada is described. Undamaged wing bones excised from young-of-the-year woodcock collected from several locations in southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, Canada, along with soil and earthworm (Aporrectodea tuberculata and Lumbricus rubellus) samples from the same sites, were analyzed for total Pb, and stable Pb isotopes. Ignoring six soil samples with high (> 60 microg/g) Pb concentration from the vicinity of Montreal (QC, Canada), the mean soil-Pb concentration for all sites combined was 19 microg/g (dry wt; n = 64), with a mean 206Pb:207Pb ratio of 1.19, values typical for uncontaminated rural soils in eastern North America. In earthworms, Pb concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 865 (microg/g [dry wt], mean = 24 microg/g). Concentrations of Pb in worms and soils were positively correlated (r = 0.71; p < 0.01), and 206Pb:207Pb ratios for worms and soils were also positively correlated (r = 0.54; p < 0.05). However, most young-of-the-year woodcock with high bone-Pb accumulation (> 20 microg/g) had 206Pb:207Pb ratios substantially different from worms and soils sampled from the same areas, even though woodcock feed extensively on soil invertebrates, especially earthworms. The range of 206Pb:207Pb ratios in wing bones of woodcock with elevated Pb exposure was not consistent with exposure to environmental Pb from past gasoline combustion nor Precambrian mining wastes but was consistent with ingestion of spent Pb shotgun pellets.

  14. Rapid, efficient charging of lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells were rapidly and efficiently charged using a high rate tapered direct current (HRTDC) charge method which could possibly be used for on-the-road service recharge of electric vehicles. The HRTDC method takes advantage of initial high cell charge acceptance and uses cell gassing rate and temperature as an indicator of charging efficiency. On the average, in these preliminary tests, 300 amp-hour nickel-zinc traction cells were given a HRTDC (initial current 500 amps, final current 100 amps) to 78 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 53 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 92 percent and an energy efficiency of 52 percent. Three hundred amp-hour lead-acid traction cells were charged to 69 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 46 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 91 percent with an energy efficiency of 64 percent. In order to find ways to further decrease the recharge times, the effect of periodically (0 to 400 Hz) pulse discharging cells during a constant current charging process (94% duty cycle) was investigated. Preliminary data indicate no significant effect of this type of pulse discharging during charge on charge acceptance of lead-acid or nickel-zinc cells.

  15. Estimation of snag carbon transfer rates by ecozone and lead species for forests in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hilger, A B; Shaw, C H; Metsaranta, J M; Kurz, W A

    2012-12-01

    Standing dead trees (snags) and downed woody debris contribute substantially to the carbon (C) budget of Canada's forest. Accurate parameterization of the C transfer rates (CTRs) from snags to downed woody debris is important for forest C dynamics models such as the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), but CTRs are rarely measured or reported in the literature. Therefore, forest C models generally use snag fall rates (FRs) available in the literature, as a proxy for CTRs. However, FRs are based on stem counts while CTRs refer to mass transfers. Stem mass and stem number are not linearly related, with small diameter trees representing disproportionately lower C mass transfers. Therefore this proxy, while convenient, may bias C transfer from standing dead to downed woody material. Here, we combined tree data from 10802 sample plots and previously published species-specific individual-tree relationships between tree diameter (diameter at breast height, dbh) and fall rate to derive stand-level estimates of CTRs for the CBM-CFS3. We estimated CTRs and FRs and used the FR values to validate this approach by comparing them with standardized FR values compiled from the literature. FRs generally differed from CTRs. The overall CTR (4.78% +/- 0.02% per year, mean +/- SE) was significantly smaller than the overall FR (5.40% +/- 0.02% per year; mean +/- SE). Both the difference between FR and CTR (FR - CTR) and the CTR itself varied by ecozone, with ecozone means for CTR ranging from 3.94% per year to 10.02% per year. This variation was explained, in part, by heterogeneity in species composition, size (dbh distribution), structure, and age of the stands. The overall mean CTR estimated for the Snag_Stemwood (4.78% per year) and the Snag_Branches (11.95% per year) pools of the CBM-CFS3 were approximately 50% and 20% higher than the current default rates used in the CBM-CFS3 of 3.2% and 10.0%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that using CTRs to

  16. Saudi Arabia and Canada Lead in Pay for Faculty Members, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Starting salaries for newly minted professors are highest in Canada, but for the best prospects of raising earnings over an academic career, one should look to Saudi Arabian universities. These are some of the findings of a new study that looks at faculty pay across international borders, examining salary data in 15 countries, among them the…

  17. Lead-uranium ratio of siliceous pitchblende from Great Bear Lake, N. W. T., Canada, and its possible age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marble, J.P.

    1936-01-01

    1. A sample of pitchblende from LaBine Point, Echo Bay, Great Bear Lake, N. W. T., Canada, yields a "corrected" lead-ratio of 0.193, corresponding to an age of 1323 million years. 2. As the atomic weight and isotopic composition of the lead, and the Pa/UI ratio of this same sample have been determined, ages, etc., calculated by different methods should agree. This agreement has not been obtained in all instances, and possible reasons have been outlined. 3. The age found indicates that a possible Keewatin granite may be the source of the pitch-blende.

  18. Charged-Higgs-boson production at the LHC: Next-to-leading-order supersymmetric QCD corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmaier, Stefan; Kraemer, Michael; Spira, Michael; Walser, Manuel

    2011-03-01

    The dominant production process for heavy charged-Higgs bosons at the LHC is the associated production with heavy quarks. We have calculated the next-to-leading-order supersymmetric QCD corrections to charged-Higgs production through the parton processes qq,gg{yields}tbH{sup {+-}} and present results for total cross sections and differential distributions. The QCD corrections reduce the renormalization and factorization scale dependence and thus stabilize the theoretical predictions. We present a comparison of the next-to-leading-order results for the inclusive cross section with a calculation based on bottom-gluon fusion gb{yields}tH{sup {+-}} and discuss the impact of the next-to-leading-order corrections on charged-Higgs searches at the LHC.

  19. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  20. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  1. Sources of lead and zinc associated with metal smelting activities in the Trail area, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Fariborz; Sanei, Hamed; Labonté, Marcel; Duncan, William F

    2002-06-01

    The spatial distribution and deposition of lead and zinc emitted from the Trail smelter, British Columbia, Canada, was studied by strategically locating moss bags in the area surrounding the smelter and monitoring the deposition of elements every three months. A combined diffusion/distribution model was applied to estimate the relative contribution of stack-emitted material and material emitted from the secondary sources (e.g., wind-blown dust from ore/slag storage piles, uncovered transportation/trucking of ore, and historical dust). The results indicate that secondary sources are the major contributor of lead and zinc deposited within a short distance from the smelter. Gradually, the stack emissions become the main source of Pb and Zn at greater distances from the smelter. Typical material originating from each source was characterized by SEM/EDX, which indicated a marked difference in their morphology and chemical composition.

  2. Interim report on studies of uranium, thorium, and lead migration at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.B.; Gancarz, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    The redistribution of uranium, thorium, and lead is being examined in samples representing several million cubic meters of sandstone and metamorphased sediments in the Athabasca Basin which is located in the northwest corner of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The region of study includes zones of uranium mineralization at Key Lake. Mineralization occurs at the unconformity between the Athabasca sandstone and the underlying metasediments and in fault zones within the metasediments. Lead isotopes record a radiometric age of 1300 +- 150 m.y. in samples from above and below the unconformity. This age probably reflects the time of deposition of the sandstones and an associated redistribution of uranium and/or lead in the underlying rocks. Many of the samples have been fractionated with respect to radiogenic lead and the actinide parent elements since that time. Sandstones and altered rocks from the region above the unconformity have been a transport path and are a repository for lead. In contrast, mineralized rocks are deficient in radiogenic lead and must be an important source of lead in the local geologic environment. However, the isotopic composition of lead missing from the ores is different from that found in the overlying sandstones. The two types of rocks do not appear to represent complements with respect to a source and a repository for lead.

  3. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

    PubMed

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  4. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

    PubMed

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  5. Precision charge amplification and digitization system for a scintillating and lead glass array

    SciTech Connect

    Delchamps, S.W.; Rameika, R.; Arenton, M.; Chen, T.Y.; Conetti, S.; Cox, B.; Etemadi, B.; Fortney, L.; Guffey, K.; Haire, M.

    1989-01-01

    A 544-channel low-noise, high-rate, precision charge amplification and ADC system was constructed for the Fermilab Experiment 705 electromagnetic calorimeter, which employs SCG1-C scintillating glass and SF5 lead glass instrumented with photo-multiplier tubes. A general discussion of the system is given, and the charge amplification, fast trigger pulse generation, and analog to digital conversion aspects of the system are presented in more detail. Performance is evaluated using data from Experiment 705 and from off-line tests. Short and long term pedestal stability, baseline recovery and rate capability, linearity of response, and crosstalk between channels are discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception.

    PubMed

    Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition.

  7. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception.

    PubMed

    Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition. PMID:26161681

  8. Unraveling Charge Carriers Generation, Diffusion, and Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Polycrystalline Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Piotr; Cohen, Boiko; Ponseca, Carlito S; Salado, Manuel; Kazim, Samrana; Ahmad, Shahzada; Sundström, Villy; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2016-01-01

    We report on studies of the formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) perovskite film using time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TRTS) and flash photolysis to explore charge carriers generation, migration, and recombination. The TRTS results show that upon femtosecond excitation above the absorption edge, the initial high photoconductivity (∼75 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) remains constant at least up to 8 ns, which corresponds to a diffusion length of 25 μm. Pumping below the absorption edge results in a mobility of 40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) suggesting lower mobility of charge carriers located at the bottom of the conduction band or shallow sub-bandgap states. Furthermore, analysis of the THz kinetics reveals rising components of <1 and 20 ps, reflecting dissociation of excitons having different binding energies. Flash photolysis experiments indicate that trapped charge carriers persist for milliseconds. PMID:26703885

  9. Development of a charge algorithm for the optimized charging of a 120-V flooded lead-acid lighthouse battery with forced electrolyte destratification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D.

    1989-10-01

    Proper charging was identified as the most important requirement for the reliable and economical operation of a battery that is part of the hybrid power system for remote lighthouses. Therefore a charge algorithm was developed to optimize charging of a flooded lead-acid battery with forced electrolyte destratification. This algorithm is independent of the operating temperature, the state of charge and the battery age. It controls charging according to the weakest battery module in the pack and is able in the course of several cycles to automatically equalize the performance of the modules in the battery pack without excessive overcharging. The charge algorithm prevents overheating due to bad battery connectors and quite generally responds to all causes of poor charge acceptance with a gentle treatment of the battery during charging.

  10. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ronda

    2004-06-01

    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  11. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lihua E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng E-mail: shi@ou.edu

    2014-02-28

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films.

  12. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lihua; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng

    2014-02-01

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films.

  13. A study of lead-acid battery efficiency near top-of-charge and the impact on PV system design

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.W.; Corey, G.P.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of the charge efficiency of lead-acid batteries near top-of-charge is important to the design of small photovoltaic systems. In order to know how much energy is required from the photovoltaic array in order to accomplish the task of meeting load, including periodic full battery charge, a detailed knowledge of the battery charging efficiency as a function of state of charge is required, particularly in the high state-of-charge regime, as photovoltaic systems are typically designed to operate in the upper 20 to 30% of battery state-of-charge. This paper presents the results of a process for determining battery charging efficiency near top-of-charge and discusses the impact of these findings on the design of small PV systems.

  14. Search for an optimized cyclic charging algorithm for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. F.; Sexton, E. D.; Olson, J. B.; Keyser, M.; Pesaran, A.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are characterized by relatively poor performance in cyclic applications of the order of two hundred to three hundred 100% depth-of-discharge (DoD) cycles. Failure is due to sulfation of the negative plate and softening of the positive active-material. It is felt that this failure mode arises from abnormally high levels of oxygen recombination that arise due to decreases in separator saturation levels as VRLA batteries age. Charging algorithms have been developed to address this changing condition throughout life. The key step is the finish of charge where, traditionally, low currents and low overcharge limits have been employed with poor results. It has been found that using high finishing currents in an alternating charge-rest algorithm results in proper recharge of the negative plate without creating unacceptable temperature increases. This has resulted in deep-discharge lifetimes of 800 to 1000 cycles, particularly when using a charging algorithm employing only partial recharges (97-100% return) interspersed with full conditioning recharges every 10th cycle. With such minimal average overcharge levels, deep-cycle lifetimes approaching 1000 cycles have been achieved without experiencing failure due to massive grid corrosion.

  15. Spin polarized photons from an axially charged plasma at weak coupling: Complete leading order

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mamo, Kiminad A.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-24

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin aligned, which is a unique P- and CP-odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this “P-odd photon emission rate” in a weak coupling regime at a high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P-even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of the P-odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: (1) Comptonmore » and pair annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, (2) soft t- and u-channel contributions with hard thermal loop resummation, (3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal resummation of collinear bremsstrahlung and pair annihilation. In conclusion, we present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P-odd photon emission rate observable.« less

  16. A Snapshot of School-Based Mental Health and Substance Abuse in Canada: Where We Are and Where It Leads Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Ian; Short, Kathy H.; Ferguson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada supported a comprehensive research project to determine the current state of mental health and substance use programs and practices in Canadian schools. The School-Based Mental Health and Substance Abuse Consortium is made up of a group of 40 leading Canadian researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. The…

  17. Electromagnetic Instrumentation for Exploration and the Environment: A Retrospective Look by Canada's Leading Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, M.

    2009-05-01

    Geonics Limited has a very rich and varied history. This talk will provide a historical perspective about how a few key individuals shaped the development of some of the world's most useful electromagnetic (EM) geophysical instrumentation. A brief review of these systems, including the science behind them, will showcase the evolution of each to the market place and emphasize how a combination of business savvy and a constant investment to research is what lead to a successful line of instrumentation. In 1950 a company called Aeromagnetic Surveys Ltd. was established that was considered "the largest and most diversified air- survey firm in the world" (FLIGHT, 1954), for its time. It employed Vaino Ronka and Alex Herz, young engineers, who patented several new EM technologies including an in-phase and quadrature towed bird helicopter EM system (the first commercial transistorized instrument). The two also set new standards for ground based horizontal loop EM systems and won several mining Blue Ribbon Awards. By the end of 1958, Mr. Ronka began offering independent design services for geophysical instruments and it became inevitable that one day he would form his own company. Geonics Limited was incorporated in 1962 by Vaino Ronka and Alex Herz and the EM-16 VLF receiver, first sold in 1965, became the first successful instrument. It's considered the best selling electrical geophysical tool of all-time and is still sold today by the same model name 44 years later. In 1974, the company was purchased by James Duncan McNeill, the former chief engineering physicist of Barringer Research Ltd. During his time as president of Geonics he was responsible for an explosion of new instruments from the 70's, 80's and into the 90's that permanently placed Geonics instruments in virtually every government environmental lab and consulting firm active in near-surface geophysics. His ability to foresee new problem areas and to define new roles that geophysical methods could play in a

  18. Mobile Charge-Induced Fluorescence Intermittency in Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaoming; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan; Sheng, Rui; Chen, Sheng; Ko, Hsien-chen; Green, Martin A

    2015-07-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite has emerged as a very promising material for solar cells due to its excellent photovoltaic enabling properties resulting in rapid increase in device efficiency over the last 3 years. Extensive knowledge and in-depth physical understanding in the excited state carrier dynamics are urgently required. Here we investigate the fluorescence intermittency (also known as blinking) in vapor-assisted fabricated CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite. The evident fluorescence blinking is observed in a dense CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite film that is composed of nanoparticles in close contact with each other. In the case of an isolated nanoparticle no fluorescence blinking is observed. The "ON" probability of fluorescence is dependent on the excitation intensity and exhibits a similar power rule to semiconductor quantum dots at higher excitation intensity. As the vapor-assisted fabricated CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite film is a cluster of nanoparticles forming a dense film, it facilitates mobile charge migration between the nanoparticles and charge accumulation at the surface or at the boundary of the nanoparticles. This leads to enhanced Auger-like nonradiative recombination contributing to the fluorescence intermittency observed. This finding provides unique insight into the charge accumulation and migration and thus is of crucial importance for device design and improvement. PMID:26086568

  19. Charging Algorithm Extends the Life of Lead-acid Batteries: 2001 R and D 100 Award Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2001-09-27

    Fact sheet describing NREL's work with Recombination Technologies and Optima Batteries to develop a current interrupt charging algorithm to extend the deep life cycle of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries.

  20. Strong Electrostatic Interactions Lead to Entropically Favorable Binding of Peptides to Charged Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, K G; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Thermodynamic analyses can provide key insights into the origins of protein self-assembly on surfaces, protein function, and protein stability. However, obtaining quantitative measurements of thermodynamic observables from unbiased classical simulations of peptide or protein adsorption is challenging because of sampling limitations brought on by strong biomolecule/surface binding forces as well as time scale limitations. We used the parallel tempering metadynamics in the well-tempered ensemble (PTMetaD-WTE) enhanced sampling method to study the adsorption behavior and thermodynamics of several explicitly solvated model peptide adsorption systems, providing new molecular-level insight into the biomolecule adsorption process. Specifically studied were peptides LKα14 and LKβ15 and trpcage miniprotein adsorbing onto a charged, hydrophilic self-assembled monolayer surface functionalized with a carboxylic acid/carboxylate headgroup and a neutral, hydrophobic methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer surface. Binding free energies were calculated as a function of temperature for each system and decomposed into their respective energetic and entropic contributions. We investigated how specific interfacial features such as peptide/surface electrostatic interactions and surface-bound ion content affect the thermodynamic landscape of adsorption and lead to differences in surface-bound conformations of the peptides. Results show that upon adsorption to the charged surface, configurational entropy gains of the released solvent molecules dominate the configurational entropy losses of the bound peptide. This behavior leads to an apparent increase in overall system entropy upon binding and therefore to the surprising and seemingly nonphysical result of an apparent increased binding free energy at elevated temperatures. Opposite effects and conclusions are found for the neutral surface. Additional simulations demonstrate that by adjusting the ionic strength of the solution

  1. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernosek, R. W.; Martin, S. J.; Wessendorf, K. O.; Rumpf, A. N.

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to changes in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to (rho(eta))(exp (1/2)), where rho is the liquid density and eta is the viscosity.

  2. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.; Martin, S.J.; Wessendorf, K.O.; Rumpf, A.N.

    1994-06-01

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to hanges in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the Corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to ({rho}{eta}) {sup {1/2}}, where {rho} is the liquid density and {eta} is the viscosity.

  3. Fuzzy modelling for the state-of-charge estimation of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Claudio; Sáez, Doris; Orchard, Marcos E.; Cárdenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fuzzy model based structure for the characterisation of discharge processes in lead-acid batteries. This structure is based on a fuzzy model that characterises the relationship between the battery open-circuit voltage (Voc), the state of charge (SoC), and the discharge current. The model is identified and validated using experimental data that is obtained from an experimental system designed to test battery banks with several charge/discharge profiles. For model identification purposes, two standard experimental tests are implemented; one of these tests is used to identify the Voc-SoC curve, while the other helps to identify additional parameters of the model. The estimation of SoC is performed using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a state transition equation that is based on the proposed fuzzy model. Performance of the proposed estimation framework is compared with other parametric approaches that are inspired on electrical equivalents; e.g., Thevenin, Plett, and Copetti.

  4. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.J.; Hsu, P.C.; Wu, M.S.; Ho, P.Y.

    2010-05-15

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m{sup 2}. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). (author)

  5. Spectral Features and Charge Dynamics of Lead Halide Perovskites: Origins and Interpretations.

    PubMed

    Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Xing, Guichuan; Lim, Swee Sien; Chong, Wee Kiang; Giovanni, David; Dewi, Herlina Arianita

    2016-02-16

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells are presently the forerunner among the third generation solution-processed photovoltaic technologies. With efficiencies exceeding 20% and low production costs, they are prime candidates for commercialization. Critical insights into their light harvesting, charge transport, and loss mechanisms have been gained through time-resolved optical probes such as femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (fs-TAS), transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Specifically, the discoveries of long balanced electron-hole diffusion lengths and gain properties in halide perovskites underpin their significant roles in uncovering structure-function relations and providing essential feedback for materials development and device optimization. In particular, fs-TAS is becoming increasingly popular in perovskite characterization studies, with commercial one-box pump-probe systems readily available as part of a researcher's toolkit. Although TAS is a powerful probe in the study of charge dynamics and recombination mechanisms, its instrumentation and data interpretation can be daunting even for experienced researchers. This issue is exacerbated by the sensitive nature of halide perovskites where the kinetics are especially susceptible to pump fluence, sample preparation and handling and even degradation effects that could lead to disparate conclusions. Nonetheless, with end-users having a clear understanding of TAS's capabilities, subtleties, and limitations, cutting-edge work with deep insights can still be performed using commercial setups as has been the trend for ubiquitous spectroscopy instruments like absorption, fluorescence, and transient photoluminescence spectrometers. Herein, we will first briefly examine the photophysical processes in lead halide perovskites, highlighting their novel properties. Next, we proceed to give a succinct overview of the fundamentals of pump-probe spectroscopy in relation

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  7. Production of leading charged particles and leading charged-particle jets at small transverse momenta in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Tziaferi, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Fantinel, S.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Gulmini, M.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Sgaravatto, M.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'Imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Dattola, D.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, T. J.; Ryu, M. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Moon, D. H.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Khein, L.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Lukina, O.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; de La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro de Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; D'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; de Guio, F.; de Roeck, A.; de Visscher, S.; di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Musella, P.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartek, R.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. F.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Zorbilmez, C.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Sekmen, S.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Albayrak, E. A.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, T.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Scarborough, T.; Wu, Z.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Sagir, S.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon de La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Krohn, M.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; de Gruttola, M.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Ratnikov, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Malik, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Korjenevski, S.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.; Cms Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The per-event yield of the highest transverse momentum charged particle and charged-particle jet, integrated above a given pTmin threshold starting at pTmin=0.8 and 1 GeV, respectively, is studied in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV . The particles and the jets are measured in the pseudorapidity ranges |η | <2.4 and 1.9, respectively. The data are sensitive to the momentum scale at which parton densities saturate in the proton, to multiple partonic interactions, and to other key aspects of the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes in hadronic collisions.

  8. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Butler Walker, Jody . E-mail: jody@butlerwalker.ca; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-03-15

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87{mu}g/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51{mu}g/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35{mu}g/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.0001). Of Inuit women participants, 3% (n=4) were within Health Canada's level of concern range (20-99{mu}g/L) for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Of Inuit and Dene/Metis cord samples, 56% (n=95) and 5% (n=4), respectively, exceeded 5.8{mu}g/L MeHg, the revised US Environmental Protection Agency lower benchmark dose. GM maternal Pb was significantly higher in Dene/Metis (30.9{mu}g/L or 3.1{mu}g/dL; SD=29.1{mu}g/L) and Inuit (31.6{mu}g/L, SD=38.3) participants compared with the Caucasian group (20.6{mu}g/L, SD=17.9) (P<0.0001). Half of all participants were smokers. GM blood Cd in moderate smokers (1-8 cigarettes/day) and in heavy smokers (>8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for

  9. Dynamics of the detonation products of lead azide. II. Formation of charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heflinger, D.; Bar, I.; Ben-Porat, T.; Erez, G.; Rosenwaks, S.

    1993-03-01

    The formation and temporal behavior of charged particles ensuing from the detonation of lead azide (LA) is studied. An ion probe tailored for measurements in the hostile environment produced following the detonation is described. The positive ions (most probably singly ionized lead atoms) and the electrons, which are simultaneously collected on separate electrodes, are embedded in the outer half of the expanding product cloud resulting from the detonation. They show similar temporal behavior and their maximum velocity is ˜4.5 km/s. The density of each of them at a distance of 2.5 cm from the LA sample is 4.3×1011-1.3×1012 cm-3 for detonation of 5-15 mg of LA, respectively. From the hydrodynamics of the expanding cloud and the density of the electrons, their temperature is estimated to be in the range 2600-3000 K. The results of the measurements are discussed in view of the mechanisms believed to govern the expansion of the product cloud following the detonation.

  10. Polydivinylferrocene surface modified electrode for measuring state-of-charge of lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Todd; Singh, Pritam; Baker, Murray V.; Issa, Touma B.

    This paper outlines an investigation of the electrochemical behaviour of polymeric divinylferrocene (PDVF) produced by direct polymerisation of divinylferrocene (DVF) monomer on a glassy carbon substrate. The findings indicate that PDVF undergoes reversible reduction/oxidation in neutral and acidic aqueous media containing perchlorate (ClO 4 -) and sulfhate (SO 4 2-). The anodic peak potential of the PDVF shifts linearly to less positive potentials as the sulfuric acid (H 2SO 4) concentration is increased from 1 to 5 M. The polymer film strongly adheres to the glassy carbon surface and is electrochemically stable when subjected to repeated voltammetric cycling in the potential range of -0.2 to +0.8 V vs. Ag|AgCl. The potential of the partially oxidized film of PVDF on a glassy carbon substrate against a Ag|AgCl/KCl reference electrode in sulfuric acid solution is stable, reproducible and varies linearly with the acid concentration in the range of 1-5 M. This observation may be suitable for potentiometrically measuring the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries.

  11. Chemical Control of Lead Sulfide Quantum Dot Shape, Self-Assembly, and Charge Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhail, Martin R.

    Lead(II) sulfide quantum dots (PbS QDs) are a promising excitonic material for numerous application that require that control of fluxes of charge and energy at nanoscale interfaces, such as solar energy conversion, photo- and electrocatalysis, light emitting diodes, chemical sensing, single-electron logic elements, field effect transistors, and photovoltaics. PbS QDs are particularly suitable for photonics applications because they exhibit size-tunable band-edge absorption and fluorescence across the entire near-infrared spectrum, undergo efficient multi-exciton generation, exhibit a long radiative lifetime, and possess an eight-fold degenerate ground-state. The effective integration of PbS QDs into these applications requires a thorough understanding of how to control their synthesis, self-assembly, and charge transport phenomena. In this document, I describe a series of experiments to elucidate three levels of chemical control on the emergent properties of PbS QDs: (1) the role of surface chemistry in controlling PbS QD shape during solvothermal synthesis, (2) the role of QD shape and ligand functionalization in self-assembly at a liquid-air interface, and (3) the role of QD packing structure on steady-state conductivity and transient current dynamics. At the synthetic level (1), I show that the final shape and surface chemistry of PbS QDs is highly sensitive to the formation of organosulfur byproducts by commonly used sulfur reagents. The insight into PbS QD growth gained from this work is then developed to controllably tune PbS QD shape from cubic to octahedral to hexapodal while maintaining QD size. At the following level of QD self-assembly (2), I show how QD size and shape dictate packing geometry in extended 2D arrays and how this packing can be controllably interrupted in mixed monolayers. I also study the role of ligand structure on the reorganization of QD arrays at a liquid-air interface and find that the specific packing defects in QD arrays vary

  12. Baryon stopping and charged particle production from lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, Milton Y.

    1999-07-01

    Net proton (proton minus antiproton) and negative charge hadron spectra (h-) from central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron were measured and compared to spectra from central collisions of the lighter S+S system. Net baryon distributions were derived from those of net protons and net lambdas. Stopping, or rapidity shift with respect to the beam, of net protons and net baryons increase with system size. The mean transverse momentum &60;pT&62; of net protons also increase with system size. The h- rapidity density scales with the number of participant nucleons for nuclear collisions, where their &60;pT&62; is independent of system size. The &60;pT&62; dependence upon particle mass and system size is consistent with larger transverse flow velocity at midrapidity for central collisions of Pb+Pb compared to that of S+S.

  13. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  14. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People ... Lead Levels Information for Parents Tips for preventing lead poisoning About Us Overview of CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning ...

  15. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification.

  16. Charge-Carrier Dynamics and Mobilities in Formamidinium Lead Mixed-Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Waqaas; Milot, Rebecca L; Eperon, Giles E; Wehrenfennig, Christian; Boland, Jessica L; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2015-12-22

    The mixed-halide perovskite FAPb(Bry I1-y )3 is attractive for color-tunable and tandem solar cells. Bimolecular and Auger charge-carrier recombination rate constants strongly correlate with the Br content, y, suggesting a link with electronic structure. FAPbBr3 and FAPbI3 exhibit charge-carrier mobilities of 14 and 27 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and diffusion lengths exceeding 1 μm, while mobilities across the mixed Br/I system depend on crystalline phase disorder.

  17. Survey of bottled drinking waters sold in Canada for chlorate, bromide, bromate, lead, cadmium and other trace elements.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R W; Conacher, H B S; Lawrence, J F; Newsome, W H; McKenzie, A; Wagner, H P; Chadha, R K H; Pepper, K

    2002-08-01

    Mineral, spring and other bottled drinking waters sold in Canada in the winter of 1995-96 were surveyed for chlorate, bromide, bromate, Cr(VI), Li, B, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba, Be, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Tl, Pb, Na, K, Ca and Mg. Chlorate and bromide were determined by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection, Cr(VI) by IC with colorimetric detection, bromate by solvent extraction and gas chromatography (GC), trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and Na, K, Ca and Mg by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAA). Most chemicals in the 199 samples analysed were well within national and international drinking water guidelines. World Health Organization and/or Canadian drinking water guidelines were exceeded for B (22 samples), Al (9), Cr (1), Mn (5), Ni (1), As (10), Se (24) and Pb (1). Bromate levels are reported for information purposes and are considered as the maximum concentrations in the samples. In three distilled water products, unexpectedly high concentrations of Cu (88-147 micro g l(-1)) and Ni (16-35 micro g l(-1)) were found, and a comparison of distilled and non-distilled waters from two of the brands suggested the likely cause to be contamination during the distillation process. Li concentration in one sample was at a therapeutic dose and could pose an overdose risk to individuals on Li medication.

  18. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  19. Cationic membranes complexed with oppositely charged microtubules: hierarchical self-assembly leading to bio-nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raviv, Uri; Needleman, Daniel J.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2006-07-01

    The self-assembly of microtubules and charged membranes has been studied, using x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Polyelectrolyte lipid complexes usually form structures templated by the lipid phase, when the polyelectrolyte curvature is much larger than the membrane spontaneous curvature. When the polyelectrolyte curvature approaches the membrane spontaneous curvature, as in microtubules, two types of new structures emerge. Depending on the conditions, vesicles either adsorb onto the microtubule, forming a 'beads on a rod' structure, or coat the microtubule, which now forms the template. Tubulin oligomers then coat the external lipid layer, forming a lipid protein nanotube. The tubulin oligomer coverage at the external layer is determined by the membrane charge density. The energy barrier between the beads on a rod and the lipid-protein nanotube states depends on the membrane bending rigidity and membrane charge density. By controlling the lipid/tubulin stoichiometry we can switch between lipid-protein nanotubes with open ends to lipid-protein nanotubes with closed end with lipid cups. This forms the basis for controlled drug encapsulation and release.

  20. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  1. Does regulating private long-term care facilities lead to better care? A study from Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Gina; Dubois, Marie-France; Demers, Louis; Dubuc, Nicole; Blanchette, Danièle; Painter, Karen; Lestage, Catherine; Corbin, Cinthia

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the province of Quebec, Canada, long-term residential care is provided by two types of facilities: publicly funded accredited facilities and privately owned facilities in which care is privately financed and delivered. Following evidence that private facilities were delivering inadequate care, the provincial government decided to regulate this industry. We assessed the impact of regulation on care quality by comparing quality assessments made before and after regulation. In both periods, public facilities served as a comparison group. Design A cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–12 that incorporates data collected in 1995–2000. Settings Random samples of private and public facilities from two regions of Quebec. Participants Random samples of disabled residents aged 65 years and over. In total, 451 residents from 145 care settings assessed in 1995–2000 were compared with 329 residents from 102 care settings assessed in 2010–12. Intervention Regulation introduced by the province in 2005, effective February 2007. Main Outcome Measure Quality of care measured with the QUALCARE Scale. Results After regulation, fewer small-size facilities were in operation in the private market. Between the two study periods, the proportion of residents with severe disabilities decreased in private facilities whereas it remained >80% in their public counterparts. Meanwhile, quality of care improved significantly in private facilities, while worsening in their public counterparts, even after controlling for confounding. Conclusions The private industry now provides better care to its residents. Improvement in care quality likely results in part from the closure of small homes and change in resident case-mix. PMID:24737835

  2. Single Charge Current in a Normal Mesoscopic Region Attached to Superconductor Leads via a Coupled Poisson Nonequilibrium Green Function Formalism

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F. P.

    2014-01-01

    We study the I-V characteristic of mesoscopic systems or quantum dot (QD) attached to a pair of superconducting leads. Interaction effects in the QD are considered through the charging energy of the QD; that is, the treatment of current transport under a voltage bias is performed within a coupled Poisson nonequilibrium Green function (PNEGF) formalism. We derive the expression for the current in full generality but consider only the regime where transport occurs only via a single particle current. We show for this case and for various charging energies values U 0 and associated capacitances of the QD the effect on the I-V characteristic. Also the influence of the coupling constants on the I-V characteristic is investigated. Our approach puts forward a novel interpretation of experiments in the strong Coulomb regime. PMID:24977220

  3. Single charge current in a normal mesoscopic region attached to superconductor leads via a coupled poisson nonequilibrium green function formalism.

    PubMed

    Verrilli, David; Marin, F P; Rangel, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We study the I-V characteristic of mesoscopic systems or quantum dot (QD) attached to a pair of superconducting leads. Interaction effects in the QD are considered through the charging energy of the QD; that is, the treatment of current transport under a voltage bias is performed within a coupled Poisson nonequilibrium Green function (PNEGF) formalism. We derive the expression for the current in full generality but consider only the regime where transport occurs only via a single particle current. We show for this case and for various charging energies values U 0 and associated capacitances of the QD the effect on the I-V characteristic. Also the influence of the coupling constants on the I-V characteristic is investigated. Our approach puts forward a novel interpretation of experiments in the strong Coulomb regime.

  4. Isotopic composition of epiphytic lichens as a tracer of the sources of atmospheric lead emissions in southern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Carignan, J.; Gariepy, C.

    1995-11-01

    Lead isotopic data are reported for epiphytic lichens, vegetation samples, and lacustrine sediments collected in the boreal forest of Quebec between 47{degrees} and 55{degrees}N, and along the St. Lawrence Valley between 45{degrees} to 48{degrees}N. Lichens located up to 500 km north of Noranda (48{degrees}N) record a significant input is not apparent beyond 53{degrees}N where only the isotopic signal typical of Canadian aerosols is recorded. Lichens along the St. Lawrence Valley show evidences for a dominant input from U.S. sources. The lead isotopic composition of lichens allow quantitative monitoring of the sources of atmospheric Pb. However, their slow metabolism and their unknown age detract from recording the Pb signal on short and precise timescales. Spruce needles have isotopic compositions undistinguishable from that of lichens; this reflects integration of the atmospheric Pb signal over a comparable time span, a result confirmed by the lead isotopic record in lacustrine sediments. Vegetation samples such as spruce bark, spruce wood, and decidous tree leaves are more radiogenic than lichens from the same site. This may reflect mixing of radiogenic Pb metabolized from soil solutions through the root system with atmospheric Pb. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Article processing charges for open access publication-the situation for research intensive universities in the USA and Canada.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Björk, Bo-Christer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question. Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge. Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences. Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid articles average about 3,000 USD

  6. Article processing charges for open access publication—the situation for research intensive universities in the USA and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Bo-Christer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question. Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge. Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences. Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid articles average about 3,000 USD

  7. Article processing charges for open access publication-the situation for research intensive universities in the USA and Canada.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Björk, Bo-Christer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question. Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge. Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences. Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid articles average about 3,000 USD

  8. The dynamics of energy and charge transfer in lead sulfide quantum dot solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lingley, Zachary; Lu, Siyuan; Madhukar, Anupam

    2014-02-28

    We report on a systematic time-resolved photoluminescence study of the competing energy and charge transfer rates in PbS QDs of differing sizes in the same QD solid as a function of both temperature and ligand-controlled different inter-QD average separations. This complements previous studies that typically varied only one parameter and reveals new aspects while also confirming some known features. For the smallest PbS QDs, the dominant decay process is nonradiative resonant energy transfer (NRET) to adjacent larger dots for all separations but at a rate that increases with decreasing temperature. For the largest QDs, NRET being forbidden, the decay is found to be exponential in the inter-QD separation consistent with carrier tunneling but, for each fixed tunneling distance, exhibiting a thermally activated tunneling carrier population with the activation energy dependent upon the ligand length controlling the inter-QD separation. A consistent understanding of this expanded and rich decay rate behavior of both large and small QDs, we show, can be obtained by accounting for the ligand length dependent (a) dielectric environment of the QD solid modeled using an effective medium description, (b) the energy cost of dissociating the exciton into electron and hole in neighboring QDs, and (c) the potential participation of midgap states. Implications of the findings for NRET based photovoltaics are discussed.

  9. Studies on electrolyte formulations to improve life of lead acid batteries working under partial state of charge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, J. C.; Soria, M. L.; González, M.; García-Quismondo, E.; Muñoz, A.; Trinidad, F.

    For decades, valve regulated lead acid batteries with gel electrolyte have proved their excellent performance in deep cycling applications. However, their higher cost, when compared with flooded batteries, has limited their use in cost sensitive applications, such as automotive or PV installations. The use of flooded batteries in deep or partial state of charge working conditions leads to limited life due to premature capacity loss provoked by electrolyte stratification. Different electrolyte formulations have been tested, in order to achieve the best compromise between cost and life performance. Work carried out included electrochemical studies in order to determine the electrolyte stability and diffusional properties, and kinetic studies to check the processability of the electrolyte formulation. Finally, several 12 V batteries have been assembled and tested according to different ageing profiles.

  10. Modeling of the cranking and charging processes of conventional valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries in micro-hybrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Jun; Lee, Anson; Pyko, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The cranking and charging processes of a VRLA battery during stop-start cycling in micro-hybrid applications were simulated by one dimensional mathematical modeling, to study the formation and distribution of lead sulfate across the cell and analyze the resulting effect on battery aging. The battery focused on in this study represents a conventional VRLA battery without any carbon additives in the electrodes or carbon-based electrodes. The modeling results were validated against experimental data and used to analyze the "sulfation" of negative electrodes - the common failure mode of lead acid batteries under high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling. The analyses were based on two aging mechanisms proposed in previous studies and the predictions showed consistency with the previous teardown observations that the sulfate formed at the negative interface is more difficult to be converted back than anywhere else in the electrodes. The impact of cranking pulses during stop-start cycling on current density and the corresponding sulfate layer production was estimated. The effects of some critical design parameters on sulfate formation, distribution and aging over cycling were investigated, which provided guidelines for developing models and designing of VRLA batteries in micro-hybrid applications.

  11. Role of electrical resistance of electrodes in modeling of discharging and charging of flooded lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical resistance of both the electrodes of a lead-acid battery increases during discharge due to formation of lead sulfate, an insulator. Work of Metzendorf [1] shows that resistance increases sharply at about 65% conversion of active materials, and battery stops discharging once this critical conversion is reached. However, these aspects are not incorporated into existing mathematical models. Present work uses the results of Metzendorf [1], and develops a model that includes the effect of variable resistance. Further, it uses a reasonable expression to account for the decrease in active area during discharge instead of the empirical equations of previous work. The model's predictions are compared with observations of Cugnet et al. [2]. The model is as successful as the non-mechanistic models existing in literature. Inclusion of variation in resistance of electrodes in the model is important if one of the electrodes is a limiting reactant. If active materials are stoichiometrically balanced, resistance of electrodes can be very large at the end of discharge but has only a minor effect on charging of batteries. The model points to the significance of electrical conductivity of electrodes in the charging of deep discharged batteries.

  12. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry--leading the charge for National Cardiovascular Disease (NCVD) Database.

    PubMed

    Chin, S P; Jeyaindran, S; Azhari, R; Wan Azman, W A; Omar, I; Robaayah, Z; Sim, K H

    2008-09-01

    Coronary artery disease is one of the most rampant non-communicable diseases in the world. It begins indolently as a fatty streak in the lining of the artery that soon progresses to narrow the coronary arteries and impair myocardial perfusion. Often the atherosclerotic plaque ruptures and causes sudden thrombotic occlusion and acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA). This phenomenon is called acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and is the leading cause of death not only in Malaysia but also globally. In order for us to tackle this threat to the health of our nation we must arm ourselves with reliable and accurate information to assess current burden of disease resources available and success of current strategies. The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry is the flagship of the National Cardiovascular Disease Database (NCVD) and is the result of the dedicated and untiring efforts of doctors and nurses in both public and private medical institutions and hospitals around the country, ably guided and supported by the National Heart Association, the National Heart Foundation, the Clinical Research Centre and the Ministry of Health of Malaysia. Analyses of data collected throughout 2006 from 3422 patients with ACS admitted to the 12 tertiary cardiac centres and general hospitals spanning nine states in Malaysia in this first report has already revealed surprising results. Mean age of patients was 59 years while the most consistent risk factor for STEMI was active smoking. Utilization of medications was high generally. Thirty-day mortality for STEMI was 11%, for NSTEMI 8% and UA 4%. Thrombolysis (for STEMI only) reduced in-hospital and 30-day mortality by nearly 50%. Percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI also reduced 30-day mortality for patients with non-ST elevation MI and unstable angina. The strongest determinants of mortality appears to be Killip Class and age of the patient. Fewer women received

  13. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children

  14. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrenfennig, Christian; Liu, Mingzhen; Snaith, Henry J.; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2014-08-01

    The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3-xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  15. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from <5% (in winter) to about 20% (in summer) in children aged 0.5-2 years. The likelihood of having BLLs ≥5 μg/dL in young children during warm months was reduced by at least 40% by flushing tap-water.

  16. Potentiometric measurement of state-of-charge of lead-acid battery by using a bridged ferrocene surface modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Touma B.; Singh, Pritam; Baker, Murray V.

    Alkanethiol bridged, 3-(11-mercaptoundecyl)[3](1,1‧) ferrocenophane and 3-(11-mercaptoundecyl)[5](1,1‧) ferrocenophane were synthesized and their electrochemical behaviour in aqueous sulphuric acid electrolyte investigated. It is found that these compounds, chemisorbed on a gold substrate, undergo reversible electrochemical oxidation/reduction. The anodic and cathodic peak potentials are independent of the acid concentration in the range 1.0 × 10 -2 to 1.0 × 10 -7 M but change linearly with the acid concentration in the range 1-5 M. While this behaviour is similar to that for other ferrocenes like [3](1,1‧) ferrocenophane and [5](1,1‧) ferrocenophane the materials are much more chemically stable in aqueous sulphuric acid media. The presence of thiol group enhances the retainability of the bridged ferrocene while maintaining its chemical stability. The possibility of applying this observation for determining state-of-charge of lead-acid battery is discussed.

  17. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part II. Impedance of the positive plate revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    In the second part of this publication series, dedicated to the pulse charge of the lead-acid battery, a special attention is paid to the impedance spectrum of the positive plate as a source for estimation of the electrostatic capacitance of the double layer (C dl) on the surface of the positive active mass. The impedance spectra were measured at open circuit for different states of charge (SoC) in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.24 and 1.28 g ml -1. A substantial difference was observed in the impedance spectra of partially charged and partially discharged positive plates keeping the same value of the SOC. The impedance data were subjected to inductance error correction, followed by differential impedance analysis (DIA). Considering the results from DIA, the recently published equivalent circuits of the positive plate in charged and in discharged state and the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide, we proposed a model of the positive plate in partial state of charge (PSoC). The analysis of the obtained experimental results using this model and DIA show that the double layer capacitance is not frequency distributed. The influence of the state of charge and state of health on the model parameters is discussed. One of the most interesting results is the dependence of C dl on SOC-it features a hysteresis at which the values of C dl during the charge are 5-6 times higher than the corresponding ones during the discharge. This result was discussed in terms of changes in the double layer structure considering the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide. During the discharge in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.28 g ml -1 a passivation process was detected as a high frequency pseudo-inductive loop in the Nyquist plots in PSoC. The passivation time constant is higher at 50-60% SOC and decreases to zero in the end of the discharge. During the charge in both electrolytes, pseudo-inductive time constant was observed too. It was attributed to the phenomena of the dehydration of Pb

  18. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  19. Characterization of lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon and its excellent performance of extending lead-acid battery cycle life for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Pengyang; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Rongbo; Yi, Fenyun; Shi, Guang; Li, Aiju; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-07-01

    In this work, lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon (Pb@C) is prepared as the additive of negative active mass (NAM), aiming to enhance the electrochemical characteristics of the lead-acid battery. The characters of the Pb@C materials and their electrochemical properties are characterized by XRD, SEM, back-scattering electron image (BESI) and electrochemical methods. The lead (Ⅱ) ions disperse well in the carbon bulk of the obtained Pb@C materials as observed, and these materials exhibit remarkable higher specific capacitance and higher hydrogen evolution over-potential compared with original carbons. Many 2 V lead-acid batteries are assembled manually in our lab, and then the batteries are disassembled after formation and high-rate-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Results manifest that the Pb@C additives exhibit high affinity to lead and act as a porous-skeleton in the formation process as well as under HRPSoC cycling conditions, leading to the small and fine formation of PbSO4 particles and accordingly higher active material utilization rate more than 50%, better cycling performance and charging acceptance. Besides, excellent cycle performances of these batteries have great relationship with the dazzling hydrogen evolution performance of Pb@C materials. A possible working mechanism is also proposed based on the testing data in this paper.

  20. Charged hadron azimuthal anisotropy (v2) in center of mass energy = 2.76 TeV lead-lead collisions from CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, Victoria

    The azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles is an important feature of the hot and dense medium produced in heavy ion collisions. In non-central nucleus-nucleus collisions, the maximum particle density defines an event plane which is an approximation to the participant plane. The participant plane reflects the direction of the maximum of the pressure gradient set up by the participating nucleons. The initial nuclear overlap region is spatially asymmetric with an “almond-like” shape. This spatial asymmetry is reflected in the momentum distribution of the particles with respect to the event plane. The anisotropy is quantified in terms of a Fourier expansion of the observed particle yields relative to the event-by-event orientation of the participant plane. The second coefficient of the expansion, υ 2, often referred to as “elliptic flow”, carries information on the early collision dynamics when measured in the low-pT domain. A similar signal of a different origin is observed in the high- pT regime and is associated with parton energy loss in the presence of the medium. In this work the azimuthal anisotropy of charged hadrons is determined over an extended transverse momentum (p t) range up to approximately 60 GeV/c in PbPb collisions at sNN = 2.76 TeV, covering both the low-pt region associated with hydrodynamic flow phenomena and the high-pt region, pt > 12 GeV/c, where the anisotropies reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium.

  1. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children.

  2. Sorption enhancement of lead ions from water by surface charged polystyrene-supported nano-zirconium oxide composites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingrui; Du, Qing; Hua, Ming; Jiao, Tifeng; Gao, Faming; Pan, Bingcai

    2013-06-18

    A novel hybrid nanomaterial was fabricated by encapsulating ZrO2 nanoparticles into spherical polystyrene beads (MPS) covalently bound with charged sulfonate groups (-SO3(-)). The resultant adsorbent, Zr-MPS, exhibited more preferential sorption toward Pb(II) than the simple equivalent mixture of MPS and ZrO2. Such observation might be ascribed to the presence of sulfonate groups of the polymeric host, which could enhance nano-ZrO2 dispersion and Pb(II) diffusion kinetics. To further elucidate the role of surface functional groups, we encapsulated nano-ZrO2 onto another two macroporous polystyrene with different surface groups (i.e., -N(CH3)3(+)/-CH2Cl, respectively) and a conventional activated carbon. The three obtained nanocomposites were denoted as Zr-MPN, Zr-MPC, and Zr-GAC. The presence of -SO3(-) and -N(CH3)3(+) was more favorable for nano-ZrO2 dispersion than the neutral -CH2Cl, resulting in the sequence of sorption capacities as Zr-MPS > Zr-MPN > Zr-GAC > Zr-MPC. Column Pb(II) sorption by the four nanocomposites further demonstrated the excellent Pb(II) retention by Zr-MPS. Comparatively, Zr-MPN of well-dispersed nano-ZrO2 and high sorption capacities showed much faster breakthrough for Pb(II) sequestration than Zr-MPS, because the electrostatic repulsion of surface quaternary ammonium group of MPN and Pb(II) ion would result in a poor sorption kinetics. This study suggests that charged groups in the host resins improve the dispersion of embedded nanoparticles and enhance the reactivity and capacity for sorption of metal ions. Suitably charged functional groups in the hosts are crucial in the fabrication of efficient nanocomposites for the decontamination of water from toxic metals and other charged pollutants.

  3. Lead-enhanced gas-phase stability of multiply charged EDTA anions: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Jia, Bin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Jianbo; Chen, Huanwen

    2012-06-01

    Besides their fundamental importance, multiply charged anions (MCAs) are considered as promising molecular capacitors for which their intrinsic stabilities are of great significance. Herein, the gas-phase stabilities of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anions (i.e. [EDTA-nH](n-), n = 1-4) and their Pb(II) complexes (i.e. [EDTA + Pb-nH]((2-n)-), n = 3, 4) have been investigated using an approach that combines extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) measurements, Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory/Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria calculations. The EESI-MS data showed that the doubly charged EDTA anions in the form of [EDTA-2H](2-) and [EDTA + Pb-4H](2-) were much more abundantly observed than the singly charged species such as [EDTA-H](-) and [EDTA + Pb-3H](-), respectively. The calculation results indicated that [EDTA-2H](2-) and [EDTA + Pb-4H](2-) anions were thermodynamically more stable than the [EDTA-H](-) and [EDTA + Pb-3H](-) species in the gas phase, respectively. The [EDTA + Pb-3H](-) anions preferred five-coordinated structure, whereas [EDTA + Pb-4H](2-) anions formed either five-coordinated or six-coordinated structures. The calculations further revealed that significant electron clouds drifting from the ligand EDTA to the metal Pb(II) ions and the large distances between the carboxylic groups reduced the Coulomb repulsion among the excess electrons of these MCAs. Our data demonstrated that EESI-MS combined with theoretic calculations were able to provide a deep insight into the fundamental behavior of stability of MCAs in the gas phase and, thus, might be useful tools for studying MCAs for potential molecular capacitors.

  4. Characterization of Launched Atoms Leading to Observations of Cold Rydberg Atoms in the Field of a Charged Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodsell, Anne; Erwin, Emma

    2016-05-01

    We are preparing to accelerate and decelerate cold Rydberg atoms in the field of a charged wire. We cool and launch rubidium atoms and observe the distribution of atoms up to 16 mm above the trap location. We report a transverse speed less than 1/10 of the longitudinal launch speed. For Rydberg-atom observations, the cold cloud will be illuminated in mid-flight to promote atoms into the desired Rydberg state (e.g. n = 33-40). With a three-photon sequence we will access nf states and the nearby manifolds with linear Stark shifts. We observed the first two steps of this process using counter-propagating beams of 780 nm and 776 nm in a Rb cell. For cold Rydberg atoms, we will compare states that are strongly accelerated to states that are strongly decelerated by the field around the charged-wire target. We calculate that the displacement during the Rydberg lifetime (e.g. n = 35, τ = 30 μs) will be 200-300 μm farther for extreme attracted states. Detection will occur by spatially-dependent field ionization. Observations of atoms with zero angular momentum around the wire can be extended to atoms with nonzero angular momentum and also to study dynamics of Rydberg atoms with a quadratic Stark shift, building on previous work with ground-state atoms.

  5. Binding of Macrolide Antibiotics Leads to Ribosomal Selection against Specific Substrates Based on Their Charge and Size.

    PubMed

    Sothiselvam, Shanmugapriya; Neuner, Sandro; Rigger, Lukas; Klepacki, Dorota; Micura, Ronald; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S

    2016-08-16

    Macrolide antibiotic binding to the ribosome inhibits catalysis of peptide bond formation between specific donor and acceptor substrates. Why particular reactions are problematic for the macrolide-bound ribosome remains unclear. Using comprehensive mutational analysis and biochemical experiments with synthetic substrate analogs, we find that the positive charge of these specific residues and the length of their side chains underlie inefficient peptide bond formation in the macrolide-bound ribosome. Even in the absence of antibiotic, peptide bond formation between these particular donors and acceptors is rather inefficient, suggesting that macrolides magnify a problem present for intrinsically difficult substrates. Our findings emphasize the existence of functional interactions between the nascent protein and the catalytic site of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. PMID:27498876

  6. Lithospheric structure at the leading edge of the North American craton: Imaging the Shield-Cordillera transition in western Canada by teleseismic Rayleigh-wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.; Eaton, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    The tectonics of southwestern Canada is characterized by a transition from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Cordilleran orogen to the Archean-Proterozoic craton, making this region an excellent natural laboratory to study episodic growth of continents. Here, we explore regional lithospheric structure using fundamental Rayleigh waves recorded by broadband seismometers from CNSN and various temporary networks (ATSN, CRANE, USArray) from 2006 to the present. Using a two-station cross-correlation technique, we extract phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 s to more than 200 s. Phase velocities for the region west of the deformation front are significantly lower than those of the region to the east, especially at periods of 30-200 s, reflecting strong lateral variations in lithosphere structure due to thermal and compositional differences. Our analysis is particularly focused on characterizing the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) across the transition, and identifying small-scale convection associated with the edge of the craton. Detailed 3-D lithospheric structural models developed in the near feature will shed more new lights on the transition from backarc to craton lithosphere and their geodynamical interactions.

  7. Temperature effects on the energy bandgap and conductivity effective masses of charge carriers in lead telluride from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatapathi, S. Dong, B.; Hin, C.

    2014-07-07

    We determined the temperature effects on the electronic properties of lead telluride (PbTe) such as the energy bandgap and the effective masses of charge carriers by incorporating the structural changes of the material with temperature using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Though the first-principles DFT calculations are done at absolute zero temperatures, by incorporating the lattice thermal expansion and the distortion of Pb{sup 2+} ions from the equilibrium positions, we could determine the stable structural configuration of the PbTe system at different temperatures.

  8. Impedance measurements on lead-acid batteries for state-of-charge, state-of-health and cranking capability prognosis in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Holger; Bohlen, Oliver; Buller, Stephan; De Doncker, Rik W.; Fricke, Birger; Hammouche, Abderrezak; Linzen, Dirk; Thele, Marc; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Various attempts have been made to use impedance measurements for online analysis and offline modelling of lead-acid batteries. This presentation gives an overview on the latest and successful approaches based on impedance measurements to assess state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH) and cranking capability of lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, it is shown that impedance data can serve as a basis for dynamic battery models for the simulation of vehicle power-supply systems. The methods and procedures aim for a reliable prediction of battery performance in electric vehicles, hybrid cars and classical automotive applications. Although, it will become obvious that impedance measurements give valuable information on the battery state, typically the information needs to be combined with other conventional algorithms or self-learning tools to achieve reliable and stable results for real-world applications.

  9. Higher Molecular Weight Leads to Improved Photoresponsivity Charge Transport and Interfacial Ordering in a Narrow Bandgap Semiconducting Polymer

    SciTech Connect

    M Tong; S Cho; J Rogers; K Schmidt; B Hsu; D Moses; R Coffin; E Kramer; G Bazan; A Heeger

    2011-12-31

    Increasing the molecular weight of the low-bandgap semiconducting copolymer, poly[(4,4-didoecyldithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl], Si-PDTBT, from 9 kDa to 38 kDa improves both photoresponsivity and charge transport properties dramatically. The photocurrent measured under steady state conditions is 20 times larger in the higher molecular weight polymer (HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT). Different decays of polarization memory in transient photoinduced spectroscopy measurements are consistent with more mobile photoexcitations in HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT relative to the lower molecular weight counterpart (LM{sub n} Si-PDTBT). Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of field effect transistors reveals an increase in the mobility by a factor of 700 for HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements demonstrate that LM{sub n} Si-PDTBT forms a disordered morphology throughout the depth of the film, whereas HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT exhibits pronounced {pi}-{pi} stacking in an edge-on configuration near the substrate interface. Increased interchain overlap between polymers in the edge-on configuration in HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT results in the higher carrier mobility. The improved optical response, transport mobility, and interfacial ordering highlight the subtle role that the degree of polymerization plays on the optoelectronic properties of conjugated polymer based organic semiconductors.

  10. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part III. Electrolyte concentration effects on the electrochemical performance of the positive plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Karoui, F.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the third part of this work the effects of the sulphuric acid concentration on the positive plate discharge capacity, impedance and oxygen overvoltage are discussed. It has been found that the full discharge capacity of the positive plate is available down to electrolyte concentrations of 3 mol l-1 (s.g. 1.18 g ml-1). At further acid dilution, capacity of the positive plate declines, keeping the utilization of the sulphuric acid about 50%. Decreasing the acid concentration, the oxygen overvoltage decreases with a factor of 12-18 mV M-1, excluding the effect of the equilibrium potential of the oxygen electrode as a function of pH. The capacitance of the electrical double layer decrease linearly with the dilution of the sulphuric acid suggesting strong adsorption effects. This suggestion has been confirmed from the measurements of potential of the zero charge of the positive plate, which increases from 1.11 to 1.34 V vs. Ag/Ag2SO4 in the region 1.11-4.60 M H2SO4. From the measurement of the time constant of the electronic transfer through the gel part of the lead dioxide (Tgel) as a function of the acid concentration and the applied potential, a change in the mechanism of the lead dioxide hydration has been estimated-below 1 M H2SO4Tgel increases sharply, showing sharp increases of the extent of the hydration. The dilution of the electrolyte increases substantially the value of average double layer current in the beginning of the charge. During the pulse overcharge at the employed frequency of 1 Hz, the average double layer current is equal to the pulse amplitude, suggesting that the maximal efficiency of the pulse charge is reached.

  11. Design of acid-lead battery stage-of-charge detection system based on refractive index detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junyao; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Lei; Zeng, Xianjiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on optical total reflection critical Angle method, we have designed a refractive index measurement system. It adopted a divergent light source and a CCD camera as the occurrence and receiver of the signal. The divergent light source sent out a bunch of tapered beam, exposure to the interface of optical medium and sulfuric acid solution. Light intensity reflected from the interface could be detected by the CCD camera and then sent to the embedded system. In the DSP embedded system, we could obtain the critical edge position through the light intensity distribution curve and converted it to critical angle. Through experiment, we concluded the relation between liquid refractive index and the critical angle edge position. In this system, the detecting precision of the refractive index of sulfuric acid solution reached 10-4. Finally, through the conversion of the refractive index and density, we achieved high accuracy online measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid battery.

  12. Charge carrier dynamics of methylammonium lead iodide: from PbI₂-rich to low-dimensional broadly emitting perovskites.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johannes R; Flender, Oliver; Scholz, Mirko; Oum, Kawon; Lenzer, Thomas

    2016-04-28

    We provide an investigation of the charge carrier dynamics of the (MAI)(x)(PbI2)(1-x) system in the range x = 0.32-0.90 following the recently published "pseudobinary phase-composition processing diagram" of Song et al. (Chem. Mater., 2015, 27, 4612). The dynamics were studied using ultrafast pump-supercontinuum probe spectroscopy over the pump fluence range 2-50 μJ cm(-2), allowing for a wide variation of the initial carrier density. At high MAI excess (x = 0.90), low-dimensional perovskites (LDPs) are formed, and their luminescence spectra are significantly blue-shifted by ca. 50 nm and broadened compared to the 3D perovskite. The shift is due to quantum confinement effects, and the inhomogeneous broadening arises from different low-dimensional structures (predominantly 2D, but presumably also 1D and 0D). Accurate transient carrier temperatures are extracted from the transient absorption spectra. The regimes of carrier-carrier, carrier-optical phonon and acoustic phonon scattering are clearly distinguished. Perovskites with mole fractions x ≤ 0.71 exhibit extremely fast carrier cooling (ca. 300 fs) at low fluence of 2 μJ cm(-2), however cooling slows down significantly at high fluence of 50 μJ cm(-2) due to the "hot phonon effect" (ca. 2.8 ps). A kinetic analysis of the electron-hole recombination dynamics provides second-order recombination rate constants k2 which decrease from 5.3 to 1.5 × 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1) in the range x = 0.32-0.71. In contrast, recombination in the LDPs (x = 0.90) is more than one order of magnitude faster, 6.4 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1), which is related to the confined perovskite structure. Recombination in these LDPs should be however still slow enough for their potential application as efficient broadband emitters or solar light-harvesting materials. PMID:26972104

  13. Formation of Li3O4 nano particles in the discharge products of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries leads to lower charge overvoltage.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Xu, A; Zhao, T S

    2015-11-28

    Density functional theory calculations are made for bulk thermodynamic properties and surface energies of Li2O2, a primary discharge product, and Li3O4, a possible byproduct in the discharge products, of the non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. Results show that the standard formation Gibbs free energy of bulk Li3O4 is marginally higher than that of Li2O2, but the surface energy of Li3O4 is much lower. Low surface energy results in both lowered nucleation energy and formation Gibbs free energy in the nanometer regime, allowing the Li3O4 nano particles to nucleate ahead of Li2O2 during the discharge process and to exist stably when particle sizes are smaller than about 40 nm. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) image of Li3O4 crystals is simulated and compared with the measured STEM image of the discharge product particles. The consistency between the simulated and measured STEM images suggests that the Li3O4 phase can exist stably as a discharge product. The energy profile of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring on the most abundant surfaces of Li3O4 is also calculated. The predicted overpotential for the OER on the {0001} surface (0.30 V) shows a good agreement with experimental data. The presence of more electronically conductive Li3O4 nano particles in the primary discharge product Li2O2 tends to decrease the charge overvoltage of the batteries, explaining why the lower voltage area (<3.5 V) was widely observed during the charging of the batteries. An increase in the oxygen pressure or a decrease in temperature enhances the stability of the Li3O4 phase and increase the proportion of the Li3O4 phase in the discharge products, consequently leading to a lower overall charge overvoltage.

  14. "Worst-case" aerosol testing parameters: III. Initial penetration of charged and neutralized lead fume and silica dust aerosols through clean, unloaded respirator filters.

    PubMed

    Moyer, E S; Stevens, G A

    1989-05-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tests and certifies respirator filter media according to Title 30, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 11 (30 CFR 11). Subpart K of those regulations specifies that a silica dust test, silica mist test, and/or lead fume test will be used to test and certify dust and mist; and dust, fume, and mist particulate air-purifying respirator filter media. NIOSH studies have shown that an aerosol particle of a certain size can be identified as the most penetrating particle ("worst case") size. Commercial filter media of various types have been studied and the filter's performance against a worst-case sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol evaluated. This investigation was done to complement those previous studies by determining how one manufacturer's particulate filters performed against the existing certification aerosol challenges as compared with the worst-case size DOP and NaCl aerosols. Only initial penetration values were determined, and no loading effects were considered. Both neutralized (Boltzman charge distribution) and unneutralized aerosols were used in order to assess the contribution of charging. The results show the dramatic effect of particle size on filter efficiency, and they show that the present methods are not as sensitive as the worst-case aerosol method. PMID:2543198

  15. Worst-case aerosol testing parameters: III. Initial penetration of charged and neutralized lead fume and silica dust aerosols through clean, unloaded respirator filters

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, E.S.; Stevens, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tests and certifies respirator filter media according to Title 30, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 11 (30 CFR 11). Subpart K of those regulations specifies that a silica dust test, silica mist test, and/or lead fume test will be used to test and certify dust and mist; and dust, fume, and mist particulate air-purifying respirator filter media. NIOSH studies have shown that an aerosol particle of a certain size can be identified as the most penetrating particle (''worst case'') size. Commercial filter media of various types have been studied and the filter's performance against a worst-case sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol evaluated. This investigation was done to complement those previous studies by determining how one manufacturer's particulate filters performed against the existing certification aerosol challenges as compared with the worst-case size DOP and NaCl aerosols. Only initial penetration values were determined, and no loading effects were considered. Both neutralized (Boltzman charge distribution) and unneutralized aerosols were used in order to assess the contribution of charging. The results show the dramatic effect of particle size on filter efficiency, and they show that the present methods are not as sensitive as the worst-case aerosol method.

  16. Heterogeneous Charge Carrier Dynamics in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials: Nanoscale Lateral and Depth-Dependent Variation of Recombination Rates in Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Bischak, Connor G; Sanehira, Erin M; Precht, Jake T; Luther, Joseph M; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2015-07-01

    We reveal substantial luminescence yield heterogeneity among individual subdiffraction grains of high-performing methylammonium lead halide perovskite films by using high-resolution cathodoluminescence microscopy. Using considerably lower accelerating voltages than is conventional in scanning electron microscopy, we image the electron beam-induced luminescence of the films and statistically characterize the depth-dependent role of defects that promote nonradiative recombination losses. The highest variability in the luminescence intensity is observed at the exposed grain surfaces, which we attribute to surface defects. By probing deeper into the film, it appears that bulk defects are more homogeneously distributed. By identifying the origin and variability of a surface-specific loss mechanism that deleteriously impacts device efficiency, we suggest that producing films homogeneously composed of the highest-luminescence grains found in this study could result in a dramatic improvement of overall device efficiency. We also show that although cathodoluminescence microscopy is generally used only to image inorganic materials it can be a powerful tool to investigate radiative and nonradiative charge carrier recombination on the nanoscale in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

  17. Cancer patterns in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, D T; Mao, Y; Semenciw, R; Morrison, H I

    1986-01-01

    Cancer is diagnosed in about 70 000 Canadians each year and is the leading cause of the loss of potential years of life before age 75 among women. Life-threatening forms of cancer will develop in at least one of every three Canadian newborns during their lifetimes if current cancer risks are not reduced. Lung and breast cancers are, respectively, the leading causes of premature death due to cancer among men and women. Compared with other countries Canada has low death rates for stomach cancer but high rates for certain smoking-related cancers (those of the lung and of the mouth and throat), leukemia and cancers of the colon, breast and lymphatic tissues. Newfoundland has the highest rates of death from stomach cancer and the lowest rates of death from prostatic cancer, whereas the western provinces have the opposite pattern. The rates of death from lung cancer among men are highest in Quebec, the province with the highest prevalence of smoking. In Canada the overall rates of death from cancer increased by 32% among men from 1951 to 1983. However, among women they declined by 12% from 1951 to 1976 and increased from 1976 to 1983, particularly among those aged 55 to 74. The rising rates of death due to lung cancer were primarily responsible for these increases. Lung cancer will likely displace breast cancer as the leading cancer killer of Canadian women by 1990. Given the relatively low survival rates for cancers caused by smoking and the lack of substantial improvement in rates for the most frequent types of cancer, preventive strategies that include effective measures to reduce tobacco consumption are urgently required. PMID:3942929

  18. Measurements of cross-section of charge current inclusive of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using carbon, iron, lead and scintillator at MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza

    2015-08-18

    Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X1020 protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θmu < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dxbj measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.

  19. ASA24-Canada-2014

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24-Canada-2014) Recall has been developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  20. Low Exciton-Phonon Coupling, High Charge Carrier Mobilities, and Multiexciton Properties in Two-Dimensional Lead, Silver, Cadmium, and Copper Chalcogenide Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek; Goodman, Samuel M; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-12-18

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has revealed novel physical properties, like high carrier mobilities and the tunable coupling of charge carriers with phonons, which can enable wide-ranging applications in optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices. While mechanical exfoliation of graphene and some transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WSe2) has enabled their fabrication as 2D semiconductors and integration into devices, lack of similar syntheses for other 2D semiconductor materials has hindered further progress. Here, we report measurements of fundamental charge carrier interactions and optoelectronic properties of 2D nanomaterials made from two-monolayers-thick PbX, CdX, Cu2X, and Ag2X (X = S, Se) using colloidal syntheses. Extremely low coupling of charge carriers with phonons (2-6-fold lower than bulk and other low-dimensional semiconductors), high carrier mobilities (0.2-1.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), without dielectric screening), observation of infrared surface plasmons in ultrathin 2D semiconductor nanostructures, strong quantum-confinement, and other multiexcitonic properties (different phonon coupling and photon-to-charge collection efficiencies for band-edge and higher-energy excitons) can pave the way for efficient solution-processed devices made from these 2D nanostructured semiconductors. PMID:26273976

  1. Optoelectronic Studies of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells with Mesoporous TiO₂: Separation of Electronic and Chemical Charge Storage, Understanding Two Recombination Lifetimes, and the Evolution of Band Offsets during J-V Hysteresis.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Brian C; Barnes, Piers R F; Li, Xiaoe; Law, Chunhung; Palomares, Emilio; Marin-Beloqui, Jose M

    2015-04-22

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) cells of the design FTO/sTiO2/mpTiO2/MAPI/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au, where FTO is fluorine-doped tin oxide, sTiO2 indicates solid-TiO2, and mpTiO2 is mesoporous TiO2, are studied using transient photovoltage (TPV), differential capacitance, charge extraction, current interrupt, and chronophotoamperometry. We show that in mpTiO2/MAPI cells there are two kinds of extractable charge stored under operation: a capacitive electronic charge (∼0.2 μC/cm(2)) and another, larger charge (40 μC/cm(2)), possibly related to mobile ions. Transient photovoltage decays are strongly double exponential with two time constants that differ by a factor of ∼5, independent of bias light intensity. The fast decay (∼1 μs at 1 sun) is assigned to the predominant charge recombination pathway in the cell. We examine and reject the possibility that the fast decay is due to ferroelectric relaxation or to the bulk photovoltaic effect. Like many MAPI solar cells, the studied cells show significant J-V hysteresis. Capacitance vs open circuit voltage (V(oc)) data indicate that the hysteresis involves a change in internal potential gradients, likely a shift in band offset at the TiO2/MAPI interface. The TPV results show that the V(oc) hysteresis is not due to a change in recombination rate constant. Calculation of recombination flux at V(oc) suggests that the hysteresis is also not due to an increase in charge separation efficiency and that charge generation is not a function of applied bias. We also show that the J-V hysteresis is not a light driven effect but is caused by exposure to electrical bias, light or dark.

  2. Community Colleges in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Gordon

    This book includes a comprehensive directory of all community colleges and related institutions in Canada as well as a discussion of the history and development of th community college movement in Canada. Data are based on community college presidents' responses to mailed questionnaires, unstructured interviews, and press clippings pertaining to…

  3. Teaching in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Answers are provided to some of the most frequently asked questions about teaching and education in Canada, and a guide to other publications and institutions that can provide more detailed information is presented. It is especially noted that each province and territory in Canada has its own autonomous educational system and may make its own…

  4. Canada and the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Highlights Canada's high marks in a poll on its international image in 20 countries. Asks how Canada should take advantage of its positive international image. Notes areas where Canadian foreign policy is most admired: advancement of global peace and human rights, provision of aid, and participation in international peacekeeping. (DSK)

  5. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton-lead collisions at √{s_{_ {NN}}} = 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, K.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christidi, I. A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delemontex, T.; Deliot, F.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Dwuznik, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, M. J.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Florez Bustos, A. C.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giunta, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goeringer, C.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Gozpinar, S.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grout, Z. J.; Grybel, K.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Heisterkamp, S.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, C.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. R.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Ivashin, A. V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J. N.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Joffe, D.; Johansson, K. E.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jungst, R. M.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kanno, T.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karastathis, N.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Keller, J. S.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Keung, J.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Khodinov, A.; Khomich, A.; Khoo, T. J.; Khoriauli, G.; Khoroshilov, A.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, R. S. B.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kitamura, T.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiuchi, K.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. A.; Kohlmann, S.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Komar, A. A.; Komori, Y.; Kondo, T.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; König, S.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopeliansky, R.; Koperny, S.; Köpke, L.; Kopp, A. K.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korol, A. A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Korotkov, V. A.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J. K.; Kravchenko, A.; Kreiss, S.; Kretz, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kreutzfeldt, K.; Krieger, P.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Kruker, T.; Krumnack, N.; Krumshteyn, Z. V.; Kruse, A.; Kruse, M. C.; Kruskal, M.; Kubota, T.; Kuday, S.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuna, M.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kurumida, R.; Kus, V.; Kuwertz, E. S.; Kuze, M.; Kvita, J.; La Rosa, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Labarga, L.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacey, J.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Laier, H.; Laisne, E.; Lambourne, L.; Lampen, C. L.; Lampl, W.; Lançon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lang, V. S.; Lange, C.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavorini, V.; Lavrijsen, W.; Laycock, P.; Le, B. T.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Menedeu, E.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, C. A.; Lee, H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, L.; Lefebvre, G.; Lefebvre, M.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehan, A.; Lehmacher, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leister, A. G.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lemmer, B.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzi, B.; Leone, R.; Leonhardt, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Leroy, C.; Lester, C. G.; Lester, C. M.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Lewis, A.; Lewis, G. H.; Leyko, A. M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, B.; Li, H.; Li, H. L.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Liang, Z.; Liao, H.; Liberti, B.; Lichard, P.; Lie, K.; Liebal, J.; Liebig, W.; Limbach, C.; Limosani, A.; Limper, M.; Lin, S. C.; Linde, F.; Lindquist, B. E.; Linnemann, J. T.; Lipeles, E.; Lipniacka, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, B.; Liu, D.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, M.; Liu, M.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Livermore, S. S. A.; Lleres, A.; Llorente Merino, J.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lo Sterzo, F.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loevschall-Jensen, A. E.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Lombardo, V. P.; Long, J. D.; Long, R. E.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Lopez Paredes, B.; Lorenz, J.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Losty, M. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Love, J.; Love, P. A.; Lowe, A. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Ludwig, D.; Luehring, F.; Lukas, W.; Luminari, L.; Lundberg, O.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lungwitz, M.; Lynn, D.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Machado Miguens, J.; Macina, D.; Mackeprang, R.; Madar, R.; Maddocks, H. J.; Mader, W. F.; Madsen, A.; Maeno, T.; Maeno Kataoka, M.; Magradze, E.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahlstedt, J.; Mahmoud, S.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P.; Malaescu, B.; Malecki, Pa.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Malone, C.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V. M.; Malyukov, S.; Mamuzic, J.; Mandelli, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Manfredini, A.; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mann, A.; Manning, P. M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mantifel, R.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J. F.; Marchese, F.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C. P.; Marques, C. N.; Marroquim, F.; Marsden, S. P.; Marshall, Z.; Marti, L. F.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, T. A.; Martin, V. J.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, M.; Martin-Haugh, S.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marx, M.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massa, I.; Massol, N.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mättig, P.; Mättig, S.; Mattmann, J.; Maurer, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Maximov, D. A.; Mazini, R.; Mazzaferro, L.; Mc Goldrick, G.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCarthy, T. G.; McCubbin, N. A.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mcfayden, J. A.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mclaughlan, T.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meehan, S.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meineck, C.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meloni, F.; Mendoza Navas, L.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mercurio, K. M.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meric, N.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Merritt, H.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, J.; Middleton, R. P.; Migas, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Milstein, D.; Minaenko, A. A.; Miñano Moya, M.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mirabelli, G.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mitsui, S.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Moeller, V.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohr, W.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Mönig, K.; Monini, C.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Morange, N.; Morel, J.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Morgenstern, M.; Morii, M.; Moritz, S.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Morvaj, L.; Moser, H. G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Mueller, T.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Munwes, Y.; Murillo Quijada, J. A.; Murray, W. J.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, K.; Nagarkar, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagel, M.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Nanava, G.; Narayan, R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, T. K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicquevert, B.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforou, N.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolics, K.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.-E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O'Brien, B. J.; O'grady, F.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Ohshima, T.; Okamura, W.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Olchevski, A. G.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ouellette, E. A.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J. D.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Piec, S. M.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinder, A.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Pohl, M.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Portell Bueso, X.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, J.; Price, L. E.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Przysiezniak, H.; Ptacek, E.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quilty, D.; Qureshi, A.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Randle-Conde, A. S.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rao, K.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, T. C.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reinsch, A.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodrigues, L.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, A.; Rose, M.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaelicke, A.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherwood, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramania, HS.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μ b^{-1} of proton-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of √{s_{_ {NN}}} = 5.02 {TeV} using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber-Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. Charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon-nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] collisions.

  6. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton–lead collisions at $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; et al

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μb-1 of proton–lead collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy ofmore » $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The ρ + Ρb collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the ρ + Ρb collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber–Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. In conclusion, charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon–nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of ρ + Ρb collisions.« less

  7. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton–lead collisions at $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; et al

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μb-1 of proton–lead collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy ofmore » $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The ρ + Ρb collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the ρ + Ρb collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber–Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. In conclusion, charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon–nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of ρ + Ρb collisions.« less

  8. Post-Secondary Education in Canada: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappon, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Canada has one of the most highly educated populations in the world, but its position is increasingly vulnerable, particularly when considered against the deliberate measures that other leading nations are taking to enhance their postsecondary education (PSE) systems. The absence of national data makes it difficult for Canada to measure its PSE…

  9. Photoconductivity of CdTe Nanocrystal-Based Thin Films. Te2- Ligands Lead To Charge Carrier Diffusion Lengths Over 2 Micrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Ryan W.; Callahan, Rebecca; Reid, Obadiah G.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Rumbles, Garry; Luther, Joseph M.; Kopidakis, Nikos

    2015-11-16

    We report on photoconductivity of films of CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) using time-resolved microwave photoconductivity (TRMC). Spherical and tetrapodal CdTe NCs with tunable size-dependent properties are studied as a function of surface ligand (including inorganic molecular chalcogenide species) and annealing temperature. Relatively high carrier mobility is measured for films of sintered tetrapod NCs (4 cm2/(V s)). Our TRMC findings show that Te2- capped CdTe NCs show a marked improvement in carrier mobility (11 cm2/(V s)), indicating that NC surface termination can be altered to play a crucial role in charge-carrier mobility even after the NC solids are sintered into bulk films.

  10. Oligothiophene/graphene supramolecular ensembles managing light induced processes: preparation, characterization, and femtosecond transient absorption studies leading to charge-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, A.; Gobeze, H. B.; Petsalakis, I. D.; Zhao, S.; Shinohara, H.; D'Souza, F.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-09-01

    Advances in organic synthetic chemistry combined with the exceptional electronic properties of carbon allotropes, particularly graphene, is the basis used to design and fabricate novel electron donor-acceptor ensembles with desired properties for technological applications. Thiophene-based materials, which are mainly thiophene-containing polymers, are known for their notable electronic properties. In this frame moving from polymer to oligomer forms, new fundamental information would help for a better understanding of their electrochemical and photophysical properties. Furthermore, a successful combination of their electronic properties with those of graphene is a challenging goal. In this study, two oligothiophene compounds, which consist of three and nine thiophene-rings and are abbreviated 3T and 9T, respectively, were synthesized and noncovalently associated with liquid phase exfoliated few-layered graphene sheets (abbreviated eG), thus forming donor-acceptor 3T/eG and 9T/eG nanoensembes. Markedly, intra-ensemble electronic interactions between the two components in the ground and excited states were evaluated with the aid of UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, redox assays revealed the one-electron oxidation of 3T accompanied by one-electron reduction due to eG in 3T/eG, whereas there were two reversible one-electron oxidations of 9T accompanied by one-electron reduction of eG9T/eG. The electrochemical band gap for the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles were calculated and verified, in which the negative free-energy change for the charge-separated state of 3T/eG and 9T/eGvia the singlet excited state of 3T and 9T, respectively, were thermodynamically favorable. Finally, the results of transient pump-probe spectroscopy studies at the femtosecond time scale were supportive of charge transfer type interactions in the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles. The estimated rates for intra-ensemble charge separation were found to be 9.52 × 109 s-1 and 2.2 × 1011 s-1

  11. Oligothiophene/graphene supramolecular ensembles managing light induced processes: preparation, characterization, and femtosecond transient absorption studies leading to charge-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, A.; Gobeze, H. B.; Petsalakis, I. D.; Zhao, S.; Shinohara, H.; D'Souza, F.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-09-01

    Advances in organic synthetic chemistry combined with the exceptional electronic properties of carbon allotropes, particularly graphene, is the basis used to design and fabricate novel electron donor-acceptor ensembles with desired properties for technological applications. Thiophene-based materials, which are mainly thiophene-containing polymers, are known for their notable electronic properties. In this frame moving from polymer to oligomer forms, new fundamental information would help for a better understanding of their electrochemical and photophysical properties. Furthermore, a successful combination of their electronic properties with those of graphene is a challenging goal. In this study, two oligothiophene compounds, which consist of three and nine thiophene-rings and are abbreviated 3T and 9T, respectively, were synthesized and noncovalently associated with liquid phase exfoliated few-layered graphene sheets (abbreviated eG), thus forming donor-acceptor 3T/eG and 9T/eG nanoensembes. Markedly, intra-ensemble electronic interactions between the two components in the ground and excited states were evaluated with the aid of UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, redox assays revealed the one-electron oxidation of 3T accompanied by one-electron reduction due to eG in 3T/eG, whereas there were two reversible one-electron oxidations of 9T accompanied by one-electron reduction of eG9T/eG. The electrochemical band gap for the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles were calculated and verified, in which the negative free-energy change for the charge-separated state of 3T/eG and 9T/eGvia the singlet excited state of 3T and 9T, respectively, were thermodynamically favorable. Finally, the results of transient pump-probe spectroscopy studies at the femtosecond time scale were supportive of charge transfer type interactions in the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles. The estimated rates for intra-ensemble charge separation were found to be 9.52 × 109 s-1 and 2.2 × 1011 s-1

  12. A compact electric potential sensor array for the acquisition and reconstruction of the 7-lead electrocardiogram without electrical charge contact with the skin.

    PubMed

    Harland, C J; Clark, T D; Peters, N S; Everitt, M J; Stiffell, P B

    2005-12-01

    Conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) systems make use of separate electrical connections to the arms and legs. These use a 'long baseline' for the voltage reference potential which in the case of precordial ECG leads is provided using a Wilson central terminal (WCT) wiring configuration. The aims of this project were (a) to construct compact, non-invasive surface ECG sensor arrays which would operate without the need for a WCT reference, (b) to obtain high quality precordial ECGs showing fine differences in ECG detail between small adjacent areas of the chest and (c) to reconstruct, from a compact array of four sensors, ECGs which closely match to the conventional 7-lead ECG system, but without the need for multiple wires and long baselines. In this paper, we describe two sensor array configurations which have been constructed using electric potential sensors (EPSs). We show high quality precordial ECGs obtained from small areas of the surface of the chest and show the different angular vectors (leads) in the frontal cardiac plane constructed using signals from the array elements. We suggest that these ECG arrays, which are simple to apply, should prove to be a valuable tool in providing useful information about the state of the heart. PMID:16311443

  13. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  14. Next-to-leading order QCD effects in associated charged Higgs and W boson production in the MSSM at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jun; Li Chongsheng; Li Zhao

    2008-01-01

    We present the calculations of the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the inclusive total cross sections for the associated production of the W{sup {+-}}H{sup {+-}} through bb annihilation in the minimal supersymmetric standard model at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The NLO QCD corrections can either enhance or reduce the total cross sections, but they generally efficiently reduce the dependence of the total cross sections on the renormalization/factorization scale. The magnitude of the NLO QCD corrections is about 10% in most of the parameter space and can reach 15% in some parameter regions. We also show the Monte Carlo simulation results for the 2j+{tau}{sub jet}+pe{sub T} signature from the W{sup {+-}} and the H{sup {+-}} decays including the NLO QCD effects, and find an observable signal at a 5{sigma} level in some parameter region of the minimal supergravity model.

  15. Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, V. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

  16. Large-angle production of charged pions by 3-12.9 GeV/c protons on beryllium, aluminium and lead targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanesi, M. G.; Radicioni, E.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Soler, F. J. P.; Gößling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereschenko, V.; di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Morone, M. C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Meurer, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G. B.; Graulich, J. S.; Grégoire, G.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, N.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; de Santo, A.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Howlett, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, S.; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.

    2008-03-01

    Measurements of the double-differential π± production cross-section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c≤p< 800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 rad ≤θ< 2.15 rad in proton-beryllium, proton-aluminium and proton-lead collisions are presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 12.9 GeV/c hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross-sections d2σ/dpdθ at six incident proton beam momenta (3 GeV/c, 5 GeV/c, 8 GeV/c, 8.9 GeV/c (Be only), 12 GeV/c and 12.9 GeV/c (Al only)) and compared to previously available data.

  17. Philosophical Differences. The Open-mindedness of Publicly Funded Catholic Schools in Canada Challenges American Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how the open-mindedness of publicly-funded Catholic schools in Canada has challenged American preconceptions on funding of parochial schools. In Canada, parochial education has been publicly funded since 1867. On the other hand, parochial schools in America must charge tuition fees and engage in extensive fund…

  18. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... State Canada, Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc... Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker State Canada, Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co....

  19. Community Radio in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Results are presented of a survey of 20 community radio organizations operating in Canada. For each of the 20 agencies, information is provided relating to: (1) the name and address of the organization; (2) the name and population of the community served; (3) the station's call letters, frequency, and power; (4) the date of the station's license;…

  20. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  1. THE CANADA NEWSTART PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Citizenship and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    THE CANADA NEWSTART PROGRAM AIMS TO DEVELOP, THROUGH ACTION RESEARCH, PROGRAMS APPLICABLE THROUGHOUT THE NATION, FOR MOTIVATING AND TRAINING UNEMPLOYED AND UNDEREMPLOYED ADULTS. PILOT PROJECTS WILL BE CONDUCTED BY CORPORATIONS WHICH ARE TO BE CHARTERED BY THE PROVINCES AND FUNDED BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. THE AREAS SELECTED FOR STUDY WILL BE…

  2. Up From Suffrage: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulaninec, John S.

    Influences on the political and economic status of women in Canada between World Wars I and II are discussed, with emphasis on the struggle to enfranchise women on the provincial level, legislative precedents, and the relationship between educational achievement and economic opportunity. Data are derived from historical accounts; trade union…

  3. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  4. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

  5. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  6. Child Welfare in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

  7. Canada's Participation in TIMSS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, Tom

    1998-01-01

    In the grade 12 portion of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, Canadian students performed better than other participating G-8 countries. In fact, Canada scored consistently above the international mean for all three age groups tested. However, some educators and reformers have expressed dissatisfaction with these results. (MLH)

  8. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease.

  9. IYPE in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, www.EarthsciencesCanada.com. The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  10. Millennials: Leading the Charge for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2011-01-01

    No conversation about student leadership would be complete without a closer look at the population of students who sit in classrooms today, their traits and hopes for the future, to determine what kind of leaders they are likely to make. They are in fact the Millennials--born between 1982 and perhaps 2004. And the Millennials, also known as the…

  11. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  12. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  13. Global update: Canada.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Lisa; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Johnson, Stacey; Rudnicki, Michael

    2012-11-01

    If Canadians have a global reputation for being 'nice', then our propensity for scientists to collaborate should come as no surprise. The Canadian stem cell and regenerative medicine field is particularly strong in terms of collaboration, research results and innovative programs to leverage investments in the sector. Canada continues to see significant achievements and changes that will have a broad impact on the ability to move translational research forward in the near future. PMID:23210826

  14. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    PubMed

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Conly, John

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in β-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance. PMID:12406948

  16. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  17. Women Physicists in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Austin, Roby; Bhadra, Sampa; McKenna, Janis; Xu, Li-Hong; Steinitz, Michael

    2009-04-01

    In recent years the overall climate for women in academia in Canada has improved. Efforts are being made to attract girls to science at a young age. The enrollment of women across undergraduate and graduate programs in the physical sciences has increased gradually in the past decade, with a sharp increase at the graduate level. In light of a large number of upcoming retirements in academic positions, the presence of women in academia will continue to grow, supported by efforts to ensure equity in academia made by government agencies, academic institutions, and faculty associations.

  18. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  19. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  20. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  1. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine lead sources, educating family members about lead poisoning , and instituting follow-up testing to monitor the ... high levels of lead, see the article on Lead Poisoning . The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has ...

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  3. Lead toxicity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates. PMID:27486361

  4. Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  5. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  6. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  7. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  8. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  9. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  10. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  11. Spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John

    1989-01-01

    The effects of spacecraft charging on spacecraft materials are studied. Spacecraft charging interactions seem to couple environment to system performance through materials. Technology is still developing concerning both environment-driven and operating system-driven interactions. The meeting addressed environment but lacked specific mission requirements, as a result system definition are needed to prioritize interactions.

  12. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  13. In Canada, Business Schools Lead Push for Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewington, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    At Canadian universities, business schools are light-years ahead of the rest of the campus in raising their global profile. Intensive foreign-student-recruitment efforts, friendly Canadian immigration rules, mandatory study-abroad requirements, and, in some cases, the option to pursue programs in multiple languages have combined to pack a punch in…

  14. Interaction between heterogeneously charged surfaces: Surface patches and charge modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2013-02-01

    When solid surfaces are immersed in aqueous solutions, some of their charges can dissociate and leave behind charged patches on the surface. Although the charges are distributed heterogeneously on the surface, most of the theoretical models treat them as homogeneous. For overall non-neutral surfaces, the assumption of surface charge homogeneity is rather reasonable since the leading terms of two such interacting surfaces depend on the nonzero average charge. However, for overall neutral surfaces the nature of the surface charge distribution is crucial in determining the intersurface interaction. In the present work we study the interaction between two charged surfaces across an aqueous solution for several charge distributions. The analysis is preformed within the framework of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For periodic charge distributions the interaction is found to be repulsive at small separations, unless the two surface distributions are completely out-of-phase with respect to each other. For quenched random charge distributions we find that due to the presence of the ionic solution in between the surfaces, the intersurface repulsion dominates over the attraction in the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The effect of quenched charge heterogeneity is found to be particularly substantial in the case of large charged domains.

  15. THE CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE ON CORROSION CONTROL: HEALTH CANADA'S CORROSION CONTROL GUIDELINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Canada has proposed a Corrosion Control Guideline, based on lead, which is undergoing public consultation and expected to be finalized in 2007. In Canada, there are no regulations and little guidance to address corrosion problems and existing sampling methods are inappropr...

  16. Immigration and Language Policy and Planning in Quebec and Canada: Language Learning and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrick, Maeve; Donovan, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The connections between immigration and language policy and planning in Quebec and Canada are long established. With the continuing upward trajectory in levels of immigration to Canada and Quebec the linguistic integration of these new arrivals remains an important topic. In recent years, Asia has overtaken Europe as the leading source of…

  17. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Tectonics of Atlantic Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, H.; Dehler, S.A.; Grant, A.C.; Oakey, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    The tectonic history of Atlantic Canada is summarized according to a model of multiple ocean opening-closing cycles. The modern North Atlantic Ocean is in the opening phase of its cycle. It was preceded by an early Paleozoic lapetus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Appalachian Orogen. lapetus was preceded by the Neoproterozoic Uranus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Grenville Orogen. The phenomenon of coincident, or almost coincident orogens and modern continental margins that relate to repeated ocean opening-closing cycles is called the Accordion Effect. An understanding of the North Atlantic Ocean and its continental margins provides insights into the nature of lapetus and the evolution of the Appalachian Orogen. Likewise, an understanding of lapetus and the Appalachian Orogen raises questions about Uranus and the development of the Grenville Orogen. Modern tectonic patterns in the North Atlantic may have been determined by events that began before 1000 m.y.

  19. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. • Most people, especially children, who suffer from lead poisoning are exposed through lead-contaminated household dust or ... and six if they are at risk of lead poisoning (see: ). Who can I call to get more ...

  20. Canada: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas.

  1. Canada: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  2. Mineral resource of the month: lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gerald R.

    2004-01-01

    The United States is a major producer and consumer of refined lead, representing almost one quarter of total world production and consumption. Two mines in Alaska and six in Missouri accounted for 97 percent of domestic lead production in 2002. The United States also imports enough refined lead to satisfy almost 20 percent of domestic consumption. Other major producers or consumers of refined lead in the world are Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom.

  3. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada.... Even though Canada in theory opened a window for family reunification in the postwar era by removing long-standing discriminatory clauses blocking Chinese immigration, in practice cold war geopolitics led the Chinese to shut that window, blocking nearly all emigration. Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIs [mainland Chinese immigrants] the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292965

  4. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 Mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada, which existing structural models of migration, emphasizing factors in the destination country, do not fully capture. Conditions in the country of origin, and geopolitical relationships between China and Canada, played a decisive role in this migration.... Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIS the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292966

  5. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 Mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada, which existing structural models of migration, emphasizing factors in the destination country, do not fully capture. Conditions in the country of origin, and geopolitical relationships between China and Canada, played a decisive role in this migration.... Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIS the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT)

  6. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada.... Even though Canada in theory opened a window for family reunification in the postwar era by removing long-standing discriminatory clauses blocking Chinese immigration, in practice cold war geopolitics led the Chinese to shut that window, blocking nearly all emigration. Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIs [mainland Chinese immigrants] the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT)

  7. Food control systems in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, T M; Jukes, D J

    1997-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the responsibilities and jurisdictional boundaries of Health Canada (HC) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) with regard to food regulation in Canada. It examines their interagency coordination within the federal structure and with other levels of government, industry, and the consumer. The international developments are considered with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Canada, United States Trade Agreement (CUSTA) being regarded as likely to have a significant future impact. The federal food safety and quality system is complex and fragmented. Federal food regulation comes under the jurisdiction of four federal departments: HC, AAFC, Industry Canada (IC), and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC). All four departments are involved with inspection, surveillance, and the analysis of food sold in Canada. In addition, Canada's ten provincial and two territorial governments have provincial-, regional-, municipal-, and local-level governments that also have jurisdiction over food safety and quality. Consideration is first given to the main legislative provision covering food--the Federal Food and Drugs Act. This Act is administered by several of the Federal Government departments. The role of these departments is examined individually along with additional, more specific legal provisions for which responsibility is not divided (in particular, the Canada Agricultural Products [CAP] Act administered by AAFC, and the Consumer Packaging and Labeling Act [CPLA] administered by IC). The various reviews that have taken place in the recent past and those still in progress are considered, and the final part of this paper looks at the international developments that are likely to have a major impact on the future development of the Canadian food control system.

  8. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  9. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be found in all parts of our environment. Much of it comes from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may still have lead paint. You could be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ...

  10. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  11. Obstetric medical care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Magee, Laura A; Cote, Anne-Marie; Joseph, Geena; Firoz, Tabassum; Sia, Winnie

    2016-09-01

    Obstetric medicine is a growing area of interest within internal medicine in Canada. Canadians continue to travel broadly to obtain relevant training, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, there is now a sufficient body of expertise in Canada that a cadre of 'home-grown' obstetric internists is emerging and staying within Canada to improve maternity care. As this critical mass of practitioners grows, it is apparent that models of obstetric medicine delivery have developed according to local needs and patterns of practice. This article aims to describe the state of obstetric medicine in Canada, including general internal medicine services as the rock on which Canadian obstetric medicine has been built, the Canadian training curriculum and opportunities, organisation of obstetric medicine service delivery and the future. PMID:27630747

  12. Obstetric medical care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Magee, Laura A; Cote, Anne-Marie; Joseph, Geena; Firoz, Tabassum; Sia, Winnie

    2016-09-01

    Obstetric medicine is a growing area of interest within internal medicine in Canada. Canadians continue to travel broadly to obtain relevant training, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, there is now a sufficient body of expertise in Canada that a cadre of 'home-grown' obstetric internists is emerging and staying within Canada to improve maternity care. As this critical mass of practitioners grows, it is apparent that models of obstetric medicine delivery have developed according to local needs and patterns of practice. This article aims to describe the state of obstetric medicine in Canada, including general internal medicine services as the rock on which Canadian obstetric medicine has been built, the Canadian training curriculum and opportunities, organisation of obstetric medicine service delivery and the future.

  13. Canada's Move Toward Occupational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoff, John E.

    1969-01-01

    As answer to need for in-depth manpower research and better counseling and placement services. Canada is developing a multi-purpose occupational dictionary scheduled for completion in 1971. (Author/CJ)

  14. The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deusen, Roswell D.

    1973-01-01

    Study of Canada Goose in schools can provide opportunities for many activities such as poetry writing, art, ecosystems, and outdoor education. Provides some background information about these birds. (PS)

  15. Energy and forestry in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Overend, R.P.; Reed, F.L.C.; Silversides, C.R.

    1980-10-01

    Wood was the pioneer in Canada but was displaced by coal which in turn was displaced by oil and gas. Energy demand is high for heating and transportation. Current roundwood harvest is slightly in excess of 1 EJ of energy. It is estimated that the equivalent of 4.3 EJ of forest biomass per annum is potentially available or 50% of Canada's current energy production.

  16. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the second of a three-part series and particular emphasis is placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. Administrative and operational control procedures have been developed, involving prior approval of health safeguards in the radioisotope user's facilities and techniques, and systematic monitoring and inspection. Where necessary, a medical follow-up of accidents and excessive radiation exposures is carried out. In 1963 more than 1600 radioisotope licences were issued. Filmmonitoring service was provided to about 15,500 isotope and x-ray workers. Semiautomatic handling procedures have been developed to meet the increasing demand for film-monitoring services. Monitoring and inspection services have been provided for x-ray workers, and a committee has been formed to develop administrative procedures for health and safety control in x-ray work. Committees have also been set up to review the health and safety aspects of the operation of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. PMID:14146856

  17. Lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

  18. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead is still found in some modern faucets. Soil contaminated by decades of car exhaust or years ... house paint scrapings. Lead is more common in soil near highways and houses. Hobbies involving soldering, stained ...

  19. Canada deserves a national health system.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, T W

    1997-01-01

    A defining--some would say peculiar--feature about Canada and Canadians is the strong position that we give social programs within our national identity. FORUM presents an essay by Dr. Thomas Noseworthy based on an address to the annual meeting of the Association of Canadian Medical Colleges in April 1996. In it, Dr. Noseworthy calls for a national health system. He sees the federal government retaining an important role in preserving medicare and, in fact, strengthening its powers in maintaining national consistency and standards. Dr. Noseworthy's views are contrary to the governmental decentralization and devolution of powers occurring across the country. In a "point/counterpoint" exchange on this issue, we have invited commentaries from three experts. Raisa Deber leads off by noting that while a national health system may be desirable, constitutional provisions would be an obstacle. Governments, says Deber, have an inherent conflict of interest between their responsibility for maintaining the health care system and their desire to shift costs. Michael Rachlis reminds us that medicare fulfills important economic as well as social objectives. It helps to support Canada's business competitiveness among other nations. The problem, say Rachlis, is that public financing of health care does not ensure an efficient delivery system. Michael Walker offers some reality orientation. He observes that Canada's health care system is based upon ten public insurance schemes with widely different attributes. While he supports a minimum standard of health care across the country, citizens should be able to purchase private medical insurance and have access to a parallel private health care delivery system. Ultimately, this debate is about who should control social programs: the provinces or the federal government? We'll let you, the readers, decide. PMID:10167074

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan-bin

    2015-03-01

    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  1. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  2. Academic family medicine in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Hennen, B K

    1993-01-01

    Fifty years ago family practice in Canada had no academic presence. Stimulated by a number of general practitioners and with the support of the Canadian Medical Association, the College of General Practitioners of Canada (CGPC) was founded in 1954. In 1962, conferences on education for general practice attended by the Association of Canadian Medical Colleges and the CGPC led to pilot postgraduate residencies in family practice supported by Department of National Health and Welfare. The first certification examination was held in 1969 and, by 1974, all Canadian medical schools had a family medicine residency program. Today departments of family medicine contribute substantially to undergraduate education in all 16 schools. In Canada, the medical profession, governments and the medical schools have demonstrated the importance they place on appropriate education for family physicians. PMID:8477381

  3. [History of trachoma in canada].

    PubMed

    Milot, Jean

    2010-06-01

    The author retraces the history of trachoma in Canada. The numerous articles in Canadian medical journals from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century show the remarkable contribution of Canadian ophthalmologists. The clinical symptoms and signs followed by the etiology and the different modes of treatment are reviewed. The presence and prevention of trachoma in Canada, ranging from Montreal to Toronto, also in Halifax with the arrival of the transatlantic immigrants, as well as those reaching the western provinces of Canada are described. How the Canadian Department of Health belatedly introduced a prevention campaign only after a widespread dissemination of trachoma across the country is also examined.

  4. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  5. Triboelectric and plasma charging of microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijmans, L. C. J.; Nijdam, S.

    2016-06-01

    The charge on two sets of 100 μm polystyrene particles has been measured using their acceleration in an externally applied electric field. This allows for the measurement of the individual charge on multiple particles at the same time. It is found that particles will charge each other both positively and negatively due to the triboelectric effect. This leads to a broad particle-charge distribution with positive, negative and neutral particles. The particle charge can be largely removed by applying a plasma over the particle containing surface. After plasma charge removal, the particles are triboelectrically recharged when they come into contact with other materials.

  6. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  7. Charge reviews can beef up bottom lines.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, M C

    1991-03-01

    Traditionally, healthcare organizations have been reluctant to pursue charge reviews until pressed to do so by third-party challenges to their charges. But a hospital pursuing either a concurrent or retrospective review may realize significant revenue enhancement--and not only from correcting undercharges on charge-based accounts. Charge reviews can lead to smoothed patient documentation, better cost accounting, more appropriate Medicare payment, and, ultimately, an improved bottom line.

  8. On the Preon Model with Preonic Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senju, H.

    1987-05-01

    It is proposed to identify ghe recently introduced preonic charge as the source of the binding force with the magnetic charge. This identification leads to the necessary relation of composite quarks and leptons among preonic charges. The reason why the charge of quark is a third of e is under stood. The color number 3 and the preon number 3 in lepton and quark are correlated.

  9. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  10. Canada's Immigration Policy, 1962-74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parai, Louis

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in Canada's immigration policy are examined, and it is stressed that economic considerations play an increasingly important role in determining the composition of immigration into Canada. (Author)

  11. LEAD STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Aub, Joseph C.; Reznikoff, Paul; Smith, Dorothea E.

    1924-01-01

    It appears, from the investigations in other laboratories, that the anemia observed in cases of lead poisoning is due to destruction of blood rather than to diminished production of blood. The method of poisoning cells in vitro with lead was adopted in order to study this phenomenon, and distinct effects were thereby obtained, even when only 0.001 mg. of lead is added to approximately 5 billion washed red corpuscles. In order to obtain optimum results the usual dosage employed was ten times this or 0.01 mg. per 5 billion cells. The following changes were observed in cells so treated. 1. Such a marked increase in the resistance to hypotonic salt solution develops that complete hemolysis does not occur until the cells are exposed to a saline solution of 0.05 per cent. Untreated cells are completely hemolyzed in 0.25 or 0.225 per cent saline. 2. This reaction is quantitative and varies with the concentration of lead used. Under the conditions of our experiments this phenomenon seems to be unique. The effects of arsenic are very slight in comparison. 3. While from this reaction it may be concluded that lead increases cellular resistance, it also appears that it shortens the life of blood cells. This may be demonstrated by the much more rapid appearance of hemolysis than normal when the cells are merely allowed to stand in Ringer solution of any dilution. 4. In rabbits with acute lead poisoning these same phenomena may be noted in vivo. 5. Both phenomena may be changed in vitro by varying the time and temperature of the reaction and the concentration of lead, as Fici has already pointed out. 6. If normal cells stand in Ringer solution for 6 hours something diffuses into the solution which largely reduces the action of lead. After repeated washing these cells react with lead in the usual manner. 7. Small amounts of serum react with lead and eliminate its effects. Red blood cells, treated with a mixture of lead and blood serum, show normal hemolysis in hypotonic salt

  12. Canada's Cabled Ocean Networks Humming Along

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Canada recently reconfirmed commitment to supporting cabled ocean observations by awarding Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) 5 years of operations and maintenance funding. ONC supports the Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea (VENUS) and Northeast Pacific Timeseries Underwater Networked Experiments (NEPTUNE Canada), both located offshore Canada's west coast (Figure 1). Results from both efforts demonstrate the wealth of information that can be gained through continuous in situ monitoring of the sea.

  13. Lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-01

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly <001> textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300picocoulombs per newton (pCN-1), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416pCN-1. The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  14. The Metis: Canada's Forgotten People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, D. Bruce; Lussier, Antoine S.

    The Metis appeared early on the pages of Canada's history, were a major determinant in the westward expansion of the nation, and are still a significant segment of modern Canadian society. This book (1) traces their origin and their slow evolution to nationhood; (2) examines the Golden Age; (3) describes the battles won and lost with the nation of…

  15. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  16. In Canada: Lost in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2005-01-01

    Canada has a demonstrable shortage of skilled workers and professionals that will become more acute as the work force ages. Canadians stubbornly refuse to replicate themselves by having more children. The country is at risk of finding itself short not only of physicians and math teachers but also of enough working-age, tax-paying citizens to…

  17. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  18. Let's Celebrate! Canada's Special Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Caroline

    Designed for children ages 8 to 13, this teaching resource presents an explanation of seasons, calendars, and why people celebrate particular days. The four seasons are discussed. Canada's national holidays, and the seasonal, social and religious holidays celebrated by diverse Canadian culture groups are described. A separate section presents…

  19. Teaching Composition Theory in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience of teaching composition theory on the graduate level at a Canadian university. Explains that there are only two rhetoric and composition programs in Canada and that, generally, Canadian universities have been slow to make the transition from neocolonialism to postcolonialism. (TB)

  20. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  1. English Language Teaching Profile: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Canada discusses the role of English within Canadian society and within the educational systems in the provinces. The discussion takes place within the context of the Official Languages Act of 1969, which declared English and French official languages for all government…

  2. The Female Worker in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostry, Sylvia

    As one in a series of studies dealing with selected aspects of the labor force in Canada, this monograph reviews the historical trends in the labor force activity of women over the course of this century. In particular, it focuses on the married women who have entered the labor market in increasing numbers in recent decades and whose activity is a…

  3. Canadian Post-Secondary Education: A Positive Record--An Uncertain Future. Report on Learning in Canada 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report aims to inform Canadians on the extent to which Canada's post-secondary education sector is contributing to Canadians' social and economic objectives, its ability to respond to a fast-changing global environment, and how Canada's approach to higher education compares with other leading developed countries. Analysis of currently…

  4. Canada: International Perspectives on Business Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Rebecca J.

    1998-01-01

    Offers an overview of Canada's business-communication research efforts. Describes its definition and scope; issues facing Canadian researchers (gaining an institutional presence, creating Canada as a viable research site, and creating a Canadian research focus); disseminating research in Canada; and expanding Canadian business-communication…

  5. Charged membranes.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2013-04-16

    This Teaching Resource provides three animated lessons that describe the storage and utilization of energy across plasma membranes. The "Na,K ATPase" animation explains how these pumps establish the electrochemical gradient that stores energy across plasma membranes. The "ATP synthesizing complexes" animation shows how these complexes transfer energy from the inner mitochondrial membrane to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The "action potential" lesson explains how charged membranes are used to propagate signals along the axons of neurons. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these important factors. Courses that might employ them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

  6. Control of transformer losses in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegand, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new standard issued by the Canadian Standards Association, CSA C802, imposes maximum losses on transformers 10 MVA and below. Included are Distribution Transformers, small Power Transformers, and Dry Types. Implementation will start though the publishing in mid 1994 of the Gazette by Ontario`s Ministry of Energy. The Gazette will call for conformance to C802 after a lead time of one year to eighteen months, depending on the type of transformer. Other provincial energy ministries have been awaiting this development and are expected to follow suit shortly thereafter. The federal department, Natural Resources Canada, is also attuned to these actions and is expected to issue supportive legislation which will control movement of transformers across provincial and national borders.

  7. The NEPTUNE Canada Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, G. C.; Meldrum, R.; Baldwin, R.; Rosenberger, A.; Mulder, T.

    2009-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada is the world’s first large regional cable-linked, multi-disciplinary scientific seafloor observatory. In the fall of 2007 an 800 kilometer ring of powered fibre optic cable was laid on the seafloor over the northern part of the Juan de Fuca plate and connected to a shore facility near Port Alberni on Vancouver Island. Five nodes were attached to the cable in the early in the summer of 2009 paving the way for junction boxes and scientific instruments installed in the late summer and fall. The NEPTUNE Canada Seismograph Network will consist initially of four broadband and four short period seismic systems. In the summer of 2009, three broadband OBS packages were deployed forming a large triangle with apexes at ODP 1027 in mid plate and two sites on the continental slope, ODP 889 and Barkley Canyon. In summer 2010 an additional broadband package will be installed on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and four short period instruments will be installed nearby forming a small array, 6 km in maximum dimension, to record earthquake activity in the vicinity of the many multidisciplinary ridge experiments. The broadband systems comprise a broadband seismometer and strong motion accelerometer in a surficially buried spherical titanium case, with a current meter, hydrophone and differential pressure gauge deployed nearby. The short period systems will include 3-component corehole seismometers on long term loan from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). All systems will have backup capacity for modest cable outages. The NEPTUNE Canada Seismograph Network relies heavily on knowledge gained from the previous seismographs temporarily deployed in the region by MBARI and the University of Washington and will re-occupy the broadband site and three short period sites at the ridge. NEPTUNE Canada seismic data will be archived by, and available from, both the Geological Survey of Canada and IRIS.

  8. The ecotoxicology of lead shot and lead fishing weights.

    PubMed

    Scheuhammer, A M; Norris, S L

    1996-10-01

    : Lead shot ingestion is the primary source of elevated lead exposure and poisoning in waterfowl and most other bird species. For some species (e.g. Common Loons, Gavia immer), lead sinker ingestion is a more frequent cause of lead poisoning. In freshwater environments where recreational angling activity and loon populations co-occur, lead poisoning from ingestion of small (<50 gram) lead sinkers or jigs accounts for 10-50% of recorded adult loon mortality, depending on the locations studied. Lead shot ingestion occurs in waterfowl, and in a wide variety of non-waterfowl species, including upland game birds, shorebirds, raptors, and scavengers. Where it has been explicitly studied in Canada and the US, lead poisoning mortality of bald (Haliacetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysactos) from eating prey animals with lead shot embedded in their tissues accounts for an estimated 10-15% of the recorded post-fledging mortality in these raptorial species. In addition to environments that experience hunting with lead shot, clay target shooting ranges, especially those in which the shotfall zones include ponds, marshes, lakes, rivers, beaches, or other aquatic-type environments, create a significant risk of shot ingestion and poisoning for waterbirds. Metallic lead pellets deposited onto soils and aquatic sediments are not chemically or environmentally inert, although tens or hundreds of years may be required for total breakdown and dissolution of pellets. Functional, affordable non-toxic alternatives to lead shot and sinkers are being currently produced, and additional such products are being developed. Several countries have successfully banned the use of small lead sinkers, and of lead shot for waterfowl and other hunting, also for clay target shooting, using a phasing-out process that gives manufactures, sellers, and users adequate time to adjust to the regulations. PMID:24193869

  9. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  10. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. Charge Compensation in RE3+ (RE = Eu, Gd) and M+ (M = Li, Na, K) Co-Doped Alkaline Earth Nanofluorides Obtained by Microwave Reaction with Reactive Ionic Liquids Leading to Improved Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lorbeer, C; Behrends, F; Cybinska, J; Eckert, H; Mudring, Anja -V

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline earth fluorides are extraordinarily promising host matrices for phosphor materials with regard to rare earth doping. In particular, quantum cutting materials, which might considerably enhance the efficiency of mercury-free fluorescent lamps or SC solar cells, are often based on rare earth containing crystalline fluorides such as NaGdF4, GdF3 or LaF3. Substituting most of the precious rare earth ions and simultaneously retaining the efficiency of the phosphor is a major goal. Alkaline earth fluoride nanoparticles doped with trivalent lanthanide ions (which are required for the quantum cutting phenomenon) were prepared via a microwave assisted method in ionic liquids. As doping trivalent ions into a host with divalent cations requires charge compensation, this effect was thoroughly studied by powder X-ray and electron diffraction, luminescence spectroscopy and 23Na, 139La and 19F solid state NMR spectroscopy. Monovalent alkali ions were codoped with the trivalent lanthanide ions to relieve stress and achieve a better crystallinity and higher quantum cutting abilities of the prepared material. 19F-magic angle spinning (MAS)-NMR-spectra, assisted by 19F{23Na} rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) studies, reveal distinct local fluoride environments, the populations of which are discussed in relation to spatial distribution and clustering models. In the co-doped samples, fluoride species having both Na+ and La3+ ions within their coordination sphere can be identified and quantified. This interplay of mono- and trivalent ions in the CaF2 lattice appears to be an efficient charge compensation mechanism that allows for improved performance characteristics of such co-doped phosphor materials.

  12. Proton charge extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Jesse R.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine how corrections to S -state energy levels En S in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to En S are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order rp/aB times the size of the leading order term. Our analysis thus dispels any concern that the larger relative size of this term for muonic hydrogen versus electronic hydrogen might account for the current discrepancy of proton radius measurements extracted from the two systems. Furthermore, the next-to-leading order term in powers of rp/aB that we derive from a dipole proton form factor is proportional to , rather than , as would be expected from the scalar nature of the form factor. The dependence of the finite-size correction on and higher odd-power moments is shown to be a general result for any spherically symmetric proton charge distribution. A method for computing the moment expansion of the finite-size correction to arbitrary order is introduced and the results are tabulated for principal quantum numbers up to n =7 .

  13. CHARGE BOTTLE FOR A MASS SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, P.H.

    1959-07-01

    Improved mass separator charge bottles are described for containing a dense charge of a chemical compound of copper, nickel, lead or other useful substance which is to be vaporized, and to the method of utilizing such improvcd charge bottles so that the chemical compound is vaporized from the under surface of the charge and thus permits the non-volatile portion thereof to fall to the bottom of the charge bottle where it does not form an obstacle to further evaporation. The charge bottle comprises a vertically disposed cylindrical portion, an inner re-entrant cylindrical portion extending axially and downwardly into the same from the upper end thereof, and evaporative source material in the form of a chemical compound compacted within the upper annular pontion of the charge bottle formed by the re-entrant cylindrical portion, whereby vapor from the chemical compound will pass outwardly from the charge bottle through an apertured closure.

  14. Women in physics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  15. Private health care in Canada: savior or siren?

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, C A; Brownell, M D

    1997-01-01

    In canada, health care is publicly insured and available to all at no charge. Recently, financial pressures have threatened the system and led to considerable debate about how to save it. One proposal is to permit privately funded health care alongside the public system, resulting in what is popularly called a two-tiered system. This paper presents some of the arguments for and against two-tiered health care. Using as an example cataract surgery-a procedure that is available both publicly and privately-the authors look at some common beliefs about private health care in Canada. They conclude that the growth in private sector cataract surgery does not appear to be related to cutbacks or rationing, that private access does not necessarily shorten waiting times, and that, contrary to popular belief, it is not only the well-to-do who pay for private surgery in Canada. Images p298-a p299-a p300-a p303-a PMID:9258295

  16. St. Lawrence Seaway, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This high oblique view of the St. Lawrence Seaway, Quebec, Canada (47.5N, 69.5W) was taken over southeastern Quebec, looking southwest down the estuary of the St. Lawrence River towards the city of Quebec. The light snow cover enhances the area of forests (dark) and nonforests (light). Most of the large irregular open areas on the Canadian side of the river were previously forested and were burned over during forest fires in 1989.

  17. Ottawa, Canada and Glaciated Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Ottawa, in the province of Ontario, (46.5N, 75.5W) is the capital of Canada and can be seen near the bottom of this scene on the Ottawa River. The region shown lies within the Canadian Shield. The glaciated surface of the land is underlain by lower Precambrian granite and sedimentary rock. Long fractures within these crystalline rocks have, in places, been carved out by glacial action. The resultant depressions are often water filled bogs and lakes.

  18. Landfill gas management in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    David, A.

    1997-12-31

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada`s commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10{sup 15} Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring.

  19. Women in Physics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  20. Engineering charge ordering into multiferroicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan

    2016-04-01

    Multiferroic materials have attracted great interest but are rare in nature. In many transition-metal oxides, charge ordering and magnetic ordering coexist, so that a method of engineering charge-ordered materials into ferroelectric materials would lead to a large class of multiferroic materials. We propose a strategy for designing new ferroelectric or even multiferroic materials by inserting a spacing layer into each two layers of charge-ordered materials and artificially making a superlattice. One example of the model demonstrated here is the perovskite (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 (111) superlattice, in which the LaTiO3 layer acts as the donor and the spacing layer, and the LaFeO3 layer is half doped and performs charge ordering. The collaboration of the charge ordering and the spacing layer breaks the space inversion symmetry, resulting in a large ferroelectric polarization. As the charge ordering also leads to a ferrimagnetic structure, (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 is multiferroic. It is expected that this work can encourage the designing and experimental implementation of a large class of multiferroic structures with novel properties.

  1. Life expectancy in Canada--an overview.

    PubMed

    Adams, O

    1990-01-01

    At 73 years for men and more than 80 years for women, Canada's life expectancy at birth compares favourably with other developed countries; Japan currently leads the world with 75.6 years for men and 81.4 years for women. In 1920-1922, fewer than six out of ten Canadians could expect to survive to their 65th birthday; by 1985-1987, this had risen to eight out of ten. At the oldest ages, the increases in survival are even more striking. In 1920-1922, just over one in ten Canadians could expect to reach their 85th birthday; by 1985-1987, this had increased to more than three out of ten. Since the 1920s, life expectancy has been higher in the Western provinces and lower in Atlantic Canada and Quebec. In 1950-1952, for example, a person born in Saskatchewan could expect to live four years longer than a person born in Quebec. By 1985-1987, this difference had been reduced to just over one year. Women have made much greater gains in life expectancy than men. In 1920-1922, women had an advantage in life expectancy over men of less than two years; by 1970-1972, this had more than tripled to seven years. Married men and women have a distinct advantage in longevity over other marital status categories. Married men may expect to live over eight years longer than never-married men, and more than ten years longer than widowed men. Married women can expect to live three years longer than never-married women, and four years longer than women who are either divorced or widowed. As of 1986, a boy born in highest-income quintile area in urban Canada can expect to live almost six years longer than a boy born in a lowest-income quintile area. For girls, the difference is almost two years. However, this socio-economic differential narrowed from 1971 to 1986.

  2. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Holzbauer, J. L.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  3. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  4. Survey of bottled drinking water available in Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Pip, E

    2000-01-01

    Forty domestic and imported brands of bottled water were purchased in Manitoba, Canada and examined for total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, sulfate, nitrate-nitrogen, cadmium, lead, copper, and radioactivity. The samples showed great variation in quality, and some exceeded the Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for drinking water for TDS, chloride, and lead. Carbonation, ozonation, and type of packaging were not associated with differences in metal levels, although carbonated samples tended to show higher TDS values. A number of deficiencies were found with respect to product labeling. PMID:11017891

  5. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history.

    PubMed

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-07-18

    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  6. Platinum(II) complexes of N^C^N-coordinating 1,3-bis(2-pyridyl)benzene ligands: thiolate coligands lead to strong red luminescence from charge-transfer states.

    PubMed

    Tarran, William A; Freeman, Gemma R; Murphy, Lisa; Benham, Adam M; Kataky, Ritu; Williams, J A Gareth

    2014-06-01

    A new family of platinum(II) complexes of the form PtL(n)SR have been prepared, where L(n) represents a cyclometalating, N^C^N-bound tridentate ligand and SR is a monodentate thiolate ligand. The complexes fall into two groups, those of PtL(1)SR where HL(1) = 1,3-bis(2-pyridyl)benzene, and those of PtL(2)SR, where HL(2) = methyl 3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)benzoate. Each group consists of five complexes, where R = CH3, C6H5, p-C6H4-CH3, p-C6H4-OMe, p-C6H4-NO2. These compounds, which are bright red, orange, or yellow solids, are formed readily upon treatment of PtL(n)Cl with the corresponding potassium thiolate KSR in solution at room temperature. The replacement of the chloride by the thiolate ligand is accompanied by profound changes in the photophysical properties. A broad, structureless, low-energy band appears in the absorption spectra, not present in the spectra of PtL(n)Cl. In the photoluminescence spectra, the characteristic, highly structured phosphorescence bands of PtL(n)Cl in the green region are replaced by a broad, structureless emission band in the red region. These new bands are assigned to a πS/dPt → π*N^C^N charge-transfer transition from the thiolate/platinum to the N^C^N ligand. This assignment is supported by electrochemical data and TD-DFT calculations and by the observation that the decreasing energies of the bands correlate with the electron-donating ability of the substituent, as do the increasing nonradiative decay rate constants, in line with the energy-gap law. However, the pair of nitro-substituted complexes do not fit the trends. Their properties, including much longer luminescence lifetimes, indicate that the lowest-energy excited state is localized predominantly on the arenethiolate ligand for these two complexes. Red-emitting thiolate adducts may be relevant to the use of PtL(n)Cl complexes in bioimaging, as revealed by the different distributions of emission intensity within live fibroplast cells doped with the parent complex, according

  7. Hypertension in Canada: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Campbell, Norman R C; Feldman, Ross D; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Lewanczuk, Richard; Padwal, Raj; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2016-01-01

    Canada has an extremely successful hypertension detection and treatment program. The aim of this review was to highlight the historic and current infrastructure and initiatives that have led to this success, and the outlook moving forward into the future. We discuss the evolution of hypertension awareness and control in Canada; contributions made by organizations such as the Canadian Hypertension Society, Blood Pressure Canada, and the Canadian Hypertension Education Program; the amalgamation of these organizations into Hypertension Canada; and the impact that Hypertension Canada has had on hypertension care in Canada. The important contribution that public policy and advocacy can have on prevention and control of blood pressure in Canada is described. We also highlight the importance of population-based strategies, health care access and organization, and accurate blood pressure measurement (including ambulatory, home, and automated office modalities) in optimizing hypertension prevention and management. We end by discussing how Hypertension Canada will move forward in the near and longer term to address the unmet residual risk attributable to hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension Canada will continue to strive to enhance hypertension prevention and control rates, thereby improving the quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes of Canadians, while at the same time creating a hypertension care model that can be emulated across the world. PMID:27372532

  8. Municipal solid waste incineration in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    David, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses Environment Canada`s role and policy on solid waste management and the role of incineration in relation to other municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal methods. Incineration in Canada is reviewed in terms of the quantities of waste combusted, the number of incinerators/energy-from-waste facilities, air pollution control systems, incinerator types, rated capacities and energy production. Ash management is also briefly described. This paper summarizes recent decisions in Canada about two large scale proposals including incineration, and discusses the Province of Ontario`s ban on new incineration facilities.

  9. The Adolescent Chinese Immigrant Student in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lilian Y. O.

    1977-01-01

    The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)

  10. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  11. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  12. Sex and gender reporting in health research: why Canada should be a leader.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joy L; Beaudet, Alain

    2012-11-08

    Sex and gender have been demonstrated to influence all domains of health, from basic mechanisms of disease development to health service utilization. It is therefore no longer acceptable to ignore sex and gender issues in health research reports if these reports are to be deemed accurate. Funding agencies and journals have been identified as primary change agents in health research systems. Canada is making progress on the funding side of the equation--applicants to Canada's federal health research funding agency are required to justify why sex and gender are relevant or not to their research designs. We argue that it is now time for Canada's leading health research journals to follow suit. We have a unique opportunity in Canada to demonstrate leadership in doing science better with sex and gender--and we should not let it be missed.

  13. Soil temperature trends in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-04-01

    Global warming increasingly is becoming a concern for society. Most reported warming trends are based on measured increases in air temperatures. However, trends in soil temperatures, also an important indicator of climate change, are less often reported. Qian et al. analyzed soil temperature data from 30 climate stations across Canada covering the period from 1958 to 2008; the data cover soil temperatures at several depths up to 150 centimeters. They also analyzed air temperature, precipitation, and snow cover depth at the same locations. (Journal of Geophysical Research­Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2010JD015012, 2011)

  14. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  15. History of geriatrics in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hogan, David B

    2007-01-01

    Specialization is a pervasive movement in medicine. How specialties develop is a complex phenomenon and does not depend solely on the growth of knowledge. The history of geriatrics in Canada is presented as an example of specialization in our country. The gestation period extended over decades. Practitioners moved from partial specialization to a full-time practice in the care of older patients. Opposition to the emerging specialty was mounted by established fields of practice. The choices made by the leaders of Canadian geriatrics molded the evolution of the specialty and have contributed to its precarious status at the present time.

  16. PLT and PDX perpendicular charge exchange analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.; Hammett, G. W.; McCune, D. C.

    1986-08-01

    The perpendicular charge-exchange systems used on the poloidal divertor experiment and the Princeton large torus are comprised of ten-channel, mass-resolved, charge-exchange analyzers. Results from these systems indicate that instrumental effects can lead to erroneous temperature measurements during deuterium neutral beam injection or at low hydrogen concentrations.

  17. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-02-16

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071

  18. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e=n, with n = 1–4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD∼2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ∼0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071

  19. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-02-16

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure.

  20. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  1. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p<0.05) positive correlations for (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb, and a significant negative correlation for (208)Pb/(206)Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  2. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  3. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  4. Canada's Community Colleges: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, John D.; Gallagher, Paul

    A critical analysis is provided of the history and future of Canada's community colleges. After an introduction which traces the movement and development of Canada's community colleges and presents their societal context, a review of the origins and history of the Canadian system is presented. Chapter 1 examines the social influences on community…

  5. Canada Experientially: Every Trail Has a Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob

    The discovery of Canada means rolling out a new map, giving meaning to the land and its heritage. Experientially discovering Canada is at the heart of teaching and learning. It is necessary to balance experiential exploration with classroom and library exploration. In order to achieve this, the student must be a traveler. Programs that attempt to…

  6. Weight of evidence: regulatory toxicology in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, E.

    1986-12-01

    The legislative application of regulatory toxicology in Canada is reviewed, together with the sources of experimental evidence used for action. Examples are given of the critical toxicological information that led to a regulatory decision. Risk numbers have only been used to a limited extent in Canada. Some possibilities for future research are offered.

  7. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  8. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    The history of developmental psychology in Canada prior to 1960 is concisely recounted. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the paper focuses on the…

  9. Cultural Dependency in Canada's Feature Film Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendakur, Manjunath

    1981-01-01

    Examines the ownership and policies of the dominant firms in the Canadian film market to explain Canada's dependence on imported films. Demonstrates how the economic relations existing between Canadian and U.S. film industries limit the profitability of films made in Canada. (JMF)

  10. Spacecraft Charging Specification Using Model Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Cooke, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    The specification and prediction of spacecraft charging at geosynchronous orbit represents an important goal of space weather research. While significant correlations exist between geomagnetic indices and the occurrence of satellite frame charging, for example with sunlit frame charging of the DSCS III satellite [Krause et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 47(6), 2000], the relationships are inadequate for useful predictions of charging at specific locations. Charged particles drift across the geosynchronous orbital path, and not along it, so spacecraft within less than an hour in local time experience completely different charging conditions. To account for these differences, a simple geosynchronous spacecraft surface charging application is driven using particle environments from the Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM). Preliminary analysis using the NASCAP spacecraft-plasma interaction code indicated that spacecraft geometry and materials are responsible for the partial suppression of photoelectrons leading to frequent daylight charging of the DSCS III B-7 spacecraft. Analysis of the minimal spacecraft approximation we employ, i.e., a sunlit kapton sphere, also indicates that this so-called bootstrap charging phenomena is active. Surface charging is therefore identified by the net electron current to the kapton spacecraft determined by integrating electron, proton, and oxygen fluxes from the MSM along with secondary and backscatter yields specified as a function of energy. Spacecraft frame charging measurements from the Charge Control System on board the DSCS III satellite are compared with results obtained from the MSM-driven charging model. MSM/charging algorithm simulation output will be characterized at all local times in an effort to evaluate the model's potential effectiveness as a practical spacecraft charging specification tool.

  11. 19 CFR 181.64 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Canada other than pursuant to a warranty are subject to duty upon the value of the repairs or alterations... alterations and which are claimed to be duty free or subject to duty only on the value of the repairs or... pursuant to a warranty; that the full cost or (when no charge is made) value of such repairs or...

  12. Moving SDM forward in Canada: milestones, public involvement, and barriers that remain.

    PubMed

    Légaré, France; Stacey, Dawn; Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Coutu, Marie-France

    2011-01-01

    Canada's approach to shared decision making (SDM) is as disparate as its healthcare system; a conglomerate of 14 public plans at various administrative levels. SDM initiatives are taking place in different pockets of the country and are in different stages of development. The most advanced provincial initiative is occurring in Saskatchewan, where in 2010 the provincial government prepare to introduce patient decision aids into certain surgical specialties. With regard to decision support tools for patients, perhaps the most active entity is the Patient Decision Aids Research Group in Ottawa, Ontario. This group maintains a public inventory of decision aids ranked according to International Patient Decision Aid Standards and has developed the generic Ottawa Personal Decision Guide, as well as a toolkit for integrating decision aids in clinical practice. All of these tools are publicly available free of charge. Professional interest in SDM in Canada is not yet widespread, but Canada's principal health research funding agency is sponsoring several important SDM projects. Researchers from institutions across the country are promoting SDM through continuing professional development programs and other interventions in fields as varied as primary care, dietary medicine and workplace rehabilitation. Still, the future of SDM in Canada remains uncertain. Canada's provincially based structure obliges promoters to work with each province separately, and the recent growth of private healthcare risks dissipating efforts to implement SDM.

  13. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

  14. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  15. Paint removal activities in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1993-03-01

    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  16. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  17. Child Health Care in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Canadian family medicine and pediatrics have much in common, yet increasing interspecialty competition in the U.S. threatens to spill over into Canada. Geographic, demographic and manpower considerations make it imperative that family physicians continue to provide most of the health care for children in this country. Restrictive entry into traditional specialty programs, subspecialty domination of pediatric training and a shift in the age structure of pediatricians vs family physicians will ensure that the primary care of children will remain with Canadian family doctors. Research has revealed no superiority of one type of provider. Nevertheless the training of family physicians in behavioral and ambulatory areas could be improved. Maintenance of obstetrical activity is key to continued involvement in child health. Areas of collaboration between the two disciplines are explored. PMID:21274143

  18. Canada's role on space station.

    PubMed

    Doetsch, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the evolution of the Canadian Space Station Program between 1981 and 2003. Discussions with potential international partners, aimed at jointly developing the current International Space Station program, were initiated by NASA in 1982. Canada chose, through the further development of the technologies of Canadarm on the space shuttle, to provide and operate an advanced and comprehensive external robotics system for space station, and to use the space station for scientific and commercial purposes. The program was to become a corner-stone of the new Canadian Space Agency. The development phase of the Canadian Space Station Program has been completed and two of the three major elements are currently operational in space.

  19. Listeria monocytogenes infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Davies, J W; Ewan, E P; Varughese, P; Acres, S E

    1984-01-01

    Since its first isolation by Murray in 1926 Listeria monocytogenes has become recognized as a significant pathogen occurring worldwide and involving a wide range of wild and domestic animals including man. The first confirmed human listeriosis case in Canada was published by Stoot in 1951. A later survey based on records maintained at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Ottawa showed 101 cases detected over a 21 year period in nine provinces. The overall mortality was 30%. The most frequently isolated serotype was 4b followed by 1 and 1b. Prior to the Nova Scotia epidemic (41 cases) of 1981, fewer than 15 cases per annum had been diagnosed based on hospital discharge records. The Nova Scotia epidemic was unique in that the source and mode of transmission of the organism were determined. Sixty-three strains isolated from this outbreak were typed, and with the exception of one 1a strain, were identified as 4b. These were subsequently classified mainly as phage type 00 042 0000 and 00 002 0000. Listeriosis appears to be a common infection in the animal population in Canada primarily in cattle, sheep, chinchillas, chickens and goats. Outbreaks have been described in rabbits, goats, and chinchillas. Chinchilla farms were affected in one outbreak (serotype 1) in Nova Scotia which was attributed to feeding a new batch of meal containing beet pulp. Many aspects of the epidemiology of listeriosis are obscure. A cycle involving contaminated soil and consumption of raw vegetables has been confirmed as the cause of the Nova Scotia epidemic and could explain a proportion of the sporadic cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6442654

  20. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    PubMed

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  1. Evaporating Global Charges in Braneworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-09-01

    In braneworld models the global charges, such as baryon or lepton number, are not conserved. The global-charge non-conservation is a rather model-independent feature which arises due to quantum fluctuations of the brane worldvolume. These fluctuations create ``baby branes'' that can capture some global charges and carry them away into the bulk of higher-dimensional space. Such processes are exponentially suppressed at low-energies, but can be significant at high enough temperatures or energies. These effects can lead to a new, intrinsically high-dimensional mechanism of baryogenesis. Baryon asymmetry might be produced due either to evaporation into the baby branes, or creation of the baryon number excess in collisions of two Brane Universes.

  2. Trends in extinction risk for imperiled species in Canada.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Brett; Claar, Danielle C; Fox, Caroline H; Freshwater, Cameron; Holden, Jessica J; Roberts, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Protecting and promoting recovery of species at risk of extinction is a critical component of biodiversity conservation. In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) determines whether species are at risk of extinction or extirpation, and has conducted these assessments since 1977. We examined trends in COSEWIC assessments to identify whether at-risk species that have been assessed more than once tended to improve, remain constant, or deteriorate in status, as a way of assessing the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in Canada. Of 369 species that met our criteria for examination, 115 deteriorated, 202 remained unchanged, and 52 improved in status. Only 20 species (5.4%) improved to the point where they were 'not at risk', and five of those were due to increased sampling efforts rather than an increase in population size. Species outcomes were also dependent on the severity of their initial assessment; for example, 47% of species that were initially listed as special concern deteriorated between assessments. After receiving an at-risk assessment by COSEWIC, a species is considered for listing under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA), which is the primary national tool that mandates protection for at-risk species. We examined whether SARA-listing was associated with improved COSEWIC assessment outcomes relative to unlisted species. Of 305 species that had multiple assessments and were SARA-listed, 221 were listed at a level that required identification and protection of critical habitat; however, critical habitat was fully identified for only 56 of these species. We suggest that the Canadian government should formally identify and protect critical habitat, as is required by existing legislation. In addition, our finding that at-risk species in Canada rarely recover leads us to recommend that every effort be made to actively prevent species from becoming at-risk in the first place. PMID:25401772

  3. Trends in Extinction Risk for Imperiled Species in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Favaro, Brett; Claar, Danielle C.; Fox, Caroline H.; Freshwater, Cameron; Holden, Jessica J.; Roberts, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Protecting and promoting recovery of species at risk of extinction is a critical component of biodiversity conservation. In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) determines whether species are at risk of extinction or extirpation, and has conducted these assessments since 1977. We examined trends in COSEWIC assessments to identify whether at-risk species that have been assessed more than once tended to improve, remain constant, or deteriorate in status, as a way of assessing the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in Canada. Of 369 species that met our criteria for examination, 115 deteriorated, 202 remained unchanged, and 52 improved in status. Only 20 species (5.4%) improved to the point where they were ‘not at risk’, and five of those were due to increased sampling efforts rather than an increase in population size. Species outcomes were also dependent on the severity of their initial assessment; for example, 47% of species that were initially listed as special concern deteriorated between assessments. After receiving an at-risk assessment by COSEWIC, a species is considered for listing under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA), which is the primary national tool that mandates protection for at-risk species. We examined whether SARA-listing was associated with improved COSEWIC assessment outcomes relative to unlisted species. Of 305 species that had multiple assessments and were SARA-listed, 221 were listed at a level that required identification and protection of critical habitat; however, critical habitat was fully identified for only 56 of these species. We suggest that the Canadian government should formally identify and protect critical habitat, as is required by existing legislation. In addition, our finding that at-risk species in Canada rarely recover leads us to recommend that every effort be made to actively prevent species from becoming at-risk in the first place. PMID:25401772

  4. University students and mental health. Canada, Britain and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gold, J H

    1979-01-01

    There are many crucial determinants of the individual outcome and benefit of a university education including the stressful interplay of cultural and socioeconomic factors which are of growing importance in the inflationary 1970's. An epidemiological study of university students from 1969-1972 in Canada, 1973-1974 in Britain, and 1975 in Singapore, attempted to identify stresses leading to mental ill-health in these students. Singapore was chosen as an example of a culture bridging the developed Northern and developing Southern nations of the world. Cultural differences affecting the results of the study are discussed as is the role of social change. PMID:511452

  5. Ion-ion reactions with fixed-charge modified proteins to produce ions in a single, very high charge state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Brian L.; Krusemark, Casey J.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Coon, Joshua J.; Belshaw, Peter J.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2008-10-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) of denatured proteins produces a mass spectrum with a broad distribution of multiply charged ions. Attaching fixed positive charges, specifically quaternary ammonium groups, to proteins at their carboxylic acid groups generates substantially higher charge states compared to the corresponding unmodified proteins in positive-mode ESI. Ion-ion reactions of these modified proteins with reagent anions leads to charge reduction by proton transfer. These proton transfer reactions cannot remove charge from the quaternary ammonium groups, which do not have a proton to transfer to the anion. Thus, one might expect charge reduction to stop at a single charge state equal to the number of fixed charges on the modified protein. However, ion-ion reactions yield charge states lower than this number of fixed charges due to anion attachment (adduction) to the proteins. Charge reduction via ion-molecule reactions involving gas-phase bases also give adducts on the modified protein ions in low charge states. Such adducts are avoided by keeping the ions in charge states well above the number of fixed charges. In the present work protein ions were selectively "parked" within an ion trap mass spectrometer in a high charge state by mild radiofrequency excitation that dramatically slows their ion-ion reaction rate--a technique termed "ion parking". The combination of ion parking with the fixed-charge modified proteins permits generation of a large population of ions in a single, very high charge state.

  6. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  7. The Plight of Immigrant Physicians in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Satkauskas, Remigijus; Pavilanis, Alain

    1990-01-01

    A large number of foreign medical graduates are striving to obtain their licence to practise in Canada. The obstacles created by the federal and provincial medical authorities are numerous and difficult to surmount. The authors define the foreign medical graduate, describe the options and strategies one faces, and present statistics about the Medical Council of Canada Evaluating Examination and postgraduate training positions. Their purpose is to present the plight of foreign medical graduates in Canada to Canadian physicians and to acquaint foreign medical graduates with restrictive licensing procedures. PMID:21249112

  8. Photoinduced ultrafast charge-order melting: Charge-order inversion and nonthermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of photoexcitation is studied for a system with checkerboard charge order induced by displacements of ligands around a metal site. The motion of the ligands is treated classically and the electronic charges are simplified to two-level molecular bond charges. The calculations are done for a checkerboard charge-ordered system with about 100 000 ligand oscillators coupled to a fixed-temperature bath. The initial photoexcitation is followed by a rapid decrease in the charge-order parameter within 50-100 femtoseconds while leaving the correlation length almost unchanged. Depending on the fluence, a complete melting of the charge order occurs in less than a picosecond. While for low fluences, the system returns to its original state, for full melting, it recovers to its broken-symmetry state leading to an inversion of the charge order. For small long-range interactions, recovery can be slow due to domain formation.

  9. Lead/acid battery myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, P. T.

    The lead/acid battery deserves a more positive image than has been traditional heretofore—particularly with respect to a number of aspects that relate to its utility as a power source for electric vehicles. Recent results from a large internationally coordinated research programme indicate that: (i) with proper attention to construction, valve-regulated lead/acid batteries can be deep-discharged many times without capacity loss; (ii) lead/acid batteries can be recharged extremely rapidly so that long journeys of electric vehicles become a realistic possibility; (iii) ranges of over 150 km between charges are achievable, and (iv) the introduction of significant numbers of lead/acid-powered electric vehicles does offer a beneficial environmental impact.

  10. Youth Apprenticeships in Canada: On Their Inferior Status Despite Skilled Labour Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Wolfgang; Taylor, Alison; Wright, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, youth apprenticeships have been promoted as an educational alternative that leads to the development of valuable skills, allows for the opportunity to earn an income while learning and helps youth to gain a head start into lucrative, creative and in-demand careers. Yet, these programmes have remained rather marginal and continue to be…

  11. Leading the Charge: Governors, Higher Education and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    With this new tool, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] is working to expand its outreach to governors nationwide on behalf of higher education reform, focusing on key issues of quality, cost, and accountability. ACTA has worked with governors and education leaders from across the country, and that experience has proven that innovative…

  12. Chemical Information Instruction in Academe: Who Is Leading the Charge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garritano, Jeremy R.; Culp, F. Bartow; Twiss-Brooks, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Chemical information instruction (CII) has been recommended by the ACS Committee on Professional Training as a necessary component of the chemistry curriculum for both undergraduate and graduate students. Surveys conducted by the ACS Chemical Information Division (CINF) Education Committee in 1984 and 1993 showed the extent that CII had become…

  13. Leading the Charge: Exotic New Materials for Future Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yulin

    2010-09-28

    How will we improve computer technology to create chips that are smaller, faster, and more efficient? For leaps in performance, we need to create new types of semiconductors. In this lecture, the speaker will describe a new class of materials -- the 'topological insulators' -- that achieve robust performance by tying the paths of electrons in knots. These materials arose from a bold theoretical proposal that was recently verified by X-ray experiments at SLAC. THe speaker will describe the special properties of these materials and the promise for their applications.

  14. Leading the Charge for Real-Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Well before the idea of using data to manage schools gained prominence on the national stage, Oklahoma's Western Heights school district had made the ideal of real-time, data-driven decisionmaking a reality. Back in 2001, Superintendent Joe Kitchens was already being spotlighted for his focus on creating a longitudinal-data system that would give…

  15. Leading the Charge for SoTL--Embracing Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassard, Anita; Sloboda, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) enables colleges and universities to assess student learning and measure the outcomes by engaging in meaningful research, and to disseminate this research. The objective of this paper is to give a snapshot of and assess the current thinking behind this scholarship by presenting examples of SoTL, and…

  16. Preface: Charge transport in nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  17. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  18. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  19. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  20. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  1. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  2. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  3. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  4. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  5. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  6. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  7. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  8. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  9. Improving outpatient charge capture.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Daniel; Sanderson, Brian

    2014-10-01

    Hospitals can identify opportunities to enhance revenue collection by closely analyzing outpatient charge-capture data. A hospital can bolster its charge-capture analysis by performing a charge-capture process walk-through and scrutinizing subsystem links, third-party payer contracts, and electronic health record structures. The hospital then can integrate charge-integrity functions into clinical departments as needed by developing charge-reconciliation tools and reports and monitoring their utilization, and incorporating charge-reconciliation responsibilities into clinical department managers' job descriptions and goals. PMID:25647902

  10. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  11. Teacher Exchange: From Kansas to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Charles

    1976-01-01

    An American community college instructor describes his experience teaching at Seneca College, a two-year institution in suburban Toronto, Canada. Administrative structures, teaching methods, and environments are described and compared. (NHM)

  12. Driver's Licences for the handicapped in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg; Clarke, Bryan R.

    1985-01-01

    The article reviews Canada's Guide for Physicians in Determining Fitness to Drive a Vehicle and then considers sections of provincial motor vehicle acts that regulate the issuance of licenses to the handicapped. (CL)

  13. Canada files WTO complaint against EC.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    In December 1998, Canada filed a complaint alleging that the European Communities (EC) had adopted regulations that amounted to a scheme to extend patent terms, limited to pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products.

  14. The status of interprofessional education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, John H V

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the history and development of interprofessional education (IPE) in Canada from its conceptual beginnings in the 1960s to today. The status of IPE in Canada is viewed in relation to the broader international movements for IPE and collaborative healthcare. The current goals and principles of the Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative are reviewed, and the future of IPE is considered in light of these goals.

  15. Screening of heterogeneous surfaces: charge renormalization of Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Boon, N; Carvajal Gallardo, E; Zheng, S; Eggen, E; Dijkstra, M; van Roij, R

    2010-03-17

    Nonlinear ionic screening theory for heterogeneously charged spheres is developed in terms of a mode decomposition of the surface charge. A far-field analysis of the resulting electrostatic potential leads to a natural generalization of charge renormalization from purely monopolar to dipolar, quadrupolar, etc, including 'mode couplings'. Our novel scheme is generally applicable to large classes of surface heterogeneities, and is explicitly applied here to Janus spheres with differently charged upper and lower hemispheres, revealing strong renormalization effects for all multipoles.

  16. Charge regulation circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  17. Lab on a chip Canada--rapid diffusion over large length scales.

    PubMed

    Juncker, David; Wheeler, Aaron R; Sinton, David

    2013-07-01

    The roots of lab on a chip in Canada are deep, comprising of some of the earliest contributions and first demonstrations of the potential of microfluidic chips. In an editorial leading off this special issue, Jed Harrison of University of Alberta reflects on these early days and Canada's role in the field's development (DOI: 10.1039/c3lc50522g). Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip research efforts grew exponentially - rapidly diffusing across the vast Canadian length scales.

  18. Experiences of South Asian brides entering Canada after recent changes to family sponsorship policies.

    PubMed

    Merali, Noorfarah

    2009-03-01

    South Asians in Canada often apply the traditional custom of arranged marriage across international borders, leading to male sponsorship of family-chosen brides from their home countries. This qualitative study examined understandings of sponsorship and marital/resettlement experiences among English-proficient and non-English-proficient South Asian brides who entered Canada after recent immigration policy changes to reduce sponsored women's vulnerability to maltreatment. English-proficient women were aware of their rights and permanent resident status, and reported significant integration support. In contrast, non-English-proficient women misunderstood sponsorship and faced multiple barriers to participation in Canadian life, along with severe abuse and neglect.

  19. Charge Exchange with Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Jeremy; Ferri, Kevin; Schmitt, Jaclyn; Hanson, Joshua; Marler, Joan

    2016-05-01

    A detailed study of the physics of highly charged ions (HCIs) is critical for a deep understanding of observed phenomena resulting from interactions of HCIs with neutral atoms in astrophysical and fusion environments. Specifically the charge transfer rates and spectroscopy of the subsequent decay fluorescence are of great interest to these communities. Results from a laboratory based investigation of these rates will be presented. The experiment takes advantage of an energy and charge state selected beam of HCIs from the recently on-line Clemson University EBIT (CUEBIT). Progress towards an experimental apparatus for retrapping HCIs towards precision spectroscopy of HCIs will also be presented.

  20. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  1. Particle charge spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An airflow through a tube is used to guide a charged particle through the tube. A detector may be used to detect charge passing through the tube on the particle. The movement of the particle through the tube may be used to both detect its charge and size.

  2. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  3. Linear decay of charge in electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małecki, J. A.

    1999-04-01

    The processes leading to very long lifetimes of implanted electric charge are discussed. A model assuming a competition between the rate of current carrier generation in activation processes, and the rate of carrier annihilation on electrodes and by free, implanted charge was considered. The discussed processes lead to a very pronounced decrease in electric conductivity, and in consequence to long lifetimes of implanted charge, in agreement with experimental data. The important feature of our model is that exponential decay of charge takes place only for short times-hours or days for polymers. For the longer periods-hundreds or thousands of years in the case of Teflon films-a linear decay is predicted. The importance of the shape of a dielectric plate and the unusual stability of thin electrets are also discussed.

  4. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  5. Internal charge behaviour of nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. Keith; Fothergill, John C.

    2004-05-01

    The incorporation of 23 nm titanium dioxide nanoparticles into an epoxy matrix to form a nanocomposite structure is described. It is shown that the use of nanometric particles results in a substantial change in the behaviour of the composite, which can be traced to the mitigation of internal charge when a comparison is made with conventional TiO2 fillers. A variety of diagnostic techniques (including dielectric spectroscopy, electroluminescence, thermally stimulated current and photoluminescence) have been used to augment pulsed electro-acoustic space charge measurement to provide a basis for understanding the underlying physics of the phenomenon. It would appear that, when the size of the inclusions becomes small enough, they act cooperatively with the host structure and cease to exhibit interfacial properties, leading to Maxwell-Wagner polarization. It is postulated that the particles are surrounded by high charge concentrations in the Gouy-Chapman-Stern layer. Since nanoparticles have very high specific areas, these regions allow limited charge percolation through nano-filled dielectrics. The practical consequences of this have also been explored in terms of the electric strength exhibited. It would appear that there was a window in which real advantages accrue from the nano-formulated material. An optimum loading of about 10% (by weight) is indicated.

  6. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  7. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana. PMID:27694657

  8. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  9. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  10. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  11. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  12. Earthquake ground motions in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonley, Eleanor

    magnitude scale used by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). Empirical relationships between these two magnitude scales are very useful. From the calculated values of this study combined with the values determined in Atkinson (1993), the relationship M = 1.03 MN - 0.61 was determined. Calculated stress drop values show a log-linear increase with increasing magnitude. This defies the concept of self-similarity, where one would expect constant stress drop for all magnitudes. Many (e.g. Sacks and Rydelek, 1995; Wu et al., 1996; etc.) have theorised that quantization of earthquakes, where earthquake size reaches an absolute minimum, leads to the breakdown of self-similarity. Calculated Brune source radii show a linear increase with increasing magnitude, even at small magnitudes (M < 3.0), leaving the cause of the apparent breakdown of self-similarity enigmatic.

  13. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusel, O.; Droba, M.; Noll, D.; Schulte, K.; Schneider, P. P.; Wiesner, C.

    2016-02-01

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed.

  14. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  15. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially in young children. Tap water from lead ...

  16. NEPTUNE Canada Community Science Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juniper, S.; Bornhold, B.; Barnes, C.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.

    2006-05-01

    In 2007 NEPTUNE Canada will install the first stage of a regional cabled observatory (RCO) in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Stage 2 of the RCO is being developed by the US-based ORION Project Office, through the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI). For Stage 1, a 800km fiber-optic cable will loop out from a shore station on Vancouver Island to the Juan de Fuca volcanic spreading ridge. Two seafloor nodes are planned, one to support studies of tectonic and hydrothermal activity on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and the other for investigation of a broad range of processes in Barkley Canyon, on the continental slope of Vancouver Island. Each node will provide power and Ethernet communications to instruments that comprise multi-disciplinary community science experiments. These experiments were developed through a 2-year series of workshops and a final competition. Data from all instruments will be available on-line, through the NEPTUNE data management and archive system. Investigations at the Endeavour node will focus on links between seismic activity and hydrothermal emissions and their resulting impact on hydrothermal vent organisms and regional oceanic circulation and geochemical fluxes. This area provides a number of technical challenges, including the laying of the backbone cable over a volcanic terrain, and the placement of instruments and extension cables in areas of abundant high-temperature venting. Planned instruments include broad-band seismometers, acoustic Doppler current meters, video and digital still cameras and chemical sensors. Experiments at the Barkley Canyon site will emphasis the effects of water currents passing through the canyon, and seismic activity. Combined biological and physical oceanographic instruments will monitor the interaction between sediment transport along the axis of the canyon and the bioturbation activity of the fauna. A combined physical/biological experiment in the water column

  17. Charge-regularization effects on polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2012-02-01

    When electrically charged macromolecules are dispersed in polar solvents, their effective net charge is generally different from their chemical charges, due to competition between counterion adsorption and the translational entropy of dissociated counterions. The effective charge changes significantly as the experimental conditions change such as variations in solvent quality, temperature, and the concentration of added small electrolytes. This charge-regularization effect leads to major difficulties in interpreting experimental data on polyelectrolyte solutions and challenges in understanding the various polyelectrolyte phenomena. Even the most fundamental issue of experimental determination of molar mass of charged macromolecules by light scattering method has been difficult so far due to this feature. We will present a theory of charge-regularization of flexible polyelectrolytes in solutions and discuss the consequences of charge-regularization on (a) experimental determination of molar mass of polyelectrolytes using scattering techniques, (b) coil-globule transition, (c) macrophase separation in polyelectrolyte solutions, (c) phase behavior in coacervate formation, and (d) volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels.

  18. Charge fractionalization in nonchiral Luttinger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hur, Karyn; Halperin, Bertrand I.; Yacoby, Amir

    2008-12-01

    One-dimensional metals, such as quantum wires or carbon nanotubes, can carry charge in arbitrary units, smaller or larger than a single electron charge. However, according to Luttinger theory, which describes the low-energy excitations of such systems, when a single electron is injected by tunneling into the middle of such a wire, it will tend to break up into separate charge pulses, moving in opposite directions, which carry definite fractions f and (1 - f) of the electron charge, determined by a parameter g that measures the strength of charge interactions in the wire. (The injected electron will also produce a spin excitation, which will travel at a different velocity than the charge excitations.) Observing charge fractionalization physics in an experiment is a challenge in those (nonchiral) low-dimensional systems which are adiabatically coupled to Fermi liquid leads. We theoretically discuss a first important step towards the observation of charge fractionalization in quantum wires based on momentum-resolved tunneling and multi-terminal geometries, and explain the recent experimental results of Steinberg et al. [H. Steinberg, G. Barak, A. Yacoby, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, B.I. Halperin, K. Le Hur, Nature Physics 4 (2008) 116].

  19. Charge fractionalization in nonchiral Luttinger systems

    SciTech Connect

    Le Hur, Karyn Halperin, Bertrand I.; Yacoby, Amir

    2008-12-15

    One-dimensional metals, such as quantum wires or carbon nanotubes, can carry charge in arbitrary units, smaller or larger than a single electron charge. However, according to Luttinger theory, which describes the low-energy excitations of such systems, when a single electron is injected by tunneling into the middle of such a wire, it will tend to break up into separate charge pulses, moving in opposite directions, which carry definite fractions f and (1-f) of the electron charge, determined by a parameter g that measures the strength of charge interactions in the wire. (The injected electron will also produce a spin excitation, which will travel at a different velocity than the charge excitations.) Observing charge fractionalization physics in an experiment is a challenge in those (nonchiral) low-dimensional systems which are adiabatically coupled to Fermi liquid leads. We theoretically discuss a first important step towards the observation of charge fractionalization in quantum wires based on momentum-resolved tunneling and multi-terminal geometries, and explain the recent experimental results of Steinberg et al. [H. Steinberg, G. Barak, A. Yacoby, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, B.I. Halperin, K. Le Hur, Nature Physics 4 (2008) 116].

  20. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  1. Thermoelectromotive force in materials with charge ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogutiuk, I. P.; Kogutiuk, P. P.; Priadko, L. F.; Smolin, M. D.

    1985-02-01

    The concentration and temperature dependences of thermoemf (alpha) in materials with charge ordering are calculated on the basis of a generalized Hubbard model using Kubo's formalism. It is shown that triple inversion of the sign of alpha occurs with change in the current-carrier density (n) in the charge-ordered state (COS). A decrease in temperature leads to a phase transition of the crystal in the COS, which also leads to a change in the sign of alpha for particular values of n.

  2. Health status and Canada's immigrant population.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Danforth, Jeff

    2003-11-01

    Given the framework of the 1984 Canada Health Act, the health status of immigrants should be similar to average levels within whole of Canada. Yet, assuming equality of health status between immigrant and non-immigrants, or between immigrant groups is likely an unrealistic and simplistic assumption, given unseen barriers affecting accessibility, the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, and problems with the provision of health care resources to the immigrant population. Using the National Population Health Survey, this paper focuses upon the health status of the immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants within Canada, with reference to diagnosed conditions, self-assessed health, and the Health Utilities Index Mark 3. Findings indicate that, with the exception of the most recent arrivals, immigrants experience worse health status across most dimensions relative to non-immigrants. Multivariate analysis reveals that age, income adequacy, gender, and home ownership are dimensions upon which health status differs between the two groups.

  3. Mineral-resource analysis in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    DeYoung, J.H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In Canada, mineral statistics are collected and mineral resources are analyzed by both government and private organizations. Published mineral-resource reports of Canada's Department of Energy, Mines and Resources and of the Centre for Resource Studies in Kingston, Ontario illustrate the types of analyses that provide essential information about mineral-industry activities from exploration through refined materials. International comparisons of the types of information available to policymakers may provide some insight into the nature of national mineral policies. Reasons for the high quality of and emphasis given to mineral resource analysis in Canada include the importance of the mineral industry to the national economy, the constitutional framework that encourages provincial interest in policy-oriented research, and the rapport between government officials and researchers with their counterparts in industry. 38 references, 8 figures.

  4. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  5. Nursing and anaesthesia: historical developments in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jennifer; Boschma, Geertje; Jefferson, Rosella

    2009-06-01

    There is little historical knowledge available about nurses' role in anaesthesia in Canada. It appears, from the few sources available, that nurses did administer anaesthesia in the early 20th century in Canada. The limited historiography reveals that nurses who worked in small rural hospitals across Canada were, due to the lack of physician specialty and coverage, involved in the administration of anaesthesia. To learn more about nurses' role in this area the authors explored the oral history collection from the British Columbia's History of Nursing group at the College of Registered Nurses of British Columbia Library. Several stories indicated that between 1917 and 1953 there were opportunities for Canadian nurses to administer anaesthesia. The oral histories identified that there was a need for the administration of anaesthesia, that nurses had the skill to provide it, and that flexibility in their nursing practice enabled them to fulfill this role. There was an increasing need for anaesthesia service that was not being filled by physicians. To further explore nurses' role the authors also examined nursing and medical journals from that time period. There is limited understanding of how this role ceased to exist in Canada while it became well established in the United States. Various legal cases from that time period, and the substantially different results between Canadian and America cases, provide some insight into the reasons why nurse anaesthetists were excluded from anaesthesia practice in Canada. As the Canadian healthcare environment continues to change, and the need for anaesthesia services increases, new questions have begun to arise about the potential for an advanced practice role in anaesthesia for Canadian nurses. The demand for anaesthesia services is increasing in-line with the aging Canadian population and the shortage of available services is most dramatic in small, rural hospitals. This article provides important historical background on the

  6. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  7. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  8. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  9. Type 2 diabetes epidemic in First Nations people of Canada.

    PubMed

    Ayach, Bilal B; Korda, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic condition that results in the body's inability to either produce or respond to insulin. Abnormal insulin production and sensitivity lead to improper blood glucose levels and energy storage required for homeostatic organ maintenance. Over 151 million people worldwide, including 7% of the US and 5% of Canadian populations have been diagnosed with diabetes, and the prevalence varies greatly by race and ethnicity. However, since the end of World War II, the people with the greatest risk include First Nations people, including Canada's aboriginal, Inuit and Native Indian populations with up to a 5-fold greater prevalence than the general population. Prevalence can vary from 8% to 48% among the sexes and tribes. Understanding the prevalence and causes of this epidemic is immediately needed as diabetes precedes various other endocrine and cardiovascular diseases. Here we review the current understanding of diabetes risk in Canada's First Nations people in the hope to bring greater awareness among healthcare professionals and implementation of measures to prevent spread of this disease. PMID:20828106

  10. Work-related mortality among older farmers in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Voaklander, D. C.; Hartling, L.; Pickett, W.; Dimich-Ward, H.; Brison, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and circumstances of work-related, fatal injuries among older farmers in Canada (1991 to 1995). DESIGN: Descriptive, epidemiologic analysis of data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Farmers aged 60 and older who died from work-related injuries from 1991 through 1995. METHOD: Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated using the Canadian farm population as a standard for people involved, mechanism of injury, and place and time of injury. MAIN FINDINGS: The 183 work-related fatalities observed produced an overall mortality rate of 32.8 per 100,000 population per year. Higher fatality rates were observed in Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces. Almost all of those who died (98%) were men. Farm owner-operators accounted for 82.8% of the deaths (where the relationship of the person to the farm owner was reported). Leading mechanisms of fatal injury included tractor rollovers, being struck or crushed by objects, and being run over by machinery. Many older farmers appeared to be working alone at the time of injury. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that older farmers died while performing tasks common to general farm work, that most were owner-operators, and that many were working alone at the time of death. Innovative ways to reduce work-related injuries in this population must be found. PMID:10626056

  11. Where Will LEAD Lead? An Update on My LEAD Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    Issues in the future of a federal collaborative program, Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD), are discussed in this paper. Problems attributed to LEAD are its antagonistic posture to educational administration programs in higher education and political conflicts of interest. Methodology involved analysis of successful LEAD…

  12. Potential lead exposures from lead crystal decanters.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Kahlon, J K; Ferguson, J; Quattrone, A J; Book, S A

    1992-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of lead leached into 4% acetic acid, white port, and a synthetic alcoholic beverage that were stored in lead crystal decanters for 1-, 2-, and 10-day periods at room temperature. In decanters from 14 different manufacturers, measured lead concentrations ranged from 100 to 1800 micrograms/L. The pH of the leaching medium is probably the dominant factor determining the extent of lead leached, with greater leaching occurring at lower pH values. The consumption of alcoholic beverages stored in lead crystal decanters is judged to pose a hazard. PMID:1456345

  13. Charging of interplanetary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Newcomb, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to quantify, by laboratory experiments, the charging of ices and other insulators subject to irradiation with electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons and to model special conditions based on the data. The system and conditions to be studied are those relevant for charging of dust in magnetospheric plasmas. The measurements are supplemented by computer simulations of charging or grains under a variety of conditions. Our work for this period involved experiments on water ice, improved models of charging of ice grains for Saturn's E-ring, and the construction of apparatus for electron impact studies and measurements of electron energy distributions.

  14. Lead in petrol. The isotopic lead experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Facchetti, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Many studies were dedicated to the evaluation of the impact of automotive lead on the environment and to the assessment of its absorption in the human population. They can be subdivided into two groups, those based on changes of air and blood lead concentrations and those based on changes of air and blood lead isotopic compositions. According to various authors, 50-66% of the lead added to petrol is mobilized in the atmosphere, while most of the remainder adheres to the walls of the exhaust system from which it is expelled by mechanical and thermal shocks in the forms of easily sedimented particles. The fraction directly emitted by engine exhaust fumes is found in the form of fine particles, which can be transferred a long way from the emitting sources. However important the contribution of petrol lead to the total airborne lead may be, our knowledge does not permit a straightforward calculation of the percentage of petrol lead in total blood lead, which of course can also originate from other sources (e.g., industrial, natural). To evaluate this percentage in 1973, the idea of the Isotopic Lead Experiment (ILE project) was conceived to label, on a regional scale, petrol with a nonradioactive lead of an isotopic composition sufficiently different from that of background lead and sufficiently stable in time. This Account summarizes the main results obtained by the ILE project.

  15. Bone lead, hypertension, and lead nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeen, R.P.

    1988-06-01

    There is considerable clinical evidence that excessive lead absorption causes renal failure with hypertension and predisposes individuals to hypertension even in the absence of detectable renal failure. Recent analyses of transiliac bone biopsies indicate that unsuspected elevated bone leads may reflect the cause (or contributing cause) of end-stage renal disease in 5% of the European dialysis population. In these patients, bone lead levels were four times higher than in unexposed cadavers (6 micrograms/g wet weight) and approximated levels found in lead workers (30 micrograms/g). At present, the most reliable index of the body lead burden is the CaNa2 EDTA lead mobilization test. In vivo tibial X-ray-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a more practical noninvasive technique for assessing bone lead, which should find widespread application as a diagnostic tool and for epidemiologic studies.

  16. Lead poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  17. Financing long-term care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Mills, C; Hollander, M

    1997-06-01

    Financial policies relating to long-term care in Canada are changing rapidly in response to demands for health care reform. This chapter focuses on the financial structure of institutional care, primarily nursing homes, in the western provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. Community-based long-term care is discussed briefly.

  18. Career Development in Canada: A Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Ralph

    In Canada, responsibility for the career development delivery system is divided among federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels of government. Education comes under provincial/territorial jurisdiction. Career development varies across provinces and often from school to school. There are eight transition points throughout the school…

  19. Grandparenthood in Canada. Contemporary Family Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Gladstone, James

    This paper examines the diversity of experiences associated with grandparenting, as well as identifying factors that contribute to this diversity. The focus is grandparents in Canada, but international research is included as well. Following a list of highlights and an introduction, the paper addresses: (1) the demographic context of…

  20. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  1. The Child and Social Policy in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    Social policy for child welfare in Canada should be tested in terms of what it does to support the integrity of the family. The Canadian family in recent years has changed as infant morality rates have fallen, and as the number of illegitimate births, marriages, divorces, and women working has increased. Although the child population as a whole…

  2. Sport in Canada During the Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappage, Ronald S.

    The author discusses the effect of the Great Depression upon sport in Canada. The difficulties of hockey and football teams are contrasted with the success of professional wrestling, horseracing, and bicycling. The economic plight of professional players who were not allowed to return to the "amateur" rank is discussed. Increased participation in…

  3. Evolving perspectives on lyme borreliosis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Jlh; Middelveen, Mj; Klein, D; Sperling, Fah

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis.

  4. Retransmission of hydrometric data in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Reid, I. A.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results have demonstrated the suitability of satellite retransmission as a means of obtaining near real time data from remote areas in Canada. Capital costs of the equipment installed at a gaging station are reasonable, and indications are that the DCPs do not require much maintenance. The potential impact on water resources data gathering activities is considerable.

  5. An overview of radon research in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Whyte, Jeff; Ford, Ken

    2015-11-01

    Based on new scientific information and broad public consultation, the Government of Canada updated the guideline for exposure to indoor radon and launched a multi-year radon programme in 2007. Major achievements in radon research accomplished in the past 7 y are highlighted here.

  6. Culture and Community in Canada's Isolated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John; Anderson, Kirk; Jamal, Samina

    This paper presents highlights from surveys of some of Canada's most isolated schools, located in northern Labrador, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, and northern and interior British Columbia. Most served Inuit or other First Nations communities. Although all schools had contact by phone and most had e-mail, few were accessible by road. Five Inuit…

  7. Education of advanced practice nurses in Canada.

    PubMed

    Martin-Misener, Ruth; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Harbman, Patricia; Donald, Faith; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Carter, Nancy; Kilpatrick, Kelley; DiCenso, Alba

    2010-12-01

    In Canada, education programs for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP) roles began 40 years ago. NP programs are offered in almost all provinces. Education for the CNS role has occurred through graduate nursing programs generically defined as providing preparation for advanced nursing practice. For this paper, we drew on pertinent sections of a scoping review of the literature and key informant interviews conducted for a decision support synthesis on advanced practice nursing to describe the following: (1) history of advanced practice nursing education in Canada, (2) current status of advanced practice nursing education in Canada, (3) curriculum issues, (4) interprofessional education, (5) resources for education and (6) continuing education. Although national frameworks defining advanced nursing practice and NP competencies provide some direction for education programs, Canada does not have countrywide standards of education for either the NP or CNS role. Inconsistency in the educational requirements for primary healthcare NPs continues to cause significant problems and interferes with inter-jurisdictional licensing portability. For both CNSs and NPs, there can be a mismatch between a generalized education and specialized practice. The value of interprofessional education in facilitating effective teamwork is emphasized. Recommendations for future directions for advanced practice nursing education are offered.

  8. Closing Canada's ‘universal’ reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Rogge, R.

    2015-08-01

    In reply to a post on the physicsworld.com blog about the forthcoming closure of the National Research Universal reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada (“Lament for ‘the reactor that can do everything’”, 16 June, http://ow.ly/On9VN).

  9. Sustainability in Higher Education in Atlantic Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut; Wright, Tarah; Malone, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to ascertain the state of sustainability in higher education (SHE) in Atlantic Canada (sustainability education/curriculum; research and scholarship; operations; faculty/staff development and rewards; community outreach and service; student opportunities; and institutional mission, structure and planning).…

  10. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  11. The core health science library in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huntley, J L

    1974-04-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists.

  12. The Core Health Science Library in Canada *

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, June Leath

    1974-01-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  13. Counselor Training in Canada: An Alberta Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Darlene L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines initiatives of Alberta/Northwest Territories Region of Employment and Immigration Canada in implementation and continuing development of employment counselor training within context of changing economic conditions and policy changes. Describes such initiatives as innovative group approaches, program of competence maintenance and…

  14. Echinococcus multilocularis in urban coyotes, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Liccioli, Stefano; Verocai, Guilherme G; Gesy, Karen M; Jenkins, Emily J; Kutz, Susan J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Duignan, Padraig J; Massolo, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic parasite in wild canids. We determined its frequency in urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. We detected E. multilocularis in 23 of 91 coyotes in this region. This parasite is a public health concern throughout the Northern Hemisphere, partly because of increased urbanization of wild canids.

  15. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…

  16. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…

  17. Science Policy and STI in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulnes, Aurele

    The problem of dissemination and utilization of scientific and technical information (STI) is of particular importance to Canada since it is not a major generator of STI. On the overall basis, it is in fact, one of the largest importers of scientific and technological knowledge. In this presentation, Dr. Beaulnes discusses: Approaches to STI…

  18. Careers Canada. Volume 1, Careers in Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the first of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in construction. The pamphlet is divided into six major sections: (1) history and importance; (2) nature of the work, including planning, contracting, site preparation, roofing, finishing, plumbing; (3)…

  19. Return migration from Canada to Britain.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A H

    1968-07-01

    Abstract Statistics of migrants returning from Canada to Britain and re-registering for national insurance purposes are compared with labour force immigrants entering Canada between 1956 and 1965. Short and long-term indices are calculated which suggest that return migration has been increasing since 1960. A sample survey carried out in 1962-63 distinguishes three types of returning migrant: (a) quasi-migrants who originally planned to return to Britain; (b) permanent repatriates who originally intended to settle in Canada but now expect to remain in Britain; (c) transilient migrants who exhibit a high propensity to move backwards and forwards between two or more countries without becoming permanently rooted in anyone. The demographic, economic and social characteristics of the three types are described. A further comparison is made between migrants who plan to settle in Britain, those who intend to come back again to Canada, and those who are uncertain of their future plans or who intend to move on to a third country.

  20. Historical Writing on Native People in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent studies of native Canadian history. Because of more adequate available documentation, findings showed the most extensive work was on European-Indian contacts resulting from the fur trade. The author cites the need for more work on individual Indian cultural histories as well as a good general history of Canada's indigenous groups.…

  1. Troubled times for Canada's medical marijuana program.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2003-04-01

    Health Canada finally produces a good marijuana crop, but its medical marijuana program is in a state of upheaval as it faces internal dissent regarding a crucial aspect of its mandate, as well as fundamental challenges from the courts. Meanwhile, the Justice Minister said that the government will introduce legislation to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana.

  2. Adult Learning and Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Linda

    2001-01-01

    In Chapter Six, Linda Shohet offers a description of the adult literacy and learning system in Canada. In providing a historical overview of the development of the field, Shohet notes key political events that have influenced the funding and development of services for adults. Through her description, the author reveals the complexity and…

  3. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  4. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  5. Transitions: Schooling and Employment in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anisef, Paul, Ed.; Axelrod, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents 11 papers of new research by scholars from across Canada engaged in the study of youth, schooling, employment, and social change. It describes the multiple transitions that young adults encounter in their journey from school to work. Particular attention is paid to the themes of gender, socioeconomic status, ethnocultural…

  6. Careers Canada. Volume 3, Mechanical Repair Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the third of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in mechanical repair occupations. The pamphlet is divided into eight major sections: (1) history and importance; (2) fields of work; (3) nature of work (this section is subdivided into automotive repair…

  7. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  8. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  9. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  10. Teenage Pregnancy in Canada and Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Edith; Forget, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, there were 36 694 known pregnancies in Canada among women aged 15 to 19. Although the Canadian teenage pregnancy rate decreased from 1980 to 1987, it remains three times higher than that of the industrialized country with the lowest rate. Health professionals, social workers, and educators can have an important role in preventing teenage pregnancy. PMID:21229025

  11. Racial Discrimination in Canada: Asian Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Kananur V.

    The aim of this study was to find out whether racial discrimination exists in Canada; if so, how extensive is it? The method had three phases. In the first phase, questionnaire-interviews were conducted among the colored immigrants (East Indians, Pakistanis, and Bangladeshis) in the city of Montreal. The purpose of the interviews was to find out…

  12. New Markets for Private Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice; Quirke, Linda

    2002-01-01

    While provincial governments in Canada are increasingly regulating public schools in the name of accountability, more parents are choosing unregulated tutoring businesses or "new sector" private schools. Reasons include a competitive edge, an emphasis on cognitive development, a more personalized environment due to small teacher-student ratios,…

  13. Immigrant and refugee children in Canada.

    PubMed

    Beiser, M; Dion, R; Gotowiec, A; Hyman, I; Vu, N

    1995-03-01

    In view of Canada's commitment to immigration, understanding the sources of successful adaptation by immigrant and refugee children is vital. This paper reviews the literature on the mental health of migrant children and suggests an agenda for future research. PMID:7788620

  14. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  15. International Reports on Literary Research: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan, Comp.; Garber, Andrew M., Comp.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research recently conducted by three Canadian researchers that involves professional practice, multicultural education, and media literacies. Details three very different studies focused on young children, providing evidence of the rich variety of research currently being undertaking in western Canada. (PM)

  16. America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

  17. What Happened to Charter Schools in Canada?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindzak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, charter schools have held a precarious existence in Canada. Implemented in the province of Alberta in 1994, only a handful of charter schools remain in the entire nation. In this article, I explore the ideas of school choice and charter schooling and how they have largely disappeared as educational policy issues for Canadians. While…

  18. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    1999-01-01

    Three distinct periods mark the history of developmental psychology in Canada. Period 1 was dominated by cognitive developmental theorist, James Mark Baldwin. Period 2, defined by the Child Study Movement, began in the 1920s with Mental Hygiene Movement and founding of two child study centers. Period 3, started in the 1950s, focused on…

  19. Teaching across Cultures: Canada and Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prowse, Jacqueline; Goddard, J. Tim

    2010-01-01

    Findings from a comparative case study conducted in Canada and Qatar are presented in this article. The study examined the cultural context of a transnational post-secondary program offered by the Faculty of Business at a Canadian college, with campuses located in both St. John's and Doha. The instructors' perceptions of their students' cultures…

  20. STEM Education in Canada: A Knowledge Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoito, Isha

    2016-01-01

    Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…

  1. Workplace health and safety: report from Canada.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    1986-01-01

    This article represents a critical analysis of the major policy responses to workplace health and safety in Canada. It examines the deficiencies inherent in the legislative development of Joint Health and Safety Committees in most Canadian jurisdictions, the limitations regarding standard-setting of worker exposure to contaminants, and disincentive for employers to positively improve the workplace because of Workers Compensation legislation. Collective bargaining agreements in Canada have had only limited positive effects, while the ultimate legal sanction of criminal prosecution by the regulatory agencies has weakened enforcement and compliance of existing regulations. There has never been a successful criminal prosecution of an employer in Canada, even for multiple deaths. The article suggests the following four reasons for this "underdevelopment" of occupational health and safety in Canada: the concealment of the dimension of the incidence of industrial disease based on Workers Compensation Board statistics; the application of an incorrect theory of causation of both industrial disease and injury by both managers and government administrators of occupational health and safety programs; the resistance of both senior and middle managers against increased worker participation in both work organization and job design questions; and the general "moral underdevelopment," rather than ignorance, of managers in favoring economic considerations or values at the expense of worker health and safety. In light of the magnitude of the problem and the deficiencies of existing policy approaches, the author proposes the need for greater workplace democratization of production and industry as a necessary and sufficient reform of workplace health and safety.

  2. Can the South China Sea tell us anything about Canada Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Randell; Li, Lu

    2016-04-01

    The Canada Basin (a sub-basin within the Amerasia Basin) and the South China Sea both preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterised by broad continent-ocean transition zones with hyper-extended continental crust. There are indications that hyper-extension in the South China Sea occurred mainly as a result of flow within a weak lower crustal layer and that it occurred both before and after plate break-up and the onset of ocean lithosphere formation at the sea-floor spreading axis. Available geophysical data from Canada Basin permit similar inferences. Both basins are about the same size and the oceanic segment in both is about the same size. Seafloor spreading in the South China Sea took place in the Cenozoic whereas in Canada Basin it is widely believed to have occurred during the Cretaceous. Widespread magmatism expressed as the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) may or may not have played an intrinsic, linked, role in Canada Basin formation. No similar LIP is associated with the South China Sea although one mechanism proposed to have driven its formation is ascribed to mantle plume activity in its northernmost part. More conventionally the mechanism of opening of the South China Sea is considered to be "passive" rather than "active", related to plate reconfigurations in the southeast Asia region linked or not linked to the nearby collision of India and Eurasia and/or subduction of a "proto-South China Sea". The driving mechanism for opening of Canada Basin is poorly discussed in the literature but is generally ascribed to paleo-tectonic plate reconfigurations and subduction in the northern Pacific (Eurasia-North America plates) region in the Mesozoic. Can the South China Sea tell us anything about Canada Basin in terms of the pre-existing lithosphere of each and the geodynamic processes leading to its hyper-extension and eventual break-up?

  3. An Environmental Scan of Adventure Therapy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen D.; Patrick, Krysten; Corbould, Gordon Marcus; Harper, Nevin J.; Oddson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    We report on an environmental scan (ES) of adventure therapy (AT) literature, organizations, and activities in Canada. The ES methodology involved (a) an examination of final reports related to a series of national symposiums on AT in Canada, (b) a review of academic literature related to AT in Canada, and (c) a summary of AT programs and courses…

  4. International Medical Graduates: Learning for Practice in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hofmeister, Marianna; Crutcher, Rodney; Klein, Douglas; Fidler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization-listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone…

  5. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  6. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  7. Space charge effect in isochronous rings

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.

    2008-08-25

    Cyclotrons, rings for precise nuclear mass spectrometry, and some light sources with extremely short bunches are operated or planned to be operated in the isochronous or almost isochronous regime. Also, many hadron synchrotrons run in the isochronous regime for a short period of time during transition crossing. The longitudinal motion is frozen in the isochronous regime that leads to accumulation of the integral of the longitudinal space charge force. In low-gamma hadron machines, this can cause a fast growth of the beam energy spread even at modest beam intensities. Additionally, the transverse component of the space charge effectively modifies the dispersion function and the slip factor shifting the isochronous (transition) point. In this paper, we discuss space charge effects in the isochronous regime and present experimental results obtained in the Small Isochronous Ring, developed at Michigan State University specifically for studies of space charge in the isochronous regime.

  8. Nuclear Charge Radii Systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, Krassimira

    2015-09-15

    This paper is a brief overview of the existing systematics on nuclear mean square charge radii, obtained by a combined analysis of data from different types of experiment. The various techniques yielding data on nuclear charge radii are summarized. Their specific feature complexities and the accuracy and precision of the obtained information are also discussed.

  9. Space charge stopband correction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.

    2005-09-01

    It is speculated that the space charge effect cause beam emittance growth through the resonant envelope oscillation. Based on this theory, we propose an approach, called space charge stopband correction, to reduce such emittance growth by compensation of the half-integer stopband width of the resonant oscillation. It is illustrated with the Fermilab Booster model.

  10. Charged particle radiography.

    PubMed

    Morris, C L; King, N S P; Kwiatkowski, K; Mariam, F G; Merrill, F E; Saunders, A

    2013-04-01

    New applications of charged particle radiography have been developed over the past two decades that extend the range of radiographic techniques providing high-speed sequences of radiographs of thicker objects with higher effective dose than can be obtained with conventional radiographic techniques. In this paper, we review the motivation and the development of flash radiography and in particular, charged particle radiography. PMID:23481477

  11. Charged particle radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.; King, N. S. P.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Saunders, A.

    2013-04-01

    New applications of charged particle radiography have been developed over the past two decades that extend the range of radiographic techniques providing high-speed sequences of radiographs of thicker objects with higher effective dose than can be obtained with conventional radiographic techniques. In this paper, we review the motivation and the development of flash radiography and in particular, charged particle radiography.

  12. Charge depletion meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J. F.

    1984-11-01

    This invention relates to a charge depletion meter apparatus having a current to frequency converter to sense and convert the current drain of a battery source to a digital signal which is divided and then accumulated in a counter. An LCD display unit displays the accumulated charge which is received from the counter.

  13. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and `CT-like' character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals is compared with with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set includes an organic CT complex, two `push-pull' donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT, which has led to the concept of `CT-like' excitations. However, `CT-like' excitations are not like charge transfer, and the improvements are not obtained for the right reasons. The triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the `CT-like' candidates, when going from a non-hybrid to an LC functional the error in the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative to positive, providing error compensation. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is too large with all functionals, leading to the best error compensation for non-hybrid functionals.

  14. Strong attraction between charged spheres due to metastable ionized states

    PubMed

    Messina; Holm; Kremer

    2000-07-24

    We report a mechanism which can lead to long-range attractions between like-charged spherical macroions, stemming from the existence of metastable ionized states. We show that the ground state of a single highly charged colloid plus a few excess counterions is overcharged. For the case of two highly charged macroions in their neutralizing divalent counterion solution we demonstrate that, in the regime of strong Coulomb coupling, the counterion clouds are very likely to be unevenly distributed, leading to one overcharged and one undercharged macroion. This long-living metastable configuration in turn leads to a long-range Coulomb attraction.

  15. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  16. Charging black Saturn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chng, Brenda; Mann, Robert; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian

    2008-12-01

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordström solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we found contain either a conical or naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  17. Charged topological entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shunji; Wen, Xueda; Hung, Ling-Yan; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-05-01

    A charged entanglement entropy is a new measure which probes quantum entanglement between different charge sectors. We study symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in (2+1)-dimensional space-time by using this charged entanglement entropy. SPT phases are short-range entangled states without topological order and hence cannot be detected by the topological entanglement entropy. We demonstrate that the universal part of the charged entanglement entropy is nonzero for nontrivial SPT phases and therefore it is a useful measure to detect short-range entangled topological phases. We also discuss that the classification of SPT phases based on the charged topological entanglement entropy is related to that of the braiding statistics of quasiparticles.

  18. Lead and the Romans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  19. Progress Towards IYA2009 in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Canada Committee, IYA

    2007-12-01

    We want Canadians to reconnect with the night sky through seven themes identified for national focus during IYA. Our overarching goal is to offer an engaging astronomy experience to every Canadian, with special efforts towards young people. Our partnership between the Canadian Astronomical Society, the Fédération des Astronomes Amateurs du Québec and the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada is bolstered by diverse national collaborators, e.g., planetarium and science centre communities, a national broadcaster, Canada's Aboriginal communities, the National Research Council and the Canadian Space Agency. Canada's amateur astronomers are committing magnificently to IYA and will be key to meeting our ambitious vision. We describe our themes, as well as progress towards their realization. Our vision involves many elements in common with U.S. plans, with mutual benefits arising from good liaison between the AAS and Canadian Committees. Naturally, our team is addressing responsibilities and opportunities unique to Canada. Our efforts are led by volunteers. Through programmes that create a legacy, we seek strong impact beyond 2009. We are providing activities accessible in both French and English, and are striving to leverage and strengthen existing outreach efforts wherever possible (thus avoiding reinventing the wheel and maximizing the impact of our limited resources). We are encouraging individuals to take local initiative, and are offering them moral support within the national context provided by our steering committee, as well as within the context provided by the IAU. Among examples that are described are strong efforts to involve Canada's Aboriginals, musical and arts organizations, etc., as well as our efforts to secure national exposure through, e.g., a series of postal stamps.

  20. Comparison of the U.S. lead recycling industry in 1998 and 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1998, the structure of the lead recycling industry has changed and trade patterns of the domestic lead recycling industry have shifted. Although the domestic demand for lead has remained relatively constant since 1998, production of lead has increasingly shifted to the domestic secondary lead industry. The last primary lead smelter in the United States closed at the end of 2013, at which time the secondary lead industry became the sole source of domestic lead production. The amount of lead recovered annually from scrap batteries generally increased from about 900,000 metric tons in 1995 to more than 1,100,000 metric tons in 2012. The percentage of total U.S. lead production attributed to battery scrap increased from 65 percent in 1995 to 87 percent in 2012. Since the North American Free Trade Agreement took effect in 1994, trade patterns among the United States, Canada, and Mexico have changed for recycled lead products. In the late 1990s, the principal sources of lead waste and scrap not derived from batteries were Canada, Mexico, and South America; by 2011, the principal sources were Central America and Asia, with decreasing amounts from Canada and South America. Since 1998, the amount of lead derived from imported batteries and scrap from Canada has ranged from 50 to 90 percent, and the amount imported from Mexico has ranged from 3 to 20 percent. Canada received about 50 percent of the lead contained in spent lead-acid batteries and scrap exported from the United States in 1998, and Mexico received about 4 percent. By 2012, however, the amount of lead scrap exported to Canada had decreased to about 10 percent, and the amount of lead-based scrap products, primarily batteries, exported to Mexico from the United States had increased to 47 percent. Vertical integration of the domestic secondary lead industry and higher costs required to implement more stringent ambient air standards in the United States have led some companies to shift lead recycling

  1. Lead acetate trihydrate precursor route to synthesize novel ultrafine lead oxide from spent lead acid battery pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jiakuan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Hu, Yuchen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Yu, Wenhao; Dong, Jinxin; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Vasant Kumar, R.; Liang, Sha

    2014-12-01

    A novel green recycling process is investigated to prepare lead acetate trihydrate precursors and novel ultrafine lead oxide from spent lead acid battery pastes. The route contains the following four processes. (1) The spent lead pastes are desulphurized by (NH4)2CO3. (2) The desulphurized pastes are converted into lead acetate solution by leaching with acetic acid solution and H2O2; (3) The Pb(CH3COO)2·3H2O precursor is crystallized and purified from the lead acetate solution with the addition of glacial acetic acid; (4) The novel ultrafine lead oxide is prepared by the calcination of lead acetate trihydrate precursor in N2 or air at 320-400 °C. Both the lead acetate trihydrate and lead oxide products are characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, and SEM techniques. The calcination products are mainly α-PbO, β-PbO, and a small amount of metallic Pb. The particle size of the calcination products in air is significantly larger than that in N2. Cyclic voltammetry measurements of the novel ultrafine lead oxide products show good reversibility and cycle stability. The assembled batteries using the lead oxide products as cathode active materials show a good cyclic stability in 80 charge/discharge cycles with the depth of discharge (DOD) of 100%.

  2. Bursal depths of lesser snow and small Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1969-01-01

    Bursa of Fabricius depths of 88 lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) and 69 small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii/parvipes complex) were measured. Bursal depths were unreliable indicators of age-classes of lesser snow geese and small Canada geese; previously, the same had been found to be true for large Canada geese (B. c. interior). Regression in size or closure of the bursa first occurred at 17-20 months of age (yearlings) in lesser snow geese and small Canada geese, but at 29-32 months of age (2-year-olds) in large Canada geese.

  3. Virtual screening for lead discovery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yat T; Marshall, Garland R

    2011-01-01

    The identification of small drug-like compounds that selectively inhibit the function of biological targets has historically been a major focus in the pharmaceutical industry, and in recent years, has generated much interest in academia as well. Drug-like compounds are valuable as chemical genetics tools to probe biological pathways in a reversible, dose- and time-dependent manner for drug target identification. In addition, small molecule compounds can be used to characterize the shape and charge preferences of macromolecular binding sites, for both structure-based and ligand-based drug design. High-throughput screening is the most common experimental method used to identify lead compounds. Because of the cost, time, and resources required for performing high-throughput screening for compound libraries, the use of alternative strategies is necessary for facilitating lead discovery. Virtual screening has been successful in prioritizing large chemical libraries to identify experimentally active compounds, serving as a practical and effective alternative to high-throughput screening. Methodologies used in virtual screening such as molecular docking and scoring have advanced to the point where they can rapidly and accurately identify lead compounds in addition to predicting native binding conformations. This chapter provides instructions on how to perform a virtual screen using freely available tools for structure-based lead discovery. PMID:21318897

  4. Folding without charges

    PubMed Central

    Kurnik, Martin; Hedberg, Linda; Danielsson, Jens; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Surface charges of proteins have in several cases been found to function as “structural gatekeepers,” which avoid unwanted interactions by negative design, for example, in the control of protein aggregation and binding. The question is then if side-chain charges, due to their desolvation penalties, play a corresponding role in protein folding by avoiding competing, misfolded traps? To find out, we removed all 32 side-chain charges from the 101-residue protein S6 from Thermus thermophilus. The results show that the charge-depleted S6 variant not only retains its native structure and cooperative folding transition, but folds also faster than the wild-type protein. In addition, charge removal unleashes pronounced aggregation on longer timescales. S6 provides thus an example where the bias toward native contacts of a naturally evolved protein sequence is independent of charges, and point at a fundamental difference in the codes for folding and intermolecular interaction: specificity in folding is governed primarily by hydrophobic packing and hydrogen bonding, whereas solubility and binding relies critically on the interplay of side-chain charges. PMID:22454493

  5. Surface charge mapping with a nanopipette.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Kim; Kinnear, Sophie L; Perry, David; Momotenko, Dmitry; Unwin, Patrick R

    2014-10-01

    Nanopipettes are emerging as simple but powerful tools for probing chemistry at the nanoscale. In this contribution the use of nanopipettes for simultaneous surface charge mapping and topographical imaging is demonstrated, using a scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) format. When a nanopipette is positioned close to a surface in electrolyte solution, the direct ion current (DC), driven by an applied bias between a quasi-reference counter electrode (QRCE) in the nanopipette and a second QRCE in the bulk solution, is sensitive to surface charge. The charge sensitivity arises because the diffuse double layers at the nanopipette and the surface interact, creating a perm-selective region which becomes increasingly significant at low ionic strengths (10 mM 1:1 aqueous electrolyte herein). This leads to a polarity-dependent ion current and surface-induced rectification as the bias is varied. Using distance-modulated SICM, which induces an alternating ion current component (AC) by periodically modulating the distance between the nanopipette and the surface, the effect of surface charge on the DC and AC is explored and rationalized. The impact of surface charge on the AC phase (with respect to the driving sinusoidal signal) is highlighted in particular; this quantity shows a shift that is highly sensitive to interfacial charge and provides the basis for visualizing charge simultaneously with topography. The studies herein highlight the use of nanopipettes for functional imaging with applications from cell biology to materials characterization where understanding surface charge is of key importance. They also provide a framework for the design of SICM experiments, which may be convoluted by topographical and surface charge effects, especially for small nanopipettes.

  6. Thermodynamics of emergent magnetic charge screening in artificial spin ice

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Alan; Scholl, Andreas; Petersen, Charlotte F.; Anghinolfi, Luca; Wuth, Clemens; Dhuey, Scott; Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Mellado, Paula; Alava, Mikko J.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Electric charge screening is a fundamental principle governing the behaviour in a variety of systems in nature. Through reconfiguration of the local environment, the Coulomb attraction between electric charges is decreased, leading, for example, to the creation of polaron states in solids or hydration shells around proteins in water. Here, we directly visualize the real-time creation and decay of screened magnetic charge configurations in a two-dimensional artificial spin ice system, the dipolar dice lattice. By comparing the temperature dependent occurrence of screened and unscreened emergent magnetic charge defects, we determine that screened magnetic charges are indeed a result of local energy reduction and appear as a transient minimum energy state before the system relaxes towards the predicted ground state. These results highlight the important role of emergent magnetic charges in artificial spin ice, giving rise to screened charge excitations and the emergence of exotic low-temperature configurations. PMID:27581972

  7. Thermodynamics of emergent magnetic charge screening in artificial spin ice.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Alan; Scholl, Andreas; Petersen, Charlotte F; Anghinolfi, Luca; Wuth, Clemens; Dhuey, Scott; Chopdekar, Rajesh V; Mellado, Paula; Alava, Mikko J; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Electric charge screening is a fundamental principle governing the behaviour in a variety of systems in nature. Through reconfiguration of the local environment, the Coulomb attraction between electric charges is decreased, leading, for example, to the creation of polaron states in solids or hydration shells around proteins in water. Here, we directly visualize the real-time creation and decay of screened magnetic charge configurations in a two-dimensional artificial spin ice system, the dipolar dice lattice. By comparing the temperature dependent occurrence of screened and unscreened emergent magnetic charge defects, we determine that screened magnetic charges are indeed a result of local energy reduction and appear as a transient minimum energy state before the system relaxes towards the predicted ground state. These results highlight the important role of emergent magnetic charges in artificial spin ice, giving rise to screened charge excitations and the emergence of exotic low-temperature configurations.

  8. Interaction of bacterial wall with electrically charged solid substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaev, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    Recent experimental studies indicate that the electrically charged substrates can exhibit antibacterial properties above a certain threshold value of the charge density. To explain these observations, we develop a mathematical model of interaction between a bacterial wall, described as a charge-regulating surface, and a charged solid substrate. Viscous flow in the aqueous film separating the two surfaces is described by a lubrication-type equation. Electrical charge transport is incorporated into the model and coupled to the flow. The complex interplay between charge transport, electrostatic interaction of the surfaces, and viscous flow leads to criteria for the critical charge density needed to achieve antibacterial properties for a range of different types of harmful bacteria.

  9. Thermodynamics of emergent magnetic charge screening in artificial spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhan, Alan; Scholl, Andreas; Petersen, Charlotte F.; Anghinolfi, Luca; Wuth, Clemens; Dhuey, Scott; Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Mellado, Paula; Alava, Mikko J.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-09-01

    Electric charge screening is a fundamental principle governing the behaviour in a variety of systems in nature. Through reconfiguration of the local environment, the Coulomb attraction between electric charges is decreased, leading, for example, to the creation of polaron states in solids or hydration shells around proteins in water. Here, we directly visualize the real-time creation and decay of screened magnetic charge configurations in a two-dimensional artificial spin ice system, the dipolar dice lattice. By comparing the temperature dependent occurrence of screened and unscreened emergent magnetic charge defects, we determine that screened magnetic charges are indeed a result of local energy reduction and appear as a transient minimum energy state before the system relaxes towards the predicted ground state. These results highlight the important role of emergent magnetic charges in artificial spin ice, giving rise to screened charge excitations and the emergence of exotic low-temperature configurations.

  10. Thermodynamics of emergent magnetic charge screening in artificial spin ice.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Alan; Scholl, Andreas; Petersen, Charlotte F; Anghinolfi, Luca; Wuth, Clemens; Dhuey, Scott; Chopdekar, Rajesh V; Mellado, Paula; Alava, Mikko J; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Electric charge screening is a fundamental principle governing the behaviour in a variety of systems in nature. Through reconfiguration of the local environment, the Coulomb attraction between electric charges is decreased, leading, for example, to the creation of polaron states in solids or hydration shells around proteins in water. Here, we directly visualize the real-time creation and decay of screened magnetic charge configurations in a two-dimensional artificial spin ice system, the dipolar dice lattice. By comparing the temperature dependent occurrence of screened and unscreened emergent magnetic charge defects, we determine that screened magnetic charges are indeed a result of local energy reduction and appear as a transient minimum energy state before the system relaxes towards the predicted ground state. These results highlight the important role of emergent magnetic charges in artificial spin ice, giving rise to screened charge excitations and the emergence of exotic low-temperature configurations. PMID:27581972

  11. Effects of pesticides on Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes published and unpublished sources relating to exposure of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to pesticides, emphasizing documented episodes of poisoning by organochlorine (OC), organophosphorus (OP), and carbamate compounds. Canada geese accumulate the lipid-soluble OC compounds, although they have a lower potential for biomagnification of these pesticides than animals at higher trophic levels in food webs. Low residues of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE were frequently found in tissues and eggs of Canada geese, but they had no apparent adverse effects on reproductive success or eggshell thickness. Likewise, in an orchard system in central Washington state, the OC rodenticide endrin accumulated in tissues and eggs of Canada geese without apparent adverse effect. In contrast, ingestion of seeds treated with the OC heptachlor caused mortality, lowered reproductive success, and caused a local population decline of geese in Oregon and Washington. In recent years, the most persistent OC's have been banned by law and replaced with less persistent carbamate and OP compounds that do not readily accumulate in animal tissues. However, many of these compounds are acutely toxic and have caused numerous die-offs of Canada geese. Among OP compounds, diazinon was responsible for most reported die-offs (41 incidents involving >535 geese), whereas parathion applied alone or jointly with methyl parathion accounted for most reported mortalities (8 incidents involving >3,000 geese). Three other OP's, a carbamate (carbofuran), zinc phosphide, and strychnine also caused goose die-offs. Mortality from anticholinesterase (antiChE) compounds occurs relatively soon after exposure and death can usually be diagnosed by evaluation of brain cholinesterase (thE) activity. Because geese are primarily grazers, the main route of exposure to antiChE's is apparently ingestion of contaminated grasses and forbs; dermal absorption and inhalation are other routes. Despite the

  12. PLT and PDX perpendicular charge-exchange analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Hammett, G.W.; McCune, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    The perpendicular charge-exchange systems used on the poloidal divertor experiment and the Princeton large torus are comprised of ten-channel, mass-resolved, charge-exchange analyzers. Results from these systems indicate that instrumental effects can lead to erroneous temperature measurements during deuterium neutral beam injection or at low hydrogen concentrations.

  13. Small bright charged colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Liu, Heng; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2014-01-28

    Using electrochemical charge injection, the fluorescence lifetimes of negatively charged core/shell CdTe/CdSe QDs are measured as a function of core size and shell thickness. It is found that the ensemble negative trion lifetimes reach a maximum (∼4.5 ns) for an intermediate shell thickness. This leads to the smallest particles (∼4.5 nm) with the brightest trion to date. Single dot measurements show that the negative charge suppresses blinking and that the trion can be as bright as the exciton at room temperature. In contrast, the biexciton lifetimes remain short and exhibit only a monotonous increase with shell thickness, showing no correlation with the negative trion decays. The suppression of the Auger process in small negatively charged CdTe/CdSe quantum dots is unprecedented and a significant departure from prior results with ultrathick CdSe/CdS core/shell or dot-in-rod structures. The proposed reason for the optimum shell thickness is that the electron-hole overlap is restricted to the CdTe core while the electron is tuned to have zero kinetic energy in the core for that optimum shell thickness. The different trend of the biexciton lifetime is not explained but tentatively attributed to shorter-lived positive trions at smaller sizes. These results improve our understanding of multiexciton recombination in colloidal quantum dots and may lead to the design of bright charged QDs for more efficient light-emitting devices.

  14. Enhanced electromechanical response of ferroelectrics due to charged domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Damjanovic, Dragan; Gureev, Maxim; Setter, Nava

    2012-01-01

    While commonly used piezoelectric materials contain lead, non-hazardous, high-performance piezoelectrics are yet to be discovered. Charged domain walls in ferroelectrics are considered inactive with regards to the piezoelectric response and, therefore, are largely ignored in this search. Here we demonstrate a mechanism that leads to a strong enhancement of the dielectric and piezoelectric properties in ferroelectrics with increasing density of charged domain walls. We show that an incomplete compensation of bound polarization charge at these walls creates a stable built-in depolarizing field across each domain leading to increased electromechanical response. Our model clarifies a long-standing unexplained effect of domain wall density on macroscopic properties of domain-engineered ferroelectrics. We show that non-toxic ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 with dense patterns of charged domain walls are expected to have strongly enhanced piezoelectric properties, thus suggesting a new route to high-performance, lead-free ferroelectrics. PMID:22434191

  15. Can Water Store Charge?

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikova, Kate; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work from this and other laboratories has demonstrated large pH gradients in water. Established by passing current between immersed electrodes, pH gradients between electrodes were found to disappear slowly, persisting for tens of minutes after the current had been turned off. We find here that these pH gradients reflect a genuine separation of charge: at times well after disconnection of the power supply, current could be drawn through a resistor placed between the charging electrodes or between pairs of electrodes positioned on either side of the midline between original electrodes. In some experiments, it was possible to recover the majority of charge that had been imparted to the water. It appears, then, that water has the capacity to store and release substantial amounts of charge. PMID:19053655

  16. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  17. Generating charge from diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kraus, Per

    2006-12-01

    We unravel some subtleties involving the definition of sphere angular momentum charges in AdSq × Sp spacetimes, or equivalently, R-symmetry charges in the dual boundary CFT. In the AdS3 context, it is known that charges can be generated by coordinate transformations, even though the underlying theory is diffeomorphism invariant. This is the bulk version of spectral flow in the boundary CFT. We trace this behavior back to special properties of the p-form field strength supporting the solution, and derive the explicit formulas for angular momentum charges. This analysis also reveals the higher dimensional origin of three dimensional Chern-Simons terms and of chiral anomalies in the boundary theory.

  18. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  19. Amp-hour counting charge control for photovoltaic hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-10-01

    An amp-hour counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based photovoltaic hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive laboratory and field testing of the charge algorithm on vented lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid batteries. The test results have shown that with proper setup amp-hour counting charge control is more effective than conventional voltage regulated sub-array shedding in returning the lead-acid battery to a high state of charge.

  20. Human botulism in Canada (1919-1973)

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1919, in Canada, 62 authenticated outbreaks of human botulism have affected 181 persons, with 83 deaths, a fatality rate of 46%. Among these, 41 outbreaks were bacteriologically determined (31 in one laboratory) as six type A, four type B, one both A and B, and 30 type E. About two thirds of the total outbreaks, cases and deaths involved Eskimos and Pacific coast Indians consuming raw marine mammal products and salmon eggs, respectively. Other parts of Canada recorded seven occurrences due to miscellaneous vehicles, three being type B. Since January 1961 there have been 38 outbreaks, involving 94 cases with 33 deaths. These include 18 outbreaks among Eskimos, affecting 51 persons (of whom 24 died) in Labrador, southern Baffin Island, northern Quebec, and the Mackenzie area. Also, putrid salmon eggs caused 15 outbreaks among Pacific coast Indians, totalling 35 cases, of whom only six died, the low fatality rate reflecting the introduction of type E botulinus antitoxin during 1961. PMID:4855671

  1. Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.

    1969-01-01

    The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

  2. Lyme disease in Canada: Focus on children.

    PubMed

    Onyett, Heather

    2014-08-01

    Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in Canada and much of the United States, is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. Peak incidence for Lyme disease is among children five to nine years of age and older adults (55 to 59 years of age). The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected black-legged ticks of the Ixodes species. The primary hosts of black-legged ticks are mice and other rodents, small mammals, birds (which are reservoirs for B burgdorferi) and white-tailed deer. Geographical distribution of Ixodes ticks is expanding in Canada and an increasing number of cases of Lyme disease are being reported. The present practice point reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention of Lyme disease, with a focus on children. PMID:25332678

  3. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suzy L; Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L

    2016-05-18

    This article provides information on Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, using the 2010/2011 Canadian Community Health Survey, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. Among Canadians aged 45 or older, an estimated 0.8% in private households and 45% in long-term residential care facilities had a diagnosis of dementia. Prevalence rose with age. The vast majority of people with dementia in private households received assistance with medical care (81%), housework and home maintenance (83%), meal preparation (88%), emotional support (90%), transportation (92%), and managing care (92%). Among those receiving assistance, 85% relied, at least in part, on family, friends or neighbours. The primary caregiver tended to be a spouse (46%) or an adult child (44%), most of whom were daughters (71%). The majority of primary caregivers lived in the same household (83%) and provided daily care (86%). PMID:27192206

  4. Lyme disease in Canada: Focus on children

    PubMed Central

    Onyett, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in Canada and much of the United States, is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. Peak incidence for Lyme disease is among children five to nine years of age and older adults (55 to 59 years of age). The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected black-legged ticks of the Ixodes species. The primary hosts of black-legged ticks are mice and other rodents, small mammals, birds (which are reservoirs for B burgdorferi) and white-tailed deer. Geographical distribution of Ixodes ticks is expanding in Canada and an increasing number of cases of Lyme disease are being reported. The present practice point reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention of Lyme disease, with a focus on children. PMID:25332678

  5. Giardiasis in pinnipeds from eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Measures, L N; Olson, M

    1999-10-01

    Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected in feces from the rectum of 20 of 74 pinnipeds examined from the eastern coast of Canada in 1997 and 1998 using a monoclonal antibody technique. Infected pinnipeds included 15 adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), four adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and one juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cysts were not detected in 15 seal pups <1-yr-old. The highest prevalence (50%) occurred in adult harp seals collected near the Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The overall prevalence of Giardia sp. in grey and harbor seals, excluding pups, from the Gulf and St. Lawrence estuary was 23%. Feces from 11 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and one northern bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) stranded in the St. Lawrence estuary were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. The significance of Giardia sp. in marine mammals, shown here for the first time in eastern coastal Canada, is unknown. PMID:10574540

  6. Lyme disease in Canada: Focus on children.

    PubMed

    Onyett, Heather

    2014-08-01

    Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in Canada and much of the United States, is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. Peak incidence for Lyme disease is among children five to nine years of age and older adults (55 to 59 years of age). The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected black-legged ticks of the Ixodes species. The primary hosts of black-legged ticks are mice and other rodents, small mammals, birds (which are reservoirs for B burgdorferi) and white-tailed deer. Geographical distribution of Ixodes ticks is expanding in Canada and an increasing number of cases of Lyme disease are being reported. The present practice point reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention of Lyme disease, with a focus on children.

  7. Health Care Reform: Lessons From Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa Berlin

    2003-01-01

    Although Canadian health care seems to be perennially in crisis, access, quality, and satisfaction in Canada are relatively high, and spending is relatively well controlled. The Canadian model is built on a recognition of the limits of markets in distributing medically necessary care. Current issues in financing and delivering health care in Canada deserve attention. Key dilemmas include intergovernmental disputes between the federal and provincial levels of government and determining how to organize care, what to pay for (comprehensiveness), and what incentive structures to put in place for payment. Lessons for the United States include the importance of universal coverage, the advantages of a single payer, and the fact that systems can be organized on a subnational basis. PMID:12511378

  8. Modeling of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of modeling of spacecraft charging are discussed: statistical models, parametric models, and physical models. Local time dependence of circuit upset for DoD and communication satellites, and electron current to a sphere with an assumed Debye potential distribution are presented. Four regions were involved in spacecraft charging: (1) undisturbed plasma, (2) plasma sheath region, (3) spacecraft surface, and (4) spacecraft equivalent circuit.

  9. Particle-Charge Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen; Wilson, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    An instrument for rapidly measuring the electric charges and sizes (from approximately 1 to approximately 100 micrometers) of airborne particles is undergoing development. Conceived for monitoring atmospheric dust particles on Mars, instruments like this one could also be used on Earth to monitor natural and artificial aerosols in diverse indoor and outdoor settings for example, volcanic regions, clean rooms, powder-processing machinery, and spray-coating facilities. The instrument incorporates a commercially available, low-noise, ultrasensitive charge-sensing preamplifier circuit. The input terminal of this circuit--the gate of a field-effect transistor--is connected to a Faraday-cage cylindrical electrode. The charged particles of interest are suspended in air or other suitable gas that is made to flow along the axis of the cylindrical electrode without touching the electrode. The flow can be channeled and generated by any of several alternative means; in the prototype of this instrument, the gas is drawn along a glass capillary tube (see upper part of figure) coaxial with the electrode. The size of a particle affects its rate of acceleration in the flow and thus affects the timing and shape of the corresponding signal peak generated by the charge-sensing amplifier. The charge affects the magnitude (and thus also the shape) of the signal peak. Thus, the signal peak (see figure) conveys information on both the size and electric charge of a sensed particle. In experiments thus far, the instrument has been found to be capable of measuring individual aerosol particle charges of magnitude greater than 350 e (where e is the fundamental unit of electric charge) with a precision of +/- 150 e. The instrument can sample particles at a rate as high as several thousand per second.

  10. Electrically charged targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  11. Small animal dentistry in Canada: 1994 survey.

    PubMed Central

    Haws, I J; Anthony, J M

    1996-01-01

    Small animal dentistry is a rapidly growing area of interest and specialization internationally, offering tremendous benefits to patients, clients, and practitioners. To date, no studies have been done to determine the standard of small animal dental care in Canada. A national mail survey was designed to document the prevalence of dental disease in small animal patients, the types of veterinary dental procedures being provided by practitioners, as well as home care recommendations and compliance for 1994. PMID:8746422

  12. Zoonotic diseases in Canada: an interdisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J

    1996-01-01

    Although zoonotic diseases are generally rare in Canada, a wide range of pathogens can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans through insect vectors or direct contact with wild and domestic animals. Across the country researchers with backgrounds ranging from wildlife biology to parasitology and epidemiology are tracking a variety of zoonotic diseases, some of which are causing increasing concern among public health officials. PMID:8752067

  13. Intestinal parasites in man in Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sole, T D; Croll, N A

    1980-05-01

    Labrador, a previously unsurveyed area of Canada, has been sampled for human intestinal parasites. Four hundred and one asymptomatic volunteers between 1 and 72 years of age, including Inuit, Naskapi and whites, were examined during the summer of 1977. They harboured: Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia and Diphyllobothrium sp. The infection rates are considerably lower than those found in other studies of Northern Canadian communities. PMID:6966896

  14. Retransmission of hydrometric data in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Reid, I. A.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The LANDSAT program has demonstrated that polar orbiting satellites can be used to relay hydrologic data from any part of Canada to a user without difficulty and at low cost. These data can be used for many operational purposes, the most important of which were identified as follows: hydroelectric power plant operation; water supply for municipalities, industries, and irrigation; navigation; flood forecasting; operation of flood control structures and systems; and recreation.

  15. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, J

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  16. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed

    Samson, J

    1996-07-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  17. Measles in Canada Between 2002 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    De Serres, Gaston; Desai, Shalini; Shane, Amanda; Hiebert, Joanne; Ouakki, Manale; Severini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 1994, Canada committed to eliminate measles by the year 2000. This report presents the epidemiology of measles in Canada between 2002 and 2013 and its implications in sustaining measles elimination. Methods. Cases included individuals reported to the Canadian Measles and Rubella Surveillance System with confirmed measles. Results. In Canada, 1171 cases of measles were reported between 2002 and 2013 (incidence 0.29 cases per 100 000 population). The annual number of cases ranged from 6 to 752. The majority of cases were unvaccinated (63%) or had an unknown vaccination status (19%). The median age of cases was 14.4 years (range, <1 to 63 years) globally and 14 years when excluding the 2011 outbreak in Quebec where 68% of the 678 cases were 10 to 19 years old. With the exclusion of this outbreak, the incidence was highest in infants (1.0 per 100 000), lower but fairly similar between 1 and 19 years of age (0.2 to 0.4 per 100 000), and there was a substantial decline between 20 and 39 years of age (0.1 per 100 000). There was a significant trend towards a greater annual number of importations over the period. Although importations resulted in no transmission sustained for ≥12 months, 5 chains of transmission had >30 cases. The effective reproductive number between 2002 and 2013 was estimated at 0.86 (95% confidence interval, .81–.92). Conclusions. Canada has maintained elimination between 2002 and 2013, but additional efforts are needed to reduce the proportion of unimmunized individuals and respond to importation events. PMID:26110163

  18. Canada's coal industry: full swing ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.

    2007-03-15

    The article presents facts and figures about Canada's coal industry in 2006 including production, exports, imports, mines in operation, the Genesee 3 coal-fired generation unit, the Dodds-Roundhill Gasification Project, and new coal mine development plans. The outlook for 2007 is positive, with coal production expected to increase from 67 Mt in 2006 to 70 Mt in 2007 and exports expected to increase from 28 Mt in 2006 to 30 Mt in 2007.

  19. A history of neurosurgery in Canada.

    PubMed

    Weir, Bryce

    2011-03-01

    Canada existed for more than half a century before there were glimmerings of modern neurosurgical activity. Neurosurgery had advanced significantly in Europe and the United States prior to its being brought to Toronto and Montreal from American centers. The pioneers responsible for the rapid evolution in practice, teaching and research are described. The interplay of scientific, professional, demographic and economic forces with general historical trends has produced dramatic changes in the way that neurosurgery is now practiced.

  20. MOSFET Electric-Charge Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

  1. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  2. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  3. Spin versus charge noise from Kondo traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Luis G. G. V. Dias; de Sousa, Rogério

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic and charge noise have a common microscopic origin in solid-state devices, as described by a universal electron trap model. In spite of this common origin, magnetic (spin) and charge noise spectral densities display remarkably different behaviors when many-particle correlations are taken into account, leading to the emergence of the Kondo effect. We derive exact frequency sum rules for trap noise and perform numerical renormalization-group calculations to show that while spin noise is a universal function of the Kondo temperature, charge noise remains well described by single-particle theory even when the trap is deep in the Kondo regime. We obtain simple analytical expressions for charge and spin noise that account for Kondo screening in all frequency and temperature regimes, enabling the study of the impact of disorder and the emergence of magnetic 1 /f noise from Kondo traps. We conclude that the difference between charge and spin noise survives even in the presence of disorder, showing that noise can be more manageable in devices that are sensitive to magnetic (rather than charge) fluctuations and that the signature of the Kondo effect can be observed in spin noise spectroscopy experiments.

  4. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, W.G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  5. Income-related health inequality in Canada.

    PubMed

    Humphries, K H; van Doorslaer, E

    2000-03-01

    This study uses data from the 1994 National Population Health Survey and applies the methods developed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer (1994, measuring inequalities in health in the presence of multiple-category morbidity indicators. Health Economics 3, 281-291) to measure the degree of income-related inequality in self-reported health in Canada by means of concentration indices. It finds that significant inequalities in self-reported ill-health exist and favour the higher income groups--the higher the level of income, the better the level of self-assessed health. The analysis also indicates that lower income individuals are somewhat more likely to report their self-assessed health as poor or less-than-good than higher income groups, at the same level of a more 'objective' health indictor such as the McMaster Health Utility Index. The degree of inequality in 'subjective' health is slightly higher than in 'objective' health, but not significantly different. The degree of inequality in self-assessed health in Canada was found to be significantly higher than that reported by van Doorslaer et al. (1997, income related inequalities in health: some international comparisons, Journal of Health Economics 16, 93-112) for seven European countries, but not significantly different from the health inequality measured for the UK or the US. It also appears as if Canada's health inequality is higher than what would be expected on the basis of its income inequality.

  6. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  7. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    PubMed Central

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  8. Canada geese in the Atlantic Flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, Jay B.

    1995-01-01

    Overall, the total number of wintering geese reaching a peak of 955,000 in 1981 and has since declined 40% to 569,000 in 1993. Compounding these distributional changes in wintering numbers, the subspecies composition has also changed. The Canada goose population is composed of migrant geese (primarily B.c. canadensis and B.c. interior) that breed in the subarctic regions of Canada and resident geese (primarily B.c. maxima and B.c. moffitti) that breed in southern Canada and the United States (Stotts 1983). The number of resident geese in Maine to Virginia has increased considerable from maybe 50,000 to 100,000 in 1981 (Conover and Chasko 1985) to an average of 560,000 in 1992-93 (H. Heusman, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, personal communication). This rapid increase in resident geese suggests that the migrant population has declined more than the 40% decline observed in total wintering geese from 1981 to 1993.

  9. The Popularization of Astronomy in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, J.-L.

    1996-12-01

    In Canada, astronomy has a longer history than most other sciences. The European settlers had to master the rudiments of astronomical practice, while the natural setting promoted geophysical observations of all kinds. In the nineteenth century, astronomy was part of natural theology and a resource for timekeepers and cartographers, but was increasingly pursued for its own sake by laymen. The creation of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada marks a turning point. Though it appeared to unite professionals and amateurs, it became early on a conduit for the knowledge of the former to flow to the latter, supplementing the purely academic stream. It followed upon the success of new publications meant to acquaint readers with the facts of astronomy, for the hitherto unsuspected pleasures they might bring. In fact, some Canadian works of this kind reached a wide audience, in Canada and abroad, and the post-WWII period saw an almost complete disjunction between the formerly utilitarian aspects of popularization a nd the catering to interested laypeople, distinct from the professionals. By 1976, the transformation was complete. The science mastered by explorers and appealed to by believers had become both a field for professional investigations and a widely popularized corpus of star lore

  10. Evolution of thoracic surgery in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Jean; Griffith Pearson, F; Nelems, Bill

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada’s contributions toward the 21st century’s practice of thoracic surgery have been both unique and multilayered. Scattered throughout are tales of pioneers where none had gone before, where opportunities were greeted by creativity and where iconic figures followed one another. OBJECTIVE: To describe the numerous and important achievements of Canadian thoracic surgeons in the areas of surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis, thoracic oncology, airway surgery and lung transplantation. METHOD: Information was collected through reading of the numerous publications written by Canadian thoracic surgeons over the past 100 years, interviews with interested people from all thoracic surgery divisions across Canada and review of pertinent material form the archives of several Canadian hospitals and universities. RESULTS: Many of the developments occurred by chance. It was the early and specific focus on thoracic surgery, to the exclusion of cardiac and general surgery, that distinguishes the Canadian experience, a model that is now emerging everywhere. From lung transplantation in chimera twin calves to ex vivo organ preservation, from the removal of airways to tissue regeneration, and from intensive care research to complex science, Canadians have excelled in their commitment to research. Over the years, the influence of Canadian thoracic surgery on international practice has been significant. CONCLUSIONS: Canada spearheaded the development of thoracic surgery over the past 100 years to a greater degree than any other country. From research to education, from national infrastructures to the regionalization of local practices, it happened in Canada.

  11. NEPTUNE Canada-status and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornhold, Brian D.

    2005-04-01

    Stage 1 of the joint Canada-U.S. NEPTUNE seafloor observatory has been funded by the Canada Foundation for Innovation and the British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund with an overall budget of $62.4 million. The network is designed to provide as close to real-time data and images as possible to be distributed to the research community, government agencies, educational institutions and the public via the Internet. Covering much of the northern segment of the Juan de Fuca Plate, this first phase of the NEPTUNE project is scheduled to be installed, with an initial suite of ``community experiments'', in 2008. As part of the planning, NEPTUNE Canada held a series of three workshops to develop the science plans for these ``community experiments'' these experiments have a budget of approximately $13 million. The experiments will cover the gamut of oceanographic science themes including various aspects of: ocean climate and marine productivity, seabed environments and biological communities, fluids at ocean ridges, gas hydrates and fluids on continental margins, plate tectonics processes, associated earthquakes and tsunamis. The next three years will be spent developing and testing the necessary instrumentation for deployment on the network.

  12. Interfacial biocatalysis on charged and immobilized substrates: the roles of enzyme and substrate surface charge.

    PubMed

    Feller, Bob E; Kellis, James T; Cascão-Pereira, Luis G; Robertson, Channing R; Frank, Curtis W

    2011-01-01

    An enzyme charge ladder was used to examine the role of electrostatic interactions involved in biocatalysis at the solid-liquid interface. The reactive substrate consisted of an immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA) multilayer prepared using a layer-by-layer technique. The zeta potential of the BSA substrate and each enzyme variant was measured to determine the absolute charge in solution. Enzyme adsorption and the rate of substrate surface hydrolysis were monitored for the enzyme charge ladder series to provide information regarding the strength of the enzyme-substrate interaction and the rate of interfacial biocatalysis. First, each variant of the charge ladder was examined at pH 8 for various solution ionic strengths. We found that for positively charged variants the adsorption increased with the magnitude of the charge until the surface became saturated. For higher ionic strength solutions, a greater positive enzyme charge was required to induce adsorption. Interestingly, the maximum catalytic rate was not achieved at enzyme saturation but at an invariable intermediate level of adsorption for each ionic strength value. Furthermore, the maximum achievable reaction rate for the charge ladder was larger for higher ionic strength values. We propose that diffusion plays an important role in interfacial biocatalysis, and for strong enzyme-substrate interaction, the rate of diffusion is reduced, leading to a decrease in the overall reaction rate. We investigated the effect of substrate charge by varying the solution pH from 6.1 to 8.7 and by examining multiple ionic strength values for each pH. The same intermediate level of adsorption was found to maximize the overall reaction rate. However, the ionic strength response of the maximum achievable rate was clearly dependent on the pH of the experiment. We propose that this observation is not a direct effect of pH but is caused by the change in substrate surface charge induced by changing the pH. To prove this

  13. Transport in charged colloids driven by thermoelectricity.

    PubMed

    Würger, Alois

    2008-09-01

    We study the thermal diffusion coefficient D{T} of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and find that it is to a large extent determined by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general to a strong increase with temperature. The difference of the heat of transport of coions and counterions gives rise to a thermoelectric field that drives the colloid to the cold or to the warm, depending on the sign of its charge. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental findings on thermophoresis in colloidal suspensions. PMID:18851262

  14. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  15. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  16. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  17. Backside Charging of Ccds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Venkatraman

    1997-10-01

    Backside illuminated thinned CCDs have the highest response in the UV and blue spectral region. Their use in detectors is limited due to the instability of the CCD. A low temperature oxide nearly 30 A thick is grown on the acid thinned backside to tie up dangling bonds. The oxide carries fixed positive charges that attract and trap photogenerated electrons. A permanent and stable backside charging procedure is necessary to create a negative bias that will drive electrons to the frontside collection wells. We have shown chemisorption charging to be a novel method to permanently charge CCDs. The catalytic nature of certain metals are exploited to chemisorb oxygen as negative atomic species at the metal/oxide interface. Charging is shown to occur by depositing a thin film 10 A of platinum on the backside. No tunneling occurs because of the thick oxide. The Passivated Platinum Film (PPtF) which utilizes a hafnium oxide antireflection coating to passivate the platinum is an effective process, but it is sensitive to the environment and discharges quickly upon hydrogen exposure. A silver catalytic coating is shown to be far superior to other charging techniques. Silver irreversibly chemisorbs oxygen and hydrogen is not dissociatively adsorbed except at temperatures <100oK. High quantum efficiencies have been recorded for the UV-blue ranges. A slight drop is seen at cold temperatures due to interaction of water with oxygen to form hydroxyl ions. No change in QE is seen upon exposure to hydrogen or during outgassing. Silver is also one of the most transparent metals and easily deposited by evaporation. We therefore have developed a charging process which is nearly ideal for CCD imaging.

  18. Screening of heterogeneous surfaces: charge renormalization of Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Boon, N; Carvajal Gallardo, E; Zheng, S; Eggen, E; Dijkstra, M; van Roij, R

    2010-03-17

    Nonlinear ionic screening theory for heterogeneously charged spheres is developed in terms of a mode decomposition of the surface charge. A far-field analysis of the resulting electrostatic potential leads to a natural generalization of charge renormalization from purely monopolar to dipolar, quadrupolar, etc, including 'mode couplings'. Our novel scheme is generally applicable to large classes of surface heterogeneities, and is explicitly applied here to Janus spheres with differently charged upper and lower hemispheres, revealing strong renormalization effects for all multipoles. PMID:21389438

  19. Lead and uranium group abundances in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadav, J. S.; Perelygin, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of Lead and Uranium group abundances in cosmic rays is discussed in understanding their evolution and propagation. The electronic detectors can provide good charge resolution but poor data statistics. The plastic detectors can provide somewhat better statistics but charge resolution deteriorates. The extraterrestrial crystals can provide good statistics but with poor charge resolution. Recent studies of extraterrestrial crystals regarding their calibration to accelerated uranium ion beam and track etch kinetics are discussed. It is hoped that a charge resolution of two charge units can be achieved provided an additional parameter is taken into account. The prospects to study abundances of Lead group, Uranium group and superheavy element in extraterrestrial crystals are discussed, and usefulness of these studies in the light of studies with electronic and plastic detectors is assessed.

  20. Lead-acid battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead-acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). The avoiding of positive plate reversal to prevent reduction of the tin oxide is accomplished by (a) employing an oversized positive plate and pre-charging it; (b) by pre-discharging the negative plate; and/or (c) by placing a circuit breaker (26) in combination with the plates (16, 18) and terminals (22, 24) to remove the load when the voltage of the positive plate falls below a pre-selected level.

  1. Trends in compensation for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Del Bianco, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational cancer is the leading cause of work-related deaths, yet it is often unrecognized and under reported, and associated claims for compensation go unfiled. We sought to examine trends in deaths from occupational cancer, high-risk industries and exposures, and commonly compensated categories of occupational cancers. In addition, we compared deaths from occupational lung cancer for which compensation had been given with total deaths from lung cancer. Methods We used data from the Association of Workers’ Compensation Boards of Canada pertaining to the nature and source of the injury or disease and the industry in which it occurred (by jurisdiction) to describe trends in compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada for the period 1997–2010. We used data published by the Canadian Cancer Society in Canadian Cancer Statistics to compare compensated occupational lung cancer deaths with total estimated lung cancer deaths for the period between 2006 and 2010. Results Compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer have increased in recent years and surpassed those for traumatic injuries and disorders in Canada, particularly in Ontario. Between 1997 and 2010, one-half of all compensated deaths from occupational cancer in Canada were from Ontario. High-risk industries for occupational cancer include manufacturing, construction, mining and, more recently, government services. Deaths from lung cancer and mesothelioma comprise most of the compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Ontario and Canada. These diseases are usually the result of asbestos exposure. The burden of other occupational carcinogens is not reflected in claims data. Interpretation Although the number of accepted claims for deaths from occupational cancers has increased in recent years, these claims likely only represent a fraction of the true burden of this problem. Increased education of patients, workers at high risk of exposure and health

  2. Charge Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    Charge transfer, or charge exchange, describes a process in which an ion takes one or more electrons from another atom. Investigations of this fundamental process have accompanied atomic physics from its very beginning, and have been extended to astrophysical scenarios already many decades ago. Yet one important aspect of this process, i.e. its high efficiency in generating X-rays, was only revealed in 1996, when comets were discovered as a new class of X-ray sources. This finding has opened up an entirely new field of X-ray studies, with great impact due to the richness of the underlying atomic physics, as the X-rays are not generated by hot electrons, but by ions picking up electrons from cold gas. While comets still represent the best astrophysical laboratory for investigating the physics of charge transfer, various studies have already spotted a variety of other astrophysical locations, within and beyond our solar system, where X-rays may be generated by this process. They range from planetary atmospheres, the heliosphere, the interstellar medium and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, where charge transfer may even be observationally linked to dark matter. This review attempts to put the various aspects of the study of charge transfer reactions into a broader historical context, with special emphasis on X-ray astrophysics, where the discovery of cometary X-ray emission may have stimulated a novel look at our universe.

  3. Taming Highly Charged Radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Usman; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Jang, Fuluni; Schultz, Brad; Simon, Vanessa; Delheij, Paul; Dilling, Jens; Gwinner, Gerald

    2012-10-01

    The precise and accurate mass of short-lived radioisotopes is a very important parameter in physics. Contribution to the improvement of nuclear models, metrological standard fixing and tests of the unitarity of the Caibbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are a few examples where the mass value plays a major role. TRIUMF's ion trap for atomic and nuclear physics (TITAN) is a unique facility of three online ion traps that enables the mass measurement of short-lived isotopes with high precision (˜10-8). At present TITAN's electron beam ion trap (EBIT) increases the charge state to increase the precision, but there is no facility to significantly reduce the energy spread introduced by the charge breeding process. The precision of the measured mass of radioisotopes is linearly dependent on the charge state while the energy spread of the charged radioisotopes affects the precision adversely. To boost the precision level of mass measurement at TITAN without loosing too many ions, a cooler Penning trap (CPET) is being developed. CPET is designed to use either positively (proton) or negatively (electron) charged particles to reduce the energy spread via sympathetic cooling. Off-line setup of CPET is complete. Details of the working principles and updates are presented

  4. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  5. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua; David Roelant; Sachin Kumar

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste.

  6. Exposures to lead.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities. PMID:21714377

  7. Exposures to lead.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  8. Spatial distribution of space charge in conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, F.; Geschke, D.; Monkman, A. P.

    2001-08-06

    We demonstrate the pyroelectric effect in a conjugated polymer, poly(2,5-pyridinediyl) (PPY), and we use the laser intensity modulation method (LIMM) to resolve the spatial distribution of electric field and space charges inside a 5 {mu}m Au/PPY/Au sandwich device. The pyroelectric signal shows hysteresis behavior with respect to the applied bias indicating permanent storage of injected charges. From the analysis of the LIMM spectra we conclude that application of a bias leads to the accumulation of space charges near the electrodes, while a zone of opposite space charge may establish in a distance of about 1 {mu}m from it. The charged state retains after removing the bias and can lead to an internal electric field that is opposite to the external poling field in the bulk of the polymer film. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Nanoparticle coagulation in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nunomura, Shota; Kondo, Michio; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Watanabe, Yukio

    2008-08-15

    The kinetics of nanoparticle coagulation has been studied in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas. The coagulation occurs when the mutual collision frequency among nanoparticles exceeds their charging and decharging/neutralization frequency. Interestingly, the coagulation is suppressed while a fraction (several percent) of nanoparticles are negatively charged in a plasma, in which stochastic charging plays an important role. A model is developed to predict a phase diagram of the coagulation and its suppression.

  10. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-11-01

    We study the charge balance functions of π+π- and K+K- in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π+π- is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K+K- has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference.

  11. Extracting electrode space charge limited current: Charge injection into conjugated polyelectrolytes with a semiconductor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Ethan M.; Lonergan, Mark C.

    2016-05-01

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes and related mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) are being explored for energy applications including solid-state lighting and photovoltaics. Fundamental models of charge injection into MIECs have been primarily developed for MIECs contacted with highly conductive or metal electrodes (MEs), despite many potential applications involving semiconductors. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that an appropriate semiconductor electrode (SE), n-type for electron or p-type of hole injection, can limit injection into MIECs. When the SE is the injecting electrode and is under accumulation, there is little difference from a ME. When the SE acts as the extracting electrode, however, injection into the MIEC can be limited because a fraction of any applied bias must support charge depletion in the semiconductor rather than charge injection into the MIEC. In a ME/MIEC/SE system, this can lead to significant asymmetry in current-voltage and injected charge-voltage behavior.

  12. Coupling Electromagnetism to Global Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, E. I.

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that an alternative to the standard scalar quantum electrodynamics (QED) is possible. In this new version, there is only global gauge invariance as far as the charged scalar fields are concerned, although local gauge invariance is kept for the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic coupling has the form jμ(Aμ +∂μB) where B is an auxiliary field and the current jμ is Aμ independent, so that no "sea gull terms" are introduced. As a consequence of the absence of sea gulls, it is seen that no Klein paradox appears in the presence of a strong square well potential. In a model of this kind, spontaneous breaking of symmetry does not lead to photon mass generation, instead the Goldstone boson becomes a massless source for the electromagnetic field. When spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place infrared questions concerning the theory and generalizations to global vector QED are discussed. In this framework, Q-Balls and other nontopological solitons that owe their existence to a global U(1) symmetry can be coupled to electromagnetism and could represent multiply charged particles now in search in the large hadron collider (LHC). Furthermore, we give an example where an "Emergent" Global Scalar QED can appear from an axion-photon system in an external magnetic field. Finally, formulations of Global Scalar QED that allow perturbative expansions without sea gulls are developed.

  13. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  14. PHOTOEMISSION PROPERTIES OF LEAD.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; RAO,T.; WARREN,J.; SEKUTOWICZ,J.; LEFFERTS,R.; LIPSKI,A.

    2004-07-05

    In this paper we present a study of the photoemission properties of lead at several UV wavelengths, including a study of the damage threshold of electroplated lead under laser cleaning. A quantum efficiency in excess of 0.1% has been achieved for a laser cleaned, electroplated lead sample with a laser wavelength of 193 nm. Niobium cathodes have been measured for comparison, and lead is found to be a superior photoemitter for all measured wavelengths.

  15. Transplacental transport of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Neurotoxicity is the major health effect from exposure to lead for infants and young children, and there is current concern regarding possible toxic effects of lead on the child while in utero. there is no placental-fetal barrier to lead transport. Maternal and fetal blood lead levels are nearly identical, so lead passes through the placenta unencumbered. Lead has been measured in the fetal brain as early as the end of the first trimester (13 weeks). There is a similar rate of increase in brain size and lead content throughout pregnancy in the fetus of mothers in the general population, so concentration of lead probably does not differ greatly during gestation unless exposure of the mother changes. Cell-specific sensitivity to the toxic effects of lead, however, may be greater the younger the fetus. Lead toxicity to the nervous system is characterized by edema or swelling of the brain due to altered permeability of capillary endothelial cells. Experimental studies suggest that immature endothelial cells forming the capillaries of the developing brain are less resistant to the effects of lead, permitting fluid and cations including lead to reach newly formed components of the brain, particularly astrocytes and neurons. Also, the ability of astrocytes and neurons to sequester lead in the form of lead protein complexes occurs only in the later stages of fetal development, permitting lead in maturing brain cells to interact with vital subcellular organelles, particularly mitochondria, which are the major cellular energy source. Intracellular lead also affects binding sites for calcium which, in turn, may affect numerous cell functions including neurotransmitter release.

  16. Imaging Ferroelectric Domains and Domain Walls Using Charge Gradient Microscopy: Role of Screening Charges.

    PubMed

    Tong, Sheng; Jung, Il Woong; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Seungbum; Roelofs, Andreas

    2016-02-23

    Advanced scanning probe microscopies (SPMs) open up the possibilities of the next-generation ferroic devices that utilize both domains and domain walls as active elements. However, current SPMs lack the capability of dynamically monitoring the motion of domains and domain walls in conjunction with the transport of the screening charges that lower the total electrostatic energy of both domains and domain walls. Charge gradient microscopy (CGM) is a strong candidate to overcome these shortcomings because it can map domains and domain walls at high speed and mechanically remove the screening charges. Yet the underlying mechanism of the CGM signals is not fully understood due to the complexity of the electrostatic interactions. Here, we designed a semiconductor-metal CGM tip, which can separate and quantify the ferroelectric domain and domain wall signals by simply changing its scanning direction. Our investigation reveals that the domain wall signals are due to the spatial change of polarization charges, while the domain signals are due to continuous removal and supply of screening charges at the CGM tip. In addition, we observed asymmetric CGM domain currents from the up and down domains, which are originated from the different debonding energies and the amount of the screening charges on positive and negative bound charges. We believe that our findings can help design CGM with high spatial resolution and lead to breakthroughs in information storage and energy-harvesting devices. PMID:26751281

  17. Climate Change and Malaria in Canada: A Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Berrang-Ford, L.; MacLean, J. D.; Gyorkos, Theresa W.; Ford, J. D.; Ogden, N. H.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change. PMID:19277107

  18. Lead Poisoning in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyaux, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Overexposure to lead can permanently impair a child's mental and physical development. This article discusses sources of lead paint, survey and testing methods, management and abatement plans, drinking water contamination, and associated federal standards. Although lead is present in soil and in art, theater, and vocational programs, no federal…

  19. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  20. Learn about Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Determine if your family is at risk for lead poisoning with the Lead Poisoning Home Checklist (PDF) . Top of page What do I do if I think my child or I have been exposed to lead? Talk to your pediatrician, general physician, or local ...